Al-Qa‘ida’s West African Advance: Nigeria’s Boko Haram, Mali’s Touareg, and the Spread of Salafi Jihadism

Micha’el Tanchum Micha’el Tanchum is a fellow in the Department of Middle East and Islamic Studies at the Shalem Center in Jerusalem, where, employing sociological and anthropological methods to examine the interaction between religion and politics in contemporary Muslim societies, he is conducting comparative research on how the interaction of religion and nationalism affects the development of stable, civil societies. Dr. Tanchum also teaches in the Department of Middle East and African History at Tel Aviv University. In its escalating war on the Nigerian state, the al-Qa‘ida-affiliated, militant organization Boko Haram has killed over 900 people during the past two years.1 The outbreak of a Touareg separatist rebellion in Mali in January 2012, which now has swept across two-thirds of the country, carries the potential of linking North Africa’s al-Qa‘ida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), via Mali and Niger, to Nigeria’s Boko Haram to form a nexus of Salafi jihadist militancy across West Africa. The development of al-Qa‘ida’s new African map does not depend so much on the ability of the organization to “Africanize,”2 but rather on the next phase of a decades-long process of the delegitimization of local Islamic identity in northern Nigeria and in neighboring countries.3 This delocalization of Islamic identity makes those Muslims who accept such a discourse more amenable to al-Qa‘ida’s global Salafi Islamist agenda.4 The continuing expansion of Boko Haram activity across northern Nigeria raises concern over the spread of Islamic extremism to Nigeria’s neighbors in the region. Al-Qa‘ida’s involvement in the Touareg insurgency creates the political opportunity to transform northern Mali into an al-Qa‘ida-affiliated Islamist stronghold by emulating and building upon Boko Haram’s example of creating a trans-ethnic, Salafi Islamist orientation in northern Nigeria. Boko Haram: The Development of Salafi Jihadism in Northern Nigeria Boko Haram originated in Yobe and Borno, two of northern Nigeria’s twelve Muslim-majority states. Unlike the ten Muslim-majority states where Hausa are the predominant ethnic group, Yobe and Borno are home to the Kanuri, having been part of the great medieval Kanuri empire of Bornu.5 Prior to Nigerian independence in 1960, a pan-Kanuri nationalist movement based in Borno sought to assert Kanuri interests as part the broader the anti-colonial struggle.

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Yobe and Borno. southern Libya.6 Similarly. Boko Haram. this greater Kanuri region—Northeastern Nigeria. Boko Haram’s Salafi discourse represents the transformation of both ethno-nationalist aspiration and traditional religious revival. and Algeria. in the Hausa and Kanuri languages. The organization’s name. Boko Haram developed in the immediate post-9/11 environment wherein longstanding local conflicts. While Boko Haram networks revived an old pre-colonial map rooted in Kanuri ethnic identity. beleaguered Fulani—into a pan-Islamic movement.460 km² territory that included Cameroon’s Extreme North Region [Région de l’Extrême-Nord] Niger’s Departments of Zinder and Diffa. literally means “Book Forbidden. particularly the political elite that had emerged from it. The Kanuri regions of Chad provide the group with a corridor to Sudan and from there to ash-Shabaab in Somalia. the Kanuri regions of Niger provide Boko Haram with a northern corridor to the Touareg region of Niger and the adjacent Touareg regions of Mali. Boko Haram does not represent a movement to redress latent ethno-nationalist grievances through religious revival. disaffected Hausa. therefore intimating that Western education and culture is intrinsically un-Islamic. both intra-Muslim and Muslim–Christian. were recast 76 .Israel Journal of foreign Affairs VI : 2 (2012) The movement’s maximalists called for a “Greater Kanowra.9 Boko Haram arose in conscious opposition to this class. It also has resonance with the word “Boka. Boko Haram has brought together elements from various Muslim ethnic groups—alienated Kanuri. Southeastern Niger.” which.” The word “Boko. means a pagan sorcerer or soothsayer.” derived from the English word “book. The organization’s name is indicative of the bidding games over Islamic authenticity that undergird the Salafi discourse appropriated by the Kanuri and disaffected Hausa against an already Islamized elite. Boko Haram represents a process of replacing the values rooted in local African Muslim traditions with the Salafi values purveyed by al-Qa‘ida’s global jihadist discourse.” refers specifically to Western education and. by extension. Indeed. traditional African Islam of the countryside. Boko Haram further impugns the political elites of northern Nigeria for their cooperation with the Christian political leaders of southern Nigeria within the national framework of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Northern Cameroon. resented for the prevalence of corruption and white-collar crime. and the prefectures of Lac and Kanem in Chad. As a consequence. the urban Hausa elite sought to distance themselves from the Sufi-inspired.” an approximately 534. Today. Wahhabi form of Islam. and Southwestern Chad— constitutes the extended base of activity of Boko Haram. are already administered in accordance with some form of Islamic law. like northern Nigeria’s other states. Western culture.7 Under the banner of Islamist reform during the 1980s and 1990s.8 Many of the upwardly mobile merchant class among the Hausa and the “Hausa-ized” Kanuri embraced a Saudi-oriented.

