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Engineering Design Process
TECHNICAL REPORTS
In Engineering, one of the major forms of communication is the technical report. This is the conventional format for reporting the results of your research, investigations, and design projects. At university, reports are read by lecturers and tutors in order to assess your mastery of the subjects and your ability to apply your knowledge to a practical task. In the workplace, they will be read by managers, clients, and the construction engineers responsible for building from your designs. The ability to produce a clear, concise, and professionally presented report is therefore a skill you will need to develop in order to succeed both at university and in your future career. While reports vary in the type of information they present (for example, original research, the results of an investigative study, or the solution to a design problem), all share similar features and are based on a similar structure.

Key features of reports


Reports: are designed for quick and easy communication of information are designed for selective reading use sections with numbered headings and subheadings use figures and diagrams to convey data.

Basic structure of a report


A report usually has these components: Title page. This page gives: the title of the report, the authors' names and ID numbers, the course name and number, the department, and university. The title of the report should indicate exactly what the report is about. The reader should know not only the general topic, but also the aspect of the topic contained in the report. Date of submission Summary The summary (sometimes referred to as the executive summary) provides a brief overview of the substance of the report; usually no more than half a page. It is not an introduction to the topic. The summary should outline all the key 1

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features of your report, including the topic, what you did and how you did it, and the main outcomes of your work. A busy manager who might not have time to read the full report should be able to get the gist of the whole report by reading the summary. The summary: (i) states the topic of the report (ii) outlines your approach to the task if applicable (iii) gives the most important findings of your research or investigation, or the key aspects of your design (iv) states the main outcomes or conclusions. The summary does NOT: (i) provide general background information (ii) explain why you are doing the research, investigation or design (iii) refer to later diagrams or references. Table of Contents. The contents page sets out the sections and subsections of the report and their corresponding page numbers. It should clearly show the structural relationship between the sections and subsections. A reader looking for specific information should be able to locate the appropriate section easily from the table of contents. Introduction. The introduction provides the background information needed for the rest of your report to be understood. It is usually half to three-quarters of a page in length. The purpose of the introduction is to set the context for your report, provide sufficient background information for the reader to be able to follow the information presented, and inform the reader about how that information will be presented. The introduction includes: (i) the background to the topic of your report to set your work in its broad context (ii) a clear statement of the purpose of the report, usually to present the results of your research, investigation, or design (iii) a clear statement of the aims of the project (iv) technical background necessary to understand the report; e.g. theory or assumptions (v) a brief outline of the structure of the report if appropriate (this would not be necessary in a short report) Body of the report. This is main part of the report, where you present your work. The introduction and conclusions act as a frame for the body only: therefore all the details of your work (including a summarised version of material in the appendices) must be included here in the appropriate section. You will need to put some thought into the ordering of the sections; the presentation of information should flow logically so that the reader can follow the development of your project. It is also essential that you choose concise but informative headings and subheadings so that the reader knows exactly what type of information to expect in each section. The body of the report: (i) presents the information from your research, both real world and theoretical, or your design (ii) organises information logically under appropriate headings (iii) conveys information in the most effective way for communication (figures, tables, bulleted or numbered lists etc.) Conclusions. The conclusions section provides an effective ending to your report. The content should relate directly to the aims of the project as stated in the
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introduction, and sum up the essential features of your work. This section: (i) states whether you have achieved your aims (ii) gives a brief summary of the key findings or information in your report (iii) highlights the major outcomes of your investigation and their significance. References. The two parts to referencing are: (i) citations in the text of the report (ii) a list of references in the final section A citation shows that information comes from another source. The reference list gives the details of these sources. Appendices. These contain material that is too detailed to include in the main report, such as raw data or detailed drawings. The conventions for appendices are as follows: (i) each appendix must be given a number (or letter) and title; (ii) each appendix must be referred to by number (or letter) at the relevant point in the text.

DRAWINGS TO COMMUNICATE DESIGN


Engineering technicians and craftsmen must be able to communicate ideas and facts clearly without ambiguity. For them verbal communication is very important, but often, hopelessly inadequate. Similarly , written communication can be very insufficient. A simple item may require pages and pages of description to enable someone else to gain an impression of its shape and size. Even then there is the danger of the description being boring. to overcome these difficulties a very efficient form of graphical communication has been developed. This graphical communication is called Engineering Drawing. Because engineering is concerned with processing materials and manufacturing components for a consumer world, engineering drawing is a means of organising and presenting precise technical direction for items to be made for the consumer. Each stage in the manufacturing process must be economist to arrive at a keen selling price. Almost the first stage in such a process is to communicate instructions for manufacture; the instruction to make so big, so long, so wide etc.. The usual and most effective way to do this is to produce engineering drawings. All technicians and craftsmen rely on their own ability to interpret and construct sketches and drawings. Without the skill to read drawings a technician or craftsmen may have great difficulty in finding employment. The added skill of being able to make reliable engineering sketches and drawings can be often increase employment opportunities.

