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# Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

**Introduction to the Finite Element Method
**

Introductory Course on Multiphysics Modelling

Tomasz G. Zieliński

Institute of Fundamental Technological Research

Warsaw • Poland

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Outline

1

Introduction

Motivation and general concepts

Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis

2

Strong and weak forms

Model problem

Boundary-value problem and the strong form

The weak form

Associated variational problem

3

Galerkin method

Discrete (approximated) problem

System of algebraic equations

4

Finite element model

Discretization and (linear) shape functions

Lagrange interpolation functions

Finite element system of algebraic equations

Imposition of the essential boundary conditions

Results of analytical and FE solutions

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Outline

1

Introduction

Motivation and general concepts

Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis

2

Strong and weak forms

Model problem

Boundary-value problem and the strong form

The weak form

Associated variational problem

3

Galerkin method

Discrete (approximated) problem

System of algebraic equations

4

Finite element model

Discretization and (linear) shape functions

Lagrange interpolation functions

Finite element system of algebraic equations

Imposition of the essential boundary conditions

Results of analytical and FE solutions

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Outline

1

Introduction

Motivation and general concepts

Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis

2

Strong and weak forms

Model problem

Boundary-value problem and the strong form

The weak form

Associated variational problem

3

Galerkin method

Discrete (approximated) problem

System of algebraic equations

4

Finite element model

Discretization and (linear) shape functions

Lagrange interpolation functions

Finite element system of algebraic equations

Imposition of the essential boundary conditions

Results of analytical and FE solutions

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Outline

1

Introduction

Motivation and general concepts

Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis

2

Strong and weak forms

Model problem

Boundary-value problem and the strong form

The weak form

Associated variational problem

3

Galerkin method

Discrete (approximated) problem

System of algebraic equations

4

Finite element model

Discretization and (linear) shape functions

Lagrange interpolation functions

Finite element system of algebraic equations

Imposition of the essential boundary conditions

Results of analytical and FE solutions

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Outline

1

Introduction

Motivation and general concepts

Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis

2

Strong and weak forms

Model problem

Boundary-value problem and the strong form

The weak form

Associated variational problem

3

Galerkin method

Discrete (approximated) problem

System of algebraic equations

4

Finite element model

Discretization and (linear) shape functions

Lagrange interpolation functions

Finite element system of algebraic equations

Imposition of the essential boundary conditions

Results of analytical and FE solutions

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Motivation and general concepts

The Finite Element Method (FEM) is:

[generally speaking] a powerful computational technique for the

solution of diﬀerential and integral equations that arise in various

ﬁelds of engineering and applied sciences;

[mathematically] a generalization of the classical variational (i.e., Ritz)

and weighted-residual (e.g., Galerkin, least-squares, etc.) methods.

Motivation

Most of the real problems:

are deﬁned on domains that are geometrically complex,

may have diﬀerent boundary conditions on diﬀerent portions of the

boundary.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Motivation and general concepts

The Finite Element Method (FEM) is:

[generally speaking] a powerful computational technique for the

solution of diﬀerential and integral equations that arise in various

ﬁelds of engineering and applied sciences;

[mathematically] a generalization of the classical variational (i.e., Ritz)

and weighted-residual (e.g., Galerkin, least-squares, etc.) methods.

Motivation

Most of the real problems:

are deﬁned on domains that are geometrically complex,

may have diﬀerent boundary conditions on diﬀerent portions of the

boundary.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Motivation and general concepts

The Finite Element Method (FEM) is:

[generally speaking] a powerful computational technique for the

solution of diﬀerential and integral equations that arise in various

ﬁelds of engineering and applied sciences;

[mathematically] a generalization of the classical variational (i.e., Ritz)

and weighted-residual (e.g., Galerkin, least-squares, etc.) methods.

Motivation

Most of the real problems:

are deﬁned on domains that are geometrically complex,

may have diﬀerent boundary conditions on diﬀerent portions of the

boundary.

Therefore, it is usually impossible (or diﬃcult):

1

to ﬁnd a solution analytically (so one must resort to approximate

methods),

2

to generate approximation functions required in the traditional

variational methods.

An answer to these problems is a ﬁnite-element approach.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Motivation and general concepts

Main concept of FEM

A given domain can be viewed as an assemblage of simple geometric

shapes, called ﬁnite elements, for which it is possible to systematically

generate the approximation functions.

Remarks:

The approximation functions are also called shape functions or

interpolation functions since they are often constructed using ideas

from interpolation theory.

The ﬁnite element method is a piecewise (or element-wise)

application of the variational and weighted-residual methods.

For a given BVP, it is possible to develop diﬀerent ﬁnite element

approximations (or ﬁnite element models), depending on the

choice of a particular variational and weighted-residual formulation.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Motivation and general concepts

Main concept of FEM

A given domain can be viewed as an assemblage of simple geometric

shapes, called ﬁnite elements, for which it is possible to systematically

generate the approximation functions.

Remarks:

The approximation functions are also called shape functions or

interpolation functions since they are often constructed using ideas

from interpolation theory.

The ﬁnite element method is a piecewise (or element-wise)

application of the variational and weighted-residual methods.

For a given BVP, it is possible to develop diﬀerent ﬁnite element

approximations (or ﬁnite element models), depending on the

choice of a particular variational and weighted-residual formulation.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis

1

Discretization of the domain into a set of ﬁnite elements (mesh

generation).

2

Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the diﬀerential

equation over a typical ﬁnite element (subdomain).

3

Development of the ﬁnite element model of the problem using

its weighted-integral or weak form. The ﬁnite element model

consists of a set of algebraic equations among the unknown

parameters (degrees of freedom) of the element.

4

Assembly of ﬁnite elements to obtain the global system (i.e., for

the total problem) of algebraic equations – for the unknown global

degrees of freedom.

5

Imposition of essential boundary conditions.

6

Solution of the system of algebraic equations to ﬁnd

(approximate) values in the global degrees of freedom.

7

Post-computation of solution and quantities of interest.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis

1

Discretization of the domain into a set of ﬁnite elements (mesh

generation).

2

Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the diﬀerential

equation over a typical ﬁnite element (subdomain).

3

Development of the ﬁnite element model of the problem using

its weighted-integral or weak form. The ﬁnite element model

consists of a set of algebraic equations among the unknown

parameters (degrees of freedom) of the element.

4

Assembly of ﬁnite elements to obtain the global system (i.e., for

the total problem) of algebraic equations – for the unknown global

degrees of freedom.

5

Imposition of essential boundary conditions.

6

Solution of the system of algebraic equations to ﬁnd

(approximate) values in the global degrees of freedom.

7

Post-computation of solution and quantities of interest.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis

1

Discretization of the domain into a set of ﬁnite elements (mesh

generation).

2

Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the diﬀerential

equation over a typical ﬁnite element (subdomain).

3

Development of the ﬁnite element model of the problem using

its weighted-integral or weak form. The ﬁnite element model

consists of a set of algebraic equations among the unknown

parameters (degrees of freedom) of the element.

4

Assembly of ﬁnite elements to obtain the global system (i.e., for

the total problem) of algebraic equations – for the unknown global

degrees of freedom.

5

Imposition of essential boundary conditions.

6

Solution of the system of algebraic equations to ﬁnd

(approximate) values in the global degrees of freedom.

7

Post-computation of solution and quantities of interest.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis

1

Discretization of the domain into a set of ﬁnite elements (mesh

generation).

2

Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the diﬀerential

equation over a typical ﬁnite element (subdomain).

3

Development of the ﬁnite element model of the problem using

its weighted-integral or weak form. The ﬁnite element model

consists of a set of algebraic equations among the unknown

parameters (degrees of freedom) of the element.

4

Assembly of ﬁnite elements to obtain the global system (i.e., for

the total problem) of algebraic equations – for the unknown global

degrees of freedom.

5

Imposition of essential boundary conditions.

6

Solution of the system of algebraic equations to ﬁnd

(approximate) values in the global degrees of freedom.

7

Post-computation of solution and quantities of interest.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis

1

Discretization of the domain into a set of ﬁnite elements (mesh

generation).

2

Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the diﬀerential

equation over a typical ﬁnite element (subdomain).

3

Development of the ﬁnite element model of the problem using

its weighted-integral or weak form. The ﬁnite element model

consists of a set of algebraic equations among the unknown

parameters (degrees of freedom) of the element.

4

Assembly of ﬁnite elements to obtain the global system (i.e., for

the total problem) of algebraic equations – for the unknown global

degrees of freedom.

5

Imposition of essential boundary conditions.

6

Solution of the system of algebraic equations to ﬁnd

(approximate) values in the global degrees of freedom.

7

Post-computation of solution and quantities of interest.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis

1

Discretization of the domain into a set of ﬁnite elements (mesh

generation).

2

Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the diﬀerential

equation over a typical ﬁnite element (subdomain).

3

Development of the ﬁnite element model of the problem using

its weighted-integral or weak form. The ﬁnite element model

consists of a set of algebraic equations among the unknown

parameters (degrees of freedom) of the element.

4

Assembly of ﬁnite elements to obtain the global system (i.e., for

the total problem) of algebraic equations – for the unknown global

degrees of freedom.

5

Imposition of essential boundary conditions.

6

Solution of the system of algebraic equations to ﬁnd

(approximate) values in the global degrees of freedom.

7

Post-computation of solution and quantities of interest.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis

1

Discretization of the domain into a set of ﬁnite elements (mesh

generation).

2

Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the diﬀerential

equation over a typical ﬁnite element (subdomain).

3

Development of the ﬁnite element model of the problem using

its weighted-integral or weak form. The ﬁnite element model

consists of a set of algebraic equations among the unknown

parameters (degrees of freedom) of the element.

4

Assembly of ﬁnite elements to obtain the global system (i.e., for

the total problem) of algebraic equations – for the unknown global

degrees of freedom.

5

Imposition of essential boundary conditions.

6

Solution of the system of algebraic equations to ﬁnd

(approximate) values in the global degrees of freedom.

7

Post-computation of solution and quantities of interest.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Outline

1

Introduction

Motivation and general concepts

Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis

2

Strong and weak forms

Model problem

Boundary-value problem and the strong form

The weak form

Associated variational problem

3

Galerkin method

Discrete (approximated) problem

System of algebraic equations

4

Finite element model

Discretization and (linear) shape functions

Lagrange interpolation functions

Finite element system of algebraic equations

Imposition of the essential boundary conditions

Results of analytical and FE solutions

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Model problem

(O)DE: −

d

dx

_

α(x)

du(x)

dx

_

+γ(x) u(x) =f (x) for x ∈ (a, b)

α(x), γ(x), f (x) are the known data of the problem: the ﬁrst two

quantities result from the material properties and geometry of the

problem whereas the third one depends on source or loads,

u(x) is the solution to be determined; it is also called dependent

variable of the problem (with x being the independent variable).

BCs:

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

q(a) n

x

(a) =

_

−α(a)

du

dx

(a) = ˆ q, (Neumann b.c.)

u(b) = ˆ u. (Dirichlet b.c.)

Moreover,

q(x) ≡α(x)

du(x)

dx

is the so-called secondary variable speciﬁed on

the boundary by the Neumann boundary condition also known as

the second kind or natural boundary condition,

u(x) is the primary variable speciﬁed on the boundary by the

Dirichlet boundary condition also known as the ﬁrst kind or

essential boundary condition.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Model problem

(O)DE: −

d

dx

_

α(x)

du(x)

dx

_

+γ(x) u(x) =f (x) for x ∈ (a, b)

α(x), γ(x), f (x) are the known data of the problem,

u(x) is the solution to be determined; it is also called dependent

variable of the problem (with x being the independent variable).

