EINSTEIN

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
Sir.C.V.Raman Nagar, Tirunelveli-12




Department of Electrical and Electronics
Engineering

Subject Code: EE76


Power System Simulation Lab


Name : ……………………………………
Reg No : ……………………………………
Branch : ……………………………………
Year & Semester : ……………………………………




EE76 Power System Simulation Lab

©Einstein College of Engineering
Page 2 of 57

TABLE OF CONTENTS





S.No Date Name of the Experiment Page
No
Marks Remarks Staff
Initial
1 Computation of Line Parameters


2 Formation of Bus Admittance and
Impedance Matrices and Solution of
Networks


3 Solution of Load Flow and Related
Problems Using Gauss-Seidel
Method.


4 Solution of Load Flow and Related
Problems Using Newton-Raphson
Method


5 Solution of Load Flow and Related
Problems Using Fast Decoupled
Methods


6 Symmetrical Fault Analysis


7 Unsymmetrical Fault Analysis


8 Economic Dispatch in Power Systems


9 Load Frequency Dynamics of Single
and Two Area Power System


10 Electromagnetic Transients in Power
Systems


11 Transient and Small Signal Stability
Analysis of Single Machine Infinite
Bus System


12 Transient Stability Analysis of Multi-
Machine System


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©Einstein College of Engineering
COMPUTATION OF LINE PARAMETERS

AIM:
To determine the positive sequence line parameters L and C per phase per kilometer of a
three phase single and double circuit transmission lines for different conductor arrangements .
Objectives:
i) To understand the modeling and performance of short, medium and long
Transmission lines.
ii) To write a MATLAB program to determine the Line parameters
Software required:
MATLAB 6.1

Formula:
1. Single Phase - Two Wire System
GMD = D
GMR = re
-1/4
= r’
r = radius of conductor
2. Three Phase - Symmetrical Spacing
GMD = D
GMR = re
-1/4
= r’
r = radius of conductor
3. Three Phase - Asymmetrical Transposed
GMD = (DAB DBC DCA)
1/3

GMR = re
-1/4
= r’
r = radius of conductors
4. Composite Conductor Lines
The inductance of composite conductor - x., is given by
0.2ln
x
x
GMD
L
GMR
| |
=
|
\ .


Where
GMD = [(Daa’ Dab’ … Dam’ ) …… (Dna’ Dnb’….. Dnm’ )]
mn

GMRx = [(Daa Dab … D an) …… (Dna Dnb….. D nn)]
n2

r’
a
= r
a.
e
-1/4
5. Bundle Conductors:
GMR for two sub conductor Ds
b
= [Ds x d]
1/2

GMR for three sub conductor Ds
b
= (Ds x d
2
)
1/3

GMR for four sub conductor Ds
b
= 1.09 (Ds x d
3
)
1/4

Where
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©Einstein College of Engineering
Ds is the GMR of each sub conductor
d is the bundle spacing

6. Capacitance:

GMR= r
b
for bundled conductors
r
b
=[r*d
2
]
1/3
for 3 conductor bundle
7. Three-phase – Asymmetrical - transposed :
GMD = [DAB DBC DCA]
1/3

GMR = r ; for solid conductor
GMR = Ds for stranded conductor
= r
b
for bundled conductor
where
r
b
= [r*d]
1/2
for 2 conductor bundle
r
b
= [r*d2]
1/3
for 3 conductor bundle (1.20)
r
b
= 1.09 [r*d
3
]
1/4
for 4 conductor bundle
Where
r = radius of each sub conductor
d = bundle spacing

7. Three-phase – double circuit - transposed :

GMRc = [r
A
r
B
r
C
]
1/3
Where

r
A
r
Band
r
C
are GMR of each phase group obtained as
r
A
=[r
b
D
a1az
]
1/2
r
B
=[r
b
D
b1bz
]
1/2
r
C
=[r
b
D
c1cz
]
1/2
Where
r
b
=GMR of for bundled conductor
EXERCISES:
1) A single phase line has two parallel conductor 2meters apart. the diameter of each
conductor is 1.2 cm. calculate the loop inductance per km of the line.
2) A single phase transmission line has two parallel conductor 3m apart, the radius of each
conductor being 1cm.Calculate the loop inductance per km length of the line if the
material of the conductor is(i)Copper(ii)Steel with relative permeability of 100.
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©Einstein College of Engineering
3) Find the inductance per km of a 3phase transmission line using 1.24cm diameter
conductors when there are placed at the corners spacing of an equilateral triangle of each
side 2m.
4) The 3 conductors of a 3phase line are arranged at the corners of a triangle of sides
2m,2.5m&4.5m.Calculate the inductance per km of the line when the conductors are
regularly transposed. The diameter of each conductor is 1.24cm
5) Two conductors of a single phase line ,each of 1cm diameter, are arranged in a vertical
plane with one conductor mounted 1m above the other. A second identical line is
mounted at the same height as the first and spaced horizontally 2.5m apart from it. The
two upper &the two lower conductors are connected in parallel. Determine the
inductance per km of the resulting double circuit line.
6) The spacing of a double circuit 3phase overhead line. The phase sequence is ABC & the
line is completely transposed, the conductor radius in 1.3 cm .Find the
inductance/phase/km.
7) A single phase line has two parallel conductors 3m apart, radius of each conductor being
1cm. Calculate the capacitance of the line /km. given that £
0
=8.854*10
-12
F/M.















RESULT:






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©Einstein College of Engineering
FORMATION OF BUS ADMITTANCE AND IMPEDANCE
MATRICES AND SOLUTION OF NETWORKS.
Aim:
To understand the formation of bus admittance matrix(Y
bus
) of a given power system
network, to effect certain required changes on this matrices & to obtain network solution using
this matrices.
Objectives:
1. To write a program in MATLAB to determine the bus admittance matrix(Y
bus
)
2. To obtain the modified Y
bus
to effect specified modifications in the configuration of
the network.
3. To determine the bus impedance matrices Z
bus

Software Required:
MATLAB
Formulae:
Y.V = I
Z.I = V
TWO RULE METHOD FOR Y
BUS
FORMATION:
Rule 1:
Matrix form:
Ybus=
Y
11
Y
12
Y
13
Y
21
Y
22
Y
23

Y
31
Y
32
Y
33
Where, Y
11
= y
11
+ y
12
+y
13



Y
22
= y
11
+ y
12
+y
13


Y
33
= y
11
+ y
12
+y
13

Y
12
= -y
12
Y
13
= -y
13
Y
23=
Y
32


Ykk = y/a
2
; Ymm = y ; Ykm = Ymk = -y/a
Algorithm:
Step 1: Initialize Y with all elements set to zero.
Step 2: Read the line list, one line at-a-time and update Y by adding the respective
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©Einstein College of Engineering
Contribution.
Step 3: Read the transformer list, one transformer at-a-time and update Y by adding the
respective contribution.
Step 4: Read the shunt element list, one element at-a-time and update Y by adding the
respective contribution.

EXERCISES:
1. Find the Y bus for the given power system. The impedances are Z
12
=j0.4 p.u; Z
13
=j0.3
p.u and Z
23
=j0.2p.u.








2.to find the bus admittance matrix given the admittance value.
Line Admittance
1-2
1-3
2-3
2-4
3-4
2-j8
1-j4
0.666-j2.664
1-j4
2-j8
3.To find bus admittance value given the impedance value.
Line R(p.u) X(p.u)
1
3
2
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©Einstein College of Engineering
1-2
1-3
1-4
2-4
3-4
0.05
0.10
0.20
0.10
0.05
0.15
0.30
0.40
0.30
0.15








Result:











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©Einstein College of Engineering
SOLUTION OF LOAD FLOW AND RELATED PROBLEMS USING
GAUSS-SEIDEL METHOD.

Aim:
To understand, in particular, the mathematical formulation of load flow model in complex
form& a simple method of solving flow problems of small sized system using gauss seidal
iterative algorithm.
Objectives:
1. To build mathematical model of load flow problem using Gauss-Seidel method.
2. To write MATLAB program to solve the load flow problem by using Gauss-Seidel
method.

Software Required :
MATLAB 6.1
Formulae:
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷
÷
=
¿ ¿
+ =
÷
=
+
+
+
n
i j
k
ij
i
j
k
ij k
k
i i
ii
k
j j
i
i
V Y V Y
V
jQ P
Y
V
1
1
1
1
*
1
1
. .
1

(
¸
(

¸

+ =
¿ ¿
=
÷
=
+ +
n
i j
k
ij
i
j
k
ij
k
i
k
j j i
V Y V Y V al P . . . Re
1
1
1 * 1

(
¸
(

¸

+ ÷ =
¿ ¿
=
÷
=
+ +
n
i j
k
ij
i
j
k
ij
k
i
k
j j i
V Y V Y V a Q . . . Im
1
1
1 * 1

Algorithm for GSLF:
Step1: Read the input data
Step2: Find the admittance matrix
Step3: Choose the flat voltage profile 1+j*0
Step4: set the iteration count p=0 and bus count i=1
Step5: check the slack bus, if it is the generator bus then go to the next step otherwise go
to step7.
Step6: Before the check for the slack bus if it is slack bus then go to step11 otherwise go
to next step.
Step7: Check the reactive power of the generator bus within the given limit.
Step8: If the reactive power violates a limit then treat the bus as load bus.
Step9: Calculate the phase of the bus voltage on load bus.
Step10: Calculate the change in bus voltage of the repeat step mentioned above until all
the bus voltages are calculated.
Step11: Stop the program and print the results.
Exercise:
4-BUS, 5-LINES POWER SYSTEM
The systemdata for a load flow solution are given in table. Determine the voltages at the end of
first iteration by gauss seidal method. Given α=1.6.
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©Einstein College of Engineering
Line Admittance
1-2
1-3
2-3
2-4
3-4
2-j8
1-j4
0.666-j2.664
1-j4
2-j8

Bus specification:
Bus code P Q V Remarks
1
2
3
4
-
0.5
0.4
0.3
-
0.2
0.3
0.1
1.06<0”
-
-
-
Slack
PQ
PQ
PQ



Result:
















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©Einstein College of Engineering
SOLUTION OF LOAD FLOW AND RELATED
PROBLEMS USING NEWTON-RAPHSON METHOD
Aim:
To develop a software program to obtain real and reactive power flows,bus voltage
magnitude and angles by using N-R method.
Objectives:
1. To procure the knowledge of steady state analysis of power flow in a power system.
2. To build mathematical model of load flow problem using Newton Raphson(NR) method
and Fast Decoupled method.
3. To become proficient in the usage of software for practical problem solving in the areas
of power system planning and operation.
4. To become proficient in the usage of the software in solving problems using Newton-
Raphson and Fast Decoupled load flow methods.