Identifying The Drafting Team


The Designer. This is where a new component or product starts. The designer is given a requirement and instructed to design a solution. he starts by sketching and he may pass some of his sketches on to other technicians to research and develop his solution. Having arrived at a satisfactory solution, the designer may modify his original sketches or produce more accurate drawings known as design layouts. These are then passed over to a draughts man to draw out is great detail.
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The Draughtsman. The draughtsman is the key communicator. It is his responsibility to work from the designer's sketches or layouts and make detailed working drawings; drawings from which items can be manufacturing. The Tracer. The tracer traces the original drawing to reproduce it on a more permanent and durable material, or traces it to improve its presentation or quality of communication. Checker. Once drawings are made or traced, it is very necessary to check them. This procedure can avoid very costly mistakes. It is the responsibility of the checker to check, verify and inspect everything that a draughtsman may put on drawing. The checker is responsible for the accuracy of the drawing. Drawing Office Assistants and Print-Room Personal. Depending on the size of the company, this type of person can be expected to provide a variety of important services for the draughtsman. Duties such as specialist storage and indexing of drawings, repair of drawings, minor modification and perhaps the most important service of all, copying and reproducing copies of drawings. There are many different reprographic printing processes in use in drawing offices. Some of the most modern ones require highly trained operatives who are skilled in photographic techniques and microfilming procedures. These are the personnel who complete the process of making engineering drawings; they provide the vehicle of communication and ensure that it runs smoothly.

Engineering Design and Drawing Offices


The scale and intensity of drafting services within a company will depends on its size and range of products. large companies may have one, or many design offices feeding work to drawing offices, who in turn provide work for the checking offices and the print room. Medium-size companies may have one large design offices in which there are designers and draughtsman working side by side with checkers who feed the finished work to a print room. Small companies may only have a very small offices in which a designer draughtsman tries to draw check and print all the necessary manufacturing drawings.

Different Types of Engineering Drawings


Freehand Pictorial Sketches. These are three-dimensional sketches favoured by designer, technicians and craftsmen as a means of expressing ideas and communicating informally. No drawing instruments are required to make this type of drawing. Pictorial Sketches. These are three-dimensional sketches constructed with drawing instruments. They are not drawn to any special scale, but proportion and visual balance is carefully maintained to communicate an accurate impression.
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Pictorial Drawings. These are three-dimensional drawings constructed to exact sizes using drawing instruments. Single Part Drawings. These are usually two-dimensional details drawings showing one or several views of a single item. Collective Single Part Drawings. These are similar to single-part drawings in the preceding paragraph; however, they differ in one respect, they show a single item but the information is tabulated to enable items of a similar shape in a range differing sizes to be made.

(Sub-assembly Drawing. These are formal two dimensional drawings which show how two or more parts fit together in preparation for another sub-assembly or a final assembly. Assembly Drawings. These are formal two-dimensional drawings which show how all the parts relating to a product are fitted together.

Combination Drawing. These are formal two-dimensional drawings which shows an assembly and related single-part items all on the same sheet. They are most often used where the product has to be manufactured once only and then the drawing is filed for record purposes.

General Arrangement Drawings. These are three-dimensional drawings known as `exploded' views. They usually made by talented artists, from manufacturing drawings. Diagrammatic Drawings. These are usually formal symbolic drawings to show how parts are arranged together in a certain order.

ORAL PRESENTATION OF DESIGN


One of the best possible ways of ensuring that the final report is acceptable is to make an oral presentation of the main findings fairly near the end of the exercise. At this point most of the work will have been done but there will still be time to check up on any points which may be raised in the course of a discussion of the findings. The oral presentation will gloss over the introductory material, the reasons for the study and so on and it will not go laboriously through all the business of collecting data and analysing it. It will concentrate on the conclusions and hint at the recommendations which are likely to be made in the final report. The ideal format for an oral presentation is very simple. It is the format for a well prepared lesson - with plenty of visual aids. Indicate the structure of the presentation by putting up a list of headings. Go through the list, making use of examples, illustrations and diagrams. Pull together all the conclusions (from the preceding examples) and present these in the form of a list.
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Ask for question and comments and lead the discussion of these. Ask questions to see if your audience has fully appreciated the implications of your conclusions. Round off the discussions with a summary of any new or modified conclusions which need to be incorporated in the final report and draw attention to any additional work which will need to be performed.