The domain of this 1D problem is an interval (a, b), and the points x =a

and x =b are the boundary points where boundary conditions are

imposed, e.g.,

BCs:

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

q(a) n

x

(a) =

_

−α(a)

du

dx

(a) = ˆ q, (Neumann b.c.)

u(b) = ˆ u. (Dirichlet b.c.)

ˆ q and ˆ u are the given boundary values,

n

x

is the component of the outward unit vector normal to the

boundary. In the 1D case there is only one component and:

n

x

(a) =−1, n

x

(b) =+1.

Moreover,

q(x) ≡α(x)

du(x)

dx

is the so-called secondary variable speciﬁed on

the boundary by the Neumann boundary condition also known as

the second kind or natural boundary condition,

u(x) is the primary variable speciﬁed on the boundary by the

Dirichlet boundary condition also known as the ﬁrst kind or

essential boundary condition.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Model problem

(O)DE: −

d

dx

_

α(x)

du(x)

dx

_

+γ(x) u(x) =f (x) for x ∈ (a, b)

BCs:

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

q(a) n

x

(a) =

_

−α(a)

du

dx

(a) = ˆ q, (Neumann b.c.)

u(b) = ˆ u. (Dirichlet b.c.)

Moreover,

q(x) ≡α(x)

du(x)

dx

is the so-called secondary variable speciﬁed on

the boundary by the Neumann boundary condition also known as

the second kind or natural boundary condition,

u(x) is the primary variable speciﬁed on the boundary by the

Dirichlet boundary condition also known as the ﬁrst kind or

essential boundary condition.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Examples of diﬀerent physical problems

u (primary var.) α (material data) f (source, load) q (secondary var.)

Heat transfer

temperature thermal conductance heat generation heat

Flow through porous medium

ﬂuid-head permeability inﬁltration source

Flow through pipes

pressure pipe resistance 0 source

Flow of viscous ﬂuids

velocity viscosity pressure gradient shear stress

Elastic cables

displacement tension transversal force point force

Elastic bars

displacement axial stiﬀness axial force point force

Torsion of bars

angle of twist shear stiﬀness 0 torque

Electrostatics

electric potential dielectric constant charge density electric ﬂux

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Boundary-value problem and the strong form

Ω=(a, b) be an open set (an open interval in case of 1D problems);

Γ be the boundary of Ω, that is, Γ={a, b};

Γ=Γ

q

∪Γ

u

where, e.g., Γ

q

={a} and Γ

u

={b} are disjoint parts of the

boundary (i.e., Γ

q

∩Γ

u

=) relating to the Neumann and Dirichlet

boundary conditions, respectively;

(the data of the problem): f : Ω→ℜ, α: Ω→ℜ, γ : Ω→ℜ;

(the values prescribed on the boundary): ˆ q : Γ

q

→ℜ, ˆ u : Γ

u

→ℜ.

Boundary-value problem (BVP):

Find u =? satisfying

diﬀerential eq.: −

_

αu

_

+γu =f in Ω=(a, b) ,

Neumann b.c.: αu

n

x

= ˆ q on Γ

q

={a} ,

Dirichlet b.c.: u = ˆ u on Γ

u

={b} .

Deﬁnition (Strong form)

The classical strong form of a boundary-value problem consists of:

the diﬀerential equation of the problem,

the Neumann boundary conditions, i.e., the natural conditions

imposed on the secondary dependent variable (which involves the

ﬁrst derivative of the dependent variable).

The Dirichlet (essential) boundary conditions must be satisﬁed a priori.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Boundary-value problem and the strong form

Ω=(a, b) be an open set (an open interval in case of 1D problems);

Γ be the boundary of Ω, that is, Γ={a, b};

Γ=Γ

q

∪Γ

u

where, e.g., Γ

q

={a} and Γ

u

={b} are disjoint parts of the

boundary (i.e., Γ

q

∩Γ

u

=) relating to the Neumann and Dirichlet

boundary conditions, respectively;

(the data of the problem): f : Ω→ℜ, α: Ω→ℜ, γ : Ω→ℜ;

(the values prescribed on the boundary): ˆ q : Γ

q

→ℜ, ˆ u : Γ

u

→ℜ.

Boundary-value problem (BVP):

Find u =? satisfying

diﬀerential eq.: −

_

αu

_

+γu =f in Ω=(a, b) ,

Neumann b.c.: αu

n

x

= ˆ q on Γ

q

={a} ,

Dirichlet b.c.: u = ˆ u on Γ

u

={b} .

Deﬁnition (Strong form)

The classical strong form of a boundary-value problem consists of:

the diﬀerential equation of the problem,

the Neumann boundary conditions, i.e., the natural conditions

imposed on the secondary dependent variable (which involves the

ﬁrst derivative of the dependent variable).

The Dirichlet (essential) boundary conditions must be satisﬁed a priori.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Boundary-value problem and the strong form

Boundary-value problem (BVP):

Find u =? satisfying

diﬀerential eq.: −

_

αu

_

+γu =f in Ω=(a, b) ,

Neumann b.c.: αu

n

x

= ˆ q on Γ

q

={a} ,

Dirichlet b.c.: u = ˆ u on Γ

u

={b} .

Deﬁnition (Strong form)

The classical strong form of a boundary-value problem consists of:

the diﬀerential equation of the problem,

the Neumann boundary conditions, i.e., the natural conditions

imposed on the secondary dependent variable (which involves the

ﬁrst derivative of the dependent variable).

The Dirichlet (essential) boundary conditions must be satisﬁed a priori.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

The weak form

Derivation and the equivalence to the strong form

1

Write the weighted-residual statement for the domain equation

b

_

a

_

−

_

αu

_

+γu−f

_

δudx =0.

Here:

δu (the weighting function) belongs to (the space of) test functions,

u (the solution) belongs to (the space of) trial functions.

2

Trade diﬀerentiation from u to δu using integration by parts

3

Use the Neumann boundary condition (αu

n

x

= ˆ q on Γ

q

) and the

property of test function (δu =0 on Γ

u

) for the boundary term

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

The weak form

Derivation and the equivalence to the strong form

1

Write the weighted-residual statement for the domain equation

b

_

a

_

−

_

αu

_

+γu−f

_

δudx =0.

Here:

δu (the weighting function) belongs to (the space of) test functions,

u (the solution) belongs to (the space of) trial functions.

2

Trade diﬀerentiation from u to δu using integration by parts

_

−αu

δu

_

b

a

+

b

_

a

_

αu

δu

+γuδu−f δu

_

dx =0

where the boundary term may be written as

_

−αu

δu

_

b

a

=

_

−αu

δu

_

x=b

−

_

−αu

δu

_

x=a

=

_

−αu

n

x

δu

_

x=b

+

_

−αu

n

x

δu

_

x=a

=

_

−αu

n

x

δu

_

x={a,b}

.

The integration by parts weakens the diﬀerentiability requirement

for the trial functions u (i.e., for the solution).

3

Use the Neumann boundary condition (αu

n

x

= ˆ q on Γ

q

) and the

property of test function (δu =0 on Γ

u

) for the boundary term

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

The weak form

Derivation and the equivalence to the strong form

1

Write the weighted-residual statement for the domain equation

b

_

a

_

−

_

αu

_

+γu−f

_

δudx =0.

2

Trade diﬀerentiation from u to δu using integration by parts

_

−αu

δu

_

b

a

+

b

_

a

_

αu

δu

+γuδu−f δu

_

dx =0

The integration by parts weakens the diﬀerentiability requirement

for the trial functions u (i.e., for the solution).

3

Use the Neumann boundary condition (αu

n

x

= ˆ q on Γ

q

) and the

property of test function (δu =0 on Γ

u

) for the boundary term

_

−αu

n

x

δu

_

x={a,b}

=

_

−αu

n

x

. ¸¸ .

ˆ q

δu

_

x=a

+

_

−αu

n

x

δu

.¸¸.

0

_

x=b

=

_

−ˆ qδu

_

x=a

.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

The weak form

Derivation and the equivalence to the strong form

1

Write the weighted-residual statement for the domain equation

2

Trade diﬀerentiation from u to δu using integration by parts

3

Use the Neumann boundary condition (αu

n

x

= ˆ q on Γ

q

) and the

property of test function (δu =0 on Γ

u

) for the boundary term

In this way, the weak (variational) form is obtained.

Weak form

_

− ˆ qδu

_

x=a

+

b

_

a

_

αu

δu

+γuδu−f δu

_

dx =0.

The weak form is mathematically equivalent to the strong one, that is,

if u is a solution to the strong (local, diﬀerential) formulation of a BVP,

it also satisﬁes the corresponding weak (global, integral) formulation for

any δu (admissible, i.e., suﬃciently smooth and δu =0 on Γ

u

).

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

The weak form

Additional requirements and remarks

The essential boundary conditions must be explicitly satisﬁed by the

trial functions: u = ˆ u on Γ

u

. (In case of displacement formulations of

many mechanical and structural engineering problems this is called

kinematic admissibility requirement.)

Consequently, the test functions must satisfy the adequate

homogeneous essential boundary conditions: δu =0 on Γ

u

.

The trial functions u (and test functions, δu) need only to be

continuous. (Remember that in the case of strong form the

continuity of the ﬁrst derivative of solution u was required.)

Remarks:

The strong form can be derived from the corresponding weak

formulation if we take more demanding assumptions for the

smoothness of trial functions (i.e., one-order higher diﬀerentiability).

In variational methods, any test function is a variation deﬁned as the

diﬀerence between any two trial functions. Since any trial function

satisfy the essential boundary conditions, the requirement that

δu =0 on Γ

u

follows immediately.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

The weak form

Additional requirements and remarks

The essential boundary conditions must be explicitly satisﬁed by the

trial functions: u = ˆ u on Γ

u

. (In case of displacement formulations of

many mechanical and structural engineering problems this is called

kinematic admissibility requirement.)

Consequently, the test functions must satisfy the adequate

homogeneous essential boundary conditions: δu =0 on Γ

u

.

The trial functions u (and test functions, δu) need only to be

continuous. (Remember that in the case of strong form the

continuity of the ﬁrst derivative of solution u was required.)

Remarks:

The strong form can be derived from the corresponding weak

formulation if we take more demanding assumptions for the

smoothness of trial functions (i.e., one-order higher diﬀerentiability).

In variational methods, any test function is a variation deﬁned as the

diﬀerence between any two trial functions. Since any trial function

satisfy the essential boundary conditions, the requirement that

δu =0 on Γ

u

follows immediately.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

The weak form

Additional requirements and remarks

The essential boundary conditions must be explicitly satisﬁed by the

trial functions: u = ˆ u on Γ

u

. (In case of displacement formulations of

many mechanical and structural engineering problems this is called

kinematic admissibility requirement.)

Consequently, the test functions must satisfy the adequate

homogeneous essential boundary conditions: δu =0 on Γ

u

.

The trial functions u (and test functions, δu) need only to be

continuous. (Remember that in the case of strong form the

continuity of the ﬁrst derivative of solution u was required.)

Remarks:

The strong form can be derived from the corresponding weak

formulation if we take more demanding assumptions for the

smoothness of trial functions (i.e., one-order higher diﬀerentiability).

