SOCIAL STUDIES

Director of Humanities,

Bernadette Ricciardelli

781 393-2320
Students will be able to… • Analyze the causes and documents of the American Revolution • Describe the historical influences that affected the foundation of the United States government • Explain the major events and effects of the War for Independence • Interpret the primary documents that form the foundation of American government • Describe the formation and framework of American government • Evaluate the events and consequences of Westward Expansion • Explain the major political, social, and economic events of the early to late 19th Century using appropriate primary documents • Evaluate the causes and events leading to the Civil War

TECHNOLOGY
Director, Mr. Richard Trotta 781393-2279 Through group demonstration and individual practice the student will be able to…

Medford Public Schools
Medford, Massachusetts GRADE 8 ESSENTIAL LEARNINGS
This guide provides an overview of what an eighth grade student should know and be able to do in each subject area by the completion of the school year. The Medford Public Schools is committed to providing all students with the academic and problem-solving skills essential for personal development, responsible citizenship and life-long learning. The districtwide curriculum goals for all grades preK-12 are as follows: • To develop high standards and expectations for all students • To incorporate a balanced core of critical, essential learning that reflects national standards and the state curriculum frameworks for each discipline • To develop competency in communication, thinking, problem solving research and other critical skills • To connect learning to relevant situations and experiences outside the school setting • To measure student learning through multiple types of assessments including the MCAS • To integrate the curriculum, wherever possible, across subjects and grade levels • To effectively integrate technology into the curriculum • To recognize and respect the different needs interests and talents of all students For additional information on the curriculum, instructional and/ or assessment program of the Medford Public Schools please contact the Office of Curriculum and Instruction at (781) 393-2364

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Demonstrate how to operate the Windows Operating System and its desktop Demonstrate the ability to utilize application software

ART
Director, Richard Trotta 781 393-2279
Students completing the grade eight art program will be able to . . .

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FOREIGN LANGUAGE
Coordinator, Rita DiCarlo 781 393-2375
Students will: • Use new vocabulary relating to travel, the home, clothing and shopping, food, and the environment • Use the present tense of many regular and irregular verbs as well as a language-specific variety of verbal expressions • Recognize and manipulate object pronouns and the comparative and superlative forms of adjectives • Acquire cultural information as per the text

Generate and apply criteria for judging the merit and significance or artworks Apply media techniques and processes with sufficient skill, confidence and sensitivity that their intentions are carried out in their artworks Demonstrate the ability to form and defend judgments about the characteristics, merits and purposes of art Create artworks that use organizational principles and functions to solve specific visual arts problems Express informed, reflective views on current events in the arts Describe the function and explore the meaning of specific art objects within varied cultures, times and places Set personal and group goals for collecting, presenting, preserving, and assessing their artwork

Speak daily and write creatively at least once every two weeks

HEALTH
Supervisor, Ms. Eileen DiBattista 393-2292
The essential learnings for health are integrated with other curriculum areas and are discussed at age appropriate levels. Themes include: personal health, nutrition and fitness, drugs alcohol and tobacco, mental health, interpersonal relationships, human growth and development, family life, disease prevention, safety, violence prevention, community and consumer health.

MUSIC
Director, Richard Trotta 781 393-2279
Students participating actively in the eighth grade music program, will . . • Demonstrate the ability to read and interpret musical notation

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Use standard notation to record their own musical ideas Read and sing at sight, musical examples of moderate difficulty Sing independently with increased accuracy, expanded breath control and extended vocal range Perform with expression and technical accuracy, an expanding repertoire of literature, including works performed from memory Sing music written in multiple parts with and without accompaniment Perform with increasing accuracy in terms of pitch, rhythm, expression and dynamics

PUPIL SERVICES
Director, Kathleen Medaglio 781 393-2229 The Medford Public Schools are committed to insure access to the general education curriculum for all students. The Office of Pupil Services consists of the support service departments of Special Education, Bilingual/Multicultural Education, Guidance and Title I.

Roy E. Belson, Superintendent of Schools Beverly G. Nelson, Deputy Superintendent Diane Caldwell, Assistant Superintendent Medford School Committee
Mayor Michael McGlynn Ann Marie Cugno Erin DiBenedetto John Falco Robert E. Skerry George Scarpelli Paulette Van der Kloot

