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Science Academy Publisher, United Kingdom

www.sciacademypublisher.com

116

Numerical investigation of the Rutland 913 wind turbine airfoils

effect on the aerodynamic structure flow

Zied DRISS*, Walid TRIKI and Mohamed Salah ABID

Laboratory of Electro-Mechanic Systems (LASEM), National School of Engineers of Sfax (ENIS), University of Sfax (US), BP. 1173, Road

Soukra, km 3.5, Sfax, TUNISIA

*Email: zied.driss@enis.rnu.tn (Corresponding author)

Abstract In this paper, we are interested in studying the effect of the Rutland 913 wind turbine airfoils. The numerical results

obtained in the cases of the airfoils type SD2030 and BM4640 are particularly predicted and analyzed. The results, from

application of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code "Fluent", are presented in the transversal and longitudinal planes

of the considered control volume. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved by a finite volume discretization method. The

turbulence model used is the RNG k-. The objective is to study the effect of the airfoil type on the aerodynamic structure flow

around the horizontal-axis wind turbine.

Keywords Wind turbine, Rutland 913, Airfoil, Aerodynamic, Turbulent, CFD.

1. Introduction

Aerodynamic and structural optimization of wind turbine

airfoils has become a subject of considerable interest. It

involves the determination of the geometry of an

aerodynamic configuration, which satisfies certain objectives

[1-6]. To do this, a deep research has resulted in the

development of a series of Computational Fluid Dynamics

(CFD) tools based on the solution of the Reynolds averaged

Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. This research has mostly

been related to the aerodynamics of wind turbines, notably

the development of basic solution algorithms, numerical

schemes for solution of the flow equations, grid generation

techniques and the modelling of boundary layer turbulence

[7-8]. These elements together form the basis of all CFD

codes, of which some already exist as standard commercial

software. Already, some of experiences have been exploited

to validate the CFD codes [9-12]. Then, we can consider that

CFD has matured to become a tool for predicting and

understanding the flow physics of modern wind turbine

rotors. Numerical calculations using commercial CFD codes

were made by several authors. [13-15].

In this paper, a numerical investigation within the CFD code

"Fluent" was carried to study the effect of the horizontal-axis

wind turbine airfoils.

2. Geometrical configuration

The geometrical configuration consists on the Rutland

913 wind turbine (Figure 1). This turbine is a six-blade

orizontal-axis wind turbine. It can be equipped by a scoop to

increase the output power of the wind turbine. Also, energy

capture can be improved at lower wind speeds [16-18].

Nevertheless, in this paper we are interested of the two types

of airfoils called SD2030 and BM4640 (Figure 2).

Figure 1. Rutland 913 wind turbine.

(a) SD2030 airfoil type (b) BM4640 airfoil type

Figure 2. Airfoil type.

3. Numerical model

The purpose of this section is to give an overview of

issues related to the turbulence models provided in

"FLUENT". The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)

equations govern the transport of the averaged flow

quantities, with the whole range of the scales of turbulence

being modeled. The RANS-based modeling approach greatly

reduces the required computational effort and resources and

is widely adopted for practical engineering applications. An

entire hierarchy of closure models is available in "FLUENT"

including Spalart-Allmaras, k- and its variants, k- and its

variants and the RSM. In our simulation, we are interested to

the RNG k- model [19-20].

Z. Driss et al. / SATRESET, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 116-123, December 2011

117

3.1. Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations

In Reynolds averaging, the solution variables in the

instantaneous Navier-Stokes equations are decomposed into

the mean (ensemble-averaged or time-averaged) and

fluctuating components. For the velocity components (i=1, 2,

3):

'

i i i

u u u = (1)

where

i

u and

'

i

u are the mean and fluctuating velocity

components (m.s

-1

).

Likewise, for pressure and other scalar quantities denoted by

i

:

'

i i i

= (2)

Substituting expressions of this form for the flow variables

into the instantaneous continuity and momentum equations

and taking a time (or ensemble) average (and dropping the

overbar on the mean velocity u ) yields the ensemble-

averaged momentum equations, they can be written as

follows:

( )

i

i

u 0

t x

=

(3)

( ) ( )

i i j

j i

p

u u u

t x x

=

( )

j ' ' i l

ij i j

j j i l j

u

u u 2

u u

x x x 3 x x

l 1

l

l ( )

l

(4)

These equations are called Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes

(RANS) equations. They have the same general form as the

instantaneous Navier-Stokes equations, with the velocities

and other solution variables now representing ensemble-

averaged values. Additional terms appear that represent the

effects of turbulence. These Reynolds stresses

' '

i j

u u must

be modeled in order to close equation (4).