In variational methods, any test function is a variation deﬁned as the

diﬀerence between any two trial functions. Since any trial function

satisfy the essential boundary conditions, the requirement that

δu =0 on Γ

u

follows immediately.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

The weak form

Additional requirements and remarks

The essential boundary conditions must be explicitly satisﬁed by the

trial functions: u = ˆ u on Γ

u

. (In case of displacement formulations of

many mechanical and structural engineering problems this is called

kinematic admissibility requirement.)

Consequently, the test functions must satisfy the adequate

homogeneous essential boundary conditions: δu =0 on Γ

u

.

The trial functions u (and test functions, δu) need only to be

continuous. (Remember that in the case of strong form the

continuity of the ﬁrst derivative of solution u was required.)

Remarks:

The strong form can be derived from the corresponding weak

formulation if we take more demanding assumptions for the

smoothness of trial functions (i.e., one-order higher diﬀerentiability).

In variational methods, any test function is a variation deﬁned as the

diﬀerence between any two trial functions. Since any trial function

satisfy the essential boundary conditions, the requirement that

δu =0 on Γ

u

follows immediately.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

The weak form

Test and trial functions

u(x), δu(x)

x

Γ

u

Dirichlet b.c.

u = ˆ u, δu =0

Γ

q

Neumann b.c.

ˆ u

u

1

u

2 solution and trial functions, u

test functions, δu

u

1

, u

2

– arbitrary trial functions

δu =u

1

−u

2

and

u

1

= ˆ u on Γ

u

u

2

= ˆ u on Γ

u

_

→ δu =0 on Γ

u

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Associated variational problem

Let:

U, W are functional spaces. The ﬁrst one is called the space of

solution (or trial functions), the other one is the space of test

functions (or weighting functions),

A is a bilinear form deﬁned on U×W,

F is a linear form deﬁned on W,

P is a certain functional deﬁned on U.

The weak form is the statement of the principle of the minimum total

potential energy

§

¦

¤

¥

δP(u) =0 , δP(u) =A(u, δu) −F(δu)

δ is now the variational symbol,

P(u) is the potential energy deﬁned by the quadratic functional

P(u) =

1

2

A(u, u) −F(u) .

Example

In the case of the model problem:

P(u) =

1

2

A(u, u) −F(u) =

b

_

a

_

α

2

_

u

_

2

+

γ

2

u

2

−f u

_

dx−

_

ˆ qu

_

x=a

,

δP(u) =A(u, δu) −F(δu) =

b

_

a

_

αu

δu

+γuδu−f δu

_

dx−

_

ˆ qδu

_

x=a

.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Associated variational problem

Let:

U, W are functional spaces. The ﬁrst one is called the space of

solution (or trial functions), the other one is the space of test

functions (or weighting functions),

A is a bilinear form deﬁned on U×W,

F is a linear form deﬁned on W,

P is a certain functional deﬁned on U.

The weak form can be viewed as equivalent to a variational problem.

Weak form vs. variational problem

Weak formulation: Find u ∈ U so that A(u, δu) =F(δu) ∀ δu ∈ W.

Variational problem: Find u ∈ U which minimizes P(u).

The weak form is the statement of the principle of the minimum total

potential energy

§

¦

¤

¥

δP(u) =0 , δP(u) =A(u, δu) −F(δu)

δ is now the variational symbol,

P(u) is the potential energy deﬁned by the quadratic functional

P(u) =

1

2

A(u, u) −F(u) .

Example

In the case of the model problem:

P(u) =

1

2

A(u, u) −F(u) =

b

_

a

_

α

2

_

u

_

2

+

γ

2

u

2

−f u

_

dx−

_

ˆ qu

_

x=a

,

δP(u) =A(u, δu) −F(δu) =

b

_

a

_

αu

δu

+γuδu−f δu

_

dx−

_

ˆ qδu

_

x=a

.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Associated variational problem

Let:

U, W are functional spaces. The ﬁrst one is called the space of

solution (or trial functions), the other one is the space of test

functions (or weighting functions),

A is a bilinear form deﬁned on U×W,

F is a linear form deﬁned on W,

P is a certain functional deﬁned on U.

The weak form can be viewed as equivalent to a variational problem.

Weak form vs. variational problem

Weak formulation: Find u ∈ U so that A(u, δu) =F(δu) ∀ δu ∈ W.

Variational problem: Find u ∈ U which minimizes P(u).

Example

In the case of the model problem:

A(u, δu) =

b

_

a

_

αu

δu

+γuδu

_

dx, F(δu) =

b

_

a

f δu dx+

_

ˆ qδu

_

x=a

.

The weak form is the statement of the principle of the minimum total

potential energy

§

¦

¤

¥

δP(u) =0 , δP(u) =A(u, δu) −F(δu)

δ is now the variational symbol,

P(u) is the potential energy deﬁned by the quadratic functional

P(u) =

1

2

A(u, u) −F(u) .

Example

In the case of the model problem:

P(u) =

1

2

A(u, u) −F(u) =

b

_

a

_

α

2

_

u

_

2

+

γ

2

u

2

−f u

_

dx−

_

ˆ qu

_

x=a

,

δP(u) =A(u, δu) −F(δu) =

b

_

a

_

αu

δu

+γuδu−f δu

_

dx−

_

ˆ qδu

_

x=a

.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Associated variational problem

and the principle of the minimum total potential energy

Weak form vs. variational problem

Weak formulation: Find u ∈ U so that A(u, δu) =F(δu) ∀ δu ∈ W.

Variational problem: Find u ∈ U which minimizes P(u).

The weak form is the statement of the principle of the minimum total

potential energy

§

¦

¤

¥

δP(u) =0 , δP(u) =A(u, δu) −F(δu)

δ is now the variational symbol,

P(u) is the potential energy

deﬁned by the quadratic functional

P(u) =

1

2

A(u, u) −F(u) .

Example

In the case of the model problem:

P(u) =

1

2

A(u, u) −F(u) =

b

_

a

_

α

2

_

u

_

2

+

γ

2

u

2

−f u

_

dx−

_

ˆ qu

_

x=a

,

δP(u) =A(u, δu) −F(δu) =

b

_

a

_

αu

δu

+γuδu−f δu

_

dx−

_

ˆ qδu

_

x=a

.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Associated variational problem

and the principle of the minimum total potential energy

Weak form vs. variational problem

Weak formulation: Find u ∈ U so that A(u, δu) =F(δu) ∀ δu ∈ W.

Variational problem: Find u ∈ U which minimizes P(u).

The weak form is the statement of the principle of the minimum total

potential energy

§

¦

¤

¥

δP(u) =0 , δP(u) =A(u, δu) −F(δu)

δ is now the variational symbol,

P(u) is the potential energy deﬁned by the quadratic functional

P(u) =

1

2

A(u, u) −F(u) .

This deﬁnition holds only when the bilinear form is symmetric, since:

1

2

δA(u, u) =

1

2

_

A(δu, u)

. ¸¸ .

A(u,δu)

+A(u, δu)

_

=A(u, δu) , δF(u) =F(δu) .

Example

In the case of the model problem:

P(u) =

1

2

A(u, u) −F(u) =

b

_

a

_

α

2

_

u

_

2

+

γ

2

u

2

−f u

_

dx−

_

ˆ qu

_

x=a

,

δP(u) =A(u, δu) −F(δu) =

b

_

a

_

αu

δu

+γuδu−f δu

_

dx−

_

ˆ qδu

_

x=a

.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Associated variational problem

and the principle of the minimum total potential energy

The weak form is the statement of the principle of the minimum total

potential energy

§

¦

¤

¥

δP(u) =0 , δP(u) =A(u, δu) −F(δu)

δ is now the variational symbol,

P(u) is the potential energy deﬁned by the quadratic functional

P(u) =

1

2

A(u, u) −F(u) .

Example

In the case of the model problem:

P(u) =

1

2

A(u, u) −F(u) =

b

_

a

_

α

2

_

u

_

2

+

γ

2

u

2

−f u

_

dx−

_

ˆ qu

_

x=a

,

δP(u) =A(u, δu) −F(δu) =

b

_

a

_

αu

δu

+γuδu−f δu

_

dx−

_

ˆ qδu

_

x=a

.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Outline

1

Introduction

Motivation and general concepts

Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis

2

Strong and weak forms

Model problem

Boundary-value problem and the strong form

The weak form

Associated variational problem

3

Galerkin method

Discrete (approximated) problem

System of algebraic equations

4

Finite element model

Discretization and (linear) shape functions

Lagrange interpolation functions

Finite element system of algebraic equations

Imposition of the essential boundary conditions

Results of analytical and FE solutions

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Galerkin method

Discrete (approximated) problem

If the problem is well-posed one can try to ﬁnd an approximated

solution u

h

by solving the so-called discrete problem which is an

approximation of the corresponding variational problem.

Discrete (approximated) problem

Find u

h

∈ U

h

so that

A

h

(u

h

, δu

h

) =F

h

(δu

h

) ∀δu

h

∈ W

h

.

Here:

U

h

is a ﬁnite-dimension space of functions called approximation

space whereas u

h

is the approximate solution (i.e., approximate to

the original problem).

δu

h

are discrete test functions from the discrete test space W

h

.

In the Galerkin method

§

¦

¤

¥

W

h

=U

h

. (In general, W

h

=U

h

.)

A

h

is an approximation of the bilinear form A.

F

h

is an approximation of the linear form F.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Galerkin method

The interpolation and system of algebraic equations

In the Galerkin method (W=U) the same shape functions, φ

i

(x), are

used to interpolate the approximate solution as well as the (discrete)

test functions:

u

h

(x) =

N

j=1

θ

j

φ

j

(x) , δu

h

(x) =

N

i=1

δθ

i

φ

i

(x) .

Here, θ

i

are called degrees of freedom.

Using this interpolation for the approximated problem leads to

Example

In the case of our model problem we have

A

ij

=A

h

(φ

j

, φ

i

) =

b

_

a

_

αφ

i

φ

j

+γφ

i

φ

j

_

dx,

F

i

=F

h

(φ

i

) =

b

_

a

f φ

i

dx+

_

ˆ qφ

i

_

x=a

.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Galerkin method

The interpolation and system of algebraic equations

u

h

(x) =

N

j=1

θ

j

φ

j

(x) , δu

h

(x) =

N

i=1

δθ

i

φ

i

(x) .

Using this interpolation for the approximated problem leads to a system

of algebraic equations (as described below).

The left-hand and right-hand sides of the problem equation yield:

A

h

(u

h

, δu

h

) =

N

i=1

N

j=1

A

h

(φ

j

, φ

i

) θ

j

δθ

i

=

N

i=1

N

j=1

A

ij

θ

j

δθ

i

,

F

h

(δu

h

) =

N

i=1

F

h

(φ

i

) δθ

i

=

N

i=1

F

i

δθ

i

,

where the (bi)linearity property is used, and the coeﬃcient matrix

(stiﬀness matrix) and the right-hand-side vector are deﬁned as

follow, respectively:

A

ij

=A

h

(φ

j

, φ

i

) , F

i

=F

h

(φ

i

) .

Now, the approximated problem may be written as

N

i=1

N

j=1

_

A

ij

θ

j

−F

i

_

δθ

i

=0 ∀δθ

i

.

It is (always) true if the expression in brackets equals zero which

gives the system of algebraic equations (for θ

j

=?):

N

i=1

A

ij

θ

j

=F

i

.

