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BEARINGS AND BUSHINGS

AEROSPACE BEARING: Aerospace bearings are designed to meet the rigorous demands
of aircraft control and aerospace applications. They are usually manufactured in accordance with U.S. government military specifications (MIL-SPEC) and made from stainless steel or other metals or materials that are resistant to corrosion, shock, and temperature extremes. Aerospace bearings are available in several different shapes and with varying load and axial load capacities. Important measurements for Aerospace bearings include bore size, outside diameter, and overall width. Metric and English or imperial pitch bearings are available. Typically, manufacturers use a standard numbering system for bearings with metric diameter bores. For bore sizes 04 and up, multiplying the size by 5 yields the bore in millimeters. Hexagonal bores are measured across the flats. Tapered bores are measured by the smaller diameter.

Aerospace Ball Bearings:

Ball bearing types are used extensively throughout aircraft airframe and engine design. Like their commercial brothers, aerospace ball bearings are the most versatile and well studied/engineered and manufactured of the bearing types. At this point their relationship with their commercial counterparts ends. Every bearing within an aircraft's structure is normally considered important, even simple glacier bushings found in the seats you sit in come under strict scrutiny as they have to perform predictably in extreme emergency situations. More obvious bearing positions such as engines, APU's, linkage support bearings and all other hinge, swivel and many oscillating positions all fall with the standard deep groove ball bearings capabilities. With aerospace requirements in mind, consistency is vital and all deep groove ball bearings supplied come with a certificate of conformity. This provides a traceable record of where the bearing was procured from. When the traceable path reaches back to the factory from where it was machined and assembled, the factory records should show from which batch of steel the rings where made from and where other components where made or procured from. Ultimately in the event of an investigation arising from a bearing failure, the root cause of the problem (if not maintenance orientated) should be quickly determined. Aerospace deep groove bearings are usually charged with a pre-determined fill of Military Specification grease suitable for the application and environment in which the bearing operates. The Aero shell range of greases are normally considered the unofficial industry standard with many grades and types delivering extremely wide temperature tolerances and high levels of stability when

subjected to external contamination such as water condensation, anti-icing fluid etc. The amount or fill of grease given to each bearing is again application dependant. Where continual rotation occurs a 25 to 30% grease fill is normal. For applications which cause the bearing to oscillate, a higher fill is required (up to 80%, depending on the exact performance requirements). Due to the expense of testing and re-qualification of new bearing designs, many modern aircraft such as the later Airbus and Boeing versions still use bearings originally designed in the early 1950's. Although this may seem perverse, it should be born in mind that material quality has drastically improved in terms of bearing raceways, cages, rolling elements, seals/shields and of course lubricant's. In reality the bearings produced now to the designs made in the 1950's are worlds apart in terms of performance yet the original catalogue load and speed ratings still have to be applied as any deviation would mean expensive re-qualification requirements. Designers just have to be satisfied that they have an even greater safety margin behind them, yet frustrating an unknown and untested performance increase as well. As many pieces of equipment, especially military, still use old imperial inch sizes (RHP, Ransom, Hoffman and Pollard) the demand is still present. Even old tolerance systems such as BS292 are still required. Obtaining these bearings however can prove frustrating, especially in low quantities. AHR have been involved in just these cases for quite some time and we can normally source or help designers around these problems.

Air bearing: Air bearings use a thin film of pressurized air to support a load. This type of
bearing is called a "fluid film" bearing. Fluid film bearings have no solid-to-solid contact under typical running conditions; instead, a film of lubricating fluid (in this case pressurized air) forms a layer between the solid machine elements and serves to transfer forces from one to the other.

Angular contact bearings: Angular contact bearings are designed such that a contact angle
between the races and the balls is formed when the bearing is in use. The major design characteristic of this type of bearing is that one, or both of the ring races have one shoulder relieved, or higher than the other. In order for these bearings to function properly, they must be assembled with a thrust load. This loading (or preload) creates a line of contact (or contact angle) between the inner race, the ball and the outer race. The preload can be built into the bearing or created when the bearing is inserted into an assembly. The contact angle varies from 15 to 40 and is measured relative to a line running perpendicular to the bearing axis. Angular contact bearings are unidirectional thrust bearings that can withstand heavy thrust loads and moderate radial loads.

