Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Introduction to the Finite Element Method
Introductory Course on Multiphysics Modelling
Tomasz G. Zieliński
Institute of Fundamental Technological Research
Warsaw • Poland
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Outline
1
Introduction
Motivation and general concepts
Major steps of finite element analysis
2
Strong and weak forms
Model problem
Boundary-value problem and the strong form
The weak form
Associated variational problem
3
Galerkin method
Discrete (approximated) problem
System of algebraic equations
4
Finite element model
Discretization and (linear) shape functions
Lagrange interpolation functions
Finite element system of algebraic equations
Imposition of the essential boundary conditions
Results of analytical and FE solutions
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Outline
1
Introduction
Motivation and general concepts
Major steps of finite element analysis
2
Strong and weak forms
Model problem
Boundary-value problem and the strong form
The weak form
Associated variational problem
3
Galerkin method
Discrete (approximated) problem
System of algebraic equations
4
Finite element model
Discretization and (linear) shape functions
Lagrange interpolation functions
Finite element system of algebraic equations
Imposition of the essential boundary conditions
Results of analytical and FE solutions
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Outline
1
Introduction
Motivation and general concepts
Major steps of finite element analysis
2
Strong and weak forms
Model problem
Boundary-value problem and the strong form
The weak form
Associated variational problem
3
Galerkin method
Discrete (approximated) problem
System of algebraic equations
4
Finite element model
Discretization and (linear) shape functions
Lagrange interpolation functions
Finite element system of algebraic equations
Imposition of the essential boundary conditions
Results of analytical and FE solutions
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Outline
1
Introduction
Motivation and general concepts
Major steps of finite element analysis
2
Strong and weak forms
Model problem
Boundary-value problem and the strong form
The weak form
Associated variational problem
3
Galerkin method
Discrete (approximated) problem
System of algebraic equations
4
Finite element model
Discretization and (linear) shape functions
Lagrange interpolation functions
Finite element system of algebraic equations
Imposition of the essential boundary conditions
Results of analytical and FE solutions
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Outline
1
Introduction
Motivation and general concepts
Major steps of finite element analysis
2
Strong and weak forms
Model problem
Boundary-value problem and the strong form
The weak form
Associated variational problem
3
Galerkin method
Discrete (approximated) problem
System of algebraic equations
4
Finite element model
Discretization and (linear) shape functions
Lagrange interpolation functions
Finite element system of algebraic equations
Imposition of the essential boundary conditions
Results of analytical and FE solutions
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Motivation and general concepts
The Finite Element Method (FEM) is:
[generally speaking] a powerful computational technique for the
solution of differential and integral equations that arise in various
fields of engineering and applied sciences;
[mathematically] a generalization of the classical variational (i.e., Ritz)
and weighted-residual (e.g., Galerkin, least-squares, etc.) methods.
Motivation
Most of the real problems:
are defined on domains that are geometrically complex,
may have different boundary conditions on different portions of the
boundary.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Motivation and general concepts
The Finite Element Method (FEM) is:
[generally speaking] a powerful computational technique for the
solution of differential and integral equations that arise in various
fields of engineering and applied sciences;
[mathematically] a generalization of the classical variational (i.e., Ritz)
and weighted-residual (e.g., Galerkin, least-squares, etc.) methods.
Motivation
Most of the real problems:
are defined on domains that are geometrically complex,
may have different boundary conditions on different portions of the
boundary.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Motivation and general concepts
The Finite Element Method (FEM) is:
[generally speaking] a powerful computational technique for the
solution of differential and integral equations that arise in various
fields of engineering and applied sciences;
[mathematically] a generalization of the classical variational (i.e., Ritz)
and weighted-residual (e.g., Galerkin, least-squares, etc.) methods.
Motivation
Most of the real problems:
are defined on domains that are geometrically complex,
may have different boundary conditions on different portions of the
boundary.
Therefore, it is usually impossible (or difficult):
1
to find a solution analytically (so one must resort to approximate
methods),
2
to generate approximation functions required in the traditional
variational methods.
An answer to these problems is a finite-element approach.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Motivation and general concepts
Main concept of FEM
A given domain can be viewed as an assemblage of simple geometric
shapes, called finite elements, for which it is possible to systematically
generate the approximation functions.
Remarks:
The approximation functions are also called shape functions or
interpolation functions since they are often constructed using ideas
from interpolation theory.
The finite element method is a piecewise (or element-wise)
application of the variational and weighted-residual methods.
For a given BVP, it is possible to develop different finite element
approximations (or finite element models), depending on the
choice of a particular variational and weighted-residual formulation.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Motivation and general concepts
Main concept of FEM
A given domain can be viewed as an assemblage of simple geometric
shapes, called finite elements, for which it is possible to systematically
generate the approximation functions.
Remarks:
The approximation functions are also called shape functions or
interpolation functions since they are often constructed using ideas
from interpolation theory.
The finite element method is a piecewise (or element-wise)
application of the variational and weighted-residual methods.
For a given BVP, it is possible to develop different finite element
approximations (or finite element models), depending on the
choice of a particular variational and weighted-residual formulation.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Major steps of finite element analysis
1
Discretization of the domain into a set of finite elements (mesh
generation).
2
Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the differential
equation over a typical finite element (subdomain).
3
Development of the finite element model of the problem using
its weighted-integral or weak form. The finite element model
consists of a set of algebraic equations among the unknown
parameters (degrees of freedom) of the element.
4
Assembly of finite elements to obtain the global system (i.e., for
the total problem) of algebraic equations – for the unknown global
degrees of freedom.
5
Imposition of essential boundary conditions.
6
Solution of the system of algebraic equations to find
(approximate) values in the global degrees of freedom.
7
Post-computation of solution and quantities of interest.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Major steps of finite element analysis
1
Discretization of the domain into a set of finite elements (mesh
generation).
2
Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the differential
equation over a typical finite element (subdomain).
3
Development of the finite element model of the problem using
its weighted-integral or weak form. The finite element model
consists of a set of algebraic equations among the unknown
parameters (degrees of freedom) of the element.
4
Assembly of finite elements to obtain the global system (i.e., for
the total problem) of algebraic equations – for the unknown global
degrees of freedom.
5
Imposition of essential boundary conditions.
6
Solution of the system of algebraic equations to find
(approximate) values in the global degrees of freedom.
7
Post-computation of solution and quantities of interest.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Major steps of finite element analysis
1
Discretization of the domain into a set of finite elements (mesh
generation).
2
Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the differential
equation over a typical finite element (subdomain).
3
Development of the finite element model of the problem using
its weighted-integral or weak form. The finite element model
consists of a set of algebraic equations among the unknown
parameters (degrees of freedom) of the element.
4
Assembly of finite elements to obtain the global system (i.e., for
the total problem) of algebraic equations – for the unknown global
degrees of freedom.
5
Imposition of essential boundary conditions.
6
Solution of the system of algebraic equations to find
(approximate) values in the global degrees of freedom.
7
Post-computation of solution and quantities of interest.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Major steps of finite element analysis
1
Discretization of the domain into a set of finite elements (mesh
generation).
2
Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the differential
equation over a typical finite element (subdomain).
3
Development of the finite element model of the problem using
its weighted-integral or weak form. The finite element model
consists of a set of algebraic equations among the unknown
parameters (degrees of freedom) of the element.
4
Assembly of finite elements to obtain the global system (i.e., for
the total problem) of algebraic equations – for the unknown global
degrees of freedom.
5
Imposition of essential boundary conditions.
6
Solution of the system of algebraic equations to find
(approximate) values in the global degrees of freedom.
7
Post-computation of solution and quantities of interest.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Major steps of finite element analysis
1
Discretization of the domain into a set of finite elements (mesh
generation).
2
Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the differential
equation over a typical finite element (subdomain).
3
Development of the finite element model of the problem using
its weighted-integral or weak form. The finite element model
consists of a set of algebraic equations among the unknown
parameters (degrees of freedom) of the element.
4
Assembly of finite elements to obtain the global system (i.e., for
the total problem) of algebraic equations – for the unknown global
degrees of freedom.
5
Imposition of essential boundary conditions.
6
Solution of the system of algebraic equations to find
(approximate) values in the global degrees of freedom.
7
Post-computation of solution and quantities of interest.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Major steps of finite element analysis
1
Discretization of the domain into a set of finite elements (mesh
generation).
2
Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the differential
equation over a typical finite element (subdomain).
3
Development of the finite element model of the problem using
its weighted-integral or weak form. The finite element model
consists of a set of algebraic equations among the unknown
parameters (degrees of freedom) of the element.
4
Assembly of finite elements to obtain the global system (i.e., for
the total problem) of algebraic equations – for the unknown global
degrees of freedom.
5
Imposition of essential boundary conditions.
6
Solution of the system of algebraic equations to find
(approximate) values in the global degrees of freedom.
7
Post-computation of solution and quantities of interest.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Major steps of finite element analysis
1
Discretization of the domain into a set of finite elements (mesh
generation).
2
Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the differential
equation over a typical finite element (subdomain).
3
Development of the finite element model of the problem using
its weighted-integral or weak form. The finite element model
consists of a set of algebraic equations among the unknown
parameters (degrees of freedom) of the element.
4
Assembly of finite elements to obtain the global system (i.e., for
the total problem) of algebraic equations – for the unknown global
degrees of freedom.
5
Imposition of essential boundary conditions.
6
Solution of the system of algebraic equations to find
(approximate) values in the global degrees of freedom.
7
Post-computation of solution and quantities of interest.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Outline
1
Introduction
Motivation and general concepts
Major steps of finite element analysis
2
Strong and weak forms
Model problem
Boundary-value problem and the strong form
The weak form
Associated variational problem
3
Galerkin method
Discrete (approximated) problem
System of algebraic equations
4
Finite element model
Discretization and (linear) shape functions
Lagrange interpolation functions
Finite element system of algebraic equations
Imposition of the essential boundary conditions
Results of analytical and FE solutions
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Model problem
(O)DE: −
d
dx
_
α(x)
du(x)
dx
_
+γ(x) u(x) =f (x) for x ∈ (a, b)
α(x), γ(x), f (x) are the known data of the problem: the first two
quantities result from the material properties and geometry of the
problem whereas the third one depends on source or loads,
u(x) is the solution to be determined; it is also called dependent
variable of the problem (with x being the independent variable).
BCs:
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
q(a) n
x
(a) =
_
−α(a)
du
dx
(a) = ˆ q, (Neumann b.c.)
u(b) = ˆ u. (Dirichlet b.c.)
Moreover,
q(x) ≡α(x)
du(x)
dx
is the so-called secondary variable specified on
the boundary by the Neumann boundary condition also known as
the second kind or natural boundary condition,
u(x) is the primary variable specified on the boundary by the
Dirichlet boundary condition also known as the first kind or
essential boundary condition.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Model problem
(O)DE: −
d
dx
_
α(x)
du(x)
dx
_
+γ(x) u(x) =f (x) for x ∈ (a, b)
α(x), γ(x), f (x) are the known data of the problem,
u(x) is the solution to be determined; it is also called dependent
variable of the problem (with x being the independent variable).
The domain of this 1D problem is an interval (a, b), and the points x =a
and x =b are the boundary points where boundary conditions are
imposed, e.g.,
BCs:
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
q(a) n
x
(a) =
_
−α(a)
du
dx
(a) = ˆ q, (Neumann b.c.)
u(b) = ˆ u. (Dirichlet b.c.)
ˆ q and ˆ u are the given boundary values,
n
x
is the component of the outward unit vector normal to the
boundary. In the 1D case there is only one component and:
n
x
(a) =−1, n
x
(b) =+1.
Moreover,
q(x) ≡α(x)
du(x)
dx
is the so-called secondary variable specified on
the boundary by the Neumann boundary condition also known as
the second kind or natural boundary condition,
u(x) is the primary variable specified on the boundary by the
Dirichlet boundary condition also known as the first kind or
essential boundary condition.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Model problem
(O)DE: −
d
dx
_
α(x)
du(x)
dx
_
+γ(x) u(x) =f (x) for x ∈ (a, b)
BCs:
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
q(a) n
x
(a) =
_
−α(a)
du
dx
(a) = ˆ q, (Neumann b.c.)
u(b) = ˆ u. (Dirichlet b.c.)
Moreover,
q(x) ≡α(x)
du(x)
dx
is the so-called secondary variable specified on
the boundary by the Neumann boundary condition also known as
the second kind or natural boundary condition,
u(x) is the primary variable specified on the boundary by the
Dirichlet boundary condition also known as the first kind or
essential boundary condition.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Examples of different physical problems
u (primary var.) α (material data) f (source, load) q (secondary var.)
Heat transfer
temperature thermal conductance heat generation heat
Flow through porous medium
fluid-head permeability infiltration source
Flow through pipes
pressure pipe resistance 0 source
Flow of viscous fluids
velocity viscosity pressure gradient shear stress
Elastic cables
displacement tension transversal force point force
Elastic bars
displacement axial stiffness axial force point force
Torsion of bars
angle of twist shear stiffness 0 torque
Electrostatics
electric potential dielectric constant charge density electric flux
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Boundary-value problem and the strong form
Ω=(a, b) be an open set (an open interval in case of 1D problems);
Γ be the boundary of Ω, that is, Γ={a, b};
Γ=Γ
q
∪Γ
u
where, e.g., Γ
q
={a} and Γ
u
={b} are disjoint parts of the
boundary (i.e., Γ
q
∩Γ
u
=) relating to the Neumann and Dirichlet
boundary conditions, respectively;
(the data of the problem): f : Ω→ℜ, α: Ω→ℜ, γ : Ω→ℜ;
(the values prescribed on the boundary): ˆ q : Γ
q
→ℜ, ˆ u : Γ
u
→ℜ.
Boundary-value problem (BVP):
Find u =? satisfying
differential eq.: −
_
αu