Example

In the case of our model problem we have

A

ij

=A

h

(φ

j

, φ

i

) =

b

_

a

_

αφ

i

φ

j

+γφ

i

φ

j

_

dx,

F

i

=F

h

(φ

i

) =

b

_

a

f φ

i

dx+

_

ˆ qφ

i

_

x=a

.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Galerkin method

The interpolation and system of algebraic equations

u

h

(x) =

N

j=1

θ

j

φ

j

(x) , δu

h

(x) =

N

i=1

δθ

i

φ

i

(x) .

Using this interpolation for the approximated problem leads to a system

of algebraic equations (as described below).

The coeﬃcient matrix (stiﬀness matrix) and the right-hand-side

vector are deﬁned as follow, respectively:

A

ij

=A

h

(φ

j

, φ

i

) , F

i

=F

h

(φ

i

) .

Now, the approximated problem may be written as

N

i=1

N

j=1

_

A

ij

θ

j

−F

i

_

δθ

i

=0 ∀δθ

i

.

It is (always) true if the expression in brackets equals zero which

gives the system of algebraic equations (for θ

j

=?):

N

i=1

A

ij

θ

j

=F

i

.

Example

In the case of our model problem we have

A

ij

=A

h

(φ

j

, φ

i

) =

b

_

a

_

αφ

i

φ

j

+γφ

i

φ

j

_

dx,

F

i

=F

h

(φ

i

) =

b

_

a

f φ

i

dx+

_

ˆ qφ

i

_

x=a

.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Galerkin method

The interpolation and system of algebraic equations

u

h

(x) =

N

j=1

θ

j

φ

j

(x) , δu

h

(x) =

N

i=1

δθ

i

φ

i

(x) .

Using this interpolation for the approximated problem leads to a system

of algebraic equations (as described below).

The coeﬃcient matrix (stiﬀness matrix) and the right-hand-side

vector are deﬁned as follow, respectively:

A

ij

=A

h

(φ

j

, φ

i

) , F

i

=F

h

(φ

i

) .

Now, the approximated problem may be written as

N

i=1

N

j=1

_

A

ij

θ

j

−F

i

_

δθ

i

=0 ∀δθ

i

.

It is (always) true if the expression in brackets equals zero which

gives the system of algebraic equations (for θ

j

=?):

N

i=1

A

ij

θ

j

=F

i

.

Example

In the case of our model problem we have

A

ij

=A

h

(φ

j

, φ

i

) =

b

_

a

_

αφ

i

φ

+γφ

i

φ

j

_

dx,

F

i

=F

h

(φ

i

) =

b

_

a

f φ

i

dx+

_

ˆ qφ

i

_

x=a

.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Galerkin method

The interpolation and system of algebraic equations

u

h

(x) =

N

j=1

θ

j

φ

j

(x) , δu

h

(x) =

N

i=1

δθ

i

φ

i

(x) .

Using this interpolation for the approximated problem leads to

The system of algebraic equations (for θ

j

=?)

N

A

ij

θ

j

=F

i

.

Example

In the case of our model problem we have

A

ij

=A

h

(φ

j

, φ

i

) =

b

_

a

_

αφ

i

φ

j

+γφ

i

φ

j

_

dx,

F

i

=F

h

(φ

i

) =

b

_

a

f φ

i

dx+

_

ˆ qφ

i

_

x=a

.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Outline

1

Introduction

Motivation and general concepts

Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis

2

Strong and weak forms

Model problem

Boundary-value problem and the strong form

The weak form

Associated variational problem

3

Galerkin method

Discrete (approximated) problem

System of algebraic equations

4

Finite element model

Discretization and (linear) shape functions

Lagrange interpolation functions

Finite element system of algebraic equations

Imposition of the essential boundary conditions

Results of analytical and FE solutions

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Discretization and (linear) shape functions

x

φ

i

(x)

0

1

a=x

1

x

2

x

i−2

x

i−1

x

i

x

i+1

x

i+2

x

N−1 x

N

=b

h

1

h

i−2

h

i−1

h

i

h

i+1

h

N−1

The domain interval is divided into N−1 ﬁnite elements (subdomains).

There are N nodes, each with only 1 degree of freedom (DoF).

Local (or element) shape function is (most often) deﬁned on an element

in this way that it is equal 1 in a particular node and 0 in the other(s).

Global shape function φ

i

is deﬁned on the whole domain as:

local shape functions on (neighboring) elements sharing the node (or DoF) i,

identically equal zero on all other elements.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Discretization and (linear) shape functions

x

φ

i

(x)

0

1

a=x

1

x

2

x

i−2

x

i−1

x

i

x

i+1

x

i+2

x

N−1 x

N

=b

h

1

h

i−2

h

i−1

h

i

h

i+1

h

N−1

The domain interval is divided into N−1 ﬁnite elements (subdomains).

There are N nodes, each with only 1 degree of freedom (DoF).

Local (or element) shape function is (most often) deﬁned on an element

in this way that it is equal 1 in a particular node and 0 in the other(s).

Global shape function φ

i

is deﬁned on the whole domain as:

local shape functions on (neighboring) elements sharing the node (or DoF) i,

identically equal zero on all other elements.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Discretization and (linear) shape functions

x

φ

i

(x)

0

1

a=x

1

x

2

x

i−2

x

i−1

x

i

x

i+1

x

i+2

x

N−1 x

N

=b

h

1

h

i−2

h

i−1

h

i

h

i+1

h

N−1

φ

(i−1)

i

The domain interval is divided into N−1 ﬁnite elements (subdomains).

There are N nodes, each with only 1 degree of freedom (DoF).

Local (or element) shape function is (most often) deﬁned on an element

in this way that it is equal 1 in a particular node and 0 in the other(s). So,

there are only two linear interpolation functions in 1D ﬁnite element.

Higher-order interpolation functions involve additional nodes inside element.

Global shape function φ

i

is deﬁned on the whole domain as:

local shape functions on (neighboring) elements sharing the node (or DoF) i,

identically equal zero on all other elements.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Discretization and (linear) shape functions

x

φ

i

(x)

0

1

a=x

1

x

2

x

i−2

x

i−1

x

i

x

i+1

x

i+2

x

N−1 x

N

=b

h

1

h

i−2

h

i−1

h

i

h

i+1

h

N−1

φ

(i−1)

i

φ

(i)

i

φ

i

The domain interval is divided into N−1 ﬁnite elements (subdomains).

There are N nodes, each with only 1 degree of freedom (DoF).

Local (or element) shape function is (most often) deﬁned on an element

in this way that it is equal 1 in a particular node and 0 in the other(s).

Global shape function φ

i

is deﬁned on the whole domain as:

local shape functions on (neighboring) elements sharing the node (or DoF) i,

identically equal zero on all other elements.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Discretization and (linear) shape functions

x

φ

i

(x)

0

1

a=x

1

x

2

x

i−2

x

i−1

x

i

x

i+1

x

i+2

x

N−1 x

N

=b

h

1

h

i−2

h

i−1

h

i

h

i+1

h

N−1

φ

i

The domain interval is divided into N−1 ﬁnite elements (subdomains).

There are N nodes, each with only 1 degree of freedom (DoF).

Local (or element) shape function is (most often) deﬁned on an element

in this way that it is equal 1 in a particular node and 0 in the other(s).

Global shape function φ

i

is deﬁned on the whole domain as:

local shape functions on (neighboring) elements sharing the node (or DoF) i,

identically equal zero on all other elements.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Discretization and (linear) shape functions

x

φ

i

(x)

0

1

a=x

1

x

2

x

i−2

x

i−1

x

i

x

i+1

x

i+2

x

N−1 x

N

=b

h

1

h

i−2

h

i−1

h

i

h

i+1

h

N−1

φ

i−1

φ

i+1

φ

i

Shape functions for internal nodes (i =2, . . . , (N−1)):

φ

i

=

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

x−x

i−1

h

i−1

for x ∈ Ω

i−1

,

x

i+1

−x

h

i

for x ∈ Ω

i

,

0 otherwise.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Discretization and (linear) shape functions

x

φ

i

(x)

0

1

a=x

1

x

2

x

i−2

x

i−1

x

i

x

i+1

x

i+2

x

N−1 x

N

=b

h

1

h

i−2

h

i−1

h

i

h

i+1

h

N−1

φ

i−1

φ

i+1

φ

1

φ

N

φ

i

Shape functions for boundary nodes (i =1 or N):

φ

1

=

_

¸

_

¸

_

x

2

−x

h

1

for x ∈ Ω

1

,

0 otherwise,

φ

N

=

_

¸

_

¸

_

x−x

N−1

h

N−1

for x ∈ Ω

N−1

,

0 otherwise.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Discretization and (linear) shape functions

x

φ

i

(x) h

i

-1

0

1

a=x

1

x

2

x

i−2

x

i−1

x

i

x

i+1

x

i+2

x

N−1 x

N

=b

h

1

h

i−2

h

i−1

h

i

h

i+1

h

N−1

φ

1

φ

i−1

φ

i−1

φ

i+1

φ

i+1

φ

N

φ

i

φ

i

First derivatives of shape functions are discontinuous at interfaces (points)

between elements (in the case of linear interpolation they are element-wise

constant):

φ

1

=

_

¸

_

¸

_

−

1

h

1

for x ∈ Ω

1

,

0 otherwise,

φ

i

=

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

1

h

i−1

for x ∈ Ω

i−1

,

−

1

h

i

for x ∈ Ω

i

,

0 otherwise.

φ

N

=

_

¸

_

¸

_

1

h

N−1

for x ∈ Ω

N−1

,

0 otherwise.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Lagrange interpolation functions

ξ

L

1

k

(ξ)

0

1

0 1

L

1

0

L

1

1

ξ

L

2

k

(ξ)

0

1

0 0.5 1

L

2

0

L

2

1

L

2

2

1st order (linear) 2nd order (quadratic)

L

1

0

(ξ) =1−ξ,

L

1

1

(ξ) =ξ,

L

2

0

(ξ) =(2ξ−1) (ξ−1) ,

L

2

1

(ξ) =4ξ(1−ξ) ,

L

2

2

(ξ) =ξ(2ξ−1) .

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Finite element system of algebraic equations

Matrix of the system

The symmetry of the bilinear form A involves the symmetry of the

matrix of the FE system of algebraic equations, i.e., A

ij

=A

ji

.

A component A

ij

is deﬁned as an integral (over the problem domain)

of a sum of a product of shape functions, φ

i

and φ

j

, and a product

of their derivatives, φ

i

and φ

j

.

The product of two shape functions (or their derivatives) is nonzero

only on the elements that contain the both corresponding degrees of

freedom (since a shape function corresponding to a particular degree

of freedom is nonzero only on the elements sharing it).

Therefore, the integral can be computed as a sum of the integrals

deﬁned only over these ﬁnite elements that share the both degrees

of freedom (since the contribution from all other elements is null):

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Finite element system of algebraic equations

Matrix of the system

The symmetry of the bilinear form A involves the symmetry of the

matrix of the FE system of algebraic equations, i.e., A

ij

=A

ji

.

A component A

ij

is deﬁned as an integral (over the problem domain)

of a sum of a product of shape functions, φ

i

and φ

j

, and a product

of their derivatives, φ

i

and φ

j

.

The product of two shape functions (or their derivatives) is nonzero

only on the elements that contain the both corresponding degrees of

freedom (since a shape function corresponding to a particular degree

of freedom is nonzero only on the elements sharing it).