Babbitt bearings: Babbitt bearings are rotary bearings (no rolling elements) made from special
alloys poured into place in the bearing housing. A Babbitt bearing is made of Babbitt metal, a soft alloy of tin, antimony, and lead. Babbitt bearings are produced by the deposition of a thin layer of Babbitt metal onto plain bearings. The structure of Babbitt metal consists of small, hard crystals dispersed in a matrix of softer alloy. As the Babbitt bearing wears, the harder crystals are exposed. With the erosion of the matrix, a path is provided for the lubricant to reach the bearing surface.

Ball bearings: Ball bearings are used to provide smooth, low friction motion in rotary
applications. Ball bearings types include Radial Ball Bearings (Deep Groove and Angular Contact) and Thrust Ball Bearings. Radial ball bearings are designed to carry both radial and axial (thrust) loads, while thrust ball bearings are designed for pure thrust loads only. Radial, or deep groove bearings, can take radial and axial loads to varying degrees but are used when the primary load is in the radial direction. They consist of an inner ring, an outer ring, balls and sometimes a cage to contain and separate the balls. Angular contact ball bearings are designed such that a contact angle between the races and the balls is formed when the bearing is in use. The major design characteristic of this type of ball bearing is that one or both or the ring races have one shoulder higher than the other. In order for these bearings to function properly, they must be assembled with a thrust load. This loading (or preload) creates a line of contact (or contact angle) between the inner race, the ball and the outer race. The preload can be built in to the bearing or created when the bearing is inserted into an assembly. The contact angle varies from 15 to 40 and is measured relative to a line running perpendicular to the bearing axis. Angular contact bearings are one-directional thrust bearings that can withstand heavy thrust loads and moderate radial loads. Thrust ball bearings are designed for pure thrust loads. These bearings can handle little or no radial loads. The rolling element can be a ball, needle, or roller. Slewing ring or turntable bearings can accommodate axial, radial and moment loads. They are not mounted in a housing or on a shaft, but instead are mounted directly to a seating surface. The inner and outer rings are supplied with mounting holes. The inner ring, outer ring, or both may have integral gears. These bearings are referred to as tabletop bearings, turntable bearings, and slewing rings.

Ball screw support bearings: Ball screw support bearings are specially designed for use in
ball screw or lead screw applications. Most ball screw support bearings are angular contact bearings with a steep contact angle, such as 60, and are available in duplex, triplex and quadruple configurations. Other designs include bearings containing separate thrust and radial roller bearings in a single assembly. Cartridge designs are also available that include a housing, seals, and bearings.

Ball transfer units (BTU): Ball transfer units (BTU) are conveyors that use fixed balls to
transport products and materials by rolling. They are ball transfer table components that consist of a large, load-bearing ball that sits atop smaller balls inside of a hemispherical cup. Ball transfer tables are used in applications that require manual rotation or positioning, as they facilitate the quick and easy handling of products and materials. These industrial conveyor assemblies are also used in material handing applications where two conveyor lines converge and packages must be transferred from one line to another. Some ball transfer units have support springs to absorb momentary shock loads from these conveyor line transfers. Others have sealed balls to prevent the ingress of debris and liquids. Low-profile ball transfer units and BTUs with drains or exit holes are also available.

Bearing isolators: Bearing isolators are dynamic seals designed to protect bearings from
outside contaminants. They are comprised of a rotor (rotating) and stator (stationary) member. Some bearing isolators are of labyrinth construction while others use O-rings or other positive seals. The most important specifications to consider when searching for bearing isolators are the dimensions. These include shaft outer diameter or seal inner diameter, housing bore diameter or seal outer diameter, and axial cross section or thickness. The shaft outer diameter or seal inner diameter refers to the size of the seal inside diameter or the shaft or piston outside diameter. The housing bore diameter or seal out diameter refers to the size of the housing bore diameter or the seal outside

diameter. The axial cross section or thickness refers to the axial cross section, or thickness, of the seal.