_

+γu =f in Ω=(a, b) ,
Neumann b.c.: αu

n
x
= ˆ q on Γ
q
={a} ,
Dirichlet b.c.: u = ˆ u on Γ
u
={b} .
Definition (Strong form)
The classical strong form of a boundary-value problem consists of:
the differential equation of the problem,
the Neumann boundary conditions, i.e., the natural conditions
imposed on the secondary dependent variable (which involves the
first derivative of the dependent variable).
The Dirichlet (essential) boundary conditions must be satisfied a priori.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Boundary-value problem and the strong form
Ω=(a, b) be an open set (an open interval in case of 1D problems);
Γ be the boundary of Ω, that is, Γ={a, b};
Γ=Γ
q
∪Γ
u
where, e.g., Γ
q
={a} and Γ
u
={b} are disjoint parts of the
boundary (i.e., Γ
q
∩Γ
u
=) relating to the Neumann and Dirichlet
boundary conditions, respectively;
(the data of the problem): f : Ω→ℜ, α: Ω→ℜ, γ : Ω→ℜ;
(the values prescribed on the boundary): ˆ q : Γ
q
→ℜ, ˆ u : Γ
u
→ℜ.
Boundary-value problem (BVP):
Find u =? satisfying
differential eq.: −
_
αu

_

+γu =f in Ω=(a, b) ,
Neumann b.c.: αu

n
x
= ˆ q on Γ
q
={a} ,
Dirichlet b.c.: u = ˆ u on Γ
u
={b} .
Definition (Strong form)
The classical strong form of a boundary-value problem consists of:
the differential equation of the problem,
the Neumann boundary conditions, i.e., the natural conditions
imposed on the secondary dependent variable (which involves the
first derivative of the dependent variable).
The Dirichlet (essential) boundary conditions must be satisfied a priori.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Boundary-value problem and the strong form
Boundary-value problem (BVP):
Find u =? satisfying
differential eq.: −
_
αu

_

+γu =f in Ω=(a, b) ,
Neumann b.c.: αu

n
x
= ˆ q on Γ
q
={a} ,
Dirichlet b.c.: u = ˆ u on Γ
u
={b} .
Definition (Strong form)
The classical strong form of a boundary-value problem consists of:
the differential equation of the problem,
the Neumann boundary conditions, i.e., the natural conditions
imposed on the secondary dependent variable (which involves the
first derivative of the dependent variable).
The Dirichlet (essential) boundary conditions must be satisfied a priori.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
The weak form
Derivation and the equivalence to the strong form
1
Write the weighted-residual statement for the domain equation
b
_
a
_

_
αu

_

+γu−f
_
δudx =0.
Here:
δu (the weighting function) belongs to (the space of) test functions,
u (the solution) belongs to (the space of) trial functions.
2
Trade differentiation from u to δu using integration by parts
3
Use the Neumann boundary condition (αu

n
x
= ˆ q on Γ
q
) and the
property of test function (δu =0 on Γ
u
) for the boundary term
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
The weak form
Derivation and the equivalence to the strong form
1
Write the weighted-residual statement for the domain equation
b
_
a
_

_
αu

_

+γu−f
_
δudx =0.
Here:
δu (the weighting function) belongs to (the space of) test functions,
u (the solution) belongs to (the space of) trial functions.
2
Trade differentiation from u to δu using integration by parts
_
−αu

δu
_
b
a
+
b
_
a
_
αu

δu

+γuδu−f δu
_
dx =0
where the boundary term may be written as
_
−αu

δu
_
b
a
=
_
−αu

δu
_
x=b

_
−αu

δu
_
x=a
=
_
−αu

n
x
δu
_
x=b
+
_
−αu

n
x
δu
_
x=a
=
_
−αu

n
x
δu
_
x={a,b}
.
The integration by parts weakens the differentiability requirement
for the trial functions u (i.e., for the solution).
3
Use the Neumann boundary condition (αu

n
x
= ˆ q on Γ
q
) and the
property of test function (δu =0 on Γ
u
) for the boundary term
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
The weak form
Derivation and the equivalence to the strong form
1
Write the weighted-residual statement for the domain equation
b
_
a
_

_
αu

_

+γu−f
_
δudx =0.
2
Trade differentiation from u to δu using integration by parts
_
−αu

δu
_
b
a
+
b
_
a
_
αu

δu

+γuδu−f δu
_
dx =0
The integration by parts weakens the differentiability requirement
for the trial functions u (i.e., for the solution).
3
Use the Neumann boundary condition (αu

n
x
= ˆ q on Γ
q
) and the
property of test function (δu =0 on Γ
u
) for the boundary term
_
−αu

n
x
δu
_
x={a,b}
=
_
−αu

n
x
. ¸¸ .
ˆ q
δu
_
x=a
+
_
−αu

n
x
δu
.¸¸.
0
_
x=b
=
_
−ˆ qδu
_
x=a
.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
The weak form
Derivation and the equivalence to the strong form
1
Write the weighted-residual statement for the domain equation
2
Trade differentiation from u to δu using integration by parts
3
Use the Neumann boundary condition (αu

n
x
= ˆ q on Γ
q
) and the
property of test function (δu =0 on Γ
u
) for the boundary term
In this way, the weak (variational) form is obtained.
Weak form
_
− ˆ qδu
_
x=a
+
b
_
a
_
αu

δu

+γuδu−f δu
_
dx =0.
The weak form is mathematically equivalent to the strong one, that is,
if u is a solution to the strong (local, differential) formulation of a BVP,
it also satisfies the corresponding weak (global, integral) formulation for
any δu (admissible, i.e., sufficiently smooth and δu =0 on Γ
u
).
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
The weak form
Additional requirements and remarks
The essential boundary conditions must be explicitly satisfied by the
trial functions: u = ˆ u on Γ
u
. (In case of displacement formulations of
many mechanical and structural engineering problems this is called
kinematic admissibility requirement.)
Consequently, the test functions must satisfy the adequate
homogeneous essential boundary conditions: δu =0 on Γ
u
.
The trial functions u (and test functions, δu) need only to be
continuous. (Remember that in the case of strong form the
continuity of the first derivative of solution u was required.)
Remarks:
The strong form can be derived from the corresponding weak
formulation if we take more demanding assumptions for the
smoothness of trial functions (i.e., one-order higher differentiability).
In variational methods, any test function is a variation defined as the
difference between any two trial functions. Since any trial function
satisfy the essential boundary conditions, the requirement that
δu =0 on Γ
u
follows immediately.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
The weak form
Additional requirements and remarks
The essential boundary conditions must be explicitly satisfied by the
trial functions: u = ˆ u on Γ
u
. (In case of displacement formulations of
many mechanical and structural engineering problems this is called
kinematic admissibility requirement.)
Consequently, the test functions must satisfy the adequate
homogeneous essential boundary conditions: δu =0 on Γ
u
.
The trial functions u (and test functions, δu) need only to be
continuous. (Remember that in the case of strong form the
continuity of the first derivative of solution u was required.)
Remarks:
The strong form can be derived from the corresponding weak
formulation if we take more demanding assumptions for the
smoothness of trial functions (i.e., one-order higher differentiability).
In variational methods, any test function is a variation defined as the
difference between any two trial functions. Since any trial function
satisfy the essential boundary conditions, the requirement that
δu =0 on Γ
u
follows immediately.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
The weak form
Additional requirements and remarks
The essential boundary conditions must be explicitly satisfied by the
trial functions: u = ˆ u on Γ
u
. (In case of displacement formulations of
many mechanical and structural engineering problems this is called
kinematic admissibility requirement.)
Consequently, the test functions must satisfy the adequate
homogeneous essential boundary conditions: δu =0 on Γ
u
.
The trial functions u (and test functions, δu) need only to be
continuous. (Remember that in the case of strong form the
continuity of the first derivative of solution u was required.)
Remarks:
The strong form can be derived from the corresponding weak
formulation if we take more demanding assumptions for the
smoothness of trial functions (i.e., one-order higher differentiability).
In variational methods, any test function is a variation defined as the
difference between any two trial functions. Since any trial function
satisfy the essential boundary conditions, the requirement that
δu =0 on Γ
u
follows immediately.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
The weak form
Additional requirements and remarks
The essential boundary conditions must be explicitly satisfied by the
trial functions: u = ˆ u on Γ
u
. (In case of displacement formulations of
many mechanical and structural engineering problems this is called
kinematic admissibility requirement.)
Consequently, the test functions must satisfy the adequate
homogeneous essential boundary conditions: δu =0 on Γ
u
.
The trial functions u (and test functions, δu) need only to be
continuous. (Remember that in the case of strong form the
continuity of the first derivative of solution u was required.)
Remarks:
The strong form can be derived from the corresponding weak
formulation if we take more demanding assumptions for the
smoothness of trial functions (i.e., one-order higher differentiability).
In variational methods, any test function is a variation defined as the
difference between any two trial functions. Since any trial function
satisfy the essential boundary conditions, the requirement that
δu =0 on Γ
u
follows immediately.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
The weak form
Test and trial functions
u(x), δu(x)
x
Γ
u
Dirichlet b.c.
u = ˆ u, δu =0
Γ
q
Neumann b.c.
ˆ u
u
1
u
2 solution and trial functions, u
test functions, δu
u
1
, u
2
– arbitrary trial functions
δu =u
1
−u
2
and
u
1
= ˆ u on Γ
u
u
2
= ˆ u on Γ
u
_
→ δu =0 on Γ
u
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Associated variational problem
Let:
U, W are functional spaces. The first one is called the space of
solution (or trial functions), the other one is the space of test
functions (or weighting functions),
A is a bilinear form defined on U×W,
F is a linear form defined on W,
P is a certain functional defined on U.
The weak form is the statement of the principle of the minimum total
potential energy
§
¦
¤
¥
δP(u) =0 , δP(u) =A(u, δu) −F(δu)
δ is now the variational symbol,
P(u) is the potential energy defined by the quadratic functional
P(u) =
1
2
A(u, u) −F(u) .
Example
In the case of the model problem:
P(u) =
1
2
A(u, u) −F(u) =
b
_
a
_
α
2
_
u