Visual Aids
There are three main levels of presentation, depending on whether there will be only two or three people, up to a half a dozen people or a larger audience. For the very small group, where you sit in someone's office, round a desk or small table, the best visual aids are: The `Presenter' - an arrangement for holding small flip charts which you can turn over as you talk. The `Presentation Book' - A book of transparent plastic pockets into which charts and diagrams can be slipped and the pages turned as you talk.

The above can be supplemented with handouts (table of figures ad key diagrams). A photocopy of a set of all the charts which have been used to illustrate the talk can be left at the end of the meeting. If the office is equipped with a blackboard this may be useful and, as a last resort, to illustrate a print, there is always pencil and paper. For a group of half a dozen people who may be assembled round a boardroom table, it is even more important that charts, diagrams and handouts should be performed in advance. If a `presenter' is used it should be a large one, designed to take A3 or brief sized sheets and the lettering should be sufficiently large for someone at the other end of a long table to be able to read it. Use thick, coloured felt pens ad letters between half an inch and an inch high. For a large audience a larger stand will be required, with larger charts and larger lettering. An alternative to the use of flip charts is the use of the overhead projector or the slide projector. There are many good features of the overhead projector, such as the ability to produce a very large image with a very short projection distance. It is portable. The speaker can face the audience while he is projecting and he can create visuals right on the spot by drawing on the transparency.

The Model
Every designer eventually reaches the point of deciding in detail about the specific material to use, the dimensions of the parts, the components of the system, the spatial relationships of parts and components, and the inter connection. The technique that most effectively brings him or her past this phase of design involves representing the product by a series of model.

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A model is any representation of the proposed system or device that contains information to be useful in making design decisions.

enough

Sketches and Drawings


Sketches are important to the creative process. Typically, the making of a freehand sketch is the first act after the engineer conceives a new design concept. In this manner the idea is tested for obvious flaws, given more thought, if needed, or confirmed as the basis for the next step in the development process. Now consider the use of a drawing as a model during the design process. Since designing involves determination of suitable spatial relationships, drawings clearly showing these relationships can certainly aid the designer in making the decision that lead to final product. There is no better way to determine whether the parts fit, whether the tolerances of dimensions will cause difficulty, or whether metal parts of opposite electrical potential are dangerously close than by reviewing carefully made drawings of the proposed product.

Physical Models
Often, as a project is begun, some bits of information are needed that can be determined only from a physical model. A very helpful idea is that a physical model need not always be a complete prototype of the product under development. You are probably familiar with the automobile industry's use of models that have the appearance of a finished car but in fact are wood and plaster mock-ups whose purpose is simply to fix the outward appearance of future design. The advantage of incomplete models like the wooden automobiles is that they permit decisions to be made without involving a large expenditure of money. As the design progresses, a complete model will finally be made, but this is not possible in the early stages of the design. It is probably obvious, but bears emphasizing, that the order of your selection of information to be sought by incomplete models is important. You need together information from each partial model that will enable you to make the next model more nearly like the finished product. You also need to avoid changing any section of the system or device that proved acceptable in a previous model.

Fundamental of Machining
The Twist Drill
The twist drill is designed to originate holes in metal parts. Often operation to reaming, boring or grinding during which final accomplished. Hole as small as 0.005 in can be drilled with techniques, but about 0.015 in is considered to be a small hole. drilling is a preliminary finishing and sizing are high speed and special On the other hand, holes

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more than 2 to 2.5 in diameter are seldom drilled because coring or burning and boring to size is frequently less expensive.

Most drills are made of high speed steel because of its relatively low cost and ease of manufacture. Some types of carbide drills are also available. A view of the metal-cutting area of a drill press is shown below.

The workpiece is held in place by a C-clamp since cutting forces can be quite large. It is dangerous to hold a workpiece by hand during drilling since cutting forces can unpredictably get quite large and wrench the part away. Wood is often used underneath the part so that the
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drill bit can overshoot without damaging the table. The table also has holes for drill overshoot as well as weight reduction. A three-jaw chuck is used since three points determine a circle in two dimensions. Four-jaw chucks are rarely seen since offset of the bit is not necessary.

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