Bearing retainers or bearing cages: Bearing retainers or bearing cages are used in
rotary and linear bearings to separate and maintain a specified distance between rolling elements, whether they are balls, needle rollers, or rollers. Bearing retainers or bearing cages reduce wear between elements, minimize the build-up of heat, and help lengthen bearing life. There are two basic types of bearing retainers or bearing cages: crown and ribbon. Crown retainers and crown cages feature a single-piece, open-ball pocket design. Ribbon retainers and ribbon cages have a two-piece, open-ball pocket design. Bearing tables indicate the proper type of bearing retainers or bearing cages to use. Note, however, that bearings with retainers are not suitable in some instances. For example, in applications with low speeds and high loads, a full-complement bearing with no retaining mechanism may be preferred. Selecting bearing retainers or bearing cages requires an analysis of materials and product specifications. Some bearing retainers or bearing cages are made of metals such as heattreated aluminum, sold bronze, or pressed steel. Others are made of non-metal materials such as nylon, Teflon? (DuPont), or phenolic resins. Pressed steel is a common choice. Brass cages have good noise characteristics, and are often used in harsh or corrosive environments. Phenolic or fiberresin cages are designed for spindle bearings and machine tool applications. These bearing retainers or bearings cages are relatively lightweight and can withstand high speeds and heavy loads. In terms of performance specifications, there are many parameters to consider. Examples include application loads and speeds, environmental conditions such as temperature and contamination, acceleration issues, vibration levels, high-speed running, and lubrication requirements. Bearing retainers or bearing cages are used in many different applications and industries. Some products are used by tool and die makers, stamping-die manufacturers, and metal stamping operations. Bearing retainers or bearing cages are also used in aerospace and automation applications, medical and production equipment, and the automotive industry. Specialized bearing retainers or bearing cages are used in medical and dental products. For example, polyamide and polyimide retainers provide smooth, quiet operation under conditions of extreme wear resistance. They can withstand multiple autoclave cycles, and may be pre-lubricated with food-safe or autoclave-resistant grease. Because proper lubrication affects the performance of antifriction bearings, these lubricants are often filtered.

Cam followers: Cam followers are specialized bearings that are supported from a single point
on their circumference. On the point of contact, singular roller forces create a bending of the outer ring. This bending creates an outer ring deformation with reversed bending stresses in dynamic applications, a decreased load zone, and a higher maximum roller load. In attempts to minimize deformation, cam followers need to include a heavier cross-section than a standard bearing. This requirement conflicts with the need for maximum dynamic bearing capacity with calls for the largest roller diameter possible.

Ceramic bearings: Ceramic bearings are rotary bearings constructed of ceramic.

Ceramic hybrid bearings, the most common type of ceramic bearing, are constructed of steel inner and outer rings with ceramic (typically Si3N4) balls in place of steel. Common types of ceramic bearings are angular contact and Conrad. These bearings have several advantages over all steel bearings, such as higher speed and acceleration capability, increased stiffness, higher accuracy, lower friction and heat generation, reduced lubrication requirements, low thermal expansion, and extended operation life. Bearings containing all ceramic balls are also nonconductive and are commonly used in electric

motor applications.

Cylindrical roller bearings: Cylindrical roller bearings have high radial-load capacity and
moderate thrust loads. They contain rollers which are cylindrically-shaped, but are not true cylinders. Instead, these rollers are crowned or end-relieved to reduce stress concentrations. This geometry results in low friction and allows for high-speed applications. Cylindrical roller bearings are commonly available in precision grades such as RBEC-5, a classification from the Roller Bearing Engineers Committee (RBEC). RBEC ratings describe the accuracy and tolerance range for different types of bearings. As a rule, the higher the RBEC number, the tighter the bearing tolerances. Typically, cylindrical roller bearings are lubricated with oil, which also serves as a coolant.