_
2
+
γ
2
u
2
−f u
_
dx−
_
ˆ qu
_
x=a
,
δP(u) =A(u, δu) −F(δu) =
b
_
a
_
αu

δu

+γuδu−f δu
_
dx−
_
ˆ qδu
_
x=a
.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Associated variational problem
Let:
U, W are functional spaces. The first one is called the space of
solution (or trial functions), the other one is the space of test
functions (or weighting functions),
A is a bilinear form defined on U×W,
F is a linear form defined on W,
P is a certain functional defined on U.
The weak form can be viewed as equivalent to a variational problem.
Weak form vs. variational problem
Weak formulation: Find u ∈ U so that A(u, δu) =F(δu) ∀ δu ∈ W.
Variational problem: Find u ∈ U which minimizes P(u).
The weak form is the statement of the principle of the minimum total
potential energy
§
¦
¤
¥
δP(u) =0 , δP(u) =A(u, δu) −F(δu)
δ is now the variational symbol,
P(u) is the potential energy defined by the quadratic functional
P(u) =
1
2
A(u, u) −F(u) .
Example
In the case of the model problem:
P(u) =
1
2
A(u, u) −F(u) =
b
_
a
_
α
2
_
u

_
2
+
γ
2
u
2
−f u
_
dx−
_
ˆ qu
_
x=a
,
δP(u) =A(u, δu) −F(δu) =
b
_
a
_
αu

δu

+γuδu−f δu
_
dx−
_
ˆ qδu
_
x=a
.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Associated variational problem
Let:
U, W are functional spaces. The first one is called the space of
solution (or trial functions), the other one is the space of test
functions (or weighting functions),
A is a bilinear form defined on U×W,
F is a linear form defined on W,
P is a certain functional defined on U.
The weak form can be viewed as equivalent to a variational problem.
Weak form vs. variational problem
Weak formulation: Find u ∈ U so that A(u, δu) =F(δu) ∀ δu ∈ W.
Variational problem: Find u ∈ U which minimizes P(u).
Example
In the case of the model problem:
A(u, δu) =
b
_
a
_
αu

δu

+γuδu
_
dx, F(δu) =
b
_
a
f δu dx+
_
ˆ qδu
_
x=a
.
The weak form is the statement of the principle of the minimum total
potential energy
§
¦
¤
¥
δP(u) =0 , δP(u) =A(u, δu) −F(δu)
δ is now the variational symbol,
P(u) is the potential energy defined by the quadratic functional
P(u) =
1
2
A(u, u) −F(u) .
Example
In the case of the model problem:
P(u) =
1
2
A(u, u) −F(u) =
b
_
a
_
α
2
_
u

_
2
+
γ
2
u
2
−f u
_
dx−
_
ˆ qu
_
x=a
,
δP(u) =A(u, δu) −F(δu) =
b
_
a
_
αu

δu

+γuδu−f δu
_
dx−
_
ˆ qδu
_
x=a
.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Associated variational problem
and the principle of the minimum total potential energy
Weak form vs. variational problem
Weak formulation: Find u ∈ U so that A(u, δu) =F(δu) ∀ δu ∈ W.
Variational problem: Find u ∈ U which minimizes P(u).
The weak form is the statement of the principle of the minimum total
potential energy
§
¦
¤
¥
δP(u) =0 , δP(u) =A(u, δu) −F(δu)
δ is now the variational symbol,
P(u) is the potential energy
defined by the quadratic functional
P(u) =
1
2
A(u, u) −F(u) .
Example
In the case of the model problem:
P(u) =
1
2
A(u, u) −F(u) =
b
_
a
_
α
2
_
u

_
2
+
γ
2
u
2
−f u
_
dx−
_
ˆ qu
_
x=a
,
δP(u) =A(u, δu) −F(δu) =
b
_
a
_
αu

δu

+γuδu−f δu
_
dx−
_
ˆ qδu
_
x=a
.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Associated variational problem
and the principle of the minimum total potential energy
Weak form vs. variational problem
Weak formulation: Find u ∈ U so that A(u, δu) =F(δu) ∀ δu ∈ W.
Variational problem: Find u ∈ U which minimizes P(u).
The weak form is the statement of the principle of the minimum total
potential energy
§
¦
¤
¥
δP(u) =0 , δP(u) =A(u, δu) −F(δu)
δ is now the variational symbol,
P(u) is the potential energy defined by the quadratic functional
P(u) =
1
2
A(u, u) −F(u) .
This definition holds only when the bilinear form is symmetric, since:
1
2
δA(u, u) =
1
2
_
A(δu, u)
. ¸¸ .
A(u,δu)
+A(u, δu)
_
=A(u, δu) , δF(u) =F(δu) .
Example
In the case of the model problem:
P(u) =
1
2
A(u, u) −F(u) =
b
_
a
_
α
2
_
u

_
2
+
γ
2
u
2
−f u
_
dx−
_
ˆ qu
_
x=a
,
δP(u) =A(u, δu) −F(δu) =
b
_
a
_
αu

δu

+γuδu−f δu
_
dx−
_
ˆ qδu
_
x=a
.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Associated variational problem
and the principle of the minimum total potential energy
The weak form is the statement of the principle of the minimum total
potential energy
§
¦
¤
¥
δP(u) =0 , δP(u) =A(u, δu) −F(δu)
δ is now the variational symbol,
P(u) is the potential energy defined by the quadratic functional
P(u) =
1
2
A(u, u) −F(u) .
Example
In the case of the model problem:
P(u) =
1
2
A(u, u) −F(u) =
b
_
a
_
α
2
_
u

_
2
+
γ
2
u
2
−f u
_
dx−
_
ˆ qu
_
x=a
,
δP(u) =A(u, δu) −F(δu) =
b
_
a
_
αu

δu

+γuδu−f δu
_
dx−
_
ˆ qδu
_
x=a
.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Outline
1
Introduction
Motivation and general concepts
Major steps of finite element analysis
2
Strong and weak forms
Model problem
Boundary-value problem and the strong form
The weak form
Associated variational problem
3
Galerkin method
Discrete (approximated) problem
System of algebraic equations
4
Finite element model
Discretization and (linear) shape functions
Lagrange interpolation functions
Finite element system of algebraic equations
Imposition of the essential boundary conditions
Results of analytical and FE solutions
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Galerkin method
Discrete (approximated) problem
If the problem is well-posed one can try to find an approximated
solution u
h
by solving the so-called discrete problem which is an
approximation of the corresponding variational problem.
Discrete (approximated) problem
Find u
h
∈ U
h
so that
A
h
(u
h
, δu
h
) =F
h
(δu
h
) ∀δu
h
∈ W
h
.
Here:
U
h
is a finite-dimension space of functions called approximation
space whereas u
h
is the approximate solution (i.e., approximate to
the original problem).
δu
h
are discrete test functions from the discrete test space W
h
.
In the Galerkin method
§
¦
¤
¥
W
h
=U
h
. (In general, W
h
=U
h
.)
A
h
is an approximation of the bilinear form A.
F
h
is an approximation of the linear form F.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Galerkin method
The interpolation and system of algebraic equations
In the Galerkin method (W=U) the same shape functions, φ
i
(x), are
used to interpolate the approximate solution as well as the (discrete)
test functions:
u
h
(x) =
N

j=1
θ
j
φ
j
(x) , δu
h
(x) =
N

i=1
δθ
i
φ
i
(x) .
Here, θ
i
are called degrees of freedom.
Using this interpolation for the approximated problem leads to
Example
In the case of our model problem we have
A
ij
=A
h

j
, φ
i
) =
b
_
a
_
αφ

i
φ

j
+γφ
i
φ
j
_
dx,
F
i
=F
h

i
) =
b
_
a
f φ
i
dx+
_
ˆ qφ
i
_
x=a
.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Galerkin method
The interpolation and system of algebraic equations
u
h
(x) =
N

j=1
θ
j
φ
j
(x) , δu
h
(x) =
N

i=1
δθ
i
φ
i
(x) .
Using this interpolation for the approximated problem leads to a system
of algebraic equations (as described below).
The left-hand and right-hand sides of the problem equation yield:
A
h
(u
h
, δu
h
) =
N

i=1
N

j=1
A
h

j
, φ
i
) θ
j
δθ
i
=
N

i=1
N

j=1
A
ij
θ
j
δθ
i
,
F
h
(δu
h
) =
N

i=1
F
h

i
) δθ
i
=
N

i=1
F
i
δθ
i
,
where the (bi)linearity property is used, and the coefficient matrix
(stiffness matrix) and the right-hand-side vector are defined as
follow, respectively:
A
ij
=A
h

j
, φ
i
) , F
i
=F
h

i
) .
Now, the approximated problem may be written as
N

i=1
N

j=1
_
A
ij
θ
j
−F
i
_
δθ
i
=0 ∀δθ
i
.
It is (always) true if the expression in brackets equals zero which
gives the system of algebraic equations (for θ
j
=?):
N

i=1
A
ij
θ
j
=F
i
.
Example
In the case of our model problem we have
A
ij
=A
h

j
, φ
i
) =
b
_
a
_
αφ

i
φ

j
+γφ
i
φ
j
_
dx,
F
i
=F
h

i
) =
b
_
a
f φ
i
dx+
_
ˆ qφ
i
_
x=a
.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Galerkin method
The interpolation and system of algebraic equations
u
h
(x) =
N