The day of the attack may have been chosen for its symbolic value or for the tactical ease of operation the holiday period afforded. Christmas is an officially recognized public holiday in Nigeria. five months after the Yobe Taliban’s Christmas Eve attack in 2003. 2003. The movement claimed that “true Shari’ah” had not been implemented in Nigeria’s twelve northern states. While the Christian communities located in the predominantly Muslim states of northern Nigeria did not initially constitute the primary target of the Yobe Taliban’s jihadist violence.Micha’el Tanchum within the narrative framework of global jihad. the Yobe Taliban launched a coordinated. maintained an un-Islamic social and political order. extreme hostility to the Christian presence seems to have been a strong tendency within the movement. gangs from among the farming communities of the Christian Tarok ethnic group attacked Muslim Fulani herdsman because the Fulani allowed their herds to graze on land and 77 . The capital of the Plateau state. Jos. The educated elites who managed the state apparatus thus became legitimate targets of jihadist violence. seven kilometers away from the border with Niger. retaliatory attack on December 24. This movement coalesced and made its headquarters in an isolated region of the Kanuri-majority state of Yobe.14 However. That attack marked the beginning of what would become Boko Haram’s insurgent campaign against the state. has gained international notoriety for the wave of murderous violence between Muslim Fulani and Christian Berom that began in 2010.10 The group known today as Boko Haram emerged from a movement known as the Yobe Taliban.12 It is important to note that the attack was carried out on Christmas Eve. In May 2004. consciously imitating their dress and affect. the Yobe State Council ordered the group to leave within three days. that first transformed the organization. The group attacked the residences of local government heads. approximately seventy kilometers from the state capital Danmaturu. Its members modeled themselves on al-Qa‘ida and the Taliban. which is the largest city bordering Nigeria’s twelve Shari’ah-run states. After conflicts between members of the movement and local villagers. in the Yobe Talibans’ view.13 Those who favored focusing their militancy against Christian communities were aided by the flare-up in inter-ethnic violence in Nigeria’s volatile Plateau state. it was the outbreak of Muslim–Christian violence in the Plateau state town of Yelwa. regional officials. a remote location deep within Kanuri territory. Guided by this view. Along with Muslim festival days. The group transferred its base of operations to Kannama. and the divisional police. Its members called their new base “Afghanistan” and henceforth were generally known as the “Taliban” of Yobe.11 The forced relocation of the Yobe Taliban confirmed the group’s view that it was locked in an irreconcilable conflict with local and state governments in northern Nigeria that. and motivated by the desire for revenge.

16 Boko Haram’s engagement in local inter-ethnic violence has enabled the organization to expand beyond its initial ethnic and geographical base. often Fulani. As the world’s largest nomadic ethnic group.15 Since then.Israel Journal of foreign Affairs VI : 2 (2012) drink water that the Tarok claimed belonged to them. widespread participation of Fulani in Boko Haram in Nigeria would present al-Qa‘ida in the Islamic Maghreb with the opportunity to develop support among segments of Mali’s Fulani population. The Fulani represent another trans-national ethnic network for al-Qa‘ida to exploit should Boko Haram be able to recast economic rivalries and violence by non-Muslim rivals in Nigeria within the narrative framework of global jihad. While a Boko Haram alliance with the Salafi factions within the Touareg insurgency is the most immediate concern. In a Salafi context.17 The Emerging Trans-Saharan Nexus: Early Boko Haram–AQIM Connections Although first known as Taliban and now as Boko Haram. The development of GSPC’s transSahara orientation reflected the ascendance of a younger generation of jihadists led by Abdel Malek Droukdel.19 78 . Droukdel began forging stronger links with al-Qa‘ida.18 Assuming the GSPC leadership in the summer of 2004. several hundred Christians were killed. the members of the Nigerian militant organization officially referred to themselves as Jama’atul Ahl as-Sunnah lidaawa wal Jihad [The Group of the People of the Sunnah for Preaching and Jihad]. north of the Plateau State in the very heart of Muslim northern Nigeria. Of the 630 persons killed in the ensuing violence. and Niger. particularly Abu Mus’ab al-Zarqawi’s al-Qa‘ida in Iraq. including Mauritania. “Ahl as-Sunnah. The group’s name bears a remarkable resemblance to that of the North African militant organization Jama’atus Salafiyyatu lida’wa wal-Qital [The Salafi Group for Preaching and Combat] founded in 1998 during the last phase of the Algerian Civil War.” reveals the movement’s intention to represent genuine Sunni practice. Casting these events as a religious conflict. Mali. the Yobe Taliban attacked Christian communities in Kano State. Known in French as the Groupe Salafiste pour la Prédication et le Combat (GSPC). constituting 17 percent of the population of Mali and 8 percent of the population of Niger. approximately two-thirds were Fulani. Algerians constituted the largest group of foreign fighters in Iraq and accounted for 20 percent of the total number of fighters. In the two-day carnage. the first part of the group’s name. the Fulani are spread across the western Sahel. the Algerian-based group operated widely in the trans-Sahara region. Boko Haram units have participated repeatedly in inter-religious conflict in the Plateau state. By 2005. assisting local Muslim populations. and expanding the conflict into the neighboring states of Bauchi and Gombe (each located between Yobe and the Plateau state).

