Professional Ethics: Ethical issues in OD are concerned with how practitioners perform their helping relationshipwith organization members

. Inherent in any helping relationship is the potential for misconductand client abuse. OD practitioners can let personal values stand in the way of good practice or use the power inherent in their professional role to abuse (often unintentionally) organizationmembers. Ethical Guidelines: To its credit, the field of OD always has shown concern for the ethical conduct of its practitioners. There have been several articles and symposia about ethics in OD. In addition,statements of ethics governing OD practices have been sponsored by the OrganizationDevelopment Institute, the American Society for Training & Development and a consortium of professional associations in OD. The consortium has jointly sponsored an ethical code derivedfrom a large-scale project conducted at the Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions atthe Illinois Institute of Technology- The project's purposes included preparing critical incidentsdescribing ethical dilemmas and using that material for professional and continuing education inOD, providing an empirical basis for a statement of values and ethics for OD professionals, andinitiating a process for making the ethics of OD practice explicit on a continuing basis. Ethical Dilemmas: Although adherence to statements of ethics helps prevent the occurrence of ethical problems, OD practitioners still encounter ethical dilemmas. Figure 1 is a process model that explains howethical dilemmas can occur in OD.


its relevance to the client system. If the contracting process is incomplete. OD practitioners need to gain clarity about the goals of the change effortand to explore openly with the client its expected effects. Each party is pursuingdifferent goals.In either case. The client can contribute to the problem by portraying inaccurate goals and needs. During the entry and contracting phase these differences mayor may not be addressed and clarified. one or both parties are operating under false pretenses and an ethical dilemmaexists.and the practitioner's competence in executing the intervention.The antecedent conditions include an OD practitioner and a client system with different goals. Misrepresentation is likely to occur in the entering and contracting phases of plannedchange when the initial consulting relationship is being established. practice stemming from the actions of either the consultant or client or both: • Misrepresentation. . skills. the subsequentintervention process or role episode is subject to role conflict and role ambiguity. D. To preventmisrepresentation. • Misuse of data • Coercion • Collusion • Promising unrealistic outcomes • Deception and conflict of values and • Professional/technical ineptness. and each is using different skills and values to achieve those goals.The role conflict and ambiguity may produce different types of ethical dilemmas in O. and abilities. needs. Neither theclient nor the OD practitioner is clear about respective responsibilities. Misrepresentation: Misrepresentation occurs when OD practitioners claim that anintervention will produce results that are unreasonable for the change program or thesituation.values.

and the nature and consequences of becoming involved with them. It is a human tendency touse data to enhance a power position. Inherent in any helping relationship are possibilitiesfor excessive manipulation and dependency. or if this information can be used is an ethical dilemma not easily resolved. This agreement should be reviewed periodically in light of changing circumstances. how. However. freedom to make a choice requires knowledgeabout OD. It is easy for a consultant. Management should notdecide unilaterally for members. two facets of coercion.Misuse of Data: Misuse of data occurs when information gathered during the OD process isused punitively. interventions are perceived as methods for “getting” anyone. Leaking inappropriate information can be harmful toindividuals and to the organization. D. withthe free consent and knowledge of the individuals involved. the O. To minimize misuseof data.D process is doomed to fail . To . it isimportant that they be aware of how such data are going to be used. whatthey involve. Many organization members have little information about OD interventions. When. practitioners should reach agreement up front with organization members about howdata collected during the change process will be used. to gather data about whether a particular manager is good or bad. People should have the freedom to choose whether to participate in a change program if they are to gain self-reliance to solve their own problems.Coercion also can pose ethical dilemmas for the helping relationship between OD practitioners and organization members. The second facet of coercion thatcan pose ethical dilemmas for the helping relationship involves dependency. If O. This makesit imperative for OD practitioners to educate clients about interventions before choices aremade for implementing them. Collusion: An example of collusion would be the consultant agreeing with key client toschedule a team-building workshop when it is known that a certain departmental head would be on vacation. An effective way toresolve the first aspect of the dilemma is to make the change effort as open as possible. Large amounts of information are invariably obtained during the entry anddiagnostic phases of OD. Coercion: Coercion occurs when organization members are forced to participate in an ODintervention. under the guise of obtaininginformation. Although most OD practitioners value openness and trust.

but theconsequences can be reduced credibility of the consultant and the reduced credibility of thekey client within the organisation as well as the O. practice are: honesty. Technical ineptnessdilemmas also can occur when interventions do not align with the ability of the organizationto implement them. openness. such as team building. skills. Professional/Technical Ineptness: This final ethical dilemma occurs when OD practitionerstry to implement interventions for which they are not skilled or when the client attempts achange for which it is not ready. consultants can openly and explicitly discuss with the client how tohandle the dependency problem. high standards & selfawareness. the values underlyingethical O. The important practical issue for OD consultants is whether it is justifiable to withhold services unilaterally from an organization that does not agree withtheir values or methods. They let their own values and beliefs dictate the change method. confidentiality. in turn. careful diagnosis can reveal the extent to which the organizationis ready to make a change and possesses the skills and knowledge to implement an ethicaldilemma that arises frequently in OD . Deception and value Conflict: This ethical conflict occurs when the purpose of thechange effort is not clear or when the client and the practitioner disagree over how toachieve the goals. this is unethical & counter-Productive thetemptation to make promises in order to gain a client contract can be great. Such arefocusing can reinforce the understanding that the consultant is working for the client andoffering assistance that is at the client's discretion. D field.resolvedependency issues.Selecting an intervention is closely related to the practitioner's own values. Thus. or self managedteams. Another approach can be by changing the client's expectation from being helped or controlled by the practitioner to a greater focus on the need to manage the problem. Promising unrealistic outcomes: Obviously. total quality management. D. Critical to the success of any OD program is the selection of an appropriate intervention. thedevelopment of people and the development of consultant expertise. Again. voluntarism. many OD consultants emphasize a favoriteintervention or technique. which depends. on careful diagnosis of the organization. In solving organizational problems. integrity. especially what the client and consultant expect of oneanother. andabilities.

A Process Relational Model of Organizational Development Table 1 depicts 10 stages of change. intervention. evaluation..Implicit in the various dilemmas is the notion that ethical dilemmas are produced not only byconsultants but by client systems as well. etc. Also implicit in the process relational model is theconsultant-client system relationship in any organizational change effort-a relationship thatrepresents a collection of continuous interrelated activities in which both the consultant and theclient system play their part or role in order to reach a predetermined outcome. diagnosis. Figure2. etc.).initiation.Ethical dilemmas and the OD Process Isolation of ethical dilemmas at various stages of the OD process requires examination not onlyof the relationship between the consultant and the client system but also of how this relationshipchanges as OD progresses. it focuses more fully on the role relationship between the parties involved (i.Moreover. and the possible ethical dilemmas that can occur at these various stages.e. termination.The process relational model illustrates 10 stages of OD that deal with the conceptual framework of most organizational change methodologies (i. the appropriate role behaviors for consultants and clientsystems. clarification.). Each of the 31ethical dilemmas belong to the major categories of ethical dilemmas previously discussed. Also implicit is the notion that several of the dilemmasmentioned are closely related to other dilemmas .e.

. asthe nature of the relationship between the client system and the consultant changes. The utility of Table the various stages of change. is to isolate the occurrence of these dilemmas at specific stages of change. therefore.

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