j=1
θ
j
φ
j
(x) , δu
h
(x) =
N

i=1
δθ
i
φ
i
(x) .
Using this interpolation for the approximated problem leads to a system
of algebraic equations (as described below).
The coefficient matrix (stiffness matrix) and the right-hand-side
vector are defined as follow, respectively:
A
ij
=A
h

j
, φ
i
) , F
i
=F
h

i
) .
Now, the approximated problem may be written as
N

i=1
N

j=1
_
A
ij
θ
j
−F
i
_
δθ
i
=0 ∀δθ
i
.
It is (always) true if the expression in brackets equals zero which
gives the system of algebraic equations (for θ
j
=?):
N

i=1
A
ij
θ
j
=F
i
.
Example
In the case of our model problem we have
A
ij
=A
h

j
, φ
i
) =
b
_
a
_
αφ

i
φ

j
+γφ
i
φ
j
_
dx,
F
i
=F
h

i
) =
b
_
a
f φ
i
dx+
_
ˆ qφ
i
_
x=a
.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Galerkin method
The interpolation and system of algebraic equations
u
h
(x) =
N

j=1
θ
j
φ
j
(x) , δu
h
(x) =
N

i=1
δθ
i
φ
i
(x) .
Using this interpolation for the approximated problem leads to a system
of algebraic equations (as described below).
The coefficient matrix (stiffness matrix) and the right-hand-side
vector are defined as follow, respectively:
A
ij
=A
h

j
, φ
i
) , F
i
=F
h

i
) .
Now, the approximated problem may be written as
N

i=1
N

j=1
_
A
ij
θ
j
−F
i
_
δθ
i
=0 ∀δθ
i
.
It is (always) true if the expression in brackets equals zero which
gives the system of algebraic equations (for θ
j
=?):
N

i=1
A
ij
θ
j
=F
i
.
Example
In the case of our model problem we have
A
ij
=A
h

j
, φ
i
) =
b
_
a
_
αφ

i
φ

j
+γφ
i
φ
j
_
dx,
F
i
=F
h

i
) =
b
_
a
f φ
i
dx+
_
ˆ qφ
i
_
x=a
.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Galerkin method
The interpolation and system of algebraic equations
u
h
(x) =
N

j=1
θ
j
φ
j
(x) , δu
h
(x) =
N

i=1
δθ
i
φ
i
(x) .
Using this interpolation for the approximated problem leads to
The system of algebraic equations (for θ
j
=?)
N

i=1
A
ij
θ
j
=F
i
.
Example
In the case of our model problem we have
A
ij
=A
h

j
, φ
i
) =
b
_
a
_
αφ

i
φ

j
+γφ
i
φ
j
_
dx,
F
i
=F
h

i
) =
b
_
a
f φ
i
dx+
_
ˆ qφ
i
_
x=a
.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Outline
1
Introduction
Motivation and general concepts
Major steps of finite element analysis
2
Strong and weak forms
Model problem
Boundary-value problem and the strong form
The weak form
Associated variational problem
3
Galerkin method
Discrete (approximated) problem
System of algebraic equations
4
Finite element model
Discretization and (linear) shape functions
Lagrange interpolation functions
Finite element system of algebraic equations
Imposition of the essential boundary conditions
Results of analytical and FE solutions
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Discretization and (linear) shape functions
x
φ
i
(x)
0
1
a=x
1
x
2
x
i−2
x
i−1
x
i
x
i+1
x
i+2
x
N−1 x
N
=b
h
1
h
i−2
h
i−1
h
i
h
i+1
h
N−1
The domain interval is divided into N−1 finite elements (subdomains).
There are N nodes, each with only 1 degree of freedom (DoF).
Local (or element) shape function is (most often) defined on an element
in this way that it is equal 1 in a particular node and 0 in the other(s).
Global shape function φ
i
is defined on the whole domain as:
local shape functions on (neighboring) elements sharing the node (or DoF) i,
identically equal zero on all other elements.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Discretization and (linear) shape functions
x
φ
i
(x)
0
1
a=x
1
x
2
x
i−2
x
i−1
x
i
x
i+1
x
i+2
x
N−1 x
N
=b
h
1
h
i−2
h
i−1
h
i
h
i+1
h
N−1
The domain interval is divided into N−1 finite elements (subdomains).
There are N nodes, each with only 1 degree of freedom (DoF).
Local (or element) shape function is (most often) defined on an element
in this way that it is equal 1 in a particular node and 0 in the other(s).
Global shape function φ
i
is defined on the whole domain as:
local shape functions on (neighboring) elements sharing the node (or DoF) i,
identically equal zero on all other elements.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Discretization and (linear) shape functions
x
φ
i
(x)
0
1
a=x
1
x
2
x
i−2
x
i−1
x
i
x
i+1
x
i+2
x
N−1 x
N
=b
h
1
h
i−2
h
i−1
h
i
h
i+1
h
N−1
φ
(i−1)
i
The domain interval is divided into N−1 finite elements (subdomains).
There are N nodes, each with only 1 degree of freedom (DoF).
Local (or element) shape function is (most often) defined on an element
in this way that it is equal 1 in a particular node and 0 in the other(s). So,
there are only two linear interpolation functions in 1D finite element.
Higher-order interpolation functions involve additional nodes inside element.
Global shape function φ
i
is defined on the whole domain as:
local shape functions on (neighboring) elements sharing the node (or DoF) i,
identically equal zero on all other elements.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Discretization and (linear) shape functions
x
φ
i
(x)
0
1
a=x
1
x
2
x
i−2
x
i−1
x
i
x
i+1
x
i+2
x
N−1 x
N
=b
h
1
h
i−2
h
i−1
h
i
h
i+1
h
N−1
φ
(i−1)
i
φ
(i)
i
φ
i
The domain interval is divided into N−1 finite elements (subdomains).
There are N nodes, each with only 1 degree of freedom (DoF).
Local (or element) shape function is (most often) defined on an element
in this way that it is equal 1 in a particular node and 0 in the other(s).
Global shape function φ
i
is defined on the whole domain as:
local shape functions on (neighboring) elements sharing the node (or DoF) i,
identically equal zero on all other elements.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Discretization and (linear) shape functions
x
φ
i
(x)
0
1
a=x
1
x
2
x
i−2
x
i−1
x
i
x
i+1
x
i+2
x
N−1 x
N
=b
h
1
h
i−2
h
i−1
h
i
h
i+1
h
N−1
φ
i
The domain interval is divided into N−1 finite elements (subdomains).
There are N nodes, each with only 1 degree of freedom (DoF).
Local (or element) shape function is (most often) defined on an element
in this way that it is equal 1 in a particular node and 0 in the other(s).
Global shape function φ
i
is defined on the whole domain as:
local shape functions on (neighboring) elements sharing the node (or DoF) i,
identically equal zero on all other elements.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Discretization and (linear) shape functions
x
φ
i
(x)
0
1
a=x
1
x
2
x
i−2
x
i−1
x
i
x
i+1
x
i+2
x
N−1 x
N
=b
h
1
h
i−2
h
i−1
h
i
h
i+1
h
N−1
φ
i−1
φ
i+1
φ
i
Shape functions for internal nodes (i =2, . . . , (N−1)):
φ
i
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
x−x
i−1
h
i−1
for x ∈ Ω
i−1
,
x
i+1
−x
h
i
for x ∈ Ω
i
,
0 otherwise.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Discretization and (linear) shape functions
x
φ
i
(x)
0
1
a=x
1
x
2
x
i−2
x
i−1
x
i
x
i+1
x
i+2
x
N−1 x
N
=b
h
1
h
i−2
h
i−1
h
i
h
i+1
h
N−1
φ
i−1
φ
i+1
φ
1
φ
N
φ
i
Shape functions for boundary nodes (i =1 or N):
φ
1
=
_
¸
_
¸
_
x
2
−x
h
1
for x ∈ Ω
1
,
0 otherwise,
φ
N
=
_
¸
_
¸
_
x−x
N−1
h
N−1
for x ∈ Ω
N−1
,
0 otherwise.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Discretization and (linear) shape functions
x
φ

i
(x) h
i
-1
0
1
a=x
1
x
2
x
i−2
x
i−1
x
i
x
i+1
x
i+2
x
N−1 x
N
=b
h
1
h
i−2
h
i−1
h
i
h
i+1
h
N−1
φ

1
φ

i−1
φ

i−1
φ

i+1
φ

i+1
φ

N
φ

i
φ

i
First derivatives of shape functions are discontinuous at interfaces (points)
between elements (in the case of linear interpolation they are element-wise
constant):
φ

1
=
_
¸
_
¸
_

1
h
1
for x ∈ Ω
1
,
0 otherwise,
φ

i
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
h
i−1
for x ∈ Ω
i−1
,

1
h
i
for x ∈ Ω
i
,
0 otherwise.
φ

N
=
_
¸
_
¸
_
1
h
N−1
for x ∈ Ω
N−1
,
0 otherwise.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Lagrange interpolation functions
ξ
L
1
k
(ξ)
0
1
0 1
L
1
0
L
1
1
ξ
L
2
k
(ξ)
0
1
0 0.5 1
L
2
0
L
2
1
L
2
2
1st order (linear) 2nd order (quadratic)
L
1
0
(ξ) =1−ξ,
L
1
1
(ξ) =ξ,
L
2
0
(ξ) =(2ξ−1) (ξ−1) ,
L
2
1
(ξ) =4ξ(1−ξ) ,
L
2
2
(ξ) =ξ(2ξ−1) .
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Finite element system of algebraic equations
Matrix of the system
The symmetry of the bilinear form A involves the symmetry of the
matrix of the FE system of algebraic equations, i.e., A
ij
=A
ji
.
A component A
ij
is defined as an integral (over the problem domain)
of a sum of a product of shape functions, φ
i
and φ
j
, and a product
of their derivatives, φ

i
and φ

j
.
The product of two shape functions (or their derivatives) is nonzero
only on the elements that contain the both corresponding degrees of
freedom (since a shape function corresponding to a particular degree
of freedom is nonzero only on the elements sharing it).
Therefore, the integral can be computed as a sum of the integrals
defined only over these finite elements that share the both degrees
of freedom (since the contribution from all other elements is null):
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Finite element system of algebraic equations
Matrix of the system
The symmetry of the bilinear form A involves the symmetry of the
matrix of the FE system of algebraic equations, i.e., A
ij
=A
ji
.
A component A
ij
is defined as an integral (over the problem domain)
of a sum of a product of shape functions, φ
i
and φ
j
, and a product
of their derivatives, φ

i
and φ

j
.
The product of two shape functions (or their derivatives) is nonzero
only on the elements that contain the both corresponding degrees of
freedom (since a shape function corresponding to a particular degree
of freedom is nonzero only on the elements sharing it).
Therefore, the integral can be computed as a sum of the integrals
defined only over these finite elements that share the both degrees
of freedom (since the contribution from all other elements is null):
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Finite element system of algebraic equations
Matrix of the system
The symmetry of the bilinear form A involves the symmetry of the
matrix of the FE system of algebraic equations, i.e., A
ij
=A
ji
.
A component A
ij
is defined as an integral (over the problem domain)
of a sum of a product of shape functions, φ
i
and φ
j
, and a product
of their derivatives, φ