Hanger bearings: Hanger bearings are used as rotational bearings for drive and screwconveyor shafts. Typically, these industrial shafts are enclosed with a housing or conveyor trough. Hanger bearings are comprised of a split-roller bearing in a cast iron split-housing with a threaded boss that provides suspension for the conveyor cross-bracing. A swivel fixing at the cross-bracing joint is recommended to provide alignment of the bearings. Frames for hanger bearings mount at the top or to the side of the housing. The bearing is suspended to the center for shaft mounting. Hanger bearings are used extensively in agricultural applications and heavy industry for heavy industry. They are also used in automotive assemblies, aircraft assemblies, and marine driveshaft assemblies.

Hydrostatic bearings and hydrodynamic bearings:

Hydrostatic bearings and hydrodynamic bearings are fluid film bearings that rely on a film of oil or air to create a clearance between the moving and stationary elements. They are different than basic bearings, machine components that reduce friction between supports in order to move loads. Typically, hydrostatic bearings and hydrodynamic bearings are used whenever one machine part comes in contact with another. Without bearings, machine parts would need to be constantly replaced from the wear of friction. The two primary types of bearings are antifriction bearings such as roller bearings and ball bearings, and plain bearings such as journal bearings and trust bearings. An antifriction bearing reduces friction by removing sliding between surfaces and replacing part contact with rolling components. A plain bearing uses a lubricant to reduce the friction between the sliding surfaces.

Insert bearings:

Insert bearings and wide inner ring bearings are used for mounting on shafts without the need for shoulders, locknuts, or adapters. The bearing is locked in place through setscrews or a locking collar. The inner ring usually extends on both sides of the bearing to provide extra shaft support.

Jewel bearings, jewels and pivots:

Jewel bearings, jewels and pivots are miniature components used in instruments and controls that require low friction, long life, and non-magnetic properties. They are usually made of sapphire, ruby, or hard glass. Jewel bearings, jewels and pivots exhibit rare combinations of design characteristics. For over a century, jewel bearings, jewels and pivots have been used as reliable, low-friction devices to keep watches and timepieces working accurately. Cup bearings are jewel bearings that fit a ball bearing between two-cup jewels or semispherical pivots. Cup bearings are often used in vertical shaft applications, such as compasses and heat monitors. V-bearings are jewel bearings that are suitable for sensitive magnetic meter movements, compasses, encoders, turbine flow devices, and galvanometers. Unlike a miniature bearing that uses line contact, a V-bearing provides a low-friction coefficient because its moving

shaft is near the point of contact. Glass V-bearings have slightly lower friction because their surfaces are fire polished. Synthetic jewel bearings, jewels and pivots are sometimes selected because of their superior hardness and ability to accept a high polish. Synthetic jewels are ideal for instruments, meters, control devices, and other precision mechanisms where low friction, long life, and dimensional accuracy are important. Ring jewels are journal or annular bearings that contain a contoured hole shaped like an hourglass or an olive, rather than a straight cylindrical bore. The advantage of ring jewels over conventional bearings is that a ring jewel provides a reduced contact area that causes lower friction between the shaft and the bearing. Ring jewels are commonly found in instruments such as watches, dial indicators, and gimbal suspensions. A V-jewel (Vee-jewel) is used in highly sensitive instruments requiring low torque bearings and where the moving element is light. V-jewels offer minimum friction when used with conical, small-radius pivots and permit slight lateral movement. V-jewels also provide for minimum friction when used with conical pivots. Jewel bearings, jewels and pivots are suitable for loads under 500 grams (g). Product specifications include friction coefficient, hardness, temperature stability, concentricity and size. For steel on sapphire, friction coefficients range from 0.1. to 0.15. In terms of hardness, sapphire has a compressive strength of 300,000 pounds per square inch (psi). High temperature stability results in a melting point about 2,050 degrees Celsius (C). Jewel bearings, jewels and pivots typically cost 80% less than a ball bearing and 90% less than a flexural pivot. Small sizes provide for compact designs.