Software Required:
MATLAB
Formulae:
Real Power, ) cos( . | | . | | | |
i j ij ij j i i
Y V V P    ÷ + =
¿

Reactive Power, ) sin( . | | . | | | |
i j ij ij j i i
Y V V Q    ÷ + ÷ =
¿

Algorithm:
Step1: Form the admittance(Ybus) matrix
Step2: Assume initial values of bus voltages|Vp|
0
and phase angles p  for load buses and phase
angles for PV buses.Normally we set the assumed bus voltage magnitude and its phase
angle equal slack bus quantities|V1|
0
= 1.0, 1  =0
0

Step3: Compute Pp and Qp for each load bus using formulae’s
Step4: Compute the scheduled errors ∆Pp and ∆Qp for each load bus from the following
relations.
∆P
p
k
=Ppsp-P
k
pcal p=2,3…..n
∆Qp
k
= Qpsp-Q
k
pcal p=2,3…..n
For PV buses , the excat value of Qp is not specified, but its limits are known. If the
calculated value ofQp is within limits, only ∆P
p

is calculated. If the calculated value of
Qp is beyond the limits, then an appropriate limit is imposed and ∆Qp

is also calculated
by subtracting the calculated value of Qp from the appropriate limit. The bus under
consideration is now treated as a load on(PQ) bus.
Step5: Compute the elements of the jacobian matrix using the estimated |Vp|

and p  from step 2.
Step6:Obtain ∆ and ∆|Vp| from eqns calculated in step 6,modify the voltage magnitude and
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©Einstein College of Engineering
phase angle at all loads by th
Step7: using the values of ∆ p and ∆|Vp| in step 6,modify the voltage magnitude and phase
angle at all loads using jacobian matrix. Start the next itration cycle at step2 with thse
modified  p and |Vp|
Step8: Continue until scheduled errors ∆P
p
k
and

∆Qp
k
for all load buses are within a specied
tolerance, ie, ∆P
p
k
<€, ∆Qp
k
<€. Where € denotes the tolerance level for load buses
Step9: Calculate line flows and power at the slack bus exactly in the same manner as in the gauss
seidal method.

Exercise:
The load factor data for the sample power system are given below. The voltage magnitude at bus
2 is maintained at 1.04 p.u. the maximum and minimum reactive power limits of the generator at
bus 2 are 0.35 and 0 p.u respectively. Determine the set of load flow equations of the end of first
iteration by using NR method.
V2=1.04 p.u; 0≤Q2≤0.35
Bus code Impedance
1-2
1-3
2-3


0.08+j0.24
0.02+j0.06
0.06+j0.18

Bus code Assumed voltage Generation Load
MW MVAR MW MVAR
1
2
3
1.06+j0
1+j0
1+j0
0
0.2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.65
0
0
0.25

RESULT:












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©Einstein College of Engineering
SOLUTION OF LOAD FLOW AND RELATED
PROBLEMS USING FAST DECOUPLED METHODS

Aim:
To develop a software program to obtain real and reactive power flows,bus voltage
magnitude and angles by using N-R method.
Objectives:
1. To procure the knowledge of steady state analysis of power flow in a power system.
2. To build mathematical model of load flow problem using Newton Raphson(NR) method
and Fast Decoupled method.
3. To become proficient in the usage of software for practical problem solving in the areas of
power system planning and operation.
4. To become proficient in the usage of the software in solving problems using Newton-
Raphson and Fast Decoupled load flow methods.
Software Required:
MATLAB 6.1
Formulae:
Real Power, ) cos( . | | . | | | |
i j ij ij j i i
Y V V P    ÷ + =
¿

Reactive Power, ) sin( . | | . | | | |
i j ij ij j i i
Y V V Q    ÷ + ÷ =
¿

Algorithm:
Step1: Read the slack bus voltages, real bus powers and reactive bus powers,bus voltage
magniyude and reactive power limits;
Step2: Form the admittance(Ybus) matrix without line charging admittance and shunt
admittance.
Step3:Form B matrix , from Ybus matrix obtained in step 2.
Step4:Form Ybus matrix with double line charging admittance.
Step5: Form B’’ matrix , from Ybus matrix obtained in step 4.
Step6: Calculate the inverse of B’& B’’ matrices.
Step7:Initialize the bus voltages.
Step8:Calculate [∆P/|V|],[∆Q,|V|]
Step9:If ∆P/|V| & ∆Q/|V| are less than or equal to tolerance limit, solution has convergence and
go to step 12 otherwise increase iteration count and go to step 10.
Step 10: Calculate[∆ δ]=[B’]
-1
[∆P/|V|]
[∆|V|]=[B’’]
-1
[∆Q/|V|]
Step11:Update [ δ]& [|V|] for all buses except slack bus.
[ δ]
new
= [ δ]
old
+ [∆ δ]
[|V|]
new
=[|V|]old+[∆|V|]
Exercise:
The load factor data for the sample power system are given below. Taking bus 1 as slack bus .
Determine the Voltage at various buses.FDLF at the end of first iteration.
V2=1.04 p.u; 0≤Q2≤0.35

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©Einstein College of Engineering
Bus code Impedance Half line charging admittance
1-2
1-3
2-3
0.06+j0.18
0.02+j0.06
0.04+j0.12
j0.05
j0.06
j0.05



Bus code
Assumed voltage Generation Load
MW MVAR MW MVAR
1
2
3
1.06+j0
1+j0
1+j0
0
0.2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.25


RESULT:































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©Einstein College of Engineering
SYMMETRICAL FAULT ANALYSIS
Aim:
To develop a software program to carry out simulation study of a symmetrical three phase
short circuit on a given power system.
Objectives:
1. To become familiar with modelling and analysis of power systems under faulted
condition and to compute the fault level, post-fault voltages and currents for different
types of faults, both symmetric and unsymmetrical.
2. To calculate the fault current, post fault voltage and fault current through the branches for
a three phase to ground fault in a small power system and also study the effect of
neighboring system. Check the results using available software
Software Required:
MATLAB6.1
Formulae:
Fault current,If=V/(Zf+Zpp)
Fault voltage Vf =V(1-(Zbus/(Zf+Zpp))
Where Zf=Fault impedance
Zpp= Line impedance
Algorithm:
Step1: Read line data,machine data, transformer data, fault impedance etc.
Step2: Form the admittance[Ybus] matrix and calculate [Ybus]modi.
Step3:Form [Zbus] by inverting the[Ybus] modified.
Step4:Initialize count I=0..
Step5: Find the bus at which fault occurs I=I+1.
Step6: Compute fault current at faulted bus and bus voltage at all buses..
Step7: Compute all line and generator currents.
Step8:Check if I<number of buses, if yes go to step 5 else go to step 9.
Step9:Print the results and stop the program.

Exercise:
1)Consider a 4 bus system fault occurs on bus4. Where 1&2 are generator buses ,3&4 are load
buses. Find fault current and fault voltage & line currents
Bus code Impedance Half line
charging
admittance
1-2
1-3
1-4
2-3
2-4
j5
j0.15
j10
j0.1
j0.15
j0.1(bus1)


j0.1(bus2)

2) A generator is connected through a transformer to a synchronous motor. The sub transient
reactance’s of generator and motor are 0.15 & 0.35 respectively. The leakage reactance of the
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©Einstein College of Engineering
transformer is 0.1 p.u. All the reactance are calculated on a common base. A 3phase fault occurs
at the terminals of the motor when the terminal voltage of the generator is is 0.9 p.u. The output
current of generator is 1p.u. &0.8 pf leading. Find the sub transient current in p.u. in the fault,
generator & motor. Use the terminal voltage of generator as reference vector.




RESULT:




































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©Einstein College of Engineering

UNSYMMETRICAL FAULT ANALYSIS
Aim:
To calculate the sub transient current in the faulted phase when unsymmetrical fault taken
place.
Objectives:
1. To become familiar with modeling and analysis of power systems under faulted condition
and to compute the fault level, post-fault voltages and currents for different types of faults,
both symmetric and unsymmetrical.
2. To calculate the fault current, post fault voltage and fault current through the branches for a
three phase to ground fault in a small power system and also study the effect of
neighboring system. Check the results using available software.

Software Required:
MATLAB
Formulae:
i) single line to ground fault:

i)
3 2 1
1
Z Z Z
E
I
a
a
+ +
= ;
ii)
b
b
b
MVA
KV
I
2
=
iii)
f b actual
I I If * =
iv)
( )
3 / 1
b
b
KV
KVA
Ib =
ii)Line to line fault
i)
2 1
1
Z Z
E
I
a
a
+
=
ii)
2 1 0
Ia Ia Ia Ia + + =
iii)
1 2 1 1 1 1 0
; ; 0 Va Va Z Ia Ea Va Va = ÷ = =
iv) Vb Vc aVa Va a Va Vb Va Va Va Va = + + = + + = ; ;
2 1
2
0 2 1 0

v) ; ; ; Va Vc Vca Vc Vb Vbc Vb Va Vab ÷ = ÷ = ÷ =
phase value or bas voltage=(KVb)
1/3
iii)Double line to ground fault:
i) ( )
0 1 1
Ia Ia Ia + ÷ =
ii)
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
0 2
0 2
1
1
Z Z
Z Z
Z
Ea
Ia
iii)
1 1 0 1
Z Ia Ea Va Va ÷ = =
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©Einstein College of Engineering
iv)
1
2
2
Z
Va
Ia ÷ =
Algorithm:
Step1: Read line data,machine data, transformer data, fault impedance etc.
Step2: Find the line at which fault occurs.
Step3: Compute fault current at faulted lines.
Step4:Print the results and stop the program
Exercises:
1) A salient pole generator without damber is rated 20MVA, 13.8KV and has a reactance of
0.25 p.u the subtransient. The negative zero sequence reactance are 0.35&0.10 p.u. The
neutral of the generator is solidly grounded. Determine the sub transient current in the
generator and the line to line voltages for the sub transient conditions when a single line
to ground fault occurs at the generator terminals with generator operating at rated voltage.
Neglect resistance.
2)
Find the sub transient currents &line to line voltages at the fault under sub transient
conditions when a line to line fault between phases b&c occurs at the terminals of the
generator. Assume that the generator is unloaded and operating at rated terminal when the
fault occurs. Neglect resistances.

3) Find the sub transient currents &line to line voltages at the fault under sub transient
conditions when a double line to line fault between phases b&c occurs at the terminals of
the generator. Assume that the generator is unloaded and operating at rated terminal when
the fault occurs. Neglect resistances.

RESULT:

















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©Einstein College of Engineering
ECONOMIC DISPATCH IN POWER SYSTEMS
Aim:
(i). To understand the basics of the problem of Economic Dispatch (ED) of optimally
adjusting the generation schedules of thermal generating units to meet the system
load which are required for unit commitment and economic operation of power
systems.
(ii). To understand the development of coordination equations (the mathematical
model for ED) without and with losses and operating constraints and solution of
these equations using direct and iterative methods
Objectives:
1. Determine the economic generation schedule of each unit and incremental cost of
received power for a sample power system, for a given load cycle.
2. Determine transmission loss for a sample system, for the given load levels.