i
and φ

j
.
The product of two shape functions (or their derivatives) is nonzero
only on the elements that contain the both corresponding degrees of
freedom (since a shape function corresponding to a particular degree
of freedom is nonzero only on the elements sharing it).
Therefore, the integral can be computed as a sum of the integrals
defined only over these finite elements that share the both degrees
of freedom (since the contribution from all other elements is null):
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Finite element system of algebraic equations
Matrix of the system
The symmetry of the bilinear form A involves the symmetry of the
matrix of the FE system of algebraic equations, i.e., A
ij
=A
ji
.
A component A
ij
is defined as an integral (over the problem domain)
of a sum of a product of shape functions, φ
i
and φ
j
, and a product
of their derivatives, φ

i
and φ

j
.
The product of two shape functions (or their derivatives) is nonzero
only on the elements that contain the both corresponding degrees of
freedom (since a shape function corresponding to a particular degree
of freedom is nonzero only on the elements sharing it).
Therefore, the integral can be computed as a sum of the integrals
defined only over these finite elements that share the both degrees
of freedom (since the contribution from all other elements is null):
A
ij
=

e∈E
A
(e)
ij
=

e∈E(i,j)
A
(e)
ij
.
E – the set of all finite elements, E(i, j) – the set of finite elements that
contain the (both) degrees of freedom i and j.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Finite element system of algebraic equations
Matrix of the system
A
ij
=

e∈E
A
(e)
ij
=

e∈E(i,j)
A
(e)
ij
.
E – the set of all finite elements, E(i, j) – the set of finite elements that
contain the (both) degrees of freedom i and j.
For a 1D problem approximated by finite elements with linear shape
functions the matrix of the system will be tridiagonal:
A
ij
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
A
(1)
11
for i =j =1,
A
(i−1)
ii
+A
(i)
ii
for i =j =2, . . . , (N−1) ,
A
(N−1)
NN
for i =j =N,
A
(i)
i,i+1
for |i −j| =1,
0 for |i −j| >1.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Finite element system of algebraic equations
Matrix of the system
For our model problem the nonzero elements of the matrix are:
A
11
=
x
2
_
x
1
_
α
_
φ

1
_
2
+γφ
2
1
_
dx =
x
1
+h
1
_
x
1
α+γ
_
x
1
+h
1
−x
_
2
h
2
1
dx,
A
ii
=
x
i+1
_
x
i−1
_
α
_
φ

i
_
2
+γφ
2
i
_
dx =
x
i
_
x
i
−h
i−1
α+γ
_
x−x
i
+h
i−1
_
2
h
2
i−1
dx+
x
i
+h
i
_
x
i
α+γ
_
x
i
+h
i
−x
_
2
h
2
i
dx, i =2, . . . , (N−1) ,
A
NN
=
x
N
_
x
N−1
_
α
_
φ

N
_
2
+γφ
2
N
_
dx =
x
N
_
x
N
−h
N−1
α+γ
_
x−x
N
+h
N−1
_
2
h
2
N−1
dx,
A
i,(i+1)
=
x
i+1
_
x
i
_
αφ

i
φ

i+1
+γφ
i
φ
i+1
_
dx =
x
i
+h
i
_
x
i
−α+γ
_
x
i
+h
i
−x
__
x−x
i
_
h
2
i
dx, i =1, . . . , (N−1) .
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Finite element system of algebraic equations
Matrix of the system
For a homogeneous material when α(x) =const =α and γ(x) =const =γ,
our (tridiagonal) matrix is defined as:
A
ij
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
α
h
1
+
γh
1
3
for i =j =1,
α
h
i−1
+
γh
i−1
3
+
α
h
i
+
γh
i
3
for i =j =2, . . . , (N−1) ,
α
h
N−1
+
γh
N−1
3
for i =j =N,

α
h
i
+
γh
i
6
for |i −j| =1,
0 for |i −j| >1.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Finite element system of algebraic equations
Right-hand-side vector
Right-hand-side vector:
F
i
=

e∈E
F
(e)
i
=

e∈E(i)
F
(e)
i
.
E – the set of all finite elements, E(i) – the set of finite elements that
contain the degree of freedom i.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Finite element system of algebraic equations
Right-hand-side vector
Right-hand-side vector:
F
i
=

e∈E
F
(e)
i
=

e∈E(i)
F
(e)
i
.
E – the set of all finite elements, E(i) – the set of finite elements that
contain the degree of freedom i.
For our model problem we have:
F
1
=
x
2
_
x
1
f φ
1
dx+
_
ˆ qφ
1
_
x=x
1
=
x
1
+h
1
_
x
1
f
_
x
1
+h
1
−x
_
h
1
dx+ ˆ q,
F
i
=
x
i+1
_
x
i−1
f φ
i
dx =
x
i
_
x
i
−h
i−1
f
_
x−x
i
+h
i−1
_
h
i−1
dx+
x
i
+h
i
_
x
i
f
_
x
i
+h
i
−x
_
h
i
dx, i =2, . . . , (N−1) ,
F
N
=? (to be computed as a reaction to the essential b.c. imposed in this node).
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Finite element system of algebraic equations
Right-hand-side vector
Right-hand-side vector:
F
i
=

e∈E
F
(e)
i
=

e∈E(i)
F
(e)
i
.
E – the set of all finite elements, E(i) – the set of finite elements that
contain the degree of freedom i.
For a uniform source (load), i.e., when f (x) =const =f , the r.h.s. vector is:
F
i
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
f h
1
2
+ ˆ q for i =1,
f
_
h
i−1
+h
i
_
2
for i =2, . . . , (N−1) ,
F
N
=? for i =N (a reaction to the essential b.c.).
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Imposition of the essential boundary conditions
In general, the assembled matrix A
ij
is singular and the system of
algebraic equations is undetermined. To make it solvable the essential
boundary conditions need to be imposed.
Let B be the set of all degrees of freedom where the essential boundary
conditions are applied, that is, for n ∈ B: θ
n
=
ˆ
θ
n
where
ˆ
θ
n
is a given
value. In practice, the essential BCs are imposed as described below.
Compute a new r.h.s. vector
˜
F
i
=F
i

n∈B
A
in
ˆ
θ
n
for i =1, . . . , N.
Set
˜
F
n
=
ˆ
θ
n
.
Set
˜
A
nn
=1 and all other components in the n-th row and n-th
column to zero, i.e.,
˜
A
ni
=
˜
A
in

in
for i =1, . . . , N.
Now, the new (sightly modified) system of equations,
§
¦
¤
¥
˜
A
ij
θ
i
=
˜
F
j
, is
solved for θ
i
. Eventually, a reaction reaction (force, source) is computed
F
n
=
N

i=1
A
ni
θ
i
.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Imposition of the essential boundary conditions
Let B be the set of all degrees of freedom where the essential boundary
conditions are applied, that is, for n ∈ B: θ
n
=
ˆ
θ
n
where
ˆ
θ
n
is a given
value. In practice, the essential BCs are imposed as described below.
Compute a new r.h.s. vector
˜
F
i
=F
i

n∈B
A
in
ˆ
θ
n
for i =1, . . . , N.
Set
˜
F
n
=
ˆ
θ
n
.
Set
˜
A
nn
=1 and all other components in the n-th row and n-th
column to zero, i.e.,
˜
A
ni
=
˜
A
in

in
for i =1, . . . , N.
Now, the new (sightly modified) system of equations,
§
¦
¤
¥
˜
A
ij
θ
i
=
˜
F
j
, is
solved for θ
i
. Eventually, a reaction reaction (force, source) is computed
F
n
=
N

i=1
A
ni
θ
i
.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Imposition of the essential boundary conditions
For our model problem the essential b.c. are imposed only in the last
node (i.e., the N-th DoF) where a known value
ˆ
θ
N
is given, so the
modified matrix and r.h.s. vector can be formally written as follows:
˜
A
ij
=
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
A
ij
for i, j =1, . . . , (N−1) ,
δ
Nj
for i =N, j =1, . . . , N,
δ
iN
for i =1, . . . , N, j =N,
˜
F
i
=
_
_
_
F
i
−A
iN
ˆ
θ
N
for i =1, . . . , (N−1) ,
ˆ
θ
N
for i =N.
After the solution of the modified system, the reaction may be computed:
F
N
=
N

i=1
A
Ni
θ
i
=A
N,(N−1)
θ
N−1
+A
NN
ˆ
θ
N
.
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Results of analytical and FE solutions
α(x) =1, γ =3, f (x) =1.
a =0, q(0) = ˆ q =1, b =2, u(2) = ˆ u =0,
x
u(x)
a =0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 b =2
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
exact solution
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Results of analytical and FE solutions
α(x) =1, γ =3, f (x) =1.
a =0, q(0) = ˆ q =1, b =2, u(2) = ˆ u =0,
x
u(x)
a =0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 b =2
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
exact solution
FEM: N=5
Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model
Results of analytical and FE solutions
α(x) =1, γ =3, f (x) =1.
a =0, q(0) = ˆ q =1, b =2, u(2) = ˆ u =0,
x
u(x)
a =0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 b =2
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
exact solution
FEM: N=5
FEM: N=12

Introduction

Strong and weak forms

Galerkin method

Finite element model

Outline
1

Introduction Motivation and general concepts Major steps of finite element analysis

Introduction

Strong and weak forms

Galerkin method

Finite element model

Outline
1

Introduction Motivation and general concepts Major steps of finite element analysis Strong and weak forms Model problem Boundary-value problem and the strong form The weak form Associated variational problem

2

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Outline 1 Introduction Motivation and general concepts Major steps of finite element analysis Strong and weak forms Model problem Boundary-value problem and the strong form The weak form Associated variational problem Galerkin method Discrete (approximated) problem System of algebraic equations 2 3 .

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Outline 1 Introduction Motivation and general concepts Major steps of finite element analysis Strong and weak forms Model problem Boundary-value problem and the strong form The weak form Associated variational problem Galerkin method Discrete (approximated) problem System of algebraic equations Finite element model Discretization and (linear) shape functions Lagrange interpolation functions Finite element system of algebraic equations Imposition of the essential boundary conditions Results of analytical and FE solutions 2 3 4 .

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Outline 1 Introduction Motivation and general concepts Major steps of finite element analysis Strong and weak forms Model problem Boundary-value problem and the strong form The weak form Associated variational problem Galerkin method Discrete (approximated) problem System of algebraic equations Finite element model Discretization and (linear) shape functions Lagrange interpolation functions Finite element system of algebraic equations Imposition of the essential boundary conditions Results of analytical and FE solutions 2 3 4 .

etc. Ritz) and weighted-residual (e.g.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Motivation and general concepts The Finite Element Method (FEM) is: [generally speaking] a powerful computational technique for the solution of differential and integral equations that arise in various fields of engineering and applied sciences. least-squares..) methods.e.. . [mathematically] a generalization of the classical variational (i. Galerkin.