Lazy Susan bearings:

Lazy Susan bearings are used in low-speed applications to rotate a tray, cabinet, table, or display unit. One side of the bearing attaches to a base. The other side attaches to the rotating platform. If the base is fixed, Lazy Susan bearings allow the tray, cabinet, table, or display unit to rotate a full 360 degrees. Components include inner and outer rims, a ball bearing race, dimples, and pads. Applications for Lazy Susan bearings include kitchen cabinets, laboratory cabinets, and repair facilities or workshops. Larger, motor-operated rotating platforms are called turntables.

Linear bearings:

Linear bearings are used in applications where a component needs to be moved along a straight line with high accuracy. The object may also need to be returned to its origin with high repeatability. Linear bearings come in a variety of styles and have wide load capacities.

Linear guides and rails: Linear guides and rails provide a smooth, precision, guiding
surface on which the rolling element of a linear bearing rides. They are an integral part of linear bearings, typically ordered separately from the rolling element component.

Linear shafts:

Linear shafts are elongated, rod-shaped devices that provide linear or rotary

motion for power transmission applications. They are used as axles, pistons, and rollers in heavy machinery. Some linear shafts have axial or radial holes for mounting to support structures. Others are grooved for the placement of snap rings or channeled for keyways. Solid or hollow linear shafts with male or female threads and stepped or chamfered ends are also available. Most linear shafts are made of aluminum, alloy steel, carbon steel, stainless steel, composite materials, or plastics. Alloy steel is harder than carbon steel and provides superior durability. Stainless steel is well-suited for applications in which corrosion resistance is an important consideration. Aluminum linear shafts

provide good electrical and thermal conductivity, high reflectivity, and resistance to oxidation. Composite materials are often made of carbon fibers bonded together by resins. They are not as strong as metal shafts, but are lightweight and help reduce energy requirements.

Magnetic bearings: Magnetic bearings use an electromagnet to provide non-contacting,


friction-free motion in rotary applications. They are constructed of a rotating and a stationary part (rotor and stator, respectively) separated by an air gap. Magnetic bearings operate by applying an electric current to ferromagnetic materials used in both the rotor and stator, creating a magnetic flux path that includes the rotor, stator, and air gap. Magnetic bearings do not require lubrication, and are virtually maintenance-free. They are available in two different functional types: active (AMB) and passive (PMB).

Miniature bearings and instrument bearings: Miniature bearings and instrument


bearings carry moderate radial and thrust loads at low operating torque while providing high performance in a small envelope design. These types of bearings are single row ball bearings available in up to 1 1/8 outer diameter (OD) sizes. Miniature bearings and instrument bearings are available in stainless steel for applications that require corrosion resistance and chrome for maximum fatigue life. Typically, these materials are typically heat-treated to achieve optimum hardness and dimensional stability. Stainless steel and chrome are both suitable for most applications of miniature bearings and instrument bearings.

Needle roller bearings: Needle roller bearings are roller bearings, which have a high load
carrying capacity with a very small section height. They are available with or without an inner ring. In all needle roller bearings, except for full complement needle roller bearings, the needle rollers themselves are guided parallel to the axis by a dimensionally stable cage. Airframe needle roller bearings are specified by MIL-B-3990 and National Academy of Sciences (NAS) standards.

Pillow block bearings:

Pillow block bearings are mounted bearings that are used to provide load support for a rotating shafts axis. Their mounting surface is on a line parallel to the axis of the shaft. Elongated bolt holes in the base or feet of pillow block bearings permit adjustment and easy mounting. Product categories include plain bearings, ball bearings, cylindrical-roller bearings, needleroller bearings, tapered-rolling bearings, hydrodynamic bearings, and more. With pillow block bearings, product selection is based on shaft size, radial and thrust load requirements, and dimensions and measurements.