Software required:
MATLAB 6.1

Theory:
The constant  is called the incremental cost in Rs/MWhr.
The characteristic equation is C=a+bP+cP
2


1
1
dP
dC
=
2
2
dP
dC
=……………
n
n
dP
dC
= 
Optimum generation as a function of  and cost coefficient
Let C
1
= a
1
+b
1
P
1
+c
1
P
1
2

C
2
= a
2
+b
2
P
2
+c
2
P
2
2
….. …………
C
k
= a
k
+b
k
P
k
+c
k
P
k
2
1
1
dP
dC
=  = b1+2P
1
c
1
2
2
dP
dC
=  = b2+2P
2
c
2
………….. (5)


…………..…………..

k
k
dP
dC
=  = bk+2P
k
c
k
…………..(6)
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Rearranging  =
1
1
C
+
2
1
C
+ ……. +
Ck
1
=
1
1
c
b
+
2
2
C
b
+…..+
k
k
c
b
+
2(P1+P2+….Pk)……… (7)

 =
¿
=
k
n
n c
1
1
=
¿
=
k
n
n
n
c
b
1
+ 2P
T
…………..(8)


=
¿
¿
=
=
+
k
n
n
T
k
n
c
P
1
1
n
n
1
2
c
b


Pn =
n
n
c
b
2
÷ 

Iterative Procedure:
The incremental transmission loss depends on the power output from all the units.
The co-ordination equation is
k
k
dP
dC
+ 
K
L
P
P
c
c
=  ……..(1)
The co-ordination equation cannot be solved directly.An iterative procedure including a method
of successive approximation for the nth unit is given by
n
n
dP
dC
+ 
n
L
P
P
c
c
……(2)
C
1
= a
1
+b
1
P
1
+c
1
P
1
2
; C
k
= a
n
+b
n
P
n
+c
n
P
n
2
n
n
dP
dC
=  = b
n
+2P
n
c
n ……………….
(3)
Substituting (3) in (1), b
n
+ 2P
n
c
n
+ 
K
L
P
P
c
c

But
K
L
P
P
c
c
=
K P c
c
(
¸
(

¸

¿¿
= =
k
m
k
n
n mn m P B P
1 1

m= n
Pn(2cn + 2  Bnn) =  -bn- 
¿
=n m
mn mB P 2

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Divide by  => Pn =
nn n
mn m
B c
B P

 
2 2
2 - bn -
+
¿

Pn =
nn
n
n m
mn m
B
c
B P
2
2
2 -
bn
- 1
+
=
¿



………(4)
For a system with 2 units of power output P1 and P2,

P1 =
11
1
12 2
1
2
2
2 -
b
- 1
B
c
B P
+



………(5)

P2 =
22
2
21 1
2
2
2
2 -
b
- 1
B
c
B P
+



………(6)
Steps:
1. Assume P2=0
2. Find P1 from eqn(5)
3. Find P2 from eqn(6) using the value of P1 from prevo\ious steps
4. Substitute P2 in eqn(5)
5. Repeat steps(3) and (4) one after the other

Algorithm for iterative process:-

Step 1: Get the value of Ng, cost coefficients, B-Coefficients ,total demand, tolerance limit,
initial iteration value
Step 2: Find the value assuming no losses using formula 

=
¿
¿
=
=
+
Ng
n
i
D
Ng
n
c
P
1
1
i
i
1
2
c
b

Step 3: Calculate the power using P
i
(k) =
ii i
i
B k b
b k
)) ( ( 2
) (


+
÷

Step 4: Find losses using PL(k) =
¿
=
Ng
i
i ii
k P B
1
) (
2

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Step 5: Find power mismatch using A.P(k) = PD + PL -
¿
=
Ng
i
i
k P
1
) (
Step 6: Check the power mismatch P(k).Find if it is less than or equal to tolerance limit. If yes
end the process else find the value of change in using .
k
i
P
¿
|
.
|

\
|
c
c

=
¿
+
+
2
) ) ( ( 2
ii i
ii i i
B k c
B b c


A ) (k  =
k
Ng
i
i
P
k P
¿
=
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
A
1
) (


Step 7: Find the value of new 
 (k+1) =  (k) +  (k)
Step 8: Substitute  equal to new  value and repeat from step 2.
Formulae used:
Neglecting losses:
1. 
=
¿
¿
=
=
+
k
n
n
T
k
n
c
P
1
1
n
n
1
2
c
b


2. Pn =
n
n
c
b
2
÷ 

Including Losses:
1. Pi(k ) =
ii i
i
B k b
b k
)) ( ( 2
) (


+
÷

2. PL (k) =
¿
=
Ng
i
i ii
k P B
1
) (
2

3. A.P(k) = PD + PL -
¿
=
Ng
i
i
k P
1
) (
4.
k
i
P
¿
|
.
|

\
|
c
c

=
¿
+
+
2
) ) ( ( 2
ii i
ii i i
B k c
B b c


5. A ) (k  =
k
Ng
i
i
P
k P
¿
=
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
A
1
) (


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6.  (k+1) =  (k) +  (k)

Exercises

(1) The power plant has the following characteristics
F
1
=0.00889P
1
2
+10.333P
1
+200 Rs/hr
F
2
=0.00741P
2
2
+10.833P
2
+240 Rs/hr
Determine the economic schedule to meet the demand of 150MW and transmission loss
PL=0.001P
1
2
+0.0002P
2
2
-2x0.0002P
1
P
2
using iterative techniques.
(2) The power plant has the following characteristics
F
1
=0.05P
1
2
+21.5P
1
+800 Rs/hr
F
2
=0.1P
2
2
+27P
2
+500 Rs/hr
F
3
=0.07P
3
2
+16P
3
+900 Rs/hr
Determine the economic schedule to meet the demand of 150MW.
(3)
Bmn =

Three plants A,B,C supply powers of 50 MW,100MW & 200 MW respectively. Calculate the
transmission loss in the network in p.u. value and incremental transmission loss of the three
plants. Assume base value=200MW.


Result:




0.01 -0.0003 -0.0002
-0.0003 0.0025 -0.0005
-0.0002 -0.0005 0.0031
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LOAD FREQUENCY DYNAMICS OF
SINGLE AND TWO AREA POWER SYSTEM
AIM:
To obtain the frequency response of single and two area power system using MATLAB
SOFTWARE REQUIRED:
MATLAB 6.1
FORMULA USED:
1)G
G
= K
G

1+ ST
G
2)G
T
= K
T

1+ ST
T
3)G
P
= K
P

1+ ST
P

4)K
p
=1/D
Where
D = damping coefficient Where
G
G
– gain of generator
G
T
-

gain of turbine
G
P
- gain of power
K
P –
power system constant
K
T
- turbine constant
K
G
- generator constant
T
P
– power system time constant
T
G
- generator time constant








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SIMULINK RESULTS:
Single Area Power System
BLOCK DIAGRAM


OUTPUT RESPONSE:

:




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SINGLE AREA POWER SYSTEM

BLOCK DIAGRAM:



OUTPUT RESPONSE:




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TWO AREA POWER SYSTEM:
BLOCK DIAGRAM:

OUTPUT RESPONSE (1):




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OUTPUT RESPONSE (2):








Result:



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ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSIENTS IN POWER SYSTEMS

AIM:
To plot the electro magnetic transients in the power system using MATLAB
SOFTWARE REQUIRED:
MATLAB 6.1
FORMULA USED:
Case(i):
REACTIVE TERMINATION:LINE TERMINATED BY INDICATOR:
it(s ) = 2E f /L

s(s+Zc/L)

et(s) = 2Ef

(s+Zc/L)

it(s) = 2E (1-e
–Zct/L
)

Zc

ir = E (1-2e
-Zct/L
)
Zc
Case (ii):LINE TERMINATED BY CAPACITANCE:
it(s) = 2E (1/S+I/ZcC )

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Zc
Case (iii):LINE TERMINATED BY A RESISTANCE EQUAL TO SURGE IMPEDANCE:

it(s) = 2E

Z
c
S
ef(s) = E
Case (iv):OPEN CIRCUITED LINE:
e
t
= 2e
f

e
r
= e
f

i
r
= - i
f

Case (v):SHORT CIRCUITED LINE:
i
t
= 2i
f

e
r
= -e
f

i
r
= i
f

Where,
e
f ,
i
f
- forward voltage and current
e
t ,
i
t
-

transmitted voltage and current
e
r ,
i
r
- reflected voltage and current


PROGRAM:
%line terminated by inductor for voltage
Ef=10000;
L=0.004;
Zc=400;
n1=[2*Ef0];
d1=[1 Zc/L];
t=0:0.00001:0.0001;
Et=step(n1,d1,t);
plot(t,Et,'r');
Er=Et-Ef;
hold on;
plot(t,Er,'b');
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OUTPUT RESPONSE:



%line terminated by capacitor for voltage
Ef=10000;
C=0.000000009;
Zc=400;
n1=[2*Ef/(Zc*C)];
d1=[1 1/(Zc*C)];
t=0:0.00001:0.0001;
Et=step(n1,d1,t);
plot(t,Et,'r');
Er=Et-Ef;
hold on;
plot(t,Er,'b');



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OUTPUT RESPONSE:





%line terminated by capacitor for current
Ef=10000;
C=0.000000009;
Zc=400;
n1=[2*Ef/Zc 0)];
d1=[1 1/(Zc*C)];
t=0:0.00001:0.0001;
It=step(n1,d1,t);
plot(t,It,'r');
hold on;
If=Ef/Zc;
Ir=It-If;
plot(t,Ir,'b');


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OUTPUT RESPONSE:




%line terminated by inductor for current
Ef=10000;
L=0.004;
Zc=400;
n1=[2*Ef0];
d1=[1 Zc/L];
tf(n1,d1)
t=0:0.00001:0.0001;
n2=[2*Ef/L];
d2=[1 Zc/L;
It=step(n2,d2,t);
plot(t,It,'r');
If=Ef/Zc;
Ir=It-If;
hold on;
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plot(t,Ir,'b');
OUTPUT RESPONSE:

RESULT:


























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TRANSIENT AND SMALL SIGNAL STABILITY ANALYSIS OF
SINGLE-MACHINE INFINITE BUS SYSTEM
AIM:
To become familiar with various aspects of the transient and small signal stability analysis of
Single-Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) system.
SOFTWARE REQUIRED:
A.U Power lab or equivalent
Exercises:
For a typical power system comprising a generating, step-up transformer, double-circuit
transmission line connected to infinite bus:
Transient Stability Analysis
1. Hand calculation of the initial conditions necessary for the classical model of the
synchronous machine.
2. Hand computation of critical clearing angle and time for the fault using equal area
criterion.
3. Simulation of typical disturbance sequence: fault application, fault clearance by opening
of one circuit using the software available and checking stability by plotting the swing
curve.
4. Determination of critical clearing angle and time for the above fault sequence through
trial and error method using the software and checking with the hand computed value.
5. Repetition of the above for different fault locations and assessing the fault severity with
respect to the location of fault.
6. Determination of the steady-state and transient stability margins.
Small-signal Stability Analysis:
7. Familiarity with linearised swing equation and characteristic equation and its roots,
damped frequency of oscillation in Hz, damping ratio and undamped natural
frequency.
8. Force-free time response for an initial condition using the available software.
9. Effect of positive, negative and zero damping.

THEORETICAL BACK GROUND
Stability:
Preamble [1]
The stability of systems in general, is intimately connected with maintenance of
equilibrium in the presence of opposing forces. Once equilibrium is established, stability will not
be a major concern if the system is free from disturbance or if the system is in steady-state. It is
only when the steady-state is disturbed, then the stability of the system is inquired, i.e whether
the system will return to the pre-disturbance steady-state. The pre-disturbance steady-state plays
an important part in determining whether the system will return to this state after a disturbance.
Power system stability - Definition [2]
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It is the property of the system that enables it to remain in a state of operating equilibrium
under normal operating conditions and to regain an acceptable state of equilibrium after being
subjected to a disturbance.
Manifestation of power system instability
Power system instability manifests as loss of synchronism between rotating inertias
connected to the system and /or unacceptably low voltage. Both situations, if countermeasures
are not active, can lead to total system black out or total voltage collapse. The former involves
dynamics of generator rotor angles under input-output power balance. The collapse of voltage
can occur without accompanying loss of synchronism.
Causes, nature and effects of disturbances
The types of disturbances outlined earlier can further be subdivided as:
 Natural causes such as a tornado that can cause a flashover across insulators
 Inadvertent causes such as maloperation of protection
 Intended actions such as opening/closing of circuit breakers by the operator

All disturbances involve one or more phase conductors and/or ground and always result in
imbalance between mechanical power of the turbine and output electrical power of the generator.
The power imbalance triggers the dynamics which results in deviation in generator rotor speeds,
bus voltages and possibly other variables from their nominal values. If the disturbance is not
removed, the protection system may act to isolate that portion of the system where the deviations
are excessive.