[mathematically] a generalization of the classical variational (i.) methods. etc. Motivation Most of the real problems: are defined on domains that are geometrically complex.. Ritz) and weighted-residual (e.e. Galerkin. may have different boundary conditions on different portions of the boundary. least-squares.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Motivation and general concepts The Finite Element Method (FEM) is: [generally speaking] a powerful computational technique for the solution of differential and integral equations that arise in various fields of engineering and applied sciences.. .g.

. etc. may have different boundary conditions on different portions of the boundary. to generate approximation functions required in the traditional variational methods. Motivation Most of the real problems: are defined on domains that are geometrically complex. it is usually impossible (or difficult): 1 2 to find a solution analytically (so one must resort to approximate methods). Ritz) and weighted-residual (e.e.. [mathematically] a generalization of the classical variational (i. Galerkin.g. Therefore.) methods. An answer to these problems is a finite-element approach. least-squares..Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Motivation and general concepts The Finite Element Method (FEM) is: [generally speaking] a powerful computational technique for the solution of differential and integral equations that arise in various fields of engineering and applied sciences.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Motivation and general concepts Main concept of FEM A given domain can be viewed as an assemblage of simple geometric shapes. . for which it is possible to systematically generate the approximation functions. called finite elements.

depending on the choice of a particular variational and weighted-residual formulation. .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Motivation and general concepts Main concept of FEM A given domain can be viewed as an assemblage of simple geometric shapes. For a given BVP. The finite element method is a piecewise (or element-wise) application of the variational and weighted-residual methods. called finite elements. it is possible to develop different finite element approximations (or finite element models). Remarks: The approximation functions are also called shape functions or interpolation functions since they are often constructed using ideas from interpolation theory. for which it is possible to systematically generate the approximation functions.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Major steps of finite element analysis 1 Discretization of the domain into a set of finite elements (mesh generation). .

Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the differential equation over a typical finite element (subdomain). 2 .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Major steps of finite element analysis 1 Discretization of the domain into a set of finite elements (mesh generation).

The finite element model consists of a set of algebraic equations among the unknown parameters (degrees of freedom) of the element.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Major steps of finite element analysis 1 Discretization of the domain into a set of finite elements (mesh generation). 2 3 . Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the differential equation over a typical finite element (subdomain). Development of the finite element model of the problem using its weighted-integral or weak form.

Assembly of finite elements to obtain the global system (i. The finite element model consists of a set of algebraic equations among the unknown parameters (degrees of freedom) of the element..e. for the total problem) of algebraic equations – for the unknown global degrees of freedom. 2 3 4 . Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the differential equation over a typical finite element (subdomain). Development of the finite element model of the problem using its weighted-integral or weak form.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Major steps of finite element analysis 1 Discretization of the domain into a set of finite elements (mesh generation).

2 3 4 5 . Imposition of essential boundary conditions..Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Major steps of finite element analysis 1 Discretization of the domain into a set of finite elements (mesh generation). Assembly of finite elements to obtain the global system (i. for the total problem) of algebraic equations – for the unknown global degrees of freedom.e. The finite element model consists of a set of algebraic equations among the unknown parameters (degrees of freedom) of the element. Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the differential equation over a typical finite element (subdomain). Development of the finite element model of the problem using its weighted-integral or weak form.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Major steps of finite element analysis 1 Discretization of the domain into a set of finite elements (mesh generation). Assembly of finite elements to obtain the global system (i. Imposition of essential boundary conditions. Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the differential equation over a typical finite element (subdomain).e. The finite element model consists of a set of algebraic equations among the unknown parameters (degrees of freedom) of the element. Solution of the system of algebraic equations to find (approximate) values in the global degrees of freedom. for the total problem) of algebraic equations – for the unknown global degrees of freedom.. 2 3 4 5 6 . Development of the finite element model of the problem using its weighted-integral or weak form.

The finite element model consists of a set of algebraic equations among the unknown parameters (degrees of freedom) of the element. 2 3 4 5 6 7 .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Major steps of finite element analysis 1 Discretization of the domain into a set of finite elements (mesh generation). Post-computation of solution and quantities of interest. for the total problem) of algebraic equations – for the unknown global degrees of freedom. Assembly of finite elements to obtain the global system (i.e. Development of the finite element model of the problem using its weighted-integral or weak form. Imposition of essential boundary conditions. Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the differential equation over a typical finite element (subdomain). Solution of the system of algebraic equations to find (approximate) values in the global degrees of freedom..

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Outline 1 Introduction Motivation and general concepts Major steps of finite element analysis Strong and weak forms Model problem Boundary-value problem and the strong form The weak form Associated variational problem Galerkin method Discrete (approximated) problem System of algebraic equations Finite element model Discretization and (linear) shape functions Lagrange interpolation functions Finite element system of algebraic equations Imposition of the essential boundary conditions Results of analytical and FE solutions 2 3 4 .

f (x) are the known data of the problem: the first two quantities result from the material properties and geometry of the problem whereas the third one depends on source or loads. it is also called dependent variable of the problem (with x being the independent variable). u(x) is the solution to be determined. b) α(x). γ(x).Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Model problem (O)DE: − du(x) d α(x) + γ(x) u(x) = f (x) dx dx for x ∈ (a. .

it is also called dependent variable of the problem (with x being the independent variable).. u(x) is the solution to be determined.g. nx (b) = +1.) (Dirichlet b. b) α(x). BCs:    q(a) nx (a) = − α(a) du (a) = q . . and the points x = a and x = b are the boundary points where boundary conditions are imposed. ˆ dx   ˆ u(b) = u . f (x) are the known data of the problem.c. e.) ˆ ˆ q and u are the given boundary values. γ(x). (Neumann b. In the 1D case there is only one component and: nx (a) = −1.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Model problem (O)DE: − du(x) d α(x) + γ(x) u(x) = f (x) dx dx for x ∈ (a. b).c. The domain of this 1D problem is an interval (a. nx is the component of the outward unit vector normal to the boundary.

) (Dirichlet b.) Moreover. (Neumann b.c. b) BCs:    q(a) nx (a) = − α(a) du (a) = q . q(x) ≡ α(x) the boundary by the Neumann boundary condition also known as the second kind or natural boundary condition. ˆ dx   ˆ u(b) = u .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Model problem (O)DE: − du(x) d α(x) + γ(x) u(x) = f (x) dx dx for x ∈ (a.c. u(x) is the primary variable specified on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary condition also known as the first kind or essential boundary condition. du(x) is the so-called secondary variable specified on dx .

) Heat transfer temperature thermal conductance heat generation infiltration 0 pressure gradient transversal force axial force 0 charge density heat source source shear stress point force point force torque electric flux Flow through porous medium fluid-head permeability Flow through pipes pressure pipe resistance Flow of viscous fluids velocity viscosity Elastic cables displacement Elastic bars displacement Torsion of bars angle of twist Electrostatics electric potential tension axial stiffness shear stiffness dielectric constant . load) q (secondary var.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Examples of different physical problems u (primary var.) α (material data) f (source.

that is.. (the data of the problem): f : Ω → ℜ. Γ be the boundary of Ω.g.. Γq = {a} and Γu = {b} are disjoint parts of the boundary (i. respectively. γ : Ω → ℜ.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Boundary-value problem and the strong form Ω = (a.e. Γ = {a. ˆ ˆ (the values prescribed on the boundary): q : Γq → ℜ. u : Γu → ℜ. Γq ∩ Γu = ) relating to the Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. b}. . b) be an open set (an open interval in case of 1D problems). α : Ω → ℜ. Γ = Γq ∪ Γu where. e.

on Γu = {b} . Γq ∩ Γu = ) relating to the Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions.: Neumann b.. Γ = {a. u : Γu → ℜ.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Boundary-value problem and the strong form Ω = (a. α : Ω → ℜ. on Γq = {a} . Boundary-value problem (BVP): Find u =? satisfying differential eq.: − αu +γu = f in Ω = (a.. b) be an open set (an open interval in case of 1D problems). respectively. e. Γ = Γq ∪ Γu where. b) . (the data of the problem): f : Ω → ℜ. ˆ α u nx = q ˆ u=u .c.g. ˆ ˆ (the values prescribed on the boundary): q : Γq → ℜ. b}. that is.c.: Dirichlet b. Γq = {a} and Γu = {b} are disjoint parts of the boundary (i. γ : Ω → ℜ.e. Γ be the boundary of Ω.

i. on Γu = {b} . The Dirichlet (essential) boundary conditions must be satisfied a priori. on Γq = {a} .: Neumann b.e. b) . the natural conditions imposed on the secondary dependent variable (which involves the first derivative of the dependent variable). ˆ α u nx = q ˆ u=u .: Dirichlet b.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Boundary-value problem and the strong form Boundary-value problem (BVP): Find u =? satisfying differential eq. − αu +γu = f in Ω = (a.: Definition (Strong form) The classical strong form of a boundary-value problem consists of: the differential equation of the problem. the Neumann boundary conditions.c.c..

u (the solution) belongs to (the space of) trial functions. Here: δu (the weighting function) belongs to (the space of) test functions. 2 Trade differentiation from u to δu using integration by parts .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model The weak form Derivation and the equivalence to the strong form 1 Write the weighted-residual statement for the domain equation b − αu a + γ u − f δu dx = 0 .

b} . . u (the solution) belongs to (the space of) trial functions. 2 Trade differentiation from u to δu using integration by parts b − α u δu b a + a α u δu + γ u δu − f δu dx = 0 where the boundary term may be written as − α u δu b a = − α u δu x=b − − α u δu x=a x=a = − α u nx δu x=b + − α u nx δu = − α u nx δu x={a.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model The weak form Derivation and the equivalence to the strong form 1 Write the weighted-residual statement for the domain equation b − αu + γ u − f δu dx = 0 . Here: a δu (the weighting function) belongs to (the space of) test functions.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model The weak form Derivation and the equivalence to the strong form 1 Write the weighted-residual statement for the domain equation b − αu a 2 + γ u − f δu dx = 0 .e..b} = −α u nx δu ˆ q x=a + −α u nx δu 0 x=b ˆ = −q δu x=a . . for the solution). 3 ˆ Use the Neumann boundary condition (α u nx = q on Γq ) and the property of test function (δu = 0 on Γu ) for the boundary term −α u nx δu x={a. Trade differentiation from u to δu using integration by parts b − α u δu b a + a α u δu + γ u δu − f δu dx = 0 The integration by parts weakens the differentiability requirement for the trial functions u (i.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model The weak form Derivation and the equivalence to the strong form 1 2 3 Write the weighted-residual statement for the domain equation Trade differentiation from u to δu using integration by parts ˆ Use the Neumann boundary condition (α u nx = q on Γq ) and the property of test function (δu = 0 on Γu ) for the boundary term In this way. The weak form is mathematically equivalent to the strong one. that is. i.e. integral) formulation for any δu (admissible. Weak form b ˆ − q δu x=a + a α u δu + γ u δu − f δu dx = 0 . it also satisfies the corresponding weak (global. the weak (variational) form is obtained. .. differential) formulation of a BVP. if u is a solution to the strong (local. sufficiently smooth and δu = 0 on Γu ).

) .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model The weak form Additional requirements and remarks The essential boundary conditions must be explicitly satisfied by the ˆ trial functions: u = u on Γu . (In case of displacement formulations of many mechanical and structural engineering problems this is called kinematic admissibility requirement.