Yusuf called his mosque the Ibn Taimiyya Masjid after the medieval Islamic scholar who virulently condemned Shia. Al-Qa‘ida’s then-deputy leader Ayman al-Zawahiri released an internet video in which he announced a “blessed union” between al-Qai’da and the GSPC.”21 In January 2007. Representing the re-orientation of Algerian militancy to global jihad. Boko Haram instituted an executive cabinet and a shura council. including in the Kanuri regions of Niger and Chad. Yusuf functioned as chief adjudicator of this miniature state-within-a-state.”20 While the GSPC had come around fully to accepting al-Qa‘ida’s position on having to combat the “Far Enemy”—the US and France—al-Qa‘ida expected the GSPC to manage operations against this enemy in the trans-Sahara as well as the “Near Enemies”—the national governments of the region. and the ruling Sunni elite. “AlQa‘ida has delegated to the GSPC the responsibility of coordinating its operations in the Maghreb region. By naming his mosque after one of the Islamic scholars most often cited by Salafi jihadists. As then-Moroccan Interior Minister Chakib Benmoussa summarized al-Zawahiri’s announcement. to oversee local activities. He did so in his strident call for jihad to restore what he considered to be the pristine Islam of the early Islamic community. 24 Disaffected youth from elite families in Yobe and Borno either joined the movement or provide financial support. Abubakar Shekau (Boko Haram’s current leader). on the occasion of the fifth anniversary of the 9/11 attacks. The organization managed farmland and engaged in micro-financing.22 The transformation of the GSPC into AQIM under the leadership of Droukdel coincides with the evolution of the Yobe Taliban under the leadership of Muhammad Yusuf into the al-Qa‘ida-affiliated Boko Haram. Recordings of Yusuf’s preaching were widely distributed across the northeastern states of Nigeria.. Yusuf shifted its focus to Borno and established the organization’s headquarters in a mosque complex in the state capital of Maiduguri. The group appointed amirs in various locations across the area. Mali. Sufis. and Niger.23 Serving as the group’s spiritual leader as well as military commander. and the area of operations for Boko Haram’s militancy extended to the ethnically mixed states of Kano and Bauchi. al-Zawahiri declared that the incorporation of the GSPC into al-Qa‘ida would “be a thorn in the necks of the American and French crusaders and their allies . the GSPC officially changed its name to al-Qa‘ida in the Islamic Maghreb and began to carry out a series of operations over the next several years in Mauritania. Al-Qa‘ida’s objective is to have a base in the region of the Sahel. His ability to evade detention fueled 79 . Despite multiple arrests in these states and in Borno.. Yusuf oversaw the construction of an alternative society. Yusuf always returned unimpeded to Maiduguri. Yusuf signaled his hostility to the ruling Muslim elite as well as to traditional Nigerian Islam.Micha’el Tanchum In September 2006. With the assistance of one of his chief deputies.

and Chad. The Boko Haram escapees in Niger were assisted by AQIM’s south Saharan katiba [brigade] commanded by Abdelhamid Abu Zeid. The organization itself maintained a depth of support in the greater Kanuri region. The following day Boko Haram instigated Muslim–Christian violence in Bauchi City. The organization began its campaign by targeting the ethnically mixed state of Bauchi in late July 2009. This form of mobilization was one of the first indications of al-Qa‘ida’s augmentation of Boko Haram’s capabilities as it re-established itself in exile. army units stormed Boko Haram’s headquarters in Maiduguri. Boko Haram’s escalation of its campaign against the state governments was accompanied by increased attacks on the Christian minority communities. Niger. including Abubakar Shekau.27 The surviving top echelon of the organization. The police reported losing twenty-eight men. who assumed the leadership of Boko Haram. and several hundred Boko Haram militants attacked the police station in which their comrades were being held. otherwise this war that has yet to start will continue for a long time. Each time the organization faced reprisal operations conducted by police and army forces. Boko Haram engaged in a lowintensity jihad against governmental institutions in at least five Nigerian states. It is estimated that approximately 500 Boko Haram militants were killed. The Bauchi state governor preemptively arrested several Boko Haram leaders. claiming that the group was planning to take over the state capital of Bauchi City. As Boko Haram regrouped in these locations. it began mobilizing its members and supporters through the distribution of martyrdom videos. AQIM head Droukdel publically offered to train and arm Nigerian volunteers to wage jihad against Christian Nigerians who were engaged in a “crusade” against Muslims. 2009. “Democracy and the current system of education must change.Israel Journal of foreign Affairs VI : 2 (2012) suspicion that members of the political elite had covertly joined Boko Haram or were sympathetic to the organization. following Yusuf’s declaration. the surviving Boko Haram militants would flee to safe havens in Cameroon.29 80 . More than fifty people died in the violence and approximately 100 Boko Haram militants were arrested. In 2009. In January 2010. Approximately 800 people died in the violence. Boko Haram began preparing for a widespread and extensive campaign to topple Nigerian state governments. Yusuf was captured at his father-in-law’s house and later shot dead while in police custody. 25 A defiant Yusuf made plain Boko Haram’s intentions in an interview with Nigeria’s Daily Trust newspaper. In the wake of the 2003 Christmas Eve attack.28 Droukdel and the AQIM shura had already offered Shekau assistance in rebuilding Boko Haram. fled to Niger and Chad.”26 On July 30.