Basic assumptions made in stability studies
1. Only synchronous frequency currents and voltages are considered in the machine and
the network. Direct current offsets and harmonics are neglected.
2. Symmetrical components are used in the representation of unbalanced faults.
3. Generator voltages are unaffected by machine speed variations.
Modeling For Transient Stability
Consider a single machine connected to an infinite bus shown in Fig. 1. An infinite bus is a
source of constant frequency and voltage.

Fig 1. Single machine connected to infinite bus system


The equivalent circuit with the generator represented by classical model and all resistances
neglected is shown in fig. 2. A simplified equivalent circuit is shown in Fig.3.

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Fig 2. Equivalent circuit


Fig.3. Simplified Equivalent Circuit

Following expressions are valid for figures 2 and 3:

__________________(1)




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Computation of Initial Conditions:
Assume that the generator output power (Pe,Qe) and the terminal voltage magnitude E
t

are specified. The equivalent circuit shown in Fig.2 with parallel combination of X
1
and X
2
replaced by X
3
is shown in Fig. 4.
Fig.4
. Equivalent circuit with parallel combination of X1 and X2 replaced by X3


Assume Et as reference, i.e, Et = Et <0
o
, the computation of initial conditions consists of
following steps:

Swing Equation
During any disturbance in the system, the rotor will accelerate or decelerate with respect
to synchronously rotating axis and the relative motion begins. The equation describing the
(2)
(3)
(4)
(4.a)
(5)
(5.a)
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relative motion is called as swing equation. The following assumptions are made in the
derivation of swing equation:
(i) Machine represented by classical model
(ii) Controllers are not considered
(iii) Loads are constants
(iv) Voltage and currents are sinusoids

The fundamental equation of motion of the rotor of the synchronous machine is given
by



Equation (6) can be rewritten as two first order equations in state variable form:



(6)
(7)
(8)
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Numerical Integration Techniques

The differential equations (8) are to be solved using numerical techniques. There are
several techniques available and two of them, modified Euler and fourth order Runge- Kutta
methods, are illustrated taking a simple example of a first order equation in a single variable:






(9)
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Determination of Critical Clearing Time
Critical clearing time is the maximum allowable time between the occurrence of a fault
and clearing of the fault for which the system will be stable. For a given load condition and
specified fault, the critical clearing time for a system is found out by trial and error method as
explained. Start with a fault clearing time which is stable. Increase the clearing time in steps till
instability results. The trial value of clearing time just before instability was detected is the
critical clearing time. This will give you the coarse value of the critical clearing time. By varying
the clearing time around this point in small steps till you find the clearing time which is just
critical. The clearing time margin for a fault may be defined as

Clearing time margin = critical clearing time – clearing time specified


Stability Margin in MW
Assume that the machine connected to infinite bus delivers Po MW (Fig.1) and a fault is
specified at the end of line no. 1 with a clearing time tc = 0.07 seconds. Suppose the MW output
of the machine and the load power are increased in steps and stability is checked for each step of
load with the same fault clearing time. Let the system remain stable up to a maximum loading of
say PLmax and a small increase in load beyond PLmax causes instability. Then the MW stability
margin is defined as Ps = PLmax – Po

Critical Clearing Time and Clearing Angle from Equal Area Criterion
This method is suitable for hand computations and is applicable only to single machine
connected to infinite bus system. Nonetheless, it gives a clear physical picture of the dynamics of
rotor motion when subjected to a disturbance. Consider the system shown in Fig.3. and its model
in Fig 5. The power-angle relationship is given by equation (1) and the power angle curves for
various operating condition is given in Fig. 5.


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?
Fig. 5. Power angle curve
` The steady state operating condition is given by point a and the corresponding rotor angle
is o
o
. Consider a three phase fault at location F on line 2 as shown in fig 1.The fault is cleared by
opening the circuit breakers at both ends of the line. The P- o ? plots for three network conditions
are shown in fig 5.
When the fault occurs, the operating point changes from a to b. Since Pm > Pe, the rotor
accelerates until the operating point reaches c where the fault is cleared at o
1
. The operation
shifts to e. Now Pe>Pm, the rotor decelerates, but o continues to increase until the kinetic energy
gained during the period of acceleration (Area A
1
) is transferred to the system. The operating
point moves from e to f such that area A2 is equal to A
1
. The rotor angle will oscillate back and
forth around the point of intersection of the straight line representing Pm and curve B at its
natural frequency such that area A1 = area A2. This is known as equal area
criterion.


Fig. 6. Determination of critical clearing angle using equal area criterion

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Critical Clearing Angle and Time
With delayed fault clearing as shown in Fig.6, the area A2 just equals to A1 at clearing
angle equal to o
cr
. Any further delay in clearing causes area A2 above Pm to be less than A1
resulting in loss of synchronism. The angle o
cr
for which A1 = A2 is called critical clearing
angle. An expression for critical clearing angle from Fig.6 can be derived as follows:
Applying equal area criterion,

Modelling For Small Signal Stability
The electrical power output of the generator in p.u. is

If speed is expressed in p.u. the air-gap torque is equal to air-gap power, Hence

Linearising (12) about an initial operating condition at o = o
o



(11)
(12)
(13)
(13.a)
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is called the synchronising torque co-efficient.
The state equations (8) are rewritten as

Linearising equation (14) and using equation (13.a) and (15) we get





The block diagram representation of Eq.(17) is showb in fig(9)

7 Block Diagram for Equation (17)

Taking Laplace transform of the above equation

(14)
(15)
(16)
(17)
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(18)
(19)
(20)
(21)
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EXERCISES

1. A power system comprising a thermal generating plant with four 555 MVA, 24kV, and 60HZ
units’ supplies power to an infinite bus through a transformer and two transmission lines (refer
Fig 8)


(22)
(23)
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Fig.8 Single Machine Infinite Bus System

The data for the system in per unit on a base of 2220 MVA, 24 kV is given below:
X
d
’=0.3p.u, H=3.5MW/MVA, transformer X=0.15p.u, line1 X=0.5p.u, line 2 X=0.93p.u. Plant
operating conditions P=0.9p.u, p.f=0.9lag, E
t
=1p.u.
Case (1) It is proposed to examine the transient stability of the system for a 3 phase to ground
fault at the end of the line 2 near H.T bus occurring at t=0s.The fault is cleared in 0.07s by
simultaneous opening of two CBs at the end of the both lines 2.
Case (2) Find the initial condition necessary for a classical model of the m/c for the above pre-
fault operating conditions. Find the critical clearing angle and time using equal angle criterion.







Result:












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TRANSIENT STABILITY ANALYSIS OF MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEMS

Aim :
To become familiar with modelling aspects of synchronous machines and network, state-
of-the-art algorithm for simplified transient stability simulation, system behaviour when
subjected to large disturbances in the presence of synchronous machine controllers and to
become proficient in the usage of the software to tackle real life problems encountered in the
areas of power system planning and operation.
Exercises:
For typical multi-machine power system:
7.1 Simulation of typical disturbance sequence: fault application, fault clearance by opening
of a line using the software available and assessing stability with and without controllers.
7.2 Determination of critical clearing angle and time for the above fault sequence through
trial and error method using the software.
7.3 Determination of transient stability margins.
7.4 Simulation of full load rejection with and without governor.
7.5 Simulation of loss of generation with and without governor.

Software Required:
Math lab or AU Power lab

THECHNICAL BACKGROUND:

1. INTRODUCTION
Multi-machine equations can be written similar to the one-machine system connected to
the infinite bus. In order to reduce the complexity of the transient stability analysis, similar
simplifying assumptions are made as follows.
-Each synchronous machine is represented by a constant voltage source behind the direct
axis transient reactance. This representation neglects the effect of saliency and assumes
constant flux linkages.
-The governor’s action are neglected and the input powers are assumed to remain
constant during the entire period of simulation.
-Using the pre-fault bus voltages, all loads are converted to equivalent admittances to
ground and are assumed to remain constant.
-Damping or asynchronous powers are ignored.
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-The mechanical rotor angle of each machine coincides with the angle of the voltage
behind the machine reactance.
-Machines belonging to the same station swing together and are said to be coherent. A
group of coherent machines is represented by one equivalent machine.
2. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF MULTIMACHINE TRANSIENT STABILITY ANALYSIS
The first step in the transient stability analysis is to solve the initial load flow and to
determine the initial bus voltage magnitudes and phase angles. The machine currents prior to
disturbance are calculated from,

Where
m= is the number of generators
Vi- is the terminal voltage of the ith generator
Pi and Qi are the generator real and reactive powers.
All unknown values are determined from the initial power flow solution. The generator
armature resistances are usually neglected and the voltages behind the transient reactance are
then obtained,

Next, all load are converted to equivalent admittances by using the relation



To include voltages behind transient reactance, m buses are added to the n bus power
system network. The equivalent network with all load converted to admittances is shown in
Fig.1,
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Nodes n+1, n+2, . . ., n+m are the internal machine buses, i.e., the buses behind the
transient reactances. The node voltage equation with node 0 as reference for this network, is

Or

Where
Ibus is the vector of the injected bus currents Vbus is the vector of bus voltages measured
from the reference node.
The diagonal elements of the bus admittance matrix are the sum of admittances
connected to it, and the off-diagonal elements are equal to the negative of the admittance
between the nodes. The reference is that additional nodes are added to include the machine
voltages behind transient reactances. Also, diagonal elements are modified to include the load
admittances.
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To simplify the analysis, all nodes other than the generator internal nodes are eliminated
using Kron reduction formula . To eliminate the load buses, the bus admittance matrix in (4) is
partitioned such that the n buses to be removed are represented in the upper n rows. Since no
current enters or leaves the load buses, currents in the n rows are zero. The generator currents are
denoted by the vector Im and the generator and load voltages are represented by the vector E’ m
and Vn, respectively. Then, Equation (4), in terms of sub matrices, becomes

The voltage vector Vn may be eliminated by substitution as follows.


The reduced bus admittance matrix has the dimensions (m x m), where m is the number
of generators. The electrical power output of each machine can now be expressed in terms of the
machine’s internal voltages
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Expressing voltages and admittances in polar form, i.e., I

and substituting for Ii in (12), result in

The above equation is the same as the power flow equation. Prior to disturbance, there is
equilibrium between the mechanical power input and the electrical power output, and we have

The classical transient stability study is based on the application of a three-phase fault. A solid
three-phase fault at bus k in the network results in Vk = 0. This is simulated by removing the kth
row and column from the prefault bus admittance matrix. The new bus admittance matrix is
reduced by eliminating all nodes except the internal generator nodes. The generator excitation
voltages during the fault and postfault modes are assumed to remain constant. The electrical
power of the ith generator in terms of the new reduced bus admittance matrices are obtained
from (14). The swing equation with damping neglected, for machine i becomes

Where
Yij are the elements of the faulted reduced bus admittance matrix Hi is the inertia
constant of machine I expressed on the common MVA base SB. If HGi is the inertia constant of
machine I expressed on the machine rated MVA SGi, then Hi is given by
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Showing the electrical power of the ith generator by Pef and transforming (16) into state variable
mode yields

In transient stability analysis problem, we have two state equations for each generator.
When the fault is cleared, which may involve the removal of the faulty line, the bus admittance
matrix is recomputed to reflect the change in the networks. Next the post-fault reduced bus
admittance matrix is evaluated and the post-fault electrical power of the ith generator shown by
Ppf i is readily determined from (14). Using the post-fault power Ppf i, the simulation is
continued to determine the system stability, until the plots reveal a definite trend as to stability or
instability. Usually the slack generator is selected as the reference machines are plotted. Usually,
the solution is carried out for two swings to show that the second swing is not greater than the
first one. If the angle differences do not increase, the system is stable. If any of the angle
differences increase indefinitely, the system is unstable.
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Result:




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Viva questions
1. What are the components of power system?
2. Define per unit value.
3. What is the need for base values?
4. What are the advantages of per unit computations?
5. What is impedance & reactance?
6. What is a bus?
7. Name the diagonal & off diagonal elements of bus admittance matrix?
8. What is bus admittance matrix?
9. What is bus impedance matrix?
10. What are the methods available for forming bus admittance matrix?
11. Write the symmetrical components of 3 phase system?
12. What is meant by positive negative & zero sequence impedance?
13. What is power flow study or load flow study?
14. What is the need for load flow study?
15. What are the different types of buses in a power system?
16. What are the information that are obtained from a load flow study?
17. What is swing bus?
18. What is the need for slag bus?
19. What do you mean by a flat voltage start?
20. When the generator buses treated as load bus?
21. What is jacobian matrix?
22. What is infinite bus?
23. How the reactive power of generator is controlled?
24. How the faults are classified?
25. List the symmetrical & unsymmetrical faults?
26. What is the need for short circuit studies?
27. Define transient & sub transient reactance.
28. Name the various unsymmetrical faults in a power system.
29. Define stability.
30. Define steady state & transient stability.
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31. Explain steady state stability limit
32. Explain transient stability limit.
33. How stability studies are classified. What are they?
34. Define swing curve.
35. Define power angle.
36. Define equal area criterion.
37. What is AGC?
38. Explain unit commitment.
39. What is economic dispatch?
40. Explain participation factor.
























