The United Nations (abbreviated UN in English, and ONU in its other official languages), is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. It contains multiple subsidiary organizations to carry out its missions. There are 193 member states, including every internationally recognised sovereign state in the world but Vatican City. From its offices around the world, the UN and its specialized agencies decide on substantive and administrative issues in regular meetings held throughout the year. The organization has six principal organs: theGeneral Assembly (the main deliberative assembly); the Security Council (for deciding certain resolutions for peace and security); the Economic and Social Council (for assisting in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development); the Secretariat (for providing studies, information, and facilities needed by the UN); the International Court of Justice (the primary judicial organ); and theUnited Nations Trusteeship Council (which is currently inactive). Other prominent UN System agencies include the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Food Programme (WFP) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). The UN's most prominent position is Secretary-General which has been held by Ban Ki-moon ofSouth Korea since 2007. The United Nations Headquarters resides in international territory in New York City, with further main offices at Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed from assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states, and has six official languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish.
On April 25, 1945, the United Nations Conference on International Organization began in San Francisco. In addition to governments, a number of non-government organizations, including Rotary International and Lions Clubs International received invitations to assist in the drafting of a charter. After working for two months, the fifty nations represented at the conference signed the Charter of the United Nations on June 26. Poland, which was unable to send a representative to the conference due to political instability, signed the charter on October 15, 1945. The charter stated that before it would come into effect, it must be ratified by the Governments of the Republic of China, France, the USSR, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and by a majority of the other 46 signatories. This occurred on October 24, 1945, and the United Nations was officially formed. The League of Nations formally dissolved itself on 18 April 1946 and transferred its mission to the United Nations.
trafficking and sale of women and children both within societies and internationally. Freedom For All seeks to promote and protect basic human rights around the world by drawing attention to abuses which contravene internationally accepted standards of behaviour and by calling upon nations to fulfil their obligations under United Nations’ conventions and agreements to which they are signatories. In instances where such human rights’ violations have occurred. as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 6. Freedom For All. medical treatment and adequate accommodation. Freedom For All supports the fundamental freedoms of thought and expression. as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees. Freedom For All supports and demands the universal application of the 1951 Convention on Human Rights. so that families are aware of the status of their relations. especially women and children. 5. insisting on the need to reunite and regroup refugees. 7. freedom of expression. as well as the establishment of a commission of enquiry to investigate the abuses and identify the perpetrators. missing or dead. 11. 4.
. Freedom For All calls upon host countries to do all in their power to facilitate the rights of refugees to family life. emphasising the need to protect and support refugees in their temporary countries of residence and to enable them to return to their homelands as speedily and easily as possible. in accordance with the fundamental principles of the United Nations Organisation and international conventions. thought and religion. Freedom For All calls for better and increased scrutiny of donations and delivery of international aid to ensure that humanitarian aid reaches those for whom it is intended and that the misappropriation of humanitarian aid is both impeded and severely punished. which describes the family as the natural and fundamental unit of society and declares it entitled to protection by society and state. as well as the need to preserve the civilian and humanitarian character of refugee camps and their attendant facilities as enunciated in 1987 by the UNHCR’s Executive Committee. 12. Freedom For All deplores and decries the abuse of basic human rights of Prisoners of War. and the deprivations of basic food rations.AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
1. Freedom For All seeks to encourage states to adopt international humanitarian conventions to improve the lives of their citizens. Freedom For All calls upon nations in dispute to supply accurate information as quickly as possible about civilians and combatants who are injured. Freedom For All seeks to promote the fair and humanitarian treatment of refugees. 8. torture or imprisonment. 9. their coercion to carry out forced labour. and the freedoms of association and travel within and beyond their countries of temporary residence. Freedom For All also supports the 2002 Notice of Protection issued by the United Nations’ High Commission for Refugees. 2. 3. Freedom For All campaigns to prevent the exploitation. which urges states to respect the principle of freely approved return of refugees to their homes 10. calls for greater and improved protection of the basic rights of the vulnerable. Freedom For All seeks to end the recruitment and training of children into militias and armies and calls for the increased protection of children and the elderly in areas of conflict. Freedom For All calls for compensation for the victims from the state on whose territory they were imprisoned and maltreated. as outlined in numerous United Nations’ conventions including the Convention on the Rights of the Child. including the right to hold and express dissenting opinions without fear of arbitrary detention. including the arbitrary punishment and torture of Prisoners of War. Freedom For All supports the right to family life.
through strengthened national human rights protection systems. but they are incorporated into the United Nations System by the United Nations Economic and Social Council acting under Articles 57 and 63 of the United Nations Charter. and through the Chief Executives Board for coordination (CEB) at the inter-secretariat level. The three immediate objectives of the Plan are:
To build the capacity of United Nations country teams to understand the linkages between human rights. the International Development Association (IDA). procedures for individuals to effectively claim their rights. At present the UN has in total 17 specialized agencies that carry out various functions on behalf of the UN. the International Finance Corporation (IFC).
. the IFC. the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). including increased ratification of the principal human rights treaties. Encourage more active and meaningful engagement of UN agencies with the international human rights mechanisms. good governance and accountable government institutions that promote and protect human rights. Important elements of national human rights protection system include laws consistent with international human rights standards. Specialized agencies may or may not have been originally created by the United Nations. building capacity and forging partnerships in the public and private sectors. including a free and independent media. are specialized agencies of the United Nations. and enhanced programmatic responses to their recommendations.