3.2. Boussinesq hypothesis

The Reynolds-averaged approach to turbulence modeling

requires that the Reynolds stresses in equation (4) be

appropriately modeled [21]. A common method employs the

Boussinesq hypothesis to relate the Reynolds stresses to the

mean velocity gradients:

j ' ' i i

i j t t ij

j i i

u

u u 2

u u k

x x 3 x

1

1

=

( )

( )

(5)

The Boussinesq hypothesis is used in the Spalart-Allmaras

model, the k- models and the k- models. The advantage of

this approach is the relatively flow computational cost

associated with the computation of the turbulent viscosity

t

.

In the case of the Spalart-Allmaras model, only one

additional transport equation, representing turbulent

viscosity, is solved. In the case of the k- and k- models,

two additional transport equations are solved, and

t

is

computed as a function of k and . In this case, k is the

turbulence kinetic energy, is the turbulence dissipation rate

and is the specific dissipation rate.

3.3. RNG k- model

The RNG k- model was derived using a rigorous

statistical technique, called renormalization group theory [19-

20]. It is similar in form to the standard k- model, but

includes the following refinements:

- The RNG model has an additional term in its equation that

significantly improves the accuracy for rapidly strained

flows.

- The effect of swirl on turbulence is included in the RNG

model, enhancing accuracy for swirling flows.

- The RNG theory provides an analytical formula for

turbulent Prandtl numbers, while the standard k- model uses

user-specified, constant values.

- While the standard k- model is a high-Reynolds-number

model, the RNG theory provides an analytically-derived

differential formula for effective viscosity that accounts for

low-Reynolds-number effects. Effective use of this feature

does, however, depend on an appropriate treatment of the

near-wall region.

These features make the RNG k- model more accurate and

reliable for a wider class of flows than the standard k-

model. The RNG-based k- turbulence model is derived from

the instantaneous Navier-Stokes equations, using a

mathematical technique called "renormalization group"

(RNG) methods. The analytical derivation results in a model

with constants different from those in the standard k- model

and additional terms and functions in the transport equations

for k and . A more comprehensive description of RNG

theory and its application to turbulence can be found [22].

The RNG k- model has a similar form to the standard k-

model:

( ) ( )

i k eff

i j j

k

k k u

t x x x

1

=

( )

k b M k

G G Y S (6)

( ) ( )

i eff

i j j

u

t x x x

1

=

( )

( )

2

1 k 3 b 2

C G C G C R S

k k

(7)

The scale elimination procedure in RNG theory results in a

differential equation for turbulent viscosity:

2

3

k

d 1.72 d

1 C

1

=

( )

(8)

Where:

eff

= (9)

C 100

(10)

This equation is integrated to obtain an accurate description

of how the effective turbulent transport varies with the

effective Reynolds number (or eddy scale), allowing the

model to better handle low-Reynolds-number and near-wall

flows. In the high-Reynolds-number limit, equation (8) gives

2

t

k

C

= (11)

Z. Driss et al. / SATRESET, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 116-123, December 2011

118

with

to note that this value of

determined value of 0.09 used in the standard k- model. In

"FLUENT", the effective viscosity is computed using the

high-Reynolds-number form in equation (11). However, there

is an option available that allows using the differential

relation given in equation (8) when its essential to include

low-Reynolds-number effects.

Turbulence, in general, is affected by rotation or swirl in the

mean flow. The RNG model in "FLUENT" provides an

option to account the effects of swirl or rotation by modifying

the turbulent viscosity appropriately. The modification takes

the following functional form:

t t0 s

k

f ,,

1

=

( )

(12)

where

t0

is the value of turbulent viscosity calculated

without the swirl modification using either equation (8) or

equation (11). is a characteristic swirl number evaluated

within "FLUENT".

s

is a swirl constant that assumes

different values depending on whether the flow is swirl-

dominated or only mildly swirling. This swirl modification

always takes effect for axisymmetric, swirling flows and

three-dimensional flows when the RNG model is selected.

For mildly swirling flows,

s

is set to 0.05 and cannot be

modified. However, for strongly swirling flows a higher

value of

s

can be used.

The inverse effective Prandtl numbers,

k

and

, are

computed using the following formula derived analytically

by the RNG theory:

0.6321 0.3679

mol

0 0 eff

1.3929 2.3929

1.3929 2.3929

=

(13)

where:

0

=1.0 .

In the high-Reynolds-number limit (

mol

eff

):

k

1.393 = (14)

The main difference between the RNG and standard k-

models lies in the additional term in the equation given by:

3

2

0

3

C 1

R

k 1

1

( )

=

(15)

Where:

S k

= (16)

The effects of this term in the RNG equation can be seen

more clearly by rearranging equation (7). Using equation

(15), the third and fourth terms on the right-hand side of

equation (7) can be merged, and the resulting equation can

be rewritten as:

( ) ( )

i eff

i j j

u

t x x x

1

=

( )

( )

2

1 k 3 b 2

C G C G C

k k

(17)

Where

2

C

is given by:

3

0

2 2

3

C 1

C C

1

( )

=

(18)

The RNG model is more responsive to the effects of rapid

strain and streamline curvature than the standard k- model,

which explains the superior performance of the RNG model

for certain classes of flows. The model constants C

1

and

2

C

in equation (7) have values derived analytically by the RNG

theory (Table 1).