Pivot bearings: Pivot bearings are frictionless bearings that are suitable for pivotal, angular, or
oscillating applications. A cantilevered pivot bearing is a commonly used type of pivot bearing for applications such as gimbal rings, mirror mounts, four bar linkages, and vibration isolation systems. Cantilevered pivot bearings, which are sometimes called a single-ended pivot bearing, allow one end to rotate in a limited number of degrees when one end is restrained. Cantilevered flexural pivot bearings are used to support an overhung load. Flexural pivots can also be used in a gimbal type of arrangement. A double-ended pivot bearing is a pivot bearing whose center section rotates a limited number of degrees when both end sections are restrained. Typically, these pivot bearings are used to support an overhung load.

Plain bearings and sleeve bearings: Plain bearings and sleeve bearings (also referred to
as bushings or journal bearings) are used to constrain, guide or reduce friction in rotary or linear applications. They function via a sliding action instead of the rolling action used by ball, roller, and needle bearings. Plain bearings and sleeve bearings are made from a variety of materials and are often self-lubricating to provide smooth operation and greater durability. Hydrostatic, hydrodynamic, and fluid film bearings are plain bearings and sleeve bearings that rely on a film of oil or air to create a clearance between the moving and stationary elements. Some products are designed for extreme environments and can withstand high or low temperatures. Others are suitable for hazardous environments with high levels of shock and vibration. Applications for plain bearings and sleeve bearings include food processing machinery, home appliances, packaging equipment, office machines, and automotive equipment.

Plastic bearings: Plastic bearings are used in wet and corrosive environments, clean
environments, areas that are difficult to lubricate, and applications that require non-magnetic bearings. They are made from a variety of plastic materials and are often self-lubricating to provide smooth operation and greater durability. Polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE), a heat-tolerant polymer, is a fluorinated thermoplastic with outstanding chemical resistance, low leachability, and excellent lubricity. Teflon, a registered trademark of DuPont Dow Elastomers, is a proprietary form of PTFE used with many plastic bearings. Nylon, a category that comprises several grades of polyamides, is commonly used as a bearing surface material because of its toughness, resistance, and pressure ratings. Semi-crystalline acetyl polymers offer excellent lubricity, fatigue resistance, and chemical resistance; however, they suffer from out gassing problems at elevated temperatures and become brittle at low temperatures.

Preload springs, spacers and washers: Preload springs, spacers and washers are used
to provide end-play take up or a constant preload for bearings, gears and other mechanical components and assemblies. They are made of convoluted ductile, high-strength metal alloys and are available in machined, welded and open-ring configurations. There are several basic types of products. Belleville washers are rounded, compact springs pressed into a dish-like shape, then hardened and tempered. Bowed, curved, or bent-spring washers are designed for axial play take up. Conical force spacers, adjustable spacers and load rings are used as replacements for shims or wave springs in assemblies that require highly accurate bearing settings, including preload. Finger washers use resilient fingers on the outer periphery to assure balanced pressure while directing pressure away from the inner diameter. Wave washers or wave springs are wavy metal washers that are designed to provide a compensating spring force, absorb shock, and sustain a load. Other types of preload springs, spacers and washers are also available.

Radial ball bearings: Radial ball bearings are probably the most widely used and most
recognized ball bearing. These bearings have one row of balls (referred to as a single row), which revolves around the ball path. This feature provides another name for the bearings; they are commonly called deep groove ball bearings. Although designed to primarily carry radial loads, a radial ball bearings raceways are deep enough that it can also carry reasonable thrust loads. (However, if thrust loads are excessive, an alternative type of bearing should be considered.)

Rod end bearings: Rod end bearings are used on the ends of cylinders, linkages, rods, and

shafts to take up angular misalignment between connected parts. They consist of a spherically-shaped inner ring and a cylindrical bore for shaft mounting. Metallic rod end bearings are made of brass, bronze, iron, or steel and often plated with zinc or chromium. Non-metallic products are made of plastic, nylon, or Teflon, a registered trademark of DuPont. Rod end bearings attach to rods and shafts via a male stud with external threads or a female housing with internal threads. Right-handed threads tighten in a clockwise direction and are the most commonly used type of thread. Left-handed threads tighten in a counterclockwise direction and must match the mating part. Load capacity and maximum angular misalignment are the most important specifications to consider. In most cases, bearing motion is symmetrical and the maximum angular misalignment is half of the total side-to-side range.