(In case of displacement formulations of many mechanical and structural engineering problems this is called kinematic admissibility requirement.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model The weak form Additional requirements and remarks The essential boundary conditions must be explicitly satisfied by the ˆ trial functions: u = u on Γu .) Consequently. the test functions must satisfy the adequate homogeneous essential boundary conditions: δu = 0 on Γu . .

The trial functions u (and test functions. the test functions must satisfy the adequate homogeneous essential boundary conditions: δu = 0 on Γu . (Remember that in the case of strong form the continuity of the first derivative of solution u was required.) Consequently. (In case of displacement formulations of many mechanical and structural engineering problems this is called kinematic admissibility requirement.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model The weak form Additional requirements and remarks The essential boundary conditions must be explicitly satisfied by the ˆ trial functions: u = u on Γu .) . δu) need only to be continuous.

Introduction

Strong and weak forms

Galerkin method

Finite element model

The weak form
Additional requirements and remarks

The essential boundary conditions must be explicitly satisfied by the ˆ trial functions: u = u on Γu . (In case of displacement formulations of many mechanical and structural engineering problems this is called kinematic admissibility requirement.) Consequently, the test functions must satisfy the adequate homogeneous essential boundary conditions: δu = 0 on Γu . The trial functions u (and test functions, δu) need only to be continuous. (Remember that in the case of strong form the continuity of the first derivative of solution u was required.) Remarks: The strong form can be derived from the corresponding weak formulation if we take more demanding assumptions for the smoothness of trial functions (i.e., one-order higher differentiability). In variational methods, any test function is a variation defined as the difference between any two trial functions. Since any trial function satisfy the essential boundary conditions, the requirement that δu = 0 on Γu follows immediately.

Introduction

Strong and weak forms

Galerkin method

Finite element model

The weak form
Test and trial functions

u(x), δu(x)

solution and trial functions, u

u1 u2

ˆ u

test functions, δu
x

Γu

Γq

Dirichlet b.c. ˆ u = u, δ u = 0

Neumann b.c.

u1 , u2 – arbitrary trial functions
δu = u1 − u2

and

ˆ u1 = u ˆ u2 = u

on Γu on Γu

δu = 0

on Γu

Introduction

Strong and weak forms

Galerkin method

Finite element model

Associated variational problem
Let: U, W are functional spaces. The first one is called the space of solution (or trial functions), the other one is the space of test functions (or weighting functions), A is a bilinear form defined on U × W, F is a linear form defined on W, P is a certain functional defined on U.

The first one is called the space of solution (or trial functions). variational problem Weak formulation: Variational problem: Find u ∈ U so that A(u. Weak form vs. A is a bilinear form defined on U × W. The weak form can be viewed as equivalent to a variational problem. Find u ∈ U which minimizes P(u). the other one is the space of test functions (or weighting functions). . δu) = F(δu) ∀ δu ∈ W.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Associated variational problem Let: U. W are functional spaces. P is a certain functional defined on U. F is a linear form defined on W.

variational problem Weak formulation: Variational problem: Example In the case of the model problem: b b Find u ∈ U so that A(u. A is a bilinear form defined on U × W. . δu) = a α u δu + γ u δu dx . Weak form vs. the other one is the space of test functions (or weighting functions). P is a certain functional defined on U.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Associated variational problem Let: U. The weak form can be viewed as equivalent to a variational problem. A(u. The first one is called the space of solution (or trial functions). F is a linear form defined on W. Find u ∈ U which minimizes P(u). W are functional spaces. δu) = F(δu) ∀ δu ∈ W. F(δu) = a ˆ f δu dx + q δu x=a .

P(u) is the potential energy . The weak form is the statement of the principle of the minimum total potential energy § ¤ δP(u) = 0 . δu) − F(δu) ¦ ¥ δ is now the variational symbol. Find u ∈ U which minimizes P(u).Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Associated variational problem and the principle of the minimum total potential energy Weak form vs. δu) = F(δu) ∀ δu ∈ W. variational problem Weak formulation: Variational problem: Find u ∈ U so that A(u. δP(u) = A(u.

u) − F(u) . 2 2 A(u. Find u ∈ U which minimizes P(u). u) +A(u. . δu) − F(δu) ¦ ¥ δ is now the variational symbol. u) = A(δu. The weak form is the statement of the principle of the minimum total potential energy § ¤ δP(u) = 0 . This definition holds only when the bilinear form is symmetric. δu) = F(δu) ∀ δu ∈ W.δu) 1 2 δF(u) = F (δu) . since: 1 1 δA(u. variational problem Weak formulation: Variational problem: Find u ∈ U so that A(u. P(u) is the potential energy defined by the quadratic functional P(u) = A(u.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Associated variational problem and the principle of the minimum total potential energy Weak form vs. δu) = A(u. δP(u) = A(u. δu) .

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Associated variational problem and the principle of the minimum total potential energy The weak form is the statement of the principle of the minimum total potential energy § ¤ δP(u) = 0 . P(u) is the potential energy defined by the quadratic functional P(u) = A(u. u) − F(u) . Example In the case of the model problem: 1 P(u) = A(u. δu) − F (δu) = a ˆ α u δu + γ u δu − f δu dx − q δu x=a . δP(u) = A(u. δP(u) = A(u. δu) − F (δu) ¦ ¥ δ is now the variational symbol. . u) − F(u) = 2 b 1 2 α a b 2 u 2 + γ 2 ˆ u2 − f u dx − q u x=a .

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Outline 1 Introduction Motivation and general concepts Major steps of finite element analysis Strong and weak forms Model problem Boundary-value problem and the strong form The weak form Associated variational problem Galerkin method Discrete (approximated) problem System of algebraic equations Finite element model Discretization and (linear) shape functions Lagrange interpolation functions Finite element system of algebraic equations Imposition of the essential boundary conditions Results of analytical and FE solutions 2 3 4 .

e.) ¦ ¥ Ah is an approximation of the bilinear form A. § ¤ In the Galerkin method Wh = Uh . Here: Uh is a finite-dimension space of functions called approximation space whereas uh is the approximate solution (i. . δuh ) = Fh (δuh ) ∀ δuh ∈ Wh . Discrete (approximated) problem Find uh ∈ Uh so that Ah (uh . Wh = Uh . δuh are discrete test functions from the discrete test space Wh . (In general..Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Galerkin method Discrete (approximated) problem If the problem is well-posed one can try to find an approximated solution uh by solving the so-called discrete problem which is an approximation of the corresponding variational problem. Fh is an approximation of the linear form F. approximate to the original problem).

φi (x). are used to interpolate the approximate solution as well as the (discrete) test functions: N N uh (x) = j=1 θj φj (x) . δuh (x) = i=1 δθi φi (x) . θi are called degrees of freedom.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Galerkin method The interpolation and system of algebraic equations In the Galerkin method (W = U) the same shape functions. . Here.

i=1 j=1 Fh (φi ) δθi = Fi δθi . and the coefficient matrix (stiffness matrix) and the right-hand-side vector are defined as follow. Fi = Fh (φi ) .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Galerkin method The interpolation and system of algebraic equations N N uh (x) = j=1 θj φj (x) . i=1 where the (bi)linearity property is used. φi ) . δuh (x) = i=1 δθi φi (x) . δuh ) = Fh (δuh ) = N N i=1 j=1 N i=1 Ah (φj . φi ) θj δθi = N N N Aij θj δθi . respectively: Aij = Ah (φj . Using this interpolation for the approximated problem leads to a system of algebraic equations (as described below). The left-hand and right-hand sides of the problem equation yield: Ah (uh . .

Using this interpolation for the approximated problem leads to a system of algebraic equations (as described below).Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Galerkin method The interpolation and system of algebraic equations N N uh (x) = j=1 θj φj (x) . N N Fi = Fh (φi ) . the approximated problem may be written as Aij θj − Fi δθi = 0 i=1 j=1 ∀ δθi . . Now. respectively: Aij = Ah (φj . The coefficient matrix (stiffness matrix) and the right-hand-side vector are defined as follow. δuh (x) = i=1 δθi φi (x) . φi ) .

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Galerkin method The interpolation and system of algebraic equations N N uh (x) = j=1 θj φj (x) . It is (always) true if the expression in brackets equals zero which gives the system of algebraic equations (for θj =?): N Aij θj = Fi . δuh (x) = i=1 δθi φi (x) . respectively: Aij = Ah (φj . Using this interpolation for the approximated problem leads to a system of algebraic equations (as described below). i=1 . N N Fi = Fh (φi ) . The coefficient matrix (stiffness matrix) and the right-hand-side vector are defined as follow. the approximated problem may be written as Aij θj − Fi δθi = 0 i=1 j=1 ∀ δθi . Now. φi ) .

φi ) = b a α φi φj + γ φi φj dx . .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Galerkin method The interpolation and system of algebraic equations N N uh (x) = j=1 θj φj (x) . Fi = Fh (φi ) = a ˆ f φi dx + q φi x=a . i=1 Example In the case of our model problem we have b Aij = Ah (φj . Using this interpolation for the approximated problem leads to The system of algebraic equations (for θj =?) N Aij θj = Fi . δuh (x) = i=1 δθi φi (x) .

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Outline 1 Introduction Motivation and general concepts Major steps of finite element analysis Strong and weak forms Model problem Boundary-value problem and the strong form The weak form Associated variational problem Galerkin method Discrete (approximated) problem System of algebraic equations Finite element model Discretization and (linear) shape functions Lagrange interpolation functions Finite element system of algebraic equations Imposition of the essential boundary conditions Results of analytical and FE solutions 2 3 4 .

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Discretization and (linear) shape functions φi (x) 1 0 a = x1 h1 x2 xi−2 xi−1 hi−1 xi hi xi+1 xi+2 xN −1 xN = b x hi−2 hi+1 hN −1 The domain interval is divided into N − 1 finite elements (subdomains). .

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Discretization and (linear) shape functions φi (x) 1 0 a = x1 h1 x2 xi−2 xi−1 hi−1 xi hi xi+1 xi+2 xN −1 xN = b x hi−2 hi+1 hN −1 The domain interval is divided into N − 1 finite elements (subdomains). There are N nodes. each with only 1 degree of freedom (DoF). .

There are N nodes. Higher-order interpolation functions involve additional nodes inside element. each with only 1 degree of freedom (DoF). there are only two linear interpolation functions in 1D finite element. So.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Discretization and (linear) shape functions φi (x) 1 φ(i−1) i 0 a = x1 h1 x2 xi−2 xi−1 hi−1 xi hi xi+1 xi+2 xN −1 xN = b x hi−2 hi+1 hN −1 The domain interval is divided into N − 1 finite elements (subdomains). . Local (or element) shape function is (most often) defined on an element in this way that it is equal 1 in a particular node and 0 in the other(s).