Therefore, the integral can be computed as a sum of the integrals

deﬁned only over these ﬁnite elements that share the both degrees

of freedom (since the contribution from all other elements is null):

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Finite element system of algebraic equations

Matrix of the system

The symmetry of the bilinear form A involves the symmetry of the

matrix of the FE system of algebraic equations, i.e., A

ij

=A

ji

.

A component A

ij

is deﬁned as an integral (over the problem domain)

of a sum of a product of shape functions, φ

i

and φ

j

, and a product

of their derivatives, φ

i

and φ

j

.

The product of two shape functions (or their derivatives) is nonzero

only on the elements that contain the both corresponding degrees of

freedom (since a shape function corresponding to a particular degree

of freedom is nonzero only on the elements sharing it).

Therefore, the integral can be computed as a sum of the integrals

deﬁned only over these ﬁnite elements that share the both degrees

of freedom (since the contribution from all other elements is null):

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Finite element system of algebraic equations

Matrix of the system

The symmetry of the bilinear form A involves the symmetry of the

matrix of the FE system of algebraic equations, i.e., A

ij

=A

ji

.

A component A

ij

is deﬁned as an integral (over the problem domain)

of a sum of a product of shape functions, φ

i

and φ

j

, and a product

of their derivatives, φ

i

and φ

j

.

The product of two shape functions (or their derivatives) is nonzero

only on the elements that contain the both corresponding degrees of

freedom (since a shape function corresponding to a particular degree

of freedom is nonzero only on the elements sharing it).

Therefore, the integral can be computed as a sum of the integrals

deﬁned only over these ﬁnite elements that share the both degrees

of freedom (since the contribution from all other elements is null):

A

ij

=

e∈E

A

(e)

ij

=

e∈E(i,j)

A

(e)

ij

.

E – the set of all ﬁnite elements, E(i, j) – the set of ﬁnite elements that

contain the (both) degrees of freedom i and j.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Finite element system of algebraic equations

Matrix of the system

A

ij

=

e∈E

A

(e)

ij

=

e∈E(i,j)

A

(e)

ij

.

E – the set of all ﬁnite elements, E(i, j) – the set of ﬁnite elements that

contain the (both) degrees of freedom i and j.

For a 1D problem approximated by ﬁnite elements with linear shape

functions the matrix of the system will be tridiagonal:

A

ij

=

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

A

(1)

11

for i =j =1,

A

(i−1)

ii

+A

(i)

ii

for i =j =2, . . . , (N−1) ,

A

(N−1)

NN

for i =j =N,

A

(i)

i,i+1

for |i −j| =1,

0 for |i −j| >1.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Finite element system of algebraic equations

Matrix of the system

For our model problem the nonzero elements of the matrix are:

A

11

=

x

2

_

x

1

_

α

_

φ

1

_

2

+γφ

2

1

_

dx =

x

1

+h

1

_

x

1

α+γ

_

x

1

+h

1

−x

_

2

h

2

1

dx,

A

ii

=

x

i+1

_

x

i−1

_

α

_

φ

i

_

2

+γφ

2

i

_

dx =

x

i

_

x

i

−h

i−1

α+γ

_

x−x

i

+h

i−1

_

2

h

2

i−1

dx+

x

i

+h

i

_

x

i

α+γ

_

x

i

+h

i

−x

_

2

h

2

i

dx, i =2, . . . , (N−1) ,

A

NN

=

x

N

_

x

N−1

_

α

_

φ

N

_

2

+γφ

2

N

_

dx =

x

N

_

x

N

−h

N−1

α+γ

_

x−x

N

+h

N−1

_

2

h

2

N−1

dx,

A

i,(i+1)

=

x

i+1

_

x

i

_

αφ

i

φ

i+1

+γφ

i

φ

i+1

_

dx =

x

i

+h

i

_

x

i

−α+γ

_

x

i

+h

i

−x

__

x−x

i

_

h

2

i

dx, i =1, . . . , (N−1) .

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Finite element system of algebraic equations

Matrix of the system

For a homogeneous material when α(x) =const =α and γ(x) =const =γ,

our (tridiagonal) matrix is deﬁned as:

A

ij

=

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

α

h

1

+

γh

1

3

for i =j =1,

α

h

i−1

+

γh

i−1

3

+

α

h

i

+

γh

i

3

for i =j =2, . . . , (N−1) ,

α

h

N−1

+

γh

N−1

3

for i =j =N,

−

α

h

i

+

γh

i

6

for |i −j| =1,

0 for |i −j| >1.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Finite element system of algebraic equations

Right-hand-side vector

Right-hand-side vector:

F

i

=

e∈E

F

(e)

i

=

e∈E(i)

F

(e)

i

.

E – the set of all ﬁnite elements, E(i) – the set of ﬁnite elements that

contain the degree of freedom i.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Finite element system of algebraic equations

Right-hand-side vector

Right-hand-side vector:

F

i

=

e∈E

F

(e)

i

=

e∈E(i)

F

(e)

i

.

E – the set of all ﬁnite elements, E(i) – the set of ﬁnite elements that

contain the degree of freedom i.

For our model problem we have:

F

1

=

x

2

_

x

1

f φ

1

dx+

_

ˆ qφ

1

_

x=x

1

=

x

1

+h

1

_

x

1

f

_

x

1

+h

1

−x

_

h

1

dx+ ˆ q,

F

i

=

x

i+1

_

x

i−1

f φ

i

dx =

x

i

_

x

i

−h

i−1

f

_

x−x

i

+h

i−1

_

h

i−1

dx+

x

i

+h

i

_

x

i

f

_

x

i

+h

i

−x

_

h

i

dx, i =2, . . . , (N−1) ,

F

N

=? (to be computed as a reaction to the essential b.c. imposed in this node).

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Finite element system of algebraic equations

Right-hand-side vector

Right-hand-side vector:

F

i

=

e∈E

F

(e)

i

=

e∈E(i)

F

(e)

i

.

E – the set of all ﬁnite elements, E(i) – the set of ﬁnite elements that

contain the degree of freedom i.

For a uniform source (load), i.e., when f (x) =const =f , the r.h.s. vector is:

F

i

=

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

f h

1

2

+ ˆ q for i =1,

f

_

h

i−1

+h

i

_

2

for i =2, . . . , (N−1) ,

F

N

=? for i =N (a reaction to the essential b.c.).

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Imposition of the essential boundary conditions

In general, the assembled matrix A

ij

is singular and the system of

algebraic equations is undetermined. To make it solvable the essential

boundary conditions need to be imposed.

Let B be the set of all degrees of freedom where the essential boundary

conditions are applied, that is, for n ∈ B: θ

n

=

ˆ

θ

n

where

ˆ

θ

n

is a given

value. In practice, the essential BCs are imposed as described below.

Compute a new r.h.s. vector

˜

F

i

=F

i

−

n∈B

A

in

ˆ

θ

n

for i =1, . . . , N.

Set

˜

F

n

=

ˆ

θ

n

.

Set

˜

A

nn

=1 and all other components in the n-th row and n-th

column to zero, i.e.,

˜

A

ni

=

˜

A

in

=δ

in

for i =1, . . . , N.

Now, the new (sightly modiﬁed) system of equations,

§

¦

¤

¥

˜

A

ij

θ

i

=

˜

F

j

, is

solved for θ

i

. Eventually, a reaction reaction (force, source) is computed

F

n

=

N

i=1

A

ni

θ

i

.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Imposition of the essential boundary conditions

Let B be the set of all degrees of freedom where the essential boundary

conditions are applied, that is, for n ∈ B: θ

n

=

ˆ

θ

n

where

ˆ

θ

n

is a given

value. In practice, the essential BCs are imposed as described below.

Compute a new r.h.s. vector

˜

F

i

=F

i

−

n∈B

A

in

ˆ

θ

n

for i =1, . . . , N.

Set

˜

F

n

=

ˆ

θ

n

.

Set

˜

A

nn

=1 and all other components in the n-th row and n-th

column to zero, i.e.,

˜

A

ni

=

˜

A

in

=δ

in

for i =1, . . . , N.

Now, the new (sightly modiﬁed) system of equations,

§

¦

¤

¥

˜

A

ij

θ

i

=

˜

F

j

, is

solved for θ

i

. Eventually, a reaction reaction (force, source) is computed

F

n

=

N

i=1

A

ni

θ

i

.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Imposition of the essential boundary conditions

For our model problem the essential b.c. are imposed only in the last

node (i.e., the N-th DoF) where a known value

ˆ

θ

N

is given, so the

modiﬁed matrix and r.h.s. vector can be formally written as follows:

˜

A

ij

=

_

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

_

A

ij

for i, j =1, . . . , (N−1) ,

δ

Nj

for i =N, j =1, . . . , N,

δ

iN

for i =1, . . . , N, j =N,

˜

F

i

=

_

_

_

F

i

−A

iN

ˆ

θ

N

for i =1, . . . , (N−1) ,

ˆ

θ

N

for i =N.

After the solution of the modiﬁed system, the reaction may be computed:

F

N

=

N

i=1

A

Ni

θ

i

=A

N,(N−1)

θ

N−1

+A

NN

ˆ

θ

N

.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Results of analytical and FE solutions

α(x) =1, γ =3, f (x) =1.

a =0, q(0) = ˆ q =1, b =2, u(2) = ˆ u =0,

x

u(x)

a =0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 b =2

0.25

0.5

0.75

1

exact solution

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Results of analytical and FE solutions

α(x) =1, γ =3, f (x) =1.

a =0, q(0) = ˆ q =1, b =2, u(2) = ˆ u =0,

x

u(x)

a =0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 b =2

0.25

0.5

0.75

1

exact solution

FEM: N=5

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model

Results of analytical and FE solutions

α(x) =1, γ =3, f (x) =1.

a =0, q(0) = ˆ q =1, b =2, u(2) = ˆ u =0,

x

u(x)

a =0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 b =2

0.25

0.5

0.75

1

exact solution

FEM: N=5

FEM: N=12

Introduction

Strong and weak forms

Galerkin method

Finite element model

Outline

1

Introduction Motivation and general concepts Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis

Introduction

Strong and weak forms

Galerkin method

Finite element model

Outline

1

Introduction Motivation and general concepts Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis Strong and weak forms Model problem Boundary-value problem and the strong form The weak form Associated variational problem

2

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Outline 1 Introduction Motivation and general concepts Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis Strong and weak forms Model problem Boundary-value problem and the strong form The weak form Associated variational problem Galerkin method Discrete (approximated) problem System of algebraic equations 2 3 .

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Outline 1 Introduction Motivation and general concepts Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis Strong and weak forms Model problem Boundary-value problem and the strong form The weak form Associated variational problem Galerkin method Discrete (approximated) problem System of algebraic equations Finite element model Discretization and (linear) shape functions Lagrange interpolation functions Finite element system of algebraic equations Imposition of the essential boundary conditions Results of analytical and FE solutions 2 3 4 .

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Outline 1 Introduction Motivation and general concepts Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis Strong and weak forms Model problem Boundary-value problem and the strong form The weak form Associated variational problem Galerkin method Discrete (approximated) problem System of algebraic equations Finite element model Discretization and (linear) shape functions Lagrange interpolation functions Finite element system of algebraic equations Imposition of the essential boundary conditions Results of analytical and FE solutions 2 3 4 .

etc. Ritz) and weighted-residual (e.g.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Motivation and general concepts The Finite Element Method (FEM) is: [generally speaking] a powerful computational technique for the solution of diﬀerential and integral equations that arise in various ﬁelds of engineering and applied sciences. least-squares..) methods.e.. . [mathematically] a generalization of the classical variational (i. Galerkin.