Roller bearings: Roller bearings are used in rotary applications to replace sliding movement
with low friction, rolling motion. The principal types of roller bearings are cylindrical, spherical, and tapered. In general, roller bearings offer higher load capacities than ball bearings of the same size.

Rotary shafts: Rotary shafts are elongated, rod-shaped devices that rotate about a longitudinal
axis and transmit torque. They are similar in shape to linear shafts, but are designed to withstand torsional forces. Some rotary shafts have tapped or untapped axial holes for mounting to support structures. Others are grooved for the placement of snap rings or channeled for keyways. Solid or hollow rotary shafts with male or female threads and stepped or chamfered ends are also available. Rotary shafts with break edges are debarred, but not chamfered. Precision ground products are also available. Most rotary shafts are made of aluminum, alloy steel, carbon steel, stainless steel, composite materials, or plastics. Alloy steel is harder than carbon steel and provides superior durability. Stainless steel is well-suited for applications in which corrosion resistance is an important consideration. Aluminum rotary shafts provide good electrical and thermal conductivity, high reflectivity, and resistance to oxidation. Composite materials are often made of carbon fibers bonded together by resins. They are not as strong as metal shafts, but are lightweight and help reduce energy requirements.

Slewing rings and turntable bearings: Slewing rings and turntable bearings can
accommodate axial, radial and moment loads. They are not housed or mounted on a shaft, but are instead mounted directly to a seating surface. The inner and outer rings are supplied with mounting holes and often include internal or external gears. There are several basic types of products. Singlerow slewing rings and turntable bearings feature a single row of balls, a standard bearing raceway, and four points of contact between the balls and raceway. Double-row products feature two rows of ball bearings, two raceways, and eight points of contacts for each ball. Slewing rings and turntable rings with three independent rows of rollers are also available. Cross rollers have a single row of rollers with the axes of alternating, adjacent rollers at right angles to one another. Slewing rings and turntable bearings with a single row of balls and a single row of rollers are designed for small radial run out and high thrust roads. Typically, inserted raceways are made of wire and use either a ball or roller as the contact element.

Specialty rotary bearings: Specialty rotary bearings are specialized or proprietary rotary
products and accessories related to roller bearings. There are different types of specialty rotary bearings available including a roller thrust bearing, ball thrust bearing, tapered roller bearing, and cylindrical bearings. Specialty rotary bearings are used in ship line shafts, crankshafts, and in rolling

mills to move the roller.

Spherical plain bearings: Spherical plain bearings are used to accommodate shafts or rods
with varying amounts of misalignment. They are designed to manage high radial loads and provide consistent performance under conditions of marginal lubrication, extreme speed and criticalapplication stress. Most spherical plain bearings consist of a plain bearing and ball bushing inside a lined, cylindrical housing that minimizes friction or provides self-lubrication. Lubrication-free spherical plain bearings are also available. Typically, metal balls and liners are made of steel, bronze or iron. Non-metallic balls and liners are usually made of plastic, nylon, or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Both metallic and non-metallic products provide superior performance to conventional steel, plastic or bronze plain bearings. For heavy-duty industrial applications, spherical plain bearings often include large bores or spherically shaped rollers that permit axial loading and relative misalignment between the housing and shaft.

Spherical roller bearings: Spherical roller bearings are self-aligning, double-row,


combination radial and thrust bearings. They use a spherical or crowned roller as the rolling element. The outer ring contains a spherical race which allows for some misalignment of the shaft and housing. Spherical roller bearings are unequalled in their capacity for high loads and tolerance to shock loads, but have limited speed capabilities. They perform consistently, even under conditions of extreme speed, application-specific stress, and marginal lubrication. The cage of a spherical roller bearing provides high dimensional accuracy and functionality. According to some estimates, spherical roller bearings have twice the running life of conventional bearings.