Global shape function φi is defined on the whole domain as: local shape functions on (neighboring) elements sharing the node (or DoF) i.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Discretization and (linear) shape functions φi (x) 1 φ(i−1) i φi φ(i) i 0 a = x1 h1 x2 xi−2 xi−1 hi−1 xi hi xi+1 xi+2 xN −1 xN = b x hi−2 hi+1 hN −1 The domain interval is divided into N − 1 finite elements (subdomains). each with only 1 degree of freedom (DoF). . Local (or element) shape function is (most often) defined on an element in this way that it is equal 1 in a particular node and 0 in the other(s). There are N nodes.

Global shape function φi is defined on the whole domain as: local shape functions on (neighboring) elements sharing the node (or DoF) i. each with only 1 degree of freedom (DoF). .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Discretization and (linear) shape functions φi (x) 1 φi 0 a = x1 h1 x2 xi−2 xi−1 hi−1 xi hi xi+1 xi+2 xN −1 xN = b x hi−2 hi+1 hN −1 The domain interval is divided into N − 1 finite elements (subdomains). Local (or element) shape function is (most often) defined on an element in this way that it is equal 1 in a particular node and 0 in the other(s). identically equal zero on all other elements. There are N nodes.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Discretization and (linear) shape functions φi (x) 1 φi−1 φi φi+1 0 a = x1 h1 x2 xi−2 xi−1 hi−1 xi hi xi+1 xi+2 xN −1 xN = b x hi−2 hi+1 hN −1 Shape functions for internal nodes (i = 2. . . (N − 1)):   x − xi−1    h  i−1   φi = xi+1 − x   h  i   0  for x ∈ Ωi−1 . . . otherwise. for x ∈ Ωi . .

  x − xN −1  hN −1 φN = 0  for x ∈ ΩN −1 .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Discretization and (linear) shape functions φi (x) 1 φi−1 φi φi+1 φN φ1 0 a = x1 h1 x2 xi−2 xi−1 hi−1 xi hi xi+1 xi+2 xN −1 xN = b x hi−2 hi+1 hN −1 Shape functions for boundary nodes (i = 1 or N ):   x2 − x  h1 φ1 = 0  for x ∈ Ω1 . otherwise. . otherwise.

otherwise. otherwise. . φN = for x ∈ Ω1 .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Discretization and (linear) shape functions φi (x) hi 1 φi−1 φi φi+1 φN 0 a = x1 x2 φ1 x xi−2 xi−1 φi−1 xi φi xi+1 xi+2 φi+1 xN −1 xN = b -1 h1 hi−2 hi−1 hi hi+1 hN −1 First derivatives of shape functions are discontinuous at interfaces (points) between elements (in the case of linear interpolation they are element-wise constant):   1 − h1 φ1 =  0   1    h   i−1  φi = 1 −   h  i   0  for x ∈ Ωi−1 . otherwise. for x ∈ Ωi .    1 hN −1  0 for x ∈ ΩN −1 .

1 2nd order (quadratic) L2 (ξ) = (2ξ − 1) (ξ − 1) . 2 .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Lagrange interpolation functions L1 (ξ) k L1 0 L1 1 L 2 (ξ ) k L2 0 L2 1 L2 2 1 1 0 0 1 ξ 0 0 0. 0 L2 (ξ) = 4ξ (1 − ξ) .5 1 ξ 1st order (linear) L1 (ξ) = 1 − ξ . 1 L2 (ξ) = ξ (2ξ − 1) . 0 L1 (ξ) = ξ .

. Aij = Aji . i..e.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Finite element system of algebraic equations Matrix of the system The symmetry of the bilinear form A involves the symmetry of the matrix of the FE system of algebraic equations.

i. φi and φj .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Finite element system of algebraic equations Matrix of the system The symmetry of the bilinear form A involves the symmetry of the matrix of the FE system of algebraic equations. Aij = Aji .e. φi and φj . A component Aij is defined as an integral (over the problem domain) of a sum of a product of shape functions. . and a product of their derivatives..

. and a product of their derivatives. φi and φj . Aij = Aji . .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Finite element system of algebraic equations Matrix of the system The symmetry of the bilinear form A involves the symmetry of the matrix of the FE system of algebraic equations. i. The product of two shape functions (or their derivatives) is nonzero only on the elements that contain the both corresponding degrees of freedom (since a shape function corresponding to a particular degree of freedom is nonzero only on the elements sharing it).e. φi and φj . A component Aij is defined as an integral (over the problem domain) of a sum of a product of shape functions.

i.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Finite element system of algebraic equations Matrix of the system The symmetry of the bilinear form A involves the symmetry of the matrix of the FE system of algebraic equations. A component Aij is defined as an integral (over the problem domain) of a sum of a product of shape functions. the integral can be computed as a sum of the integrals defined only over these finite elements that share the both degrees of freedom (since the contribution from all other elements is null): Aij = e∈E A(e) = ij e∈E(i. . ij E – the set of all finite elements. and a product of their derivatives. φi and φj . Therefore. E(i.e. The product of two shape functions (or their derivatives) is nonzero only on the elements that contain the both corresponding degrees of freedom (since a shape function corresponding to a particular degree of freedom is nonzero only on the elements sharing it). φi and φj .j) A(e) . j) – the set of finite elements that contain the (both) degrees of freedom i and j. Aij = Aji ..

. j) – the set of finite elements that contain the (both) degrees of freedom i and j. .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Finite element system of algebraic equations Matrix of the system Aij = e∈E A(e) = ij e∈E(i. . for |i − j| > 1 . for |i − j| = 1 . .i+1     0  for i = j = 1 . (N − 1) . E(i. ij E – the set of all finite elements. for i = j = 2. for i = j = N . For a 1D problem approximated by finite elements with linear shape functions the matrix of the system will be tridiagonal:  A(1)    11   (i−1)  (i) A  ii + Aii   Aij = A(N −1)  NN   (i) A  i. .j) A(e) .

. (N − 1) . . . Aii = xi−1 α φi 2 + γ φ2 dx = i xN α + γ x − xi + hi−1 2 xi −hi−1 h2−1 i 2 dx + xi xN α + γ xi + hi − x 2 h2 i 2 dx . .(i+1) = xi α φi φi+1 + γ φi φi+1 dx = xi −α + γ xi + hi − x x − xi h2 i dx . i = 1. (N − 1) . i = 2. .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Finite element system of algebraic equations Matrix of the system For our model problem the nonzero elements of the matrix are: x2 x1 +h1 A11 = x1 xi+1 α φ1 xi 2 + γ φ2 dx = 1 x1 α + γ x1 + h1 − x 2 h2 1 xi +hi dx . ANN = xN −1 xi+1 α φN + γ φ2 dx = N xi +hi α + γ x − xN + hN −1 xN −hN −1 h2 −1 N dx . Ai. . . . .

for |i − j| > 1 . (N − 1) . . . . for i = j = N . . . for |i − j| = 1 . for i = j = 2. our (tridiagonal) matrix is defined as:   α + γ h1   3  h1   γ hi γh  α α   hi−1 + 3−1 + hi + 3 i   N Aij = h α + γ h3 −1  N −1   α γ hi − +   hi 6     0 for i = j = 1 .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Finite element system of algebraic equations Matrix of the system For a homogeneous material when α(x) = const = α and γ(x) = const = γ.

E – the set of all finite elements.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Finite element system of algebraic equations Right-hand-side vector Right-hand-side vector: Fi = e∈E (e) Fi = e∈E(i) (e) Fi . E(i) – the set of finite elements that contain the degree of freedom i. .

. For our model problem we have: x2 x1 +h1 x=x1 F1 = x1 ˆ f φ1 dx + q φ1 xi+1 xi = x1 f x 1 + h1 − x h1 xi +hi ˆ dx + q . . . Fi = xi−1 f φi dx = f x − xi + hi−1 hi−1 dx + xi f xi + hi − x hi dx . E – the set of all finite elements.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Finite element system of algebraic equations Right-hand-side vector Right-hand-side vector: Fi = e∈E (e) Fi = e∈E(i) (e) Fi . xi −hi−1 FN = ? (to be computed as a reaction to the essential b. imposed in this node). . (N − 1) .c. E(i) – the set of finite elements that contain the degree of freedom i. i = 2. .

.s.e.. For a uniform source (load).c.h. E – the set of all finite elements. vector is:   f h1 + q ˆ  2     2    F = ? N for i = 1 . Fi = f hi−1 +hi . (N − 1) . . when f (x) = const = f .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Finite element system of algebraic equations Right-hand-side vector Right-hand-side vector: Fi = e∈E (e) Fi = e∈E(i) (e) Fi . the r.). i. . for i = N (a reaction to the essential b. . E(i) – the set of finite elements that contain the degree of freedom i. for i = 2.

To make it solvable the essential boundary conditions need to be imposed. the assembled matrix Aij is singular and the system of algebraic equations is undetermined.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Imposition of the essential boundary conditions In general. .

. . is ¦ ¥ solved for θi . . source) is computed N ˜ ˜ Ani = Ain = δin Fn = i=1 Ani θi . ˜ ˆ Set Fn = θn . . . N .h. for i = 1. N . . ˜ Set Ann = 1 and all other components in the n-th row and n-th column to zero. . for n ∈ B: θn = θn where θn is a given value. i. the new (sightly modified) system of equations.e. Aij θi = Fj . vector ˜ Fi = Fi − n∈B ˆ Ain θn for i = 1.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Imposition of the essential boundary conditions Let B be the set of all degrees of freedom where the essential boundary ˆ ˆ conditions are applied.s. . a reaction reaction (force. § ¤ ˜ ˜ Now. Compute a new r. that is.. . Eventually. the essential BCs are imposed as described below. In practice.

e.s. . . vector can be formally written as follows:  A  ij   for i. . j = 1. (N − 1) . . . .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Imposition of the essential boundary conditions For our model problem the essential b. the N -th DoF) where a known value θN is given. for i = N .c. the reaction may be computed: N FN = i=1 ˆ ANi θi = AN . ˜ Aij = δNj    δiN  F − A θ ˆ i iN N ˜ Fi = θ N ˆ for i = 1. N . so the modified matrix and r. . After the solution of the modified system. . are imposed only in the last ˆ node (i. for i = 1.(N −1) θN −1 + ANN θN . . . . for i = N . . j = 1. . . . ..h. N . (N − 1) . j = N . .

γ = 3.75 1 1.75 b=2 .75 0. b = 2.25 x a=0 0.25 1. exact solution 0. f (x) = 1. u(x) 1 ˆ q(0) = q = 1.5 0.25 0.5 1. ˆ u(2) = u = 0.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Results of analytical and FE solutions α(x) = 1. a = 0.5 0.

u(x) 1 0. b = 2.25 0.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Results of analytical and FE solutions α(x) = 1. f (x) = 1.5 1.75 0.5 0. exact solution FEM: N = 5 x a=0 0.75 1 1. a = 0.25 ˆ q(0) = q = 1.75 b=2 . ˆ u(2) = u = 0.5 0.25 1. γ = 3.

5 1.25 0.5 0. exact solution FEM: N = 5 FEM: N = 12 x a=0 0. ˆ u(2) = u = 0. γ = 3. a = 0. b = 2. f (x) = 1.75 b=2 .5 0. u(x) 1 0.25 ˆ q(0) = q = 1.75 1 1.75 0.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Results of analytical and FE solutions α(x) = 1.25 1.

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