a new wave of Muslims–Christian fighting broke out in the Plateau state. Boko Haram waged a campaign of continual attacks. Goodluck Jonathan. and several key ANPP figures. In an audiotape message in 2003. a Christian Ijaw from Nigeria’s southern coast. Boko Haram assassinated Bashir Kashara. It began in September 2010 by attacking prisons in Bauchi state to free about 100 captive Boko Haram militants. as Libyan rebels forces advanced on the last stronghold of Qadhafi support in his hometown of Sirte. it appeared that al-Qa‘ida had succeeded in establishing a presence within Nigeria to achieve this aim. Shortly thereafter. The intensification of Salafi Islamist sympathies among the Touareg would allow AQIM to penetrate further south and form a contiguous area of jihadist militancy with Boko Haram that would encompass most of West Africa. al-Qa‘ida leader Osama bin-Laden identified Nigeria as one of the six Muslim countries “ripe for liberation. while Libya’s interim rulers met with world leaders in Paris to discuss Libya’s post-Qadhafi future. Between October 2010 and the outbreak of the Libyan civil war in March 2011. including the party’s regional vice-chairman. On August 18. 2011. Jonathan’s election to the presidency was controversial for many Nigerian Muslims who regarded it as a violation of Nigeria’s practice of alternating the office of the presidency between a Christian and a Muslim. 2011. as well as Touareg mercenaries. In early September.35 The presence in Niger and Mali of heavily armed Touareg fighters. In October. thousands of Touareg streamed across the border into Niger’s Agadez region. Boko Haram bombed the UN headquarters in the Nigerian capital of Abuja. an Islamist cleric in Maiduguri who criticized its ideology in his weekly Islam program on Borno state radio.31 On April 18.”33 As of late August 2011. 81 . events in Nigeria were quickly overshadowed by the Libyan rebels’ triumph in the battle for Tripoli and their seizure of Muammar Qadhafi’s compound in the Libyan capital on August 23. Christian ministers.Micha’el Tanchum When Boko Haram launched its renewed jihad in northern Nigeria in the autumn of 2010. and the ANPP youth leader in Borno. seasoned in desert combat.30 The group also targeted northern Nigeria’s ruling party. 2011. heavily armed convoys began crossing the southern Libyan desert into Niger carrying senior Touareg officers from Qadhafi’s security forces.32 Boko Haram sought to exploit this dissatisfaction by directly attacking the Nigerian federal government. posed a grave danger to the stability of the two Sahel countries. was declared the winner of Nigeria’s presidential elections.34 In October 2012. the conservative All Nigeria People’s Party (ANPP). However. the influence of AQIM was clear. killing antithetical Muslim clerics. The outbreak of the Touareg insurgency in Mali in mid-January 2012 presented AQIM with an opportunity to deepen its strategic relationship with Touareg populations in Mali and Niger. its gubernatorial candidate for Borno state.

The second (1990–95) was more sustained and widespread. the country’s arid northern hinterland in which Niger’s extensive uranium deposits are located. this concern became more immediate when.Israel Journal of foreign Affairs VI : 2 (2012) The Critical Links: Niger and Mali The six million Tamasheq-speaking Touareg are distributed across a wide desert and semi-desert territory spanning southern Algeria and Libya. Osama bin-Laden released an audiotape addressed to the people of France declaring that AQIM’s hostages would not be freed until France withdrew its troops from Afghanistan. there have been three Touareg rebellions. 2011. Since the second Touareg rebellion. According to AQIM’s Salafi outlook. and one Madagascan) at the company’s mining operation in Arlit on September 16. such practices are un-Islamic. The 2009 peace accord reached between the Touareg rebels and the Hausa/Djerma-dominated national government in Niamey promised the Touareg a greater voice in Niger’s national politics as well as a greater share of Niger’s uranium income. 2010. ten days prior to the Niger’s national elections. Niger The Touareg constitute about 11 percent of Niger’s population and primarily reside in the Agadez region. and part of Burkina Faso. The negotiations were carried out under the auspices of Muammar Qadhafi. Niger is one of the world’s leading producers of uranium and one of its primary suppliers to France. which relies on nuclear energy for 78 percent of its electricity production. similar to the process that has occurred in northern Nigeria and the greater Lake Chad Basin. One of the Berber peoples. involving Touareg independence movements in Niger as well as Mali. several Touareg rebels had remained in Libya and served in the Libyan military. The jihadist co-optation of Touareg ethnonationalist aspirations would therefore require a shift in identity among the Touareg themselves. the Touareg’s traditional Islamic culture is heavily infused with practices deriving from a blend of Sufism and ancient Berber folk customs. On January 21. northern Mali and Niger. The first (1963–64) was short lived and confined to Mali. one Togolese. whose public call for the Touareg to cease hostilities during his visit to the Nigerién capital of Niamey initiated the peace process. with peace talks occurring in Sirte. 82 . Prior to the current outbreak of hostilities in northern Mali. The accord was challenged by AQIM’s kidnapping of seven employees of the French conglomerate Areva (five French nationals. The rebellion ended through a peace accord that was mediated by Libya. with intense concurrent campaigns in the Nigerién and Malian theaters. The kidnapping raised the longheld concern that Touareg ethno-nationalist grievances would be reframed within the global jihadist narrative. The third Touareg rebellion (2007–09) first erupted in Niger and then spread to Mali.