[mathematically] a generalization of the classical variational (i.) methods. etc. Motivation Most of the real problems: are deﬁned on domains that are geometrically complex.. Ritz) and weighted-residual (e.e. Galerkin. may have diﬀerent boundary conditions on diﬀerent portions of the boundary. least-squares.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Motivation and general concepts The Finite Element Method (FEM) is: [generally speaking] a powerful computational technique for the solution of diﬀerential and integral equations that arise in various ﬁelds of engineering and applied sciences.. .g.

. etc. may have diﬀerent boundary conditions on diﬀerent portions of the boundary. to generate approximation functions required in the traditional variational methods. Motivation Most of the real problems: are deﬁned on domains that are geometrically complex. it is usually impossible (or diﬃcult): 1 2 to ﬁnd a solution analytically (so one must resort to approximate methods). Ritz) and weighted-residual (e.e.. [mathematically] a generalization of the classical variational (i. Galerkin.g. Therefore.) methods. An answer to these problems is a ﬁnite-element approach. least-squares..Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Motivation and general concepts The Finite Element Method (FEM) is: [generally speaking] a powerful computational technique for the solution of diﬀerential and integral equations that arise in various ﬁelds of engineering and applied sciences.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Motivation and general concepts Main concept of FEM A given domain can be viewed as an assemblage of simple geometric shapes. . for which it is possible to systematically generate the approximation functions. called ﬁnite elements.

depending on the choice of a particular variational and weighted-residual formulation. .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Motivation and general concepts Main concept of FEM A given domain can be viewed as an assemblage of simple geometric shapes. For a given BVP. The ﬁnite element method is a piecewise (or element-wise) application of the variational and weighted-residual methods. called ﬁnite elements. it is possible to develop diﬀerent ﬁnite element approximations (or ﬁnite element models). Remarks: The approximation functions are also called shape functions or interpolation functions since they are often constructed using ideas from interpolation theory. for which it is possible to systematically generate the approximation functions.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis 1 Discretization of the domain into a set of ﬁnite elements (mesh generation). .

Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the diﬀerential equation over a typical ﬁnite element (subdomain). 2 .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis 1 Discretization of the domain into a set of ﬁnite elements (mesh generation).

The ﬁnite element model consists of a set of algebraic equations among the unknown parameters (degrees of freedom) of the element.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis 1 Discretization of the domain into a set of ﬁnite elements (mesh generation). 2 3 . Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the diﬀerential equation over a typical ﬁnite element (subdomain). Development of the ﬁnite element model of the problem using its weighted-integral or weak form.

Assembly of ﬁnite elements to obtain the global system (i. The ﬁnite element model consists of a set of algebraic equations among the unknown parameters (degrees of freedom) of the element..e. for the total problem) of algebraic equations – for the unknown global degrees of freedom. 2 3 4 . Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the diﬀerential equation over a typical ﬁnite element (subdomain). Development of the ﬁnite element model of the problem using its weighted-integral or weak form.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis 1 Discretization of the domain into a set of ﬁnite elements (mesh generation).

2 3 4 5 . Imposition of essential boundary conditions..Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis 1 Discretization of the domain into a set of ﬁnite elements (mesh generation). Assembly of ﬁnite elements to obtain the global system (i. for the total problem) of algebraic equations – for the unknown global degrees of freedom.e. The ﬁnite element model consists of a set of algebraic equations among the unknown parameters (degrees of freedom) of the element. Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the diﬀerential equation over a typical ﬁnite element (subdomain). Development of the ﬁnite element model of the problem using its weighted-integral or weak form.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis 1 Discretization of the domain into a set of ﬁnite elements (mesh generation). Assembly of ﬁnite elements to obtain the global system (i. Imposition of essential boundary conditions. Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the diﬀerential equation over a typical ﬁnite element (subdomain).e. The ﬁnite element model consists of a set of algebraic equations among the unknown parameters (degrees of freedom) of the element. Solution of the system of algebraic equations to ﬁnd (approximate) values in the global degrees of freedom. for the total problem) of algebraic equations – for the unknown global degrees of freedom.. 2 3 4 5 6 . Development of the ﬁnite element model of the problem using its weighted-integral or weak form.

The ﬁnite element model consists of a set of algebraic equations among the unknown parameters (degrees of freedom) of the element. 2 3 4 5 6 7 .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis 1 Discretization of the domain into a set of ﬁnite elements (mesh generation). Post-computation of solution and quantities of interest. for the total problem) of algebraic equations – for the unknown global degrees of freedom. Assembly of ﬁnite elements to obtain the global system (i.e. Development of the ﬁnite element model of the problem using its weighted-integral or weak form. Imposition of essential boundary conditions. Weighted-integral or weak formulation of the diﬀerential equation over a typical ﬁnite element (subdomain). Solution of the system of algebraic equations to ﬁnd (approximate) values in the global degrees of freedom..

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Outline 1 Introduction Motivation and general concepts Major steps of ﬁnite element analysis Strong and weak forms Model problem Boundary-value problem and the strong form The weak form Associated variational problem Galerkin method Discrete (approximated) problem System of algebraic equations Finite element model Discretization and (linear) shape functions Lagrange interpolation functions Finite element system of algebraic equations Imposition of the essential boundary conditions Results of analytical and FE solutions 2 3 4 .

f (x) are the known data of the problem: the ﬁrst two quantities result from the material properties and geometry of the problem whereas the third one depends on source or loads. it is also called dependent variable of the problem (with x being the independent variable). u(x) is the solution to be determined. b) α(x). γ(x).Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Model problem (O)DE: − du(x) d α(x) + γ(x) u(x) = f (x) dx dx for x ∈ (a. .

it is also called dependent variable of the problem (with x being the independent variable).. u(x) is the solution to be determined.g. nx (b) = +1.) (Dirichlet b. b) α(x). BCs: q(a) nx (a) = − α(a) du (a) = q . . and the points x = a and x = b are the boundary points where boundary conditions are imposed. ˆ dx ˆ u(b) = u . f (x) are the known data of the problem.c. e.) ˆ ˆ q and u are the given boundary values. γ(x). (Neumann b. In the 1D case there is only one component and: nx (a) = −1.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Model problem (O)DE: − du(x) d α(x) + γ(x) u(x) = f (x) dx dx for x ∈ (a. b).c. The domain of this 1D problem is an interval (a. nx is the component of the outward unit vector normal to the boundary.

) (Dirichlet b.) Moreover. (Neumann b.c. b) BCs: q(a) nx (a) = − α(a) du (a) = q . q(x) ≡ α(x) the boundary by the Neumann boundary condition also known as the second kind or natural boundary condition. ˆ dx ˆ u(b) = u .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Model problem (O)DE: − du(x) d α(x) + γ(x) u(x) = f (x) dx dx for x ∈ (a.c. u(x) is the primary variable speciﬁed on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary condition also known as the ﬁrst kind or essential boundary condition. du(x) is the so-called secondary variable speciﬁed on dx .

) Heat transfer temperature thermal conductance heat generation inﬁltration 0 pressure gradient transversal force axial force 0 charge density heat source source shear stress point force point force torque electric ﬂux Flow through porous medium ﬂuid-head permeability Flow through pipes pressure pipe resistance Flow of viscous ﬂuids velocity viscosity Elastic cables displacement Elastic bars displacement Torsion of bars angle of twist Electrostatics electric potential tension axial stiﬀness shear stiﬀness dielectric constant . load) q (secondary var.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Examples of diﬀerent physical problems u (primary var.) α (material data) f (source.

that is.. (the data of the problem): f : Ω → ℜ. Γ be the boundary of Ω.g.. Γq = {a} and Γu = {b} are disjoint parts of the boundary (i. respectively. γ : Ω → ℜ.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Boundary-value problem and the strong form Ω = (a.e. Γ = {a. ˆ ˆ (the values prescribed on the boundary): q : Γq → ℜ. u : Γu → ℜ. Γq ∩ Γu = ) relating to the Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. b}. . b) be an open set (an open interval in case of 1D problems). α : Ω → ℜ. Γ = Γq ∪ Γu where. e.

on Γu = {b} . Γq ∩ Γu = ) relating to the Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions.: Neumann b.. Γ = {a. u : Γu → ℜ.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Boundary-value problem and the strong form Ω = (a. α : Ω → ℜ. on Γq = {a} . Boundary-value problem (BVP): Find u =? satisfying diﬀerential eq.: − αu +γu = f in Ω = (a.. b) be an open set (an open interval in case of 1D problems). respectively. e. Γ = Γq ∪ Γu where. b) . (the data of the problem): f : Ω → ℜ. ˆ α u nx = q ˆ u=u .c.g. ˆ ˆ (the values prescribed on the boundary): q : Γq → ℜ. b}. that is.c.: Dirichlet b. Γq = {a} and Γu = {b} are disjoint parts of the boundary (i. γ : Ω → ℜ.e. Γ be the boundary of Ω.

i. on Γu = {b} . The Dirichlet (essential) boundary conditions must be satisﬁed a priori. on Γq = {a} .: Neumann b.e. b) . the natural conditions imposed on the secondary dependent variable (which involves the ﬁrst derivative of the dependent variable). ˆ α u nx = q ˆ u=u .: Dirichlet b.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Boundary-value problem and the strong form Boundary-value problem (BVP): Find u =? satisfying diﬀerential eq. − αu +γu = f in Ω = (a.: Deﬁnition (Strong form) The classical strong form of a boundary-value problem consists of: the diﬀerential equation of the problem. the Neumann boundary conditions.c.c..

u (the solution) belongs to (the space of) trial functions. Here: δu (the weighting function) belongs to (the space of) test functions. 2 Trade diﬀerentiation from u to δu using integration by parts .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model The weak form Derivation and the equivalence to the strong form 1 Write the weighted-residual statement for the domain equation b − αu a + γ u − f δu dx = 0 .

b} . . u (the solution) belongs to (the space of) trial functions. 2 Trade diﬀerentiation from u to δu using integration by parts b − α u δu b a + a α u δu + γ u δu − f δu dx = 0 where the boundary term may be written as − α u δu b a = − α u δu x=b − − α u δu x=a x=a = − α u nx δu x=b + − α u nx δu = − α u nx δu x={a.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model The weak form Derivation and the equivalence to the strong form 1 Write the weighted-residual statement for the domain equation b − αu + γ u − f δu dx = 0 . Here: a δu (the weighting function) belongs to (the space of) test functions.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model The weak form Derivation and the equivalence to the strong form 1 Write the weighted-residual statement for the domain equation b − αu a 2 + γ u − f δu dx = 0 .e..b} = −α u nx δu ˆ q x=a + −α u nx δu 0 x=b ˆ = −q δu x=a . . for the solution). 3 ˆ Use the Neumann boundary condition (α u nx = q on Γq ) and the property of test function (δu = 0 on Γu ) for the boundary term −α u nx δu x={a. Trade diﬀerentiation from u to δu using integration by parts b − α u δu b a + a α u δu + γ u δu − f δu dx = 0 The integration by parts weakens the diﬀerentiability requirement for the trial functions u (i.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model The weak form Derivation and the equivalence to the strong form 1 2 3 Write the weighted-residual statement for the domain equation Trade diﬀerentiation from u to δu using integration by parts ˆ Use the Neumann boundary condition (α u nx = q on Γq ) and the property of test function (δu = 0 on Γu ) for the boundary term In this way. The weak form is mathematically equivalent to the strong one. that is. i.e. integral) formulation for any δu (admissible. Weak form b ˆ − q δu x=a + a α u δu + γ u δu − f δu dx = 0 . it also satisﬁes the corresponding weak (global. the weak (variational) form is obtained. .. diﬀerential) formulation of a BVP. if u is a solution to the strong (local. suﬃciently smooth and δu = 0 on Γu ).