Table 1. Constants of the RNG k- model

C

1

C

2

C

0

1.42 1.68 0.0854 4.38 0.012

4. Numerical results

Figure 3 shows the control volume considered to study

the flow around the Rutland 913 wind turbine equipped by a

scoop. The results are presented using a cylindrical

coordinate system (r, , z) with the origin in the center of the

wind turbine. The orientation of the z-axis coincides with

symmetrical axis of the scoop and the control volume

considered. Particularly, we are interested to the velocity

vectors, the velocity magnitude, the static pressure and the

dynamic pressure. These results are presented in different

longitudinal and transversal planes. The first longitudinal

plane is defined by =0 and it is localized between two

blades. The second longitudinal plane is defined by =30

and it passes through the first blade. The third transversal

plane is defined by z=0 and it intercepts all the wind turbine

blades.

Figure 3. Control volume considered.

4.1. Velocity vectors

Figures 4, 5 and 6 compare the velocity vectors colored

by velocity magnitude for the SD2030 and BM4640 airfoil

type. These results are presented in the longitudinal and

transversal planes defined respectively by =0, =30 and

z=0. According to these results, it is clear that the flow is

uniform and presents a horizontal direction in the inlet of the

control volume. While approaching to the wind turbine

equipped by the scoop, the velocity field is affected by the

geometric configuration. In fact, a flow deceleration appears

Z. Driss et al. / SATRESET, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 116-123, December 2011

119

on the entry, the exit and around the external envelope of the

scoop. However, inside the scoop the flow takes back his

movement in the wind turbine upstream. At the end of the

turbine wind blades, an acceleration of the flow is appeared.

This fact is also observed far from this domain and

particularly it is generated from the scoop collector.

Otherwise, its noted that the airfoil type have an effect on

the velocity vectors distribution. In fact, with the SD2030

airfoil, two developed recirculation zones appear around the

scoop and in the wind turbine downstream. Within a BM4640

airfoil, the same fact is observed. However, its noted that the

airfoil type has a direct effect on the recirculation zones

shape less developed with the BM4640 airfoil.

(a) SD2030 airfoil type

(b) BM4640 airfoil type

Figure 4. Velocity vectors colored by velocity magnitude in

the longitudinal plane defined by =0.

(a) SD2030 airfoil type

(b) BM4640 airfoil type

Figure 5. Velocity vectors colored by velocity magnitude in

the longitudinal plane defined by =30.

(a) SD2030 airfoil type

(b) BM4640 airfoil type

Figure 6. Velocity vectors colored by velocity magnitude in

the transversal plane defined by z=0.

4.2. Velocity magnitude

Figures 7, 8 and 9 compare the distribution of velocity

magnitude for the SD2030 and BM4640 airfoil type. These

results are presented in the longitudinal and transversal

planes defined respectively by =0, =30 and z=0.

According to these results, it is clear that the velocity

magnitude is uniform in the inlet of the control volume.

While approaching to the wind turbine equipped by the

scoop, the velocity magnitude value is affected by the

geometric configuration. In fact, the velocity magnitude

values decrease on the entry, the exit and around the external

envelope of the scoop. However, inside the scoop and

particularly in the downstream of the turbine blade, the

velocity magnitude values increase. Two wakes

characteristics of the highly velocity magnitude are appeared

in this area. Outside the scoop, two extended wakes are

created at the crossing of the scoop collector. On the meeting

of the scoop and the turbine blade, the velocity is null. The

wake characteristic of the weaker velocity magnitude appear

in the scoop excite. While comparing these results relative to

the SD2030 and BM4640 airfoil type, we note that the

maximal value of the velocity magnitude is gotten with the

SD2030 airfoil type.

(a) SD2030 airfoil type

Z. Driss et al. / SATRESET, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 116-123, December 2011

120

(b) BM4640 airfoil type

Figure 7. Distribution of velocity magnitude in the

longitudinal plane defined by =0.

(a) SD2030 airfoil type

(b) BM4640 airfoil type

Figure 8. Distribution of velocity magnitude in the

longitudinal plane defined by =30.

(a) SD2030 airfoil type

(b) BM4640 airfoil type

Figure 9. Distribution of velocity magnitude in the

transversal plane defined by z=0.

4.3. Static pressure

Figures 10, 11 and 12 compare the distribution of the

static pressure for the SD2030 and BM4640 airfoil type.