to serve as one of his presidential advisers. The pattern of AQIM kidnappings. On January 23. This is in no small measure due to President Issoufou’s appointment of Brigi Rafini. In September 2011. provoking joint French-Nigérien military operations in the Agadez region that are resented by some of the local Toureg population.” AQIM’s efforts garnered little support during Niger’s successful transition to democracy during 2010–2011. 2011 to free two other French hostages who had been kidnapped in Niamey. 2011. with its post-colonial dependence on France as a rentier state. dominated by Hausa and Djerma.” Despite Niger’s success thus far in maintaining its national cohesion and developing a democratic civil society. President Issoufou traveled to Arlit to inaugurate a two-day “Peace and Development” forum. Anako had appealed to the Malian Touareg “to prefer dialogue to the detriment of violence. a former leader of Touareg rebel factions during the second and third Touareg rebellions. during the first week of Touareg violence in neighboring Mali. President Issoufou’s initiative was made all the more poignant by the presence of Mohamed Anako. two weeks after Issoufou himself assumed office. The influx of Touareg mercenaries and refugees from Libya in Autumn 2011 similarly did not produce an increase of sympathy for al-Qa‘ida. This earlier kidnapping likewise prompted a French rescue operation that failed. as prime minister of Niger on April 21. The current limited political opportunity for AQIM recruitment in Niger would greatly increase should Boko Haram succeed in delegitimizing the Nigérien government among a significant segment of the country’s Hausa and Kanuri populations living along the border with Nigeria. Boko Haram’s cross-border militancy is a cause for serious concern.Micha’el Tanchum Bin-Laden’s statement came after French special forces had failed on January 8. AQIM had kidnapped a French national also in the Agadez region near Niger’s border with Mali.”36 AQIM’s attempt to recast the Touareg situation according to the Salafi paradigm ultimately can only succeed by portraying the Nigérien government as one that is not genuinely “Islamic. served al-Qa‘ida’s attempt to reframe Touareg grievances against the Nigerién state within the Salafi jihadist formulation of the “Far Enemy” and the “Near Enemy. Prior to the kidnapping of the Areva employees. four months prior to the outbreak of the new Touareg insurgency in Mali. There. he presented an initiative for new long-term programs for the development of the Agadez region and the reintegration of former Touareg rebels returning from Libya. the veteran leader of the second Toureg rebellion. President Issoufou appointed Rhissa ag Boula. 2012. a Touareg and native of Agadez. was portrayed as the “Near Enemy. now serving as head of the Agadez regional council. 83 .” Non-Muslim France was cast as the “Far Enemy” and the officially secular Fifth Republic of Niger.

the aim of which is to create an independent Touareg state called Azawad from the three northern Touareg regions of Mali— Kidal. Ançar Dine. and began to administer a Shar’iah-run regime in the city. have driven the MNLA forces from Timbuktu. 2012. met with ag Ghaly in Timbuktu. The fighters belonged to the Mouvement National pour la Libération de l’Azaouad (MNLA).40 Ançar Dine spokesman Cheikh Ag Aoussa declared. the MNLA enjoys little support among the majority of the 84 . Gao. including several Nigerians. 2012. missiles. forcing the Malian military into a series of retreats. burned the national flag of Azawad.39 Led by Iyad ag Ghaly. who leads a small AQIM faction.” 41 Quick to emphasize the Salafi nature of its struggle in contradistinction to the MNLA’s Touareg nationalist aspirations.38 However. Hamada ag Hama. a prominent leader from the second Touareg rebellion. the combined Ançar Dine-AQIM forces under the leadership of ag Ghaly expelled the MNLA. and mortars. the Touareg insurgents are reported to have very effectively employed a combination of machine gun-equipped four-wheeldrive vehicles. On March 21.Israel Journal of foreign Affairs VI : 2 (2012) Mali In mid-January 2012. Arriving in approximately fifty vehicles. the MNLA appears to have lost control of a significant portion of its territory to its erstwhile ally the Islamist militant organization Ançar Dine [Defenders of the Religion]. “It is an obligation for us to fight for the implementation of Shar’iah in Mali. its spokesman Mossa Ag Attaher formally declared the independence of Azawad on French Television on April 6. ag Ghaly told Timbuktu’s Muslim clerics that “he did not come for independence but for the application of Islamic law.42 Abu Zeid. Many of the members of the MNLA served in Qadhafi’s armed forces. the MNLA militants took Gao and then Timbuktu in quick succession.” At the time of this writing. Experienced in desert combat and using weapons transported from Libya. With the MNLA controlling all three Malian regions. Ançar Dine pointed out that the militants who conquered Timbuktu were a mulitethnic force. Ançar Dine issued a statement to Agence France Presse that it was in control of Kidal’s major towns and had begun to administer Shar’iah law. and Timbuktu.928 km2. Ançar Dine is linked to al-Qai’da particularly through ag Ghaly’s cousin. While the Touareg comprise about 10 percent of the Malian population. Touareg separatists began a military campaign in the Kidal region. Mali’s arid northeastern hinterland bordering the Arlit section of Agadez in Niger. aided by AQIM elements. a territory comprising 819. Promising to fight to the death against those advocating the creation of a democratic republic of Azawad.43 With the Touareg comprising only 10 percent of Timbuktu’s population. who had been providing training to Boko Haram militants in Niger.37 After capturing all major cities and towns in Kidal. the commander of AQIM’s southern katiba. the vast desert and semi-desert region they claim constitutes approximately 66 percent of the territory of Mali.