Specialized agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the coordinating machinery of the United Nations Economic and Social Council at the intergovernmental level. namely the IBRD. and the IDA. strengthened support to the work of the human rights mechanisms. Its mission is to fight poverty with passion and professionalism for lasting results and to help people help themselves and their environment by providing resources. Three of the five World Bank Group organizations. It is a vital source of financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world. and a strong civil society. sharing knowledge.AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The ultimate aim of the Action 2 global programme is to ensure that the rights of individuals are respected. which should result in enhanced quality and coordinated support. human development and humanitarian action and to work with their national partners in strengthening national human rights protection and promotion systems. The specialized agencies are as follows:
World Bank Group
The World Bank Group comprises a group of five legally separate but affiliated institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). effective functioning of courts. To ensure that human rights are fully integrated into the United Nations joint analysis and planning frameworks at the country level and encourage collaborative actions and joint programming on human rights among UN agencies. judiciary and law enforcement. and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).
prevention of unlawful interference. better the lives of rural populations and contribute to the growth of the world economy. reducing poverty and achieving the Millennium Development Goals.
Main article: International Civil Aviation Organization The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) was founded in 1947. In addition. Austria. the ICAO defines the protocols for air accident investigation followed by transport safety authorities in countries signatory to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. and facilitation of border-crossing procedures for international civil aviation. Canada. Its headquarters are located in the Quartier international de Montréal of Montreal.
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
Main article: United Nations Industrial Development Organization The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations system. The ICAO Council adopts standards and recommended practices concerning air navigation. Serving both developed and developing countries. improve agricultural productivity. commonly known as the Chicago Convention. FAO acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate agreements and debate policy. UNIDO believes that competitive and environmentally sustainable industry has a crucial role to play in accelerating economic growth. The Organization therefore works towards improving the quality of life of the World's poor by
.Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Main article: Food and Agriculture Organization The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations leads international efforts to defeat hunger. It codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth.
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
ICAO flag. FAO's mandate is to raise levels of nutrition. FAO is the largest of UN agencies and its headquarters are in Rome. headquartered in Vienna. Italy. The Organization's primary objective is the promotion and acceleration of industrial development in developing countries and countries with economies in transition and the promotion of international industrial cooperation.
11. and Energy and environment.drawing on its combined global resources and expertise in the following three interrelated thematic areas: Poverty reduction through productive activities. technology transfer and cost-effective and sustainable industrial development.” The organization's stated objectives are to promote international economic cooperation. Countries contribute money to a pool through a quota system from which countries with payment imbalances can borrow funds on a temporary basis.
INTENATIONAL MONETARY FUND(IMF)
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization that was created on July 22. 1945 when 29 countries signed the Articles of Agreement. Improving Global Trade Relations The UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has helped developing countries to negotiate trade agreements and win preferential treatment for their exports. The IMF describes itself as “an organization of 188 countries (as of April 2012). and exchange rate stability. D. working to foster global monetary cooperation. secure financial stability. provided temporary financial assistance to countries to help ease balance-of-payment difficulties and offered training for government finance officials. including by making financial resources available to member countries to meetbalance of payments needs. the IMF works to improve the economies of its member countries.C. Supporting Industry in Developing Countries The UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) serves as a “matchmaker” for North-South and South-South industrial cooperation. employment. 14. 13. Its headquarters are in Washington. Trade capacity-building. promote high employment and sustainable economic growth. It helps countries to manage the process of globalization smoothly and to reduce poverty. 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference and came into existence on December 27. The IMF's stated goal was to stabilize exchange rates and assist the reconstruction of the world’s international payment system post World War II. and reduce poverty. It originally had 45 members. Through this activity and others such as surveillance of its members' economies and policies. promoting entrepreneurship. investment. facilitate international trade. international trade. It has negotiated international commodity agreements to ensure fair prices for developing countries. improved the efficiency of their trade infrastructure and helped them to diversify their production and to integrate into the global economy. Promoting Economic Reform The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank have helped many countries to improve their economic management.
2 billion airline passengers. Statistics show that shipping is becoming safer and is improving its environmental credentials.Improving Global Telecommunications The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) brings together Governments and industry to develop and coordinate the operation of global telecommunication networks and services. The goal of universal food security —where people everywhere have regular access to enough high-quality food to lead active.
. from air and sea navigation to radio astronomy and satellite-based meteorology. in 2008. worked to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world and negotiated the global standards that ensure the seamless interconnection of a vast range of communications systems. Improving Aviation and Shipping UN agencies have been responsible for setting safety standards for aviation and shipping. FAO also helps developing countries to modernize and improve agriculture. promoted international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits. ITU is committed to connecting the world. Likewise. where all nations meet as equals to negotiate agreements and debate policy. It has coordinated shared use of the radio spectrum. FAO acts as a neutral forum. In 1947. Its work has enabled telecommunications to grow into a $1. From broadband Internet to the latest-generation wireless technologies. 15. 590 were killed in aircraft accidents. total oil pollution is down. the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has helped to make the seas cleaner and shipping safer and more secure. the number of deaths was 439 out of 2. and air pollution and pollution from sewage are being tackled-all while the amount of cargo carried by sea continues to increase. from phone services to TV broadcasting and next-generation networks.3 trillion global industry. Fighting Hunger The Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) leads global efforts to defeat hunger. healthy lives—is at the heart of its work. pollution incidents are down. when 21 million travelled by air. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has contributed to making air travel the safest mode of transportation. fatalities are decreasing. Ship losses are falling. forestry and fisheries practices in ways that conserve natural resources and improve nutrition.