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EE76 Power System Simulation Lab TABLE OF CONTENTS

S.No 1 2

Date

Name of the Experiment Computation of Line Parameters Formation of Bus Admittance and Impedance Matrices and Solution of Networks Solution of Load Flow and Related Problems Using Gauss-Seidel Method. Solution of Load Flow and Related Problems Using Newton-Raphson Method Solution of Load Flow and Related Problems Using Fast Decoupled Methods Symmetrical Fault Analysis Unsymmetrical Fault Analysis Economic Dispatch in Power Systems Load Frequency Dynamics of Single and Two Area Power System Electromagnetic Transients in Power Systems Transient and Small Signal Stability Analysis of Single Machine Infinite Bus System Transient Stability Analysis of MultiMachine System

Page No

Marks

Remarks

Staff Initial

3

4

5

6 7 8 9

10

11

12

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EE76 Power System Simulation Lab

COMPUTATION OF LINE PARAMETERS AIM: To determine the positive sequence line parameters L and C per phase per kilometer of a three phase single and double circuit transmission lines for different conductor arrangements . Objectives: i) To understand the modeling and performance of short, medium and long Transmission lines. ii) To write a MATLAB program to determine the Line parameters Software required: MATLAB 6.1 Formula: 1. Single Phase - Two Wire System GMD = D GMR = re-1/4 = r’ r = radius of conductor 2. Three Phase - Symmetrical Spacing GMD = D GMR = re-1/4 = r’ r = radius of conductor 3. Three Phase - Asymmetrical Transposed GMD = (DAB DBC DCA) 1/3 GMR = re-1/4 = r’ r = radius of conductors 4. Composite Conductor Lines The inductance of composite conductor - x., is given by  GMD  Lx  0.2 ln    GMRx  Where GMD = [(Daa’ Dab’ … Dam’ ) …… (Dna’ Dnb’….. Dnm’ )] mn GMRx = [(Daa Dab … D an) …… (Dna Dnb….. D nn)] n2 r’a = ra.e-1/4 Bundle Conductors: GMR for two sub conductor Dsb = [Ds x d]1/2 GMR for three sub conductor Dsb = (Ds x d2)1/3 GMR for four sub conductor Dsb = 1.09 (Ds x d3)1/4 Where Page 3 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering

5.

EE76 Power System Simulation Lab

Ds is the GMR of each sub conductor d is the bundle spacing 6. Capacitance: GMR= rb for bundled conductors rb=[r*d2]1/3 for 3 conductor bundle 7. Three-phase – Asymmetrical - transposed : GMD = [DAB DBC DCA] 1/3 GMR = r ; for solid conductor GMR = Ds for stranded conductor = rb for bundled conductor where rb = [r*d]1/2 for 2 conductor bundle rb = [r*d2]1/3 for 3 conductor bundle (1.20) rb = 1.09 [r*d3]1/4 for 4 conductor bundle Where r = radius of each sub conductor d = bundle spacing 7. Three-phase – double circuit - transposed : GMRc = [rA rB rC]1/3 Where rA rBand rC are GMR of each phase group obtained as rA =[rb Da1az] 1/2 rB =[rb Db1bz]1/2 rC =[rb Dc1cz]1/2 Where rb =GMR of for bundled conductor EXERCISES: 1) A single phase line has two parallel conductor 2meters apart. the diameter of each conductor is 1.2 cm. calculate the loop inductance per km of the line. 2) A single phase transmission line has two parallel conductor 3m apart, the radius of each conductor being 1cm.Calculate the loop inductance per km length of the line if the material of the conductor is(i)Copper(ii)Steel with relative permeability of 100. Page 4 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering

EE76 Power System Simulation Lab

3) Find the inductance per km of a 3phase transmission line using 1.24cm diameter conductors when there are placed at the corners spacing of an equilateral triangle of each side 2m. 4) The 3 conductors of a 3phase line are arranged at the corners of a triangle of sides 2m,2.5m&4.5m.Calculate the inductance per km of the line when the conductors are regularly transposed. The diameter of each conductor is 1.24cm 5) Two conductors of a single phase line ,each of 1cm diameter, are arranged in a vertical plane with one conductor mounted 1m above the other. A second identical line is mounted at the same height as the first and spaced horizontally 2.5m apart from it. The two upper &the two lower conductors are connected in parallel. Determine the inductance per km of the resulting double circuit line. 6) The spacing of a double circuit 3phase overhead line. The phase sequence is ABC & the line is completely transposed, the conductor radius in 1.3 cm .Find the inductance/phase/km. 7) A single phase line has two parallel conductors 3m apart, radius of each conductor being 1cm. Calculate the capacitance of the line /km. given that £0 =8.854*10-12 F/M.

RESULT:

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Objectives: 1. To obtain the modified Ybus to effect specified modifications in the configuration of the network.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab FORMATION OF BUS ADMITTANCE AND IMPEDANCE MATRICES AND SOLUTION OF NETWORKS. Step 2: Read the line list. Ykm = Ymk = -y/a Algorithm: Step 1: Initialize Y with all elements set to zero.V = I Z. To write a program in MATLAB to determine the bus admittance matrix(Ybus) 2. Y11 = y11 + y12 +y13 Y22 = y11 + y12 +y13 Y33 = y11 + y12 +y13 Y12 = -y12 Y13 = -y13 Y23= Y32 Ykk = y/a2 . to effect certain required changes on this matrices & to obtain network solution using this matrices.I = V TWO RULE METHOD FOR YBUS FORMATION: Rule 1: Matrix form: Ybus= Y11 Y12 Y13 Y21 Y22 Y23 Y31 Y32 Y33 Where. one line at-a-time and update Y by adding the respective Page 6 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering . To determine the bus impedance matrices Zbus Software Required: MATLAB Formulae: Y. Ymm = y . 3. Aim: To understand the formation of bus admittance matrix(Ybus) of a given power system network.

to find the bus admittance matrix given the admittance value.u) X(p. Line 1-2 1-3 2-3 2-4 3-4 Admittance 2-j8 1-j4 0. Find the Y bus for the given power system.3 p.664 1-j4 2-j8 3. Z13=j0.u) Page 7 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .4 p. EXERCISES: 1.u. Line R(p. Step 4: Read the shunt element list. 1 2 3 2.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab Contribution. The impedances are Z12=j0.2p.u and Z23=j0.u. Step 3: Read the transformer list. one element at-a-time and update Y by adding the respective contribution.666-j2. one transformer at-a-time and update Y by adding the respective contribution.To find bus admittance value given the impedance value.

05 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.15 Result: Page 8 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .40 0.15 0.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab 1-2 1-3 1-4 2-4 3-4 0.30 0.10 0.05 0.

Step6: Before the check for the slack bus if it is slack bus then go to step11 otherwise go to next step. To write MATLAB program to solve the load flow problem by using Gauss-Seidel method.V jk 1   Yij . Aim: To understand.V jk  j 1 j i   Algorithm for GSLF: Step1: Read the input data Step2: Find the admittance matrix Step3: Choose the flat voltage profile 1+j*0 Step4: set the iteration count p=0 and bus count i=1 Step5: check the slack bus.V j  Yii  V i*k j 1 j i 1     i 1 n   Pi k 1  Re al Vi*k .EE76 Power System Simulation Lab SOLUTION OF LOAD FLOW AND RELATED PROBLEMS USING GAUSS-SEIDEL METHOD.1 Formulae:   n 1  Pi  jQik 1 i 1 k 1 k 1 k Vi    Yij .V jk  j 1 j i   i 1 n   Q ik 1   Im a Vi *k . Software Required : MATLAB 6. 2. To build mathematical model of load flow problem using Gauss-Seidel method. if it is the generator bus then go to the next step otherwise go to step7. Step11: Stop the program and print the results.V j   Yij . Page 9 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Step10: Calculate the change in bus voltage of the repeat step mentioned above until all the bus voltages are calculated. Yij . Yij .V jk 1   Yij . the mathematical formulation of load flow model in complex form& a simple method of solving flow problems of small sized system using gauss seidal iterative algorithm. Step7: Check the reactive power of the generator bus within the given limit. in particular.6. Exercise: 4-BUS. 5-LINES POWER SYSTEM The systemdata for a load flow solution are given in table. Given α=1. Objectives: 1. Step9: Calculate the phase of the bus voltage on load bus. Determine the voltages at the end of first iteration by gauss seidal method. Step8: If the reactive power violates a limit then treat the bus as load bus.

1 V Remarks 1.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab Line 1-2 1-3 2-3 2-4 3-4 Bus specification: Admittance 2-j8 1-j4 0.5 0.3 0.3 Q 0.666-j2.4 0.664 1-j4 2-j8 Bus code P 1 2 3 4 0.06<0” Slack PQ PQ PQ Result: Page 10 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .2 0.

Step6:Obtain ∆  and ∆|Vp| from eqns calculated in step 6.n For PV buses .EE76 Power System Simulation Lab SOLUTION OF LOAD FLOW AND RELATED PROBLEMS USING NEWTON-RAPHSON METHOD Aim: To develop a software program to obtain real and reactive power flows. To procure the knowledge of steady state analysis of power flow in a power system.. To become proficient in the usage of software for practical problem solving in the areas of power system planning and operation. then an appropriate limit is imposed and ∆Qp is also calculated by subtracting the calculated value of Qp from the appropriate limit. Objectives: 1. | Yij | .n ∆Qpk= Qpsp-Qkpcal p=2. ∆Ppk=Ppsp-Pkpcal p=2. If the calculated value ofQp is within limits. cos( ij   j   i ) Reactive Power. If the calculated value of Qp is beyond the limits. 3.. but its limits are known. The bus under consideration is now treated as a load on(PQ) bus.modify the voltage magnitude and Page 11 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .3….  1 =00 Step3: Compute Pp and Qp for each load bus using formulae’s Step4: Compute the scheduled errors ∆Pp and ∆Qp for each load bus from the following relations. | Yij | . sin( ij   j   i ) Algorithm: Step1: Form the admittance(Ybus) matrix Step2: Assume initial values of bus voltages|Vp|0 and phase angles p for load buses and phase angles for PV buses. Pi | Vi |  | V j | .3…. To build mathematical model of load flow problem using Newton Raphson(NR) method and Fast Decoupled method. To become proficient in the usage of the software in solving problems using NewtonRaphson and Fast Decoupled load flow methods. the excat value of Qp is not specified.Normally we set the assumed bus voltage magnitude and its phase angle equal slack bus quantities|V1|0= 1. 2.bus voltage magnitude and angles by using N-R method. Qi   | Vi |  | V j | .0. Software Required: MATLAB Formulae: Real Power. Step5: Compute the elements of the jacobian matrix using the estimated |Vp| and p from step 2. only ∆Pp is calculated. 4.