in Abijan.nytimes. within its the global jihadist narrative of the “Near Enemy” and “Far Enemy. Islamists Target Nigeria Schools. Jerusalem.45 Whither West Africa? The independence of Azawad has not been internationally recognized. Ivory Coast. Notes This article was written with the support of a fellowship from the Department of Middle East and Islamic Studies at the Shalem Center.html?_r=1. “Could Al-Qaeda turn African in the Sahel?” Carnegie Papers 112 85 . especially its own participation.000-strong force to intervene in Mali. 2012 on the pretext of his alleged incompetence in managing the counteroffensive against the Touareg insurgency. “Wielding Fire. The democratically elected president of Mali was deposed by a military coup on March 22. The author wishes to express his thanks to the Shalem Center and to Noga Glucksam and Valentin Vasquez for their assistance. particularly from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). particularly if assisted by France.” The New York Times. www.47 This military intervention. 1 2 Adam Nossiter. Mali’s military junta agreed to restore civilian rule after the fall of Timbuku to the insurgents. the military chiefs-of-staff of the ECOWAS nations began planning the creation of a 3.” If an ECOWAS intervention should prove to be insufficiently swift and decisive. Jean-Pierre Filiu. Israel. Creating a domestic political crisis and bringing about severe international sanctions. March 25.Micha’el Tanchum city’s residents.46 Concurrently. Salfist Ançar Dine as a better alternative than the MNLA. 2012.44 Without a credible alternative from Mali’s national government in Bamako. the Fulani living along the Niger River between Timbuktu and Gao may prove more amenable to Ançar Dine. Mali will become the cause célèbre for al-Qa‘ida. potentially attracting jihadists from around the continent. the ungoverned spaces of Mali’s Touareg regions will serve as the base from which AQIM and Boko Haram will carry forward their project to create an integrated jihadist movement in West Africa. to significantly address Touareg grievances and encourage their participation in the Malian state. the Songhai and Fulani of Timbuktu and Gao may begin to view the multi-ethnic. akin to the measures adopted in Niger. Because of Boko Haram’s assistance to Fulani populations in Nigeria. Without Mali’s implementation of political and economic measures.com/2012/03/26/world/africa/in-nigeria-boko-haramtargets-schools. Some Nigerian militants have already been engaged by Ançar Dine to instruct segments of Timbuktu’s population in the Salafi practice of Islam.48 would enable al-Qa‘ida to reframe the Touareg insurgency.

stm. 2011. 63–74.” 49 percent of Nigerian Muslims held a favorable attitude toward al-Qa‘ida. 1997). news. www.uk/2/hi/africa/1741171. allafrica. Roman Loimeier. See also William F. cit. 2002.pewglobal.pdf. The Kanuri of Bornu (New York. 207–290. Miles. See “Osama baby craze hits Nigeria. Hisba and the Enforcement of Morality in Northern Nigeria. Nmehielle. Ronald Cohen. 1967).” Journal of African Law. Nigerian Muslims’ identification with Osama bin-Laden and al-Qa‘ida’s struggle against the United States is perhaps best indicated by the rapid increase of Nigerian Muslim boys who were named Osama and the justifications for the name given by the parents. “Nigeria: Boko Haram—a Small Group Becomes a Deadly Scourge. Adamu. org/files/al_qaeda_sahel.” Pew Global Attitudes Project. Vincent O. See Fatima L. XLVIII:2 (2004). This was the highest percentage of the Muslim populations polled. “Osama Bin Laden. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. June 26.html. “Sharia Law in the Northern States of Nigeria: To Implement or Not to Implement. www. 2011). the Constitutionality Is the Question. 2010). news. “Tiptoeing through a Constitutional Minefield: The Great Sharia Controversy in Nigeria. www.” BBC News. 2004. Anna Borzello. 111–164. LXXVIII (2008).” Africa Today. The exact parameters of Islamic law and its enforcement are still contested among Muslims factions in several of the northern Nigerian states. Jide Ajani.com/stories/201106260014.carnegieendowment. 136–152 .com/2011/07/boko-haram-the-northern-nigeria-hausaland-2/. January 14. Pew Research Center.bbc. pp. For an overview of the federal constitutional issues arising from the implementation of Islamic law at the state level.S. see Andrew Ubaka Iwobi. Islamic Reform and Political Change in Northern Nigeria (Evanston.bbc. According to polling conducted by the Pew Research Center’s “Global Attitudes Project. the most active researcher among the few scholars of Kanuri Studies in the world today. Miles. 730–759. Herzliya.org/2011/05/02/ osama-bin-laden-al-qaeda-had-been-losing-support-in-muslim-world. 11th Annual Conference—World Summit on Counter Terrorism. 2011. op.” BBC News. July 1. September 13. L:1 (Spring/Summer.” Vanguard News. “Tracking Down Nigeria’s ‘Taleban’ Sect. May 2. Micha’el Tanchum. “Shari’a as De-Africanization: Evidence from Hausaland. See also the published works of Editha Platte. 65–70. “Nigeria’s Boko Haram and Islamist Extremism in the Lake Chad Basin: The Emergence of a New Trans-Saharan Jihadist Nexus. including in Pakistan. Micha’el Tanchum. 2011.Israel Journal of foreign Affairs VI : 2 (2012) (June. vanguardngr. Shehu Sani.” Africa. “Boko Haram: The Northern Nigeria” Vanguard News.co. XXVI:3 (August 2004). “Countering Islamist Extremist Challenges to Democratic Transition: Lessons from the “‘Nigérien Spring. Israel.” The Interdisciplinary Center. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 86 . Al-Qaeda had been losing support in Muslim world. www. 2003).”Gender. 2011.’” Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs V:3 (September. January 3.” Human Rights Quarterly.