These results are presented in the longitudinal and transversal

planes defined respectively by =0, =30 and z=0.

According to these results, it is clear that the static pressure

presents a compression zone on the upstream of the scoop

and the wind turbine. The maximal values are obtained in the

scoop inside the collector neighborhood and just at the level

of the wind turbine. However, the depression zones are

localized around the external envelope of the scoop and in the

wind turbine downstream inside the scoop.

(a) SD2030 airfoil type

(b) BM4640 airfoil type

Figure 10. Distribution of static pressure in the longitudinal

plane defined by =0.

(a) SD2030 airfoil type

(b) BM4640 airfoil type

Figure 11. Distribution of static pressure in the longitudinal

plane defined by =30.

Z. Driss et al. / SATRESET, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 116-123, December 2011

121

While comparing these results relative to the SD2030 and

BM4640 airfoil type, we note that the compression and

depression zones shape are widely assigned by the airfoil

type. The weakest value of the static pressure is obtained

within a SD2030 airfoil type.

(a) SD2030 airfoil type

(b) BM4640 airfoil type

Figure 12. Distribution of static pressure in the transversal

plane defined by z=0.

4.4. Dynamic pressure

Figures 13, 14 and 15 compare the distribution of the

dynamic pressure for the SD2030 and BM4640 airfoil type.

These results are presented in the longitudinal and transversal

planes defined respectively by =0, =30 and z=0.

According to these results, it is clear that the wakes

characteristics of the weakest values of the dynamic pressure

are created on the entry, the exit and around the external

envelope of the scoop. The first weak takes root in the scoop

collector by merging his surface from the two sides. In the

scoop inside, the dynamic pressure increase at the time of the

air flow advancement. While approaching of the wind

turbine, the dynamic pressure decreases again. The same fact

is observed in the wind turbine downstream where the wake

zone is developed more and more. In the scoop outside, this

wake crosses the one coming from the scoop collector.

Otherwise, the wakes characteristics of the strong values of

the dynamic pressure are created in the scoop inside and

more precisely in the downstream blades. In the scoop

outside, others wakes are developed and generated from the

scoop collector. While comparing these results relative to the

SD2030 and BM4640 airfoil type, we note that the maximal

value of the dynamic pressure is gotten within an SD2030

airfoil type.

(a) SD2030 airfoil type

(b) BM4640 airfoil type

Figure 13. Distribution of dynamic pressure in the

longitudinal plane defined by =0.

(a) SD2030 airfoil type

(b) BM4640 airfoil type

Figure 14. Distribution of dynamic pressure in the

longitudinal plane defined by =30.

(a) SD2030 airfoil type

Z. Driss et al. / SATRESET, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 116-123, December 2011

122

(b) BM4640 airfoil type

Figure 15. Distribution of dynamic pressure in the transversal

plane defined by z=0

5. Conclusion

In this paper, the aerodynamic characteristics of a Rutland

913 wind turbine have been studied. Particularly, we have

compared the numerical results obtained from the application

of the commercial CFD code "Fluent" in the cases of the

airfoils type BM4640 and SD2030. From the numerical

results, it has been noted that the airfoil type has a direct

effect on the recirculation zones shape which are less

developed with the BM4640 airfoil. The compression and

depression zones shape are widely assigned by the airfoil

type. The weakest value of the static pressure is obtained

with the SD2030 airfoil.

In the future, we propose to develop an experimental

investigation within a particle velocimetry laser (PIV)

system.

Nomenclature

2

C

model constant

C

1

constant of the turbulence model

C

2

constant of the turbulence model

C

3

constant of the turbulence model

C

G

b

generation of turbulence kinetic energy, kg.m

-1

.s

-3

G

k

generation of turbulence kinetic energy, kg.m

-1

.s

-3

k turbulence kinetic energy, m

2

.s

-2

p static pressure, Pa

Re Reynolds number

R

source term of the dissipation rate of the turbulent

kinetic energy, kg.m

-1

.s

-3

S scalar measure of the deformation tensor

S

k

source term of the turbulent kinetic energy, kg.m

-1

.s

-3

S

ij

mean strain rate, s

-1

S

source term of the dissipation rate of the turbulent

kinetic energy, kg.m

-1

.s

-3

t time, s

u

i

velocity components, m.s

-1

i

u mean velocity components, m.s

-1

'

i

u fluctuating velocity components, m.s

-1

x cartesian coordinate, m

y cartesian coordinate, m

Y

M

contribution of the fluctuating dilatation in compressible

turbulence to the overall dissipation rate, kg.m

-1

.s

-3

Greek symbols

angular coordinate, rad

s

swirl constant

k

inverse effective Prandtl number for k

inverse effective Prandtl number for

turbulence dissipation rate, m

2

.s

-3

dynamic viscosity, Pa.s

t

turbulent viscosity, Pa.s