Super precision and spindle bearings: Super precision and spindle bearings are highprecision bearings that are designed for use in machine-tool spindles and other precision applications. Most super precision bearings and spindle bearings carry a high quality-rating such as ABEC-7 or ABEC-9, and run coolly and smoothly at high speeds. Annular Bearing Engineers Committee (ABEC) ratings are used to define different accuracy and tolerance ranges for bearings. As a rule, the higher the ABEC number, the tighter the bearing tolerance. Quality ratings for super precision and spindle bearings are also available from the Anti-friction Bearing Manufacturers Association (AFBMA), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS), and Deutsch Indusrite Norm.

Take-up bearings: Take-up bearings are used to maintain conveyor belt tension and align
conveyor tracks. They often include a take-up assembly that consists of a guide frame, positioning screw, and mounting hardware. Take-up frames and take-up bearings that do not include assembly components are also available. There are two basic types of take-up bearings: plain bearings and roller bearings. Plain bearings provide continuous surface contact between inner and outer races, but do not include rolling elements. By contrast, ball or roller bearings use rolling elements between the inner and outer races to reduce friction. Some take-up bearings are self-lubricating or include a lubrication port. Others are corrosion resistant or self-aligning. Center-pull products locate the adjustment pull axis through the center of the bearing. Top-pull and bottom-pull devices are also available.

Tapered roller bearings: Tapered roller bearings consist of an inner ring (cone), an outer

ring (cup), a cage and rollers which are profiled to distribute the load evenly. They have high radial and axial (thrust) load capacities at low to intermediate speeds. Tapered roller bearings are available in single-row, two-row and four-row designs. With single-row bearings, the thrust load capacity is about 60% of the radial capacity. Double-row bearings have a greater radial load capacity and can handle thrust loads from both directions. The rollers can be configured so that the contact lines to the races converge or diverge towards the axis of rotation. Diverging double-row bearings increase the rigidity of the shaft mounting, but converging bearings do not. Other configurations for double-row bearings feature a single outer ring and two inner rings, or two outer rings and a single inner ring. Four-row tapered roller bearings consist of four rows of alternating converging and diverging rollers.

Thin-section bearings: Thin-section bearings have small cross-sections with respect to their
diameter. Thin-section bearings are designed to save space, lower the weight of a design and reduce friction. Thin and extra thin-section bearings are available in inch or metric sizes and in chrome or stainless steel. These ranges are also available with cages for high-speed applications, and with extended inner rings. Thin-section bearings are manufactured to industry standard sizes. The bearing widths and distance from bore to outside diameter remains constant regardless of the change in bore diameter.

Thrust bearings: Thrust bearings are designed for pure thrust loads, and can handle little or no
radial load. The rolling element in a thrust bearing can be a ball, needle or roller. Design units can be specified in English units of inches, metric units or both. Important dimensions to consider when searching for thrust bearings include the bore, the outside diameter and the overall width. The bearing industry uses a standard number system for bearings with metric diameter bores. For bore sizes 04 and up multiply by 5 to obtain the bore in millimeters. If the bore is a hex this refers to the dimension across the flats. If the bore is tapered this refers to the smaller diameter. The outside diameter of the bearing includes the housing if it is a housed unit, but exclude the flange if a flanged bearing.

Thrust washers: Thrust washers are used as a bearing surface for rotary applications. They are
usually made of steel, bronze, plastic, or other material with low friction coefficients. Thrust washers, sometimes called rotary thrust washers, are washers designed to prevent movement along the axis of a shaft. Thrust bearings support an axial load on a shaft. A thrust bearing can be a plate at the end of a shaft, or a device against which a collar on the shaft presses. Banded thrust bearings and washers are reinforced by a band encircling the outer edge. Precision-engineered thrust washers are used in highwear applications such as transmissions, power take-offs pumps, axle assemblies, motors, and winches. Thrust washer kits contain thrust washers of varying thicknesses for correct installation during component assembly. Standard thrust washers are made for products such as automotive engines. Thrust washer manufactures are located across the United States and around the world.