According to Yossef Bodansky. Although not mentioning Muhammad Yusuf. allafrica. most of the population of Gombe is Fulani.“Nigeria: Thousands displaced in Jos riots. cit. the capital of Borno state. “In the first half of 2002. “Revenge in the Name of Religion—The Cycle of Violence in Plateau and Kano States. op. See Abdullahi Bego.uk/2/hi/africa/3393963. William Thornberry and Jaclyn Levy. See their citation of another Center for Strategic and International Studies report by Anthony Cordesman in note 28. org/Report/88354/NIGERIA-More-mass-graves-dug-in-Jos.” December 19. www.pdf.pewforum. 3–7 Muhammad Yusuf’s role prior to 2006 remains unclear. March 8. www. 2004.irinnews. certain journalistic accounts claim the group in Kanamma had migrated from Maiduguru. 5–6. Gombe State was formed in 1996 by separating the territory from Bauchi State. Consisting primarily of savannah amenable to herding. www. 2010. op. 4. October 5.nigeriamasterweb. p.Micha’el Tanchum co. . “Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb. 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 87 .” Defense & Foreign Affairs: Strategic Policy (August 2010). Filiu. 2010.” Bodansky asserts that the original Boko Haram formation was the core of the Yobe Taliban (Bodansky. “‘Taliban’ of Nigeria: Who are they?” Weekly Trust News. “Nigeria’s Boko Haram Links with al-Qaida.com/TalibanOfNigeria. Yusuf consolidated these groups [of violent street youth] into an organization called Boko Haram. January 18.html. cit. 9. January 3.irinnews. cit.com/download/resource/main/ main/idatcs/00010647:c19402a56040a388cc764105aa252802. The group was formally founded in Maiduguri . 18).” Washington Post.” IRIN News. see “Global Christianity—A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World’s Christian Population. 4 (September 2011).aspx.. XVII:8 (A). The rapid growth of Christianity in Nigeria over the past two decades. “Al-Qaeda’s Far-Reaching New Partner. op. Craig Whitlock.org/Report/87778/ NIGERIA-Thousands-displaced-in-Jos-riots.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/10/04/ AR2006100402006. 8.washingtonpost. cit. www. “Nigeria: More mass graves dug in Jos. . op.” Human Rights Watch. accompanied by the migration of Christians northward. May 2005. Sani.Yossef Bodansky. See discussion in the section “Mali” further on in the text. 2011. Ibid. has met with consternation among some Nigerian Muslims..stm. Case Study No. 2006.html. Thornberry and Levy. On the growth of Christianity in Nigeria in relation to global trends.org/Christian/Global-Christianityexec. Yusuf seems to have been a charismatic Islamist preacher who in the immediate post-9/11 environment appealed to violent street youth in the region of Maiduguri.” Center for Strategic and International Studies AQAM Futures Project Case Studies Series..” IRIN News. Nigeria now boasts the sixth largest Christian population in the world. www.

guardian.uk/world/2009/jul/27/boko-haram-nigeria-attacks. 2009.uk/2/ hi/8169359. .com/2011/03/28/nigeria-boko-haram-assassinates-anotheranpp-leader/. “3280 personnes fuyant la guerre en 88 .co. op. 2011. 2011. Many Nigerian Muslims believe that Jonathan’s term as president therefore violates the convention of alternating the presidency between a Christian and a Muslim. Eventually.” “Libya Conflict: Armed Gaddafi loyalists flee to Niger. 7. Taye Obateru. Filiu. 7 “Suspected Islamists kill outspoken Nigerian cleric. 2010. Filiu did caution. Sani. on February 9. July 30.” The New York Times. www. selon l’ONU. “Plus de 600 Nigériens expulsés de Lybie. “Nigerian sect leader ‘captured’” BBC News. www. cit. In the sixteen-minute tape aired on Al-Jazeera television. March 28. www.uk/2/hi/africa/8177390.nigerexpress. cit.. around the Gulf of Guinea.com/2003/02/12/international/ middleeast/12TAPE. July 27. 2009. October 2. Morocco. op.821. Lawani Mikairu.” The ailing Yar’Adua returned to Nigeria the following day and remained in the country in an incapacitated state until he died on May 5.Israel Journal of foreign Affairs VI : 2 (2012) 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 “Dozens killed in Nigeria clashes. Yemen. bbc.stm. “The fear that AQIM could achieve substantial inroads in Nigeria and.” The Guardian. This is why the regional threat must be assessed carefully. more generally. Neil MacFarquhar. Saudi Arabia.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5gctkuASafnfiWo6xwYLrf6 U5tMLQ?docId=CNG.” BBC News. “Nigeria: Boko Haram Leader. 2009.uk/news/world-africa-14799075. and Daniel Idonor.bbc. allafrica. “Tape Ascribed to bin-Laden Urges Muslims to Stand With Iraq. bin-Laden identified Jordan. Yar’Adu left Nigeria for Saudi Arabia to receive treatment for pericarditis without transferring authority to then-Vice President Goodluck Jonathan. 2010. 2010.” Niger Express News. February 12. Yusuf.php?option=com_ content&view=article&id=498:plus-de-600-nigeriens-expulses-dalgerie-selonlonu&catid=1:actualites-nigeriennes&Itemid=3. grew.” Bodansky. unjust regimes who are enslaved by America.” Vanguard News.stm. 2009.” Agence France Presse.co.725d60174830aa4919964c0725ece6c5. However.google. apostate. op. Filiu asserted that this “bombastic call triggered no reaction in Nigeria. news.. September 6. 2003.html.com/ stories/200907310003. July 26. “Nigerian ‘Taliban’ offensive leaves 150 dead. 2009.co. 2011. On November 23.” BBC News. July 30. Kingsley Omonobi. David Smith. Pakistan and Nigeria as ripe for being “liberated from the slavery of these ruling. www. op cit. cit. it is clear that the scholarly consensus misread the significance of Boko Haram’s relationship with AQIM.” With the benefit of hindsight. “Nigeria: Boko Haram Assassinates another ANPP Leader. October 9. see newspaper articles cited therein.” SahelBlog.wordpress. news. Thornberry and Levy.nytimes.html. Nigeria’s Senate conferred upon Jonathan the authority to serve as “acting president. Killed.bbc.info/index.co. 2007. Muslim politician Umaru Musa Yar’Adua was elected president of Nigeria and assumed office on May 29. sahelblog.