35 and 0 p.04 p.25 Page 12 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Determine the set of load flow equations of the end of first iteration by using NR method. Start the next itration cycle at step2 with thse modified  p and |Vp| Step8: Continue until scheduled errors ∆Ppk and ∆Qpk for all load buses are within a specied tolerance. ∆Qpk<€. ∆Ppk <€.08+j0.u.65 MVAR 0 0 0.35 Bus code Impedance 1-2 0.18 Bus code 1 2 3 RESULT: Assumed voltage 1.modify the voltage magnitude and phase angle at all loads using jacobian matrix.24 1-3 0. Exercise: The load factor data for the sample power system are given below.06+j0. Where € denotes the tolerance level for load buses Step9: Calculate line flows and power at the slack bus exactly in the same manner as in the gauss seidal method. The voltage magnitude at bus 2 is maintained at 1.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab phase angle at all loads by th Step7: using the values of ∆  p and ∆|Vp| in step 6.06+j0 1+j0 1+j0 Generation MW MVAR 0 0 0.02+j0. 0≤Q2≤0.2 0 0 0 Load MW 0 0 0.04 p.u respectively. V2=1. ie. the maximum and minimum reactive power limits of the generator at bus 2 are 0.u.06 2-3 0.

EE76 Power System Simulation Lab SOLUTION OF LOAD FLOW AND RELATED PROBLEMS USING FAST DECOUPLED METHODS Aim: To develop a software program to obtain real and reactive power flows. solution has convergence and go to step 12 otherwise increase iteration count and go to step 10. Step6: Calculate the inverse of B’& B’’ matrices. Step 10: Calculate[∆ δ]=[B’]-1[∆P/|V|] [∆|V|]=[B’’]-1[∆Q/|V|] Step11:Update [ δ]& [|V|] for all buses except slack bus. Step5: Form B’’ matrix . from Ybus matrix obtained in step 4. Software Required: MATLAB 6. V2=1.FDLF at the end of first iteration. Step3:Form B matrix .[∆Q. To build mathematical model of load flow problem using Newton Raphson(NR) method and Fast Decoupled method. 2.35 Page 13 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering . To procure the knowledge of steady state analysis of power flow in a power system. | Yij | . To become proficient in the usage of software for practical problem solving in the areas of power system planning and operation. sin( ij   j   i ) Algorithm: Step1: Read the slack bus voltages.1 Formulae: Real Power. 0≤Q2≤0. Step7:Initialize the bus voltages. Step8:Calculate [∆P/|V|]. cos( ij   j   i ) Reactive Power. | Yij | .bus voltage magnitude and angles by using N-R method. 4.bus voltage magniyude and reactive power limits.|V|] Step9:If ∆P/|V| & ∆Q/|V| are less than or equal to tolerance limit.u. [ δ]new= [ δ]old+ [∆ δ] [|V|]new=[|V|]old+[∆|V|] Exercise: The load factor data for the sample power system are given below. 3. Objectives: 1. Taking bus 1 as slack bus . Determine the Voltage at various buses. Pi | Vi |  | V j | . Step2: Form the admittance(Ybus) matrix without line charging admittance and shunt admittance.04 p. real bus powers and reactive bus powers. To become proficient in the usage of the software in solving problems using NewtonRaphson and Fast Decoupled load flow methods. Qi   | Vi |  | V j | . Step4:Form Ybus matrix with double line charging admittance. from Ybus matrix obtained in step 2.

06 0.18 0.06+j0.06 j0.06+j0 1+j0 1+j0 Generation MW MVAR 0 0 0.2 0 0 0 Load MW 0 0 0 MVAR 0 0 0.02+j0.05 Assumed voltage Bus code 1 2 3 1.12 Half line charging admittance j0.05 j0.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab Bus code 1-2 1-3 2-3 Impedance 0.25 RESULT: Page 14 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .04+j0.

if yes go to step 5 else go to step 9.3&4 are load buses.1 Formulae: Fault current. Step5: Find the bus at which fault occurs I=I+1. Step4:Initialize count I=0. Step8:Check if I<number of buses. Exercise: 1)Consider a 4 bus system fault occurs on bus4. The leakage reactance of the Page 15 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Step6: Compute fault current at faulted bus and bus voltage at all buses.15 1-4 j10 2-3 j0.If=V/(Zf+Zpp) Fault voltage Vf =V(1-(Zbus/(Zf+Zpp)) Where Zf=Fault impedance Zpp= Line impedance Algorithm: Step1: Read line data.. To calculate the fault current. Step9:Print the results and stop the program.15 & 0. Step7: Compute all line and generator currents. Find fault current and fault voltage & line currents Bus code Impedance Half line charging admittance 1-2 j5 j0. fault impedance etc. Step3:Form [Zbus] by inverting the[Ybus] modified. Step2: Form the admittance[Ybus] matrix and calculate [Ybus]modi. post fault voltage and fault current through the branches for a three phase to ground fault in a small power system and also study the effect of neighboring system. The sub transient reactance’s of generator and motor are 0. To become familiar with modelling and analysis of power systems under faulted condition and to compute the fault level.machine data. Objectives: 1.15 2) A generator is connected through a transformer to a synchronous motor.1(bus1) 1-3 j0.1 j0. both symmetric and unsymmetrical.35 respectively. transformer data..EE76 Power System Simulation Lab SYMMETRICAL FAULT ANALYSIS Aim: To develop a software program to carry out simulation study of a symmetrical three phase short circuit on a given power system. Where 1&2 are generator buses .1(bus2) 2-4 j0. post-fault voltages and currents for different types of faults. Check the results using available software Software Required: MATLAB6. 2.

All the reactance are calculated on a common base. Find the sub transient current in p. A 3phase fault occurs at the terminals of the motor when the terminal voltage of the generator is is 0.1 p.u.9 p. The output current of generator is 1p.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab transformer is 0. RESULT: Page 16 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering . in the fault.8 pf leading. &0. generator & motor.u.u.u. Use the terminal voltage of generator as reference vector.

Vbc  Vb  Vc. To calculate the fault current. Va1  Ea1  Ia1 Z 1 . both symmetric and unsymmetrical. phase value or bas voltage=(KVb)1/3 iii)Double line to ground fault: i) Ia1  Ia1  Ia 0  Ea ii) Ia1   Z Z  Z1   2 0  Z Z   2 0  iii) Va1  Va 0  Ea  Ia1 Z 1 Page 17 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Vca  Vc  Va. Va 2  Va1 iv) Va  Va 0  Va1  Va 2 . Vc  Vb v) Vab  Va  Vb. To become familiar with modeling and analysis of power systems under faulted condition and to compute the fault level. KVb MVAb KVAb 2 iii) If actual  I b * I f iv) Ib  KVb 1 / 3 ii)Line to line fault Ea i) I a1  Z1  Z 2 ii) Ia  Ia 0  Ia1  Ia 2 iii) Va0  0. post fault voltage and fault current through the branches for a three phase to ground fault in a small power system and also study the effect of neighboring system. Check the results using available software. post-fault voltages and currents for different types of faults.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab UNSYMMETRICAL FAULT ANALYSIS Aim: To calculate the sub transient current in the faulted phase when unsymmetrical fault taken place. 2. Software Required: MATLAB Formulae: i) single line to ground fault: i) I a1  ii) I b  Ea Z1  Z 2  Z 3 . Objectives: 1. Vb  Va 0  a 2Va1  aVa 2 .

transformer data.10 p. Assume that the generator is unloaded and operating at rated terminal when the fault occurs.u the subtransient.35&0. fault impedance etc.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab iv) Ia 2   Va 2 Z1 Algorithm: Step1: Read line data. RESULT: Page 18 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Step4:Print the results and stop the program Exercises: 1) A salient pole generator without damber is rated 20MVA.8KV and has a reactance of 0. Step2: Find the line at which fault occurs.25 p. Neglect resistances. The negative zero sequence reactance are 0. The neutral of the generator is solidly grounded.u. 2) Find the sub transient currents &line to line voltages at the fault under sub transient conditions when a line to line fault between phases b&c occurs at the terminals of the generator. Neglect resistance. Step3: Compute fault current at faulted lines. Determine the sub transient current in the generator and the line to line voltages for the sub transient conditions when a single line to ground fault occurs at the generator terminals with generator operating at rated voltage.machine data. 13. Assume that the generator is unloaded and operating at rated terminal when the fault occurs. 3) Find the sub transient currents &line to line voltages at the fault under sub transient conditions when a double line to line fault between phases b&c occurs at the terminals of the generator. Neglect resistances.

Objectives: 1.. Determine transmission loss for a sample system. The characteristic equation is C=a+bP+cP 2 dC 1 dC 2 dCn = =…………… =  dP1 dP 2 dPn Optimum generation as a function of  and cost coefficient Let C1 = a1+b1P1+c1P12 C2 = a2+b2P2+c2P22 ….(6) Page 19 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .1 Theory: The constant  is called the incremental cost in Rs/MWhr. To understand the development of coordination equations (the mathematical model for ED) without and with losses and operating constraints and solution of these equations using direct and iterative methods (ii).. dCk =  = bk+2Pkck dPk …………. for the given load levels. Software required: MATLAB 6.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab ECONOMIC DISPATCH IN POWER SYSTEMS Aim: (i).…………... 2. To understand the basics of the problem of Economic Dispatch (ED) of optimally adjusting the generation schedules of thermal generating units to meet the system load which are required for unit commitment and economic operation of power systems.. for a given load cycle. Determine the economic generation schedule of each unit and incremental cost of received power for a sample power system. ………… Ck = ak+bkPk+ckPk2 dC 1 =  dP1 = b1+2P1c1 …………. (5) dC 2 =  = b2+2P2c2 dP 2 ………….

The co-ordination equation is PL dCk +  =  dPk PK ……..+ c1 C2 ck + 2(P1+P2+…. + 1 Ck = b1 b2 bk + +…..EE76 Power System Simulation Lab Rearranging  = 1 C1 + 1 C2 + ……. Ck = an+bnPn+cnPn2 ………………..(3) dCn =  = bn+2Pncn dPn Substituting (3) in (1).  2P B m m n mn Page 20 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .(1) The co-ordination equation cannot be solved directly.An iterative procedure including a method P dCn of successive approximation for the nth unit is given by +  L ……(2) dPn Pn C1 = a1+b1P1+c1P12 . bn + 2P ncn +  But PL PK mn PL PK =  k k   PmBmnPn  PK  m 1 n 1  Pn(2cn + 2  Bnn) =  -bn.(8) k   = n 1 b c n n k  2 P 1 cn T    b 2cn n 1 n Pn = Iterative Procedure: The incremental transmission loss depends on the power output from all the units.Pk)……… (7) k k  = c n 1 1 n = c n 1 bn n + 2PT ………….

initial iteration value Ng Step 2: Find the value assuming no losses using formula  = c n 1 bi i Ng  2 PD 1 i c n 1 Step 3: Calculate the power using Pi(k) = Ng  ( k )  bi 2(bi   (k )) Bii Step 4: Find losses using PL(k) = B i 1 ii Pi (k ) Page 21 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering 2 . Assume P2=0 2.2 P1B 21  2c 2  2 B 22  ………(4) For a system with 2 units of power output P1 and P2.  2 PmBmn Divide by  => Pn = 2cn  2Bnn 1Pn = bn . 1- P1 = ………(5) 1- P2 = ………(6) Steps: 1. B-Coefficients .EE76 Power System Simulation Lab  . Find P1 from eqn(5) 3. Repeat steps(3) and (4) one after the other Algorithm for iterative process:Step 1: Get the value of Ng. Substitute P2 in eqn(5) 5. cost coefficients.total demand.2 P 2 B12  2c1  2 B11  b2 . Find P2 from eqn(6) using the value of P1 from prevo\ious steps 4. tolerance limit.bn . 2 PmBmn  m n 2cn  2 Bnn  b1 .