393-2442 393-2364 393-2265

MATH
Director, Carolyn Joy 781 393-2214
Through problem solving, reasoning, communication, representation, and connections, students should be able to..... NUMBER SENSE & OPERATIONS • Define and apply common irrational numbers (e.g. Pi, Square root of 2); Apply powers and roots to the solution of problems • Estimate and compute with fractions (algebraically), decimals, percents, and integers • Solve problems involving ratios and proportions (e.g. unit rates, scale factors, rates of change) • Identify properties of operations on integers and rational numbers (e.g. closure, associative, commutative, distributive, identity, inverse) PATTERNS, RELATIONS & ALGEBRA • Represent and analyze a variety of numeric and geometric patterns; Use tables and graphs to compare linear and exponential growth patterns • Write expressions and equations for problem situations; Evaluate and simplify algebraic expressions; Solve and graph linear equations and inequalities; Identify roles of variables in equations • Identify slope and y-intercept of a line from its equation, tables, and graph; Apply the concept of slope to the solution of problems; Explain how a change in one variable effects a change in another GEOMETRY • Use technology and construction tools to formulate and test conjectures about 2- and 3-dimensional figures and to make geometric constructions • Explore and apply relationships found in right triangles; Apply Pythagorean Theorem; • Analyze the effects of transformations on figures on the coordinate plane MEASUREMENT • Apply formulas and procedures to problems involving perimeter, area, surface area, and volume • Use ratio and proportion to solve measurement problems (e.g. indirect measures, similar plane figures) DATA ANALYSIS, PROBABILITY, & STATISTICS • Collect and organize data; Represent data in tables, charts, scatter plots, Venn Diagrams, histograms, circle graphs and box plots; Make inferences and draw conclusions; Identify most appropriate measure of central tendency • Compute permutations and combinations; Use tree diagrams, tables, lists, and area models to describe sample spaces and to calculate probabilities of independent and dependent events

SCIENCE
Director, Carolyn Joy 781 393-2214
Through inquiry and technology skills, students will apply and investigate science content and be able to:
LIFE SCIENCE • Describe ways in which organisms are adapted to life in intertidal zones • Identify different types of nutrients and describe the importance of each in your diet • Describe what happens to food as it passes through each organ of the digestive system • Describe plasma, red and white blood cells, and hemoglobin in the blood and explain their functions • Explain the natural defenses your body has against disease • Describe the process of meiosis and contrast chromosome number in body cells and sex cells • Compare and contrast reproduction in plants and animals • Describe how natural selection operates to bring about change in living things • Explain how fossils are used as evidence of evolution PHYSICAL SCIENCE • Distinguish electrical conductors from insulators • Control the amount of current in a circuit and list the variables that determine electrical resistance • Make an electromagnet and demonstrate its magnetic effects • Explain how loudspeakers and electric motors work • Compare and contrast the characteristics of waves in various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum • Describe how various observations of color and light can be explained by the wave model • Relate the contributions of Thomson, Rutherford and others to the study of the structure of the atom • Trace the development of the model of the atom and its parts • Describe the arrangement of the elements in the periodic table. Identify where metals, nonmetals, and metalloids are located on the periodic table • Describe ionic and covalent bonds • Explain how to determine oxidation numbers. Write formulas for compounds from their names • Demonstrate how to write a balanced chemical equation • Describe four types of chemical reactions, using their general formulas • Discuss melting and boiling in terms of kinetic theory • Describe the states of matter in terms of kinetic theory • Describe and draw the structure of an alcohol, a carboxylic acid, and an amine • Compare and contrast proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids and polymers • Compare and contrast a nuclear Fission and Fusion reaction EARTH SCIENCE • Explain the role of water vapor in the atmosphere and how it affects weather • Explain why high & low pressure systems usually bring clear & cloudy weather respectively • Describe the movement of ocean waves, currents and the cause of tides • Describe the origin of ocean water and explain why the salinity of the ocean does not change • Describe evidence used to support the hypothesis of continental drift • Relate the occurrences of earthquakes and volcanoes to plate tectonics • Explain the conditions necessary for fossils to form and methods used to date rock layers • Describe the major geologic changes and life forms in the geologic time eras • Explain one hypothesis of how the solar system formed • Differentiate between comets, asteroids, and meteors • Explain the process by which a star produces energy and its brightness, color and temperature • Describe a galaxy and list three main types of galaxies

ENGLISH
Nicole Chiesa Interim Director 781 393-9016 In addition to reading and writing daily, students will be able to…
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Understand conventions within language study: research, oral delivery, reference tools, parts of speech Demonstrate sentence combining skills in writing Demonstrate in their writing – style, complexity, organization, transitions Apply consistently appropriate grammar/usage Apply knowledge of parts of speech in writing Apply knowledge of correct subject/verb agreement Apply knowledge of capitalization and punctuation in writing Edit writing for punctuation Demonstrate consistent conventional spelling strategies Apply new vocabulary Read to extend understanding through synonyms, antonyms, homonyms, simile, metaphor, idiom, analogy Demonstrate knowledge of structural analysis: root words, affixes, and derivatives Write in a variety of genre: analogy, extended definition, cause -effect Write to respond to literature Demonstrate an understanding of author’s craft (e.g, irony, foreshadowing, flashback, point of view, etc.) Construct meaning by developing different kinds of writing: narration, persuasion, description, poetry, etc. Extend understanding through symbolism, simile, metaphor, idiom Interpret theme, mood, tone, and point of view in reading and writing Discover knowledge through critical reading Revise writing to ensure clarity and thus communication Demonstrate oral language by presenting information effectively Identify persuasive techniques: glittering generalities • Demonstrate technology skills: research, communi-

PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Supervisor, Eileen DiBattista 781 393-2292
Through individual, group, and partner instruction students will be able to… • Improve balance, speed, and agility • Perform basic tumbling and stunts on a mat • Enhance eye-hand, eye-foot co-ordination • Understand the importance of physical activity as it relates to healthy development • Develop self-confidence and strengthen self-esteem • Participate in team sports and activities cation