) .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model The weak form Additional requirements and remarks The essential boundary conditions must be explicitly satisﬁed by the ˆ trial functions: u = u on Γu . (In case of displacement formulations of many mechanical and structural engineering problems this is called kinematic admissibility requirement.

(In case of displacement formulations of many mechanical and structural engineering problems this is called kinematic admissibility requirement.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model The weak form Additional requirements and remarks The essential boundary conditions must be explicitly satisﬁed by the ˆ trial functions: u = u on Γu .) Consequently. the test functions must satisfy the adequate homogeneous essential boundary conditions: δu = 0 on Γu . .

The trial functions u (and test functions. the test functions must satisfy the adequate homogeneous essential boundary conditions: δu = 0 on Γu . (Remember that in the case of strong form the continuity of the ﬁrst derivative of solution u was required.) Consequently. (In case of displacement formulations of many mechanical and structural engineering problems this is called kinematic admissibility requirement.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model The weak form Additional requirements and remarks The essential boundary conditions must be explicitly satisﬁed by the ˆ trial functions: u = u on Γu .) . δu) need only to be continuous.

Introduction

Strong and weak forms

Galerkin method

Finite element model

**The weak form
**

Additional requirements and remarks

The essential boundary conditions must be explicitly satisﬁed by the ˆ trial functions: u = u on Γu . (In case of displacement formulations of many mechanical and structural engineering problems this is called kinematic admissibility requirement.) Consequently, the test functions must satisfy the adequate homogeneous essential boundary conditions: δu = 0 on Γu . The trial functions u (and test functions, δu) need only to be continuous. (Remember that in the case of strong form the continuity of the ﬁrst derivative of solution u was required.) Remarks: The strong form can be derived from the corresponding weak formulation if we take more demanding assumptions for the smoothness of trial functions (i.e., one-order higher diﬀerentiability). In variational methods, any test function is a variation deﬁned as the diﬀerence between any two trial functions. Since any trial function satisfy the essential boundary conditions, the requirement that δu = 0 on Γu follows immediately.

Introduction

Strong and weak forms

Galerkin method

Finite element model

**The weak form
**

Test and trial functions

u(x), δu(x)

solution and trial functions, u

u1 u2

ˆ u

test functions, δu

x

Γu

Γq

Dirichlet b.c. ˆ u = u, δ u = 0

Neumann b.c.

**u1 , u2 – arbitrary trial functions
**

δu = u1 − u2

and

ˆ u1 = u ˆ u2 = u

on Γu on Γu

→

δu = 0

on Γu

Introduction

Strong and weak forms

Galerkin method

Finite element model

**Associated variational problem
**

Let: U, W are functional spaces. The ﬁrst one is called the space of solution (or trial functions), the other one is the space of test functions (or weighting functions), A is a bilinear form deﬁned on U × W, F is a linear form deﬁned on W, P is a certain functional deﬁned on U.

The ﬁrst one is called the space of solution (or trial functions). variational problem Weak formulation: Variational problem: Find u ∈ U so that A(u. Weak form vs. A is a bilinear form deﬁned on U × W. The weak form can be viewed as equivalent to a variational problem. Find u ∈ U which minimizes P(u). the other one is the space of test functions (or weighting functions). . δu) = F(δu) ∀ δu ∈ W.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Associated variational problem Let: U. W are functional spaces. P is a certain functional deﬁned on U. F is a linear form deﬁned on W.

variational problem Weak formulation: Variational problem: Example In the case of the model problem: b b Find u ∈ U so that A(u. A is a bilinear form deﬁned on U × W. . δu) = a α u δu + γ u δu dx . Weak form vs. the other one is the space of test functions (or weighting functions). P is a certain functional deﬁned on U.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Associated variational problem Let: U. The weak form can be viewed as equivalent to a variational problem. A(u. The ﬁrst one is called the space of solution (or trial functions). F is a linear form deﬁned on W. Find u ∈ U which minimizes P(u). W are functional spaces. δu) = F(δu) ∀ δu ∈ W. F(δu) = a ˆ f δu dx + q δu x=a .

P(u) is the potential energy . The weak form is the statement of the principle of the minimum total potential energy § ¤ δP(u) = 0 . δu) − F(δu) ¦ ¥ δ is now the variational symbol. Find u ∈ U which minimizes P(u).Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Associated variational problem and the principle of the minimum total potential energy Weak form vs. δu) = F(δu) ∀ δu ∈ W. variational problem Weak formulation: Variational problem: Find u ∈ U so that A(u. δP(u) = A(u.

u) − F(u) . 2 2 A(u. Find u ∈ U which minimizes P(u). u) +A(u. . δu) − F(δu) ¦ ¥ δ is now the variational symbol. u) = A(δu. The weak form is the statement of the principle of the minimum total potential energy § ¤ δP(u) = 0 . This deﬁnition holds only when the bilinear form is symmetric. δu) = F(δu) ∀ δu ∈ W.δu) 1 2 δF(u) = F (δu) . since: 1 1 δA(u. variational problem Weak formulation: Variational problem: Find u ∈ U so that A(u. P(u) is the potential energy deﬁned by the quadratic functional P(u) = A(u.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Associated variational problem and the principle of the minimum total potential energy Weak form vs. δu) = A(u. δP(u) = A(u. δu) .

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Associated variational problem and the principle of the minimum total potential energy The weak form is the statement of the principle of the minimum total potential energy § ¤ δP(u) = 0 . P(u) is the potential energy deﬁned by the quadratic functional P(u) = A(u. u) − F(u) . Example In the case of the model problem: 1 P(u) = A(u. δu) − F (δu) = a ˆ α u δu + γ u δu − f δu dx − q δu x=a . δP(u) = A(u. δP(u) = A(u. δu) − F (δu) ¦ ¥ δ is now the variational symbol. . u) − F(u) = 2 b 1 2 α a b 2 u 2 + γ 2 ˆ u2 − f u dx − q u x=a .

e.) ¦ ¥ Ah is an approximation of the bilinear form A. § ¤ In the Galerkin method Wh = Uh . Here: Uh is a ﬁnite-dimension space of functions called approximation space whereas uh is the approximate solution (i. . δuh ) = Fh (δuh ) ∀ δuh ∈ Wh . Discrete (approximated) problem Find uh ∈ Uh so that Ah (uh . Wh = Uh . δuh are discrete test functions from the discrete test space Wh . (In general..Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Galerkin method Discrete (approximated) problem If the problem is well-posed one can try to ﬁnd an approximated solution uh by solving the so-called discrete problem which is an approximation of the corresponding variational problem. Fh is an approximation of the linear form F. approximate to the original problem).

φi (x). are used to interpolate the approximate solution as well as the (discrete) test functions: N N uh (x) = j=1 θj φj (x) . δuh (x) = i=1 δθi φi (x) . θi are called degrees of freedom.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Galerkin method The interpolation and system of algebraic equations In the Galerkin method (W = U) the same shape functions. . Here.

i=1 j=1 Fh (φi ) δθi = Fi δθi . and the coeﬃcient matrix (stiﬀness matrix) and the right-hand-side vector are deﬁned as follow. Fi = Fh (φi ) .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Galerkin method The interpolation and system of algebraic equations N N uh (x) = j=1 θj φj (x) . i=1 where the (bi)linearity property is used. φi ) . δuh (x) = i=1 δθi φi (x) . δuh ) = Fh (δuh ) = N N i=1 j=1 N i=1 Ah (φj . φi ) θj δθi = N N N Aij θj δθi . respectively: Aij = Ah (φj . Using this interpolation for the approximated problem leads to a system of algebraic equations (as described below). The left-hand and right-hand sides of the problem equation yield: Ah (uh . .

Using this interpolation for the approximated problem leads to a system of algebraic equations (as described below).Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Galerkin method The interpolation and system of algebraic equations N N uh (x) = j=1 θj φj (x) . N N Fi = Fh (φi ) . the approximated problem may be written as Aij θj − Fi δθi = 0 i=1 j=1 ∀ δθi . . Now. respectively: Aij = Ah (φj . The coeﬃcient matrix (stiﬀness matrix) and the right-hand-side vector are deﬁned as follow. δuh (x) = i=1 δθi φi (x) . φi ) .

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Galerkin method The interpolation and system of algebraic equations N N uh (x) = j=1 θj φj (x) . It is (always) true if the expression in brackets equals zero which gives the system of algebraic equations (for θj =?): N Aij θj = Fi . δuh (x) = i=1 δθi φi (x) . respectively: Aij = Ah (φj . Using this interpolation for the approximated problem leads to a system of algebraic equations (as described below). i=1 . N N Fi = Fh (φi ) . The coeﬃcient matrix (stiﬀness matrix) and the right-hand-side vector are deﬁned as follow. the approximated problem may be written as Aij θj − Fi δθi = 0 i=1 j=1 ∀ δθi . Now. φi ) .

φi ) = b a α φi φj + γ φi φj dx . .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Galerkin method The interpolation and system of algebraic equations N N uh (x) = j=1 θj φj (x) . Fi = Fh (φi ) = a ˆ f φi dx + q φi x=a . i=1 Example In the case of our model problem we have b Aij = Ah (φj . Using this interpolation for the approximated problem leads to The system of algebraic equations (for θj =?) N Aij θj = Fi . δuh (x) = i=1 δθi φi (x) .

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Discretization and (linear) shape functions φi (x) 1 0 a = x1 h1 x2 xi−2 xi−1 hi−1 xi hi xi+1 xi+2 xN −1 xN = b x hi−2 hi+1 hN −1 The domain interval is divided into N − 1 ﬁnite elements (subdomains). .

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Discretization and (linear) shape functions φi (x) 1 0 a = x1 h1 x2 xi−2 xi−1 hi−1 xi hi xi+1 xi+2 xN −1 xN = b x hi−2 hi+1 hN −1 The domain interval is divided into N − 1 ﬁnite elements (subdomains). There are N nodes. each with only 1 degree of freedom (DoF). .

There are N nodes. Higher-order interpolation functions involve additional nodes inside element. each with only 1 degree of freedom (DoF). there are only two linear interpolation functions in 1D ﬁnite element. So.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Discretization and (linear) shape functions φi (x) 1 φ(i−1) i 0 a = x1 h1 x2 xi−2 xi−1 hi−1 xi hi xi+1 xi+2 xN −1 xN = b x hi−2 hi+1 hN −1 The domain interval is divided into N − 1 ﬁnite elements (subdomains). . Local (or element) shape function is (most often) deﬁned on an element in this way that it is equal 1 in a particular node and 0 in the other(s).