Find if it is less than or equal to tolerance limit. Formulae used: Neglecting losses: k n 1 1. PL (k) =  ( k )  bi 2(bi   (k )) Bii Ng B i 1 ii Pi (k ) Ng 2 3.   (k ) =  P    i   i 1  Ng k Page 22 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .  .EE76 Power System Simulation Lab Ng Step 5: Find power mismatch using  .P(k) = PD + PL -  P (k ) i i 1 Step 6: Check the power mismatch P(k). If yes k ci  bi Bii  Pi  end the process else find the value of change in using .   i     k =  2(c P (k ) ci  bi Bii 2 i   (k ) Bii ) 5.P(k) = PD + PL -  P (k ) i i 1  P  4.  = c bn n k n 1  2 PT 1 n c 2. Pn =   bn 2cn Including Losses: 1. Pi(k ) = 2.    =  2(ci   (k ) Bii ) 2      (k ) = P (k )  P    i   i 1  Ng k Step 7: Find the value of new   (k+1) =  (k) +  (k) Step 8: Substitute  equal to new  value and repeat from step 2.

0005 0.1P22+27P2+500 Rs/hr F3=0.00889P12+10.0002 -0.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab 6.B. Assume base value=200MW.01 -0.C supply powers of 50 MW.100MW & 200 MW respectively. Result: Page 23 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering . (2) The power plant has the following characteristics F1=0.00741P22+10.333P1+200 Rs/hr F2=0.  (k+1) =  (k) +  (k) Exercises (1) The power plant has the following characteristics F1=0.5P1+800 Rs/hr F2=0.0002P1P2 using iterative techniques.001P12+0.0003 0.07P32+16P3+900 Rs/hr Determine the economic schedule to meet the demand of 150MW.0005 -0.u.05P12+21.0031 Three plants A.0002 -0. (3) Bmn = 0.0003 -0.0025 -0.833P2+240 Rs/hr Determine the economic schedule to meet the demand of 150MW and transmission loss PL=0. Calculate the transmission loss in the network in p. value and incremental transmission loss of the three plants.0002P22-2x0.

generator constant TP – power system time constant TG.gain of power KP – power system constant KT.1 FORMULA USED: 1)GG = 2)GT = KG 1+ STG KT 1+ STT 3)GP = KP 1+ STP 4)Kp=1/D Where D = damping coefficient Where GG – gain of generator GT .gain of turbine GP .generator time constant Page 24 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .EE76 Power System Simulation Lab LOAD FREQUENCY DYNAMICS OF SINGLE AND TWO AREA POWER SYSTEM AIM: To obtain the frequency response of single and two area power system using MATLAB SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 6.turbine constant KG.

EE76 Power System Simulation Lab SIMULINK RESULTS: Single Area Power System BLOCK DIAGRAM OUTPUT RESPONSE: : Page 25 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

EE76 Power System Simulation Lab SINGLE AREA POWER SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM: OUTPUT RESPONSE: Page 26 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

EE76 Power System Simulation Lab TWO AREA POWER SYSTEM: BLOCK DIAGRAM: OUTPUT RESPONSE (1): Page 27 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

EE76 Power System Simulation Lab OUTPUT RESPONSE (2): Result: Page 28 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

1 FORMULA USED: Case(i): REACTIVE TERMINATION:LINE TERMINATED BY INDICATOR: it(s ) = 2E f /L s(s+Zc/L) et(s) = 2Ef (s+Zc/L) (1-e –Zct/L) it(s) = 2E Zc (1-2e-Zct/L) ir = E Zc Case (ii):LINE TERMINATED BY CAPACITANCE: it(s) = 2E (1/S+I/ZcC ) Page 29 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .EE76 Power System Simulation Lab ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSIENTS IN POWER SYSTEMS AIM: To plot the electro magnetic transients in the power system using MATLAB SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 6.

Er=Et-Ef.0001.Et. n1=[2*Ef0].t).004.'r').if Case (v):SHORT CIRCUITED LINE: it = 2if er = -ef ir = if Where. plot(t. it .'b'). Zc=400. ir .transmitted voltage and current er . Page 30 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering . plot(t.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab Zc Case (iii):LINE TERMINATED BY A RESISTANCE EQUAL TO SURGE IMPEDANCE: it(s) = 2E ZcS ef(s) = E Case (iv):OPEN CIRCUITED LINE: et = 2ef er = ef ir = .00001:0. d1=[1 Zc/L]. Et=step(n1. ef . hold on.reflected voltage and current PROGRAM: %line terminated by inductor for voltage Ef=10000. t=0:0.d1.Er. if .forward voltage and current et . L=0.

Er=Et-Ef. hold on. C=0.Et.t). plot(t. Zc=400.d1.'b').'r'). d1=[1 1/(Zc*C)]. plot(t. Et=step(n1.000000009. Page 31 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering . n1=[2*Ef/(Zc*C)]. t=0:0.0001.00001:0.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab OUTPUT RESPONSE: %line terminated by capacitor for voltage Ef=10000.Er.

Zc=400.0001.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab OUTPUT RESPONSE: %line terminated by capacitor for current Ef=10000.Ir. n1=[2*Ef/Zc 0)].000000009. plot(t.It. If=Ef/Zc.'r').t). t=0:0.d1. d1=[1 1/(Zc*C)].00001:0.'b'). It=step(n1. hold on. C=0. Page 32 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering . plot(t. Ir=It-If.

plot(t. tf(n1. d1=[1 Zc/L].00001:0.d2.t). L=0. Ir=It-If. d2=[1 Zc/L. hold on. Zc=400.004. n1=[2*Ef0]. n2=[2*Ef/L].EE76 Power System Simulation Lab OUTPUT RESPONSE: %line terminated by inductor for current Ef=10000. It=step(n2. Page 33 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .'r').d1) t=0:0.It.0001. If=Ef/Zc.

'b'). OUTPUT RESPONSE: RESULT: Page 34 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .EE76 Power System Simulation Lab plot(t.Ir.

Familiarity with linearised swing equation and characteristic equation and its roots. Small-signal Stability Analysis: 7. negative and zero damping. double-circuit transmission line connected to infinite bus: Transient Stability Analysis 1. 5.e whether the system will return to the pre-disturbance steady-state. Hand calculation of the initial conditions necessary for the classical model of the synchronous machine. Force-free time response for an initial condition using the available software. Power system stability . 6.Definition [2] Page 35 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering . THEORETICAL BACK GROUND Stability: Preamble [1] The stability of systems in general. It is only when the steady-state is disturbed. The pre-disturbance steady-state plays an important part in determining whether the system will return to this state after a disturbance.U Power lab or equivalent Exercises: For a typical power system comprising a generating. then the stability of the system is inquired. damped frequency of oscillation in Hz. i.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab TRANSIENT AND SMALL SIGNAL STABILITY ANALYSIS OF SINGLE-MACHINE INFINITE BUS SYSTEM AIM: To become familiar with various aspects of the transient and small signal stability analysis of Single-Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) system. Simulation of typical disturbance sequence: fault application. Determination of critical clearing angle and time for the above fault sequence through trial and error method using the software and checking with the hand computed value. 3. SOFTWARE REQUIRED: A. 9. 2. Determination of the steady-state and transient stability margins. 4. Once equilibrium is established. damping ratio and undamped natural frequency. stability will not be a major concern if the system is free from disturbance or if the system is in steady-state. step-up transformer. Effect of positive. Repetition of the above for different fault locations and assessing the fault severity with respect to the location of fault. is intimately connected with maintenance of equilibrium in the presence of opposing forces. Hand computation of critical clearing angle and time for the fault using equal area criterion. fault clearance by opening of one circuit using the software available and checking stability by plotting the swing curve. 8.

The former involves dynamics of generator rotor angles under input-output power balance. 2. The collapse of voltage can occur without accompanying loss of synchronism. The power imbalance triggers the dynamics which results in deviation in generator rotor speeds. Manifestation of power system instability Power system instability manifests as loss of synchronism between rotating inertias connected to the system and /or unacceptably low voltage. An infinite bus is a source of constant frequency and voltage.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab It is the property of the system that enables it to remain in a state of operating equilibrium under normal operating conditions and to regain an acceptable state of equilibrium after being subjected to a disturbance. the protection system may act to isolate that portion of the system where the deviations are excessive. bus voltages and possibly other variables from their nominal values. Generator voltages are unaffected by machine speed variations. Both situations. if countermeasures are not active. A simplified equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 3. Direct current offsets and harmonics are neglected. Causes. 1. nature and effects of disturbances The types of disturbances outlined earlier can further be subdivided as:  Natural causes such as a tornado that can cause a flashover across insulators  Inadvertent causes such as maloperation of protection  Intended actions such as opening/closing of circuit breakers by the operator All disturbances involve one or more phase conductors and/or ground and always result in imbalance between mechanical power of the turbine and output electrical power of the generator. Only synchronous frequency currents and voltages are considered in the machine and the network. If the disturbance is not removed. 2. can lead to total system black out or total voltage collapse.3. Modeling For Transient Stability Consider a single machine connected to an infinite bus shown in Fig. Fig 1. Basic assumptions made in stability studies 1. Symmetrical components are used in the representation of unbalanced faults. Single machine connected to infinite bus system The equivalent circuit with the generator represented by classical model and all resistances neglected is shown in fig. Page 36 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Equivalent circuit Fig.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab Fig 2. Simplified Equivalent Circuit Following expressions are valid for figures 2 and 3: __________________(1) Page 37 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .3.

2 with parallel combination of X1 and X2 replaced by X3 is shown in Fig.4 . the rotor will accelerate or decelerate with respect to synchronously rotating axis and the relative motion begins. Et = Et <0o.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab Computation of Initial Conditions: Assume that the generator output power (Pe. the computation of initial conditions consists of (2) (3) (4) (4. 4.a) Page 38 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Equivalent circuit with parallel combination of X1 and X2 replaced by X3 Assume Et as reference. The equation describing the (5. The equivalent circuit shown in Fig.Qe) and the terminal voltage magnitude Et are specified.a) following steps: (5) Swing Equation During any disturbance in the system. Fig.e. i.

The following assumptions are made in the derivation of swing equation: (i) Machine represented by classical model (ii) Controllers are not considered (iii) Loads are constants (iv) Voltage and currents are sinusoids The fundamental equation of motion of the rotor of the synchronous machine is given by (6) Equation (6) can be rewritten as two first order equations in state variable form: (7) (8) Page 39 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .EE76 Power System Simulation Lab relative motion is called as swing equation.

are illustrated taking a simple example of a first order equation in a single variable: (9) Page 40 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .Kutta methods. There are several techniques available and two of them.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab Numerical Integration Techniques The differential equations (8) are to be solved using numerical techniques. modified Euler and fourth order Runge.