info/index. Mokhtar Belmokhtar. January 24. 2012. the lingua franca of Timbuktu is Koyra Chiini. February 22.” Agence France Presse. 2012. 2012. April 4.” This refers to the residents of Medina who assisted Muhammad and his companions when they fled from Mecca in 622 CE. October 8.com/islamist-fighters-call-sharia-law-mali-144233731. Abu Zeid’s rival and leader of a different katiba.org/index. “Islamist fighters call for Sharia law in Mali. Ibid.” France 24 television.info/index.html.” Foroyya Newspaper.” Niger Express News.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=513 :nterview-exclusive-du-gouverneur-dagadez-le-colonel-major-garba-maikido-sur-lasituation-de-la-regionla-deuxieme-menace-cest-eventuellement-le-retour-de-quelquesex-combattants-de-la-libye&catid=1:actualites-nigeriennes&Itemid=3#addcomments.nigerexpress. la sécurité et le développement dans l’espace sahélo-saharien.b71. fr.” Niger Express News. 2011.yahoo. php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9447:le-president-de-la-republiqueprocede-au-lancement-officiel-du-forum-sur-la-paix-la-securite-et-le-developpementdans-lespace-sahelo-saharien-a-arlit-agadez&catid=34:actualites&Itemid=53. Iyad ag Ghaly’s statement was reported to AFP by an eyewitness. “Les islamistes chassent les rebelles touareg. “Le comité exécutif du MNLA a proclamé l’indépendance de l’Azawad. “Mali: Tuareg Rebellion. 2012.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=499:3280personnes-fuyant-la-guerre-en-libye-sont-arrivees-a-agadez-le-week-end-derniernn-&catid=1:actualites-nigeriennes&Itemid=3. “Interview exclusive du gouverneur d’Agadez.” La Presse de Tunisie.allafrica.Micha’el Tanchum Libye sont arrivées à Agadez le week-end dernier. à Arlit (Agadez). also attended the meeting. Part of the thirteen-minute video that was aired by AFP can be viewed on YouTube: www. www. c’est éventuellement le retour de quelques ex-combattants de la Libye.lapresse.info/index. 2012. “Niger: Issoufou avertit contre les risques d’une rébellion touareg. February 1. lesahel. Many Touareg were 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 89 . news. html. www.google. com/watch?v=OM1AyelRLP0. 2012.com/ stories/201202221166. le colonel major Garba Maikido: La deuxième menace.nigerexpress.html. October 4. The Text of President Issoufou’s speech was reproduced in the following article: “Le Président de la République procède au lancement officiel du forum sur la paix. The announcement was made on the France 24 television station. nigerexpress.” Agence France Presse. “The Helpers of the Religion. the language of Mali’s Songhai population that maintains a historic antagonism to the Touareg. April 3. “La mythique Tombouctou sous le joug des islamistes. April 6. Himadou Ahmadou.youtube. www. 2011. March 13.” Niger Express News. Like Gao.89cd0cc3c48b9aaf643fe7e06ad17b83.php?option=com_con tent&view=article&id=676:niger-issoufou-avertit-contre-les-risques-dune-rebelliontouareg&catid=146:politique&Itemid=619.tn/04042012/47805/les-islamistes-chassent-les-rebelles-touareg.html.com/view/resource/main/main/id/00031249. Daniel De Serge. www. 2012.” Le Sahel News. Literally.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jdr1MkVjNMgLrz80XY7gV FiFBliA?docId=CNG. allafrica.

Israel Journal of foreign Affairs VI : 2 (2012) expelled from the Timbuktu region during the second Touareg rebellion in the early 1990s. op.99 ISBN: 9780521143905 90 .com/stories/201204060350.allafrica. Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies (No. The ECOWAS brokered agreement included the lifting of ECOWAS sanctions against Mali and the granting of amnesty for all soldiers involved in the coup. French Foreign Minister Alain Juppé announced that France is prepared to handle the logistics for the ECOWAS force. Ibid. 2012. Stanislas Ndayishimiye. April 6. 19) Paperback 364 pages £21. fr.html The intervention is subject to the ECOWAS approval. De Serge.” Radio France Internationale. “Afrique de l’Ouest: Les chefs militaires ouest-africains proposent un mandat pour l’envoi d’une force. 45 46 47 48 Yom Kippur and After The Soviet Union and the Middle East Crisis Galia Golan Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya Cambridge Russian. cit.

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