Global shape function φi is deﬁned on the whole domain as: local shape functions on (neighboring) elements sharing the node (or DoF) i.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Discretization and (linear) shape functions φi (x) 1 φ(i−1) i φi φ(i) i 0 a = x1 h1 x2 xi−2 xi−1 hi−1 xi hi xi+1 xi+2 xN −1 xN = b x hi−2 hi+1 hN −1 The domain interval is divided into N − 1 ﬁnite elements (subdomains). each with only 1 degree of freedom (DoF). . Local (or element) shape function is (most often) deﬁned on an element in this way that it is equal 1 in a particular node and 0 in the other(s). There are N nodes.

Global shape function φi is deﬁned on the whole domain as: local shape functions on (neighboring) elements sharing the node (or DoF) i. each with only 1 degree of freedom (DoF). .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Discretization and (linear) shape functions φi (x) 1 φi 0 a = x1 h1 x2 xi−2 xi−1 hi−1 xi hi xi+1 xi+2 xN −1 xN = b x hi−2 hi+1 hN −1 The domain interval is divided into N − 1 ﬁnite elements (subdomains). Local (or element) shape function is (most often) deﬁned on an element in this way that it is equal 1 in a particular node and 0 in the other(s). identically equal zero on all other elements. There are N nodes.

Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Discretization and (linear) shape functions φi (x) 1 φi−1 φi φi+1 0 a = x1 h1 x2 xi−2 xi−1 hi−1 xi hi xi+1 xi+2 xN −1 xN = b x hi−2 hi+1 hN −1 Shape functions for internal nodes (i = 2. . . (N − 1)): x − xi−1 h i−1 φi = xi+1 − x h i 0 for x ∈ Ωi−1 . . . otherwise. for x ∈ Ωi . .

x − xN −1 hN −1 φN = 0 for x ∈ ΩN −1 .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Discretization and (linear) shape functions φi (x) 1 φi−1 φi φi+1 φN φ1 0 a = x1 h1 x2 xi−2 xi−1 hi−1 xi hi xi+1 xi+2 xN −1 xN = b x hi−2 hi+1 hN −1 Shape functions for boundary nodes (i = 1 or N ): x2 − x h1 φ1 = 0 for x ∈ Ω1 . otherwise. . otherwise.

otherwise. otherwise. . φN = for x ∈ Ω1 .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Discretization and (linear) shape functions φi (x) hi 1 φi−1 φi φi+1 φN 0 a = x1 x2 φ1 x xi−2 xi−1 φi−1 xi φi xi+1 xi+2 φi+1 xN −1 xN = b -1 h1 hi−2 hi−1 hi hi+1 hN −1 First derivatives of shape functions are discontinuous at interfaces (points) between elements (in the case of linear interpolation they are element-wise constant): 1 − h1 φ1 = 0 1 h i−1 φi = 1 − h i 0 for x ∈ Ωi−1 . otherwise. for x ∈ Ωi . 1 hN −1 0 for x ∈ ΩN −1 .

1 2nd order (quadratic) L2 (ξ) = (2ξ − 1) (ξ − 1) . 2 .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Lagrange interpolation functions L1 (ξ) k L1 0 L1 1 L 2 (ξ ) k L2 0 L2 1 L2 2 1 1 0 0 1 ξ 0 0 0. 0 L2 (ξ) = 4ξ (1 − ξ) .5 1 ξ 1st order (linear) L1 (ξ) = 1 − ξ . 1 L2 (ξ) = ξ (2ξ − 1) . 0 L1 (ξ) = ξ .

. Aij = Aji . i..e.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Finite element system of algebraic equations Matrix of the system The symmetry of the bilinear form A involves the symmetry of the matrix of the FE system of algebraic equations.

i. φi and φj .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Finite element system of algebraic equations Matrix of the system The symmetry of the bilinear form A involves the symmetry of the matrix of the FE system of algebraic equations. Aij = Aji .e. φi and φj . A component Aij is deﬁned as an integral (over the problem domain) of a sum of a product of shape functions. . and a product of their derivatives..

. and a product of their derivatives. φi and φj . Aij = Aji . .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Finite element system of algebraic equations Matrix of the system The symmetry of the bilinear form A involves the symmetry of the matrix of the FE system of algebraic equations. i. The product of two shape functions (or their derivatives) is nonzero only on the elements that contain the both corresponding degrees of freedom (since a shape function corresponding to a particular degree of freedom is nonzero only on the elements sharing it).e. φi and φj . A component Aij is deﬁned as an integral (over the problem domain) of a sum of a product of shape functions.

i.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Finite element system of algebraic equations Matrix of the system The symmetry of the bilinear form A involves the symmetry of the matrix of the FE system of algebraic equations. A component Aij is deﬁned as an integral (over the problem domain) of a sum of a product of shape functions. the integral can be computed as a sum of the integrals deﬁned only over these ﬁnite elements that share the both degrees of freedom (since the contribution from all other elements is null): Aij = e∈E A(e) = ij e∈E(i. . ij E – the set of all ﬁnite elements. and a product of their derivatives. φi and φj . Therefore. E(i.e. The product of two shape functions (or their derivatives) is nonzero only on the elements that contain the both corresponding degrees of freedom (since a shape function corresponding to a particular degree of freedom is nonzero only on the elements sharing it). φi and φj .j) A(e) . j) – the set of ﬁnite elements that contain the (both) degrees of freedom i and j. Aij = Aji ..

. j) – the set of ﬁnite elements that contain the (both) degrees of freedom i and j. .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Finite element system of algebraic equations Matrix of the system Aij = e∈E A(e) = ij e∈E(i. . for |i − j| > 1 . for |i − j| = 1 . .i+1 0 for i = j = 1 . (N − 1) . E(i. ij E – the set of all ﬁnite elements. for i = j = 2. for i = j = N . For a 1D problem approximated by ﬁnite elements with linear shape functions the matrix of the system will be tridiagonal: A(1) 11 (i−1) (i) A ii + Aii Aij = A(N −1) NN (i) A i. .j) A(e) .

. (N − 1) . . . Aii = xi−1 α φi 2 + γ φ2 dx = i xN α + γ x − xi + hi−1 2 xi −hi−1 h2−1 i 2 dx + xi xN α + γ xi + hi − x 2 h2 i 2 dx . .(i+1) = xi α φi φi+1 + γ φi φi+1 dx = xi −α + γ xi + hi − x x − xi h2 i dx . i = 1. (N − 1) . i = 2. .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Finite element system of algebraic equations Matrix of the system For our model problem the nonzero elements of the matrix are: x2 x1 +h1 A11 = x1 xi+1 α φ1 xi 2 + γ φ2 dx = 1 x1 α + γ x1 + h1 − x 2 h2 1 xi +hi dx . ANN = xN −1 xi+1 α φN + γ φ2 dx = N xi +hi α + γ x − xN + hN −1 xN −hN −1 h2 −1 N dx . Ai. . . . .

for |i − j| > 1 . (N − 1) . . . . for i = j = N . . . for |i − j| = 1 . for i = j = 2. our (tridiagonal) matrix is deﬁned as: α + γ h1 3 h1 γ hi γh α α hi−1 + 3−1 + hi + 3 i N Aij = h α + γ h3 −1 N −1 α γ hi − + hi 6 0 for i = j = 1 .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Finite element system of algebraic equations Matrix of the system For a homogeneous material when α(x) = const = α and γ(x) = const = γ.

E – the set of all ﬁnite elements.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Finite element system of algebraic equations Right-hand-side vector Right-hand-side vector: Fi = e∈E (e) Fi = e∈E(i) (e) Fi . E(i) – the set of ﬁnite elements that contain the degree of freedom i. .

. For our model problem we have: x2 x1 +h1 x=x1 F1 = x1 ˆ f φ1 dx + q φ1 xi+1 xi = x1 f x 1 + h1 − x h1 xi +hi ˆ dx + q . . . Fi = xi−1 f φi dx = f x − xi + hi−1 hi−1 dx + xi f xi + hi − x hi dx . E – the set of all ﬁnite elements.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Finite element system of algebraic equations Right-hand-side vector Right-hand-side vector: Fi = e∈E (e) Fi = e∈E(i) (e) Fi . xi −hi−1 FN = ? (to be computed as a reaction to the essential b. imposed in this node). . (N − 1) .c. E(i) – the set of ﬁnite elements that contain the degree of freedom i. i = 2. .

.s.e.. For a uniform source (load).c.h. E – the set of all ﬁnite elements. vector is: f h1 + q ˆ 2 2 F = ? N for i = 1 . Fi = f hi−1 +hi . (N − 1) . . when f (x) = const = f .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Finite element system of algebraic equations Right-hand-side vector Right-hand-side vector: Fi = e∈E (e) Fi = e∈E(i) (e) Fi . the r.). i. . for i = N (a reaction to the essential b. . E(i) – the set of ﬁnite elements that contain the degree of freedom i. for i = 2.

To make it solvable the essential boundary conditions need to be imposed. the assembled matrix Aij is singular and the system of algebraic equations is undetermined.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Imposition of the essential boundary conditions In general. .

. . is ¦ ¥ solved for θi . . source) is computed N ˜ ˜ Ani = Ain = δin Fn = i=1 Ani θi . ˜ ˆ Set Fn = θn . . . N .h. for i = 1. N . . ˜ Set Ann = 1 and all other components in the n-th row and n-th column to zero. . for n ∈ B: θn = θn where θn is a given value. i. the new (sightly modiﬁed) system of equations.e. Aij θi = Fj . vector ˜ Fi = Fi − n∈B ˆ Ain θn for i = 1.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Imposition of the essential boundary conditions Let B be the set of all degrees of freedom where the essential boundary ˆ ˆ conditions are applied.s. . a reaction reaction (force. § ¤ ˜ ˜ Now. Compute a new r. that is.. . Eventually. the essential BCs are imposed as described below. In practice.

e.s. . . vector can be formally written as follows: A ij for i. . j = 1. (N − 1) . . . .Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Imposition of the essential boundary conditions For our model problem the essential b. the N -th DoF) where a known value θN is given. for i = N .c. the reaction may be computed: N FN = i=1 ˆ ANi θi = AN . ˜ Aij = δNj δiN F − A θ ˆ i iN N ˜ Fi = θ N ˆ for i = 1. N . so the modiﬁed matrix and r. . After the solution of the modiﬁed system. . are imposed only in the last ˆ node (i. for i = 1.(N −1) θN −1 + ANN θN . . . . for i = N . . j = 1. . . . ..h. N . (N − 1) . j = N . .

γ = 3.75 1 1.75 b=2 .75 0. b = 2.25 x a=0 0.25 1. exact solution 0. f (x) = 1. u(x) 1 ˆ q(0) = q = 1.5 0.25 0.5 1. ˆ u(2) = u = 0.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Results of analytical and FE solutions α(x) = 1. a = 0.5 0.

u(x) 1 0. b = 2.25 0.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Results of analytical and FE solutions α(x) = 1. f (x) = 1.5 1.75 0.5 0. exact solution FEM: N = 5 x a=0 0.75 1 1. a = 0.25 ˆ q(0) = q = 1.75 b=2 . ˆ u(2) = u = 0.5 0.25 1. γ = 3.

5 1.25 0.5 0. exact solution FEM: N = 5 FEM: N = 12 x a=0 0. ˆ u(2) = u = 0. γ = 3. a = 0. b = 2. f (x) = 1.75 b=2 .5 0. u(x) 1 0.25 ˆ q(0) = q = 1.75 1 1.75 0.Introduction Strong and weak forms Galerkin method Finite element model Results of analytical and FE solutions α(x) = 1.25 1.