By varying the clearing time around this point in small steps till you find the clearing time which is just critical. The power-angle relationship is given by equation (1) and the power angle curves for various operating condition is given in Fig. The clearing time margin for a fault may be defined as Clearing time margin = critical clearing time – clearing time specified Stability Margin in MW Assume that the machine connected to infinite bus delivers Po MW (Fig. the critical clearing time for a system is found out by trial and error method as explained. Page 41 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Consider the system shown in Fig. Start with a fault clearing time which is stable.1) and a fault is specified at the end of line no. and its model in Fig 5. For a given load condition and specified fault. 5. Increase the clearing time in steps till instability results. Nonetheless. Suppose the MW output of the machine and the load power are increased in steps and stability is checked for each step of load with the same fault clearing time. Let the system remain stable up to a maximum loading of say PLmax and a small increase in load beyond PLmax causes instability. Then the MW stability margin is defined as Ps = PLmax – Po Critical Clearing Time and Clearing Angle from Equal Area Criterion This method is suitable for hand computations and is applicable only to single machine connected to infinite bus system.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab Determination of Critical Clearing Time Critical clearing time is the maximum allowable time between the occurrence of a fault and clearing of the fault for which the system will be stable.07 seconds. 1 with a clearing time tc = 0.3. it gives a clear physical picture of the dynamics of rotor motion when subjected to a disturbance. This will give you the coarse value of the critical clearing time. The trial value of clearing time just before instability was detected is the critical clearing time.

Consider a three phase fault at location F on line 2 as shown in fig 1. The rotor angle will oscillate back and forth around the point of intersection of the straight line representing Pm and curve B at its natural frequency such that area A1 = area A2. The P. When the fault occurs. but  continues to increase until the kinetic energy gained during the period of acceleration (Area A1) is transferred to the system. Fig. the rotor accelerates until the operating point reaches c where the fault is cleared at 1. the rotor decelerates.The fault is cleared by opening the circuit breakers at both ends of the line. This is known as equal area criterion. Determination of critical clearing angle using equal area criterion Page 42 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering . 6. Power angle curve ` The steady state operating condition is given by point a and the corresponding rotor angle is o. ? plots for three network conditions are shown in fig 5.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab ? Fig. Now Pe>Pm. The operating point moves from e to f such that area A2 is equal to A1. The operation shifts to e. Since Pm > Pe. the operating point changes from a to b. 5.

The angle cr for which A1 = A2 is called critical clearing angle. An expression for critical clearing angle from Fig. Hence (12) Linearising (12) about an initial operating condition at  = o (13) (13.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab Critical Clearing Angle and Time With delayed fault clearing as shown in Fig.u. Any further delay in clearing causes area A2 above Pm to be less than A1 resulting in loss of synchronism.u.6 can be derived as follows: Applying equal area criterion. the air-gap torque is equal to air-gap power.a) Page 43 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering . the area A2 just equals to A1 at clearing angle equal to cr. is (11) If speed is expressed in p. Modelling For Small Signal Stability The electrical power output of the generator in p.6.

EE76 Power System Simulation Lab is called the synchronising torque co-efficient. The state equations (8) are rewritten as (14) (15) Linearising equation (14) and using equation (13.(17) is showb in fig(9) 7 Block Diagram for Equation (17) Taking Laplace transform of the above equation Page 44 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .a) and (15) we get (16) (17) The block diagram representation of Eq.

EE76 Power System Simulation Lab (18) (19) (20) (21) Page 45 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

EE76 Power System Simulation Lab (22) (23) EXERCISES 1. 24kV. and 60HZ units’ supplies power to an infinite bus through a transformer and two transmission lines (refer Fig 8) Page 46 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering . A power system comprising a thermal generating plant with four 555 MVA.

The fault is cleared in 0. Find the critical clearing angle and time using equal angle criterion.u.8 Single Machine Infinite Bus System The data for the system in per unit on a base of 2220 MVA. p.5MW/MVA. line 2 X=0. Result: Page 47 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .T bus occurring at t=0s. Et=1p. transformer X=0.9p. Case (1) It is proposed to examine the transient stability of the system for a 3 phase to ground fault at the end of the line 2 near H.9lag.15p.93p.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab Fig. line1 X=0. H=3.u. Plant operating conditions P=0.07s by simultaneous opening of two CBs at the end of the both lines 2.u.f=0. Case (2) Find the initial condition necessary for a classical model of the m/c for the above prefault operating conditions.u.3p.5p.u. 24 kV is given below: Xd’=0.u.

-Using the pre-fault bus voltages. INTRODUCTION Multi-machine equations can be written similar to the one-machine system connected to the infinite bus.3 7. all loads are converted to equivalent admittances to ground and are assumed to remain constant. -The governor’s action are neglected and the input powers are assumed to remain constant during the entire period of simulation.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab TRANSIENT STABILITY ANALYSIS OF MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEMS Aim : To become familiar with modelling aspects of synchronous machines and network. Page 48 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Determination of transient stability margins.2 7. stateof-the-art algorithm for simplified transient stability simulation.5 Simulation of typical disturbance sequence: fault application. Simulation of loss of generation with and without governor. This representation neglects the effect of saliency and assumes constant flux linkages. system behaviour when subjected to large disturbances in the presence of synchronous machine controllers and to become proficient in the usage of the software to tackle real life problems encountered in the areas of power system planning and operation. -Damping or asynchronous powers are ignored. fault clearance by opening of a line using the software available and assessing stability with and without controllers. Exercises: For typical multi-machine power system: 7.1 7. Simulation of full load rejection with and without governor.4 7. In order to reduce the complexity of the transient stability analysis. similar simplifying assumptions are made as follows. Software Required: Math lab or AU Power lab THECHNICAL BACKGROUND: 1. Determination of critical clearing angle and time for the above fault sequence through trial and error method using the software. -Each synchronous machine is represented by a constant voltage source behind the direct axis transient reactance.

1. m buses are added to the n bus power system network. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF MULTIMACHINE TRANSIENT STABILITY ANALYSIS The first step in the transient stability analysis is to solve the initial load flow and to determine the initial bus voltage magnitudes and phase angles. Page 49 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Where m= is the number of generators Vi. -Machines belonging to the same station swing together and are said to be coherent. all load are converted to equivalent admittances by using the relation To include voltages behind transient reactance. All unknown values are determined from the initial power flow solution.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab -The mechanical rotor angle of each machine coincides with the angle of the voltage behind the machine reactance. The equivalent network with all load converted to admittances is shown in Fig. The generator armature resistances are usually neglected and the voltages behind the transient reactance are then obtained. 2. The machine currents prior to disturbance are calculated from. A group of coherent machines is represented by one equivalent machine. Next.is the terminal voltage of the ith generator Pi and Qi are the generator real and reactive powers.

is Or Where Ibus is the vector of the injected bus currents Vbus is the vector of bus voltages measured from the reference node... the buses behind the transient reactances. i. .e. . Page 50 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .EE76 Power System Simulation Lab Nodes n+1. The reference is that additional nodes are added to include the machine voltages behind transient reactances. . n+2. The diagonal elements of the bus admittance matrix are the sum of admittances connected to it. Also. n+m are the internal machine buses. and the off-diagonal elements are equal to the negative of the admittance between the nodes. diagonal elements are modified to include the load admittances. The node voltage equation with node 0 as reference for this network.

Then.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab To simplify the analysis. becomes The voltage vector Vn may be eliminated by substitution as follows. The generator currents are denoted by the vector Im and the generator and load voltages are represented by the vector E’ m and Vn. The electrical power output of each machine can now be expressed in terms of the machine’s internal voltages Page 51 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering . the bus admittance matrix in (4) is partitioned such that the n buses to be removed are represented in the upper n rows. The reduced bus admittance matrix has the dimensions (m x m). Equation (4). To eliminate the load buses. in terms of sub matrices. where m is the number of generators. respectively. all nodes other than the generator internal nodes are eliminated using Kron reduction formula . Since no current enters or leaves the load buses. currents in the n rows are zero.

and we have The classical transient stability study is based on the application of a three-phase fault. This is simulated by removing the kth row and column from the prefault bus admittance matrix. The electrical power of the ith generator in terms of the new reduced bus admittance matrices are obtained from (14). i.e. Prior to disturbance. If HGi is the inertia constant of machine I expressed on the machine rated MVA SGi..EE76 Power System Simulation Lab Expressing voltages and admittances in polar form. I and substituting for Ii in (12). result in The above equation is the same as the power flow equation. A solid three-phase fault at bus k in the network results in Vk = 0. there is equilibrium between the mechanical power input and the electrical power output. The swing equation with damping neglected. The generator excitation voltages during the fault and postfault modes are assumed to remain constant. then Hi is given by Page 52 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering . The new bus admittance matrix is reduced by eliminating all nodes except the internal generator nodes. for machine i becomes Where Yij are the elements of the faulted reduced bus admittance matrix Hi is the inertia constant of machine I expressed on the common MVA base SB.

When the fault is cleared. the bus admittance matrix is recomputed to reflect the change in the networks. If the angle differences do not increase. which may involve the removal of the faulty line. until the plots reveal a definite trend as to stability or instability. Usually the slack generator is selected as the reference machines are plotted. the simulation is continued to determine the system stability. If any of the angle differences increase indefinitely.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab Showing the electrical power of the ith generator by Pef and transforming (16) into state variable mode yields In transient stability analysis problem. Next the post-fault reduced bus admittance matrix is evaluated and the post-fault electrical power of the ith generator shown by Ppf i is readily determined from (14). Page 53 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering . the solution is carried out for two swings to show that the second swing is not greater than the first one. Usually. we have two state equations for each generator. the system is unstable. the system is stable. Using the post-fault power Ppf i.

EE76 Power System Simulation Lab Result: Page 54 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

29. How the reactive power of generator is controlled? 24. What is impedance & reactance? 6. What is the need for load flow study? 15. When the generator buses treated as load bus? 21. Define per unit value. What is meant by positive negative & zero sequence impedance? 13. 28. What is a bus? 7. What do you mean by a flat voltage start? 20. What is the need for slag bus? 19. How the faults are classified? 25. 3. Define steady state & transient stability. 30. What is bus impedance matrix? 10. What is the need for short circuit studies? 27. Write the symmetrical components of 3 phase system? 12.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab Viva questions 1. What are the information that are obtained from a load flow study? 17. What are the components of power system? 2. What are the different types of buses in a power system? 16. Define stability. What is bus admittance matrix? 9. List the symmetrical & unsymmetrical faults? 26. What is swing bus? 18. Name the diagonal & off diagonal elements of bus admittance matrix? 8. What are the advantages of per unit computations? 5. What is infinite bus? 23. What is power flow study or load flow study? 14. Name the various unsymmetrical faults in a power system. What is jacobian matrix? 22. Page 55 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Define transient & sub transient reactance. What are the methods available for forming bus admittance matrix? 11. What is the need for base values? 4.

35. Define power angle. Explain unit commitment. Explain steady state stability limit 32.EE76 Power System Simulation Lab 31. 37. Define swing curve. 36. How stability studies are classified. What are they? 34. Define equal area criterion. Explain participation factor. 33. Explain transient stability limit. What is AGC? 38. Page 56 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering . 39. What is economic dispatch? 40.

EE76 Power System Simulation Lab Page 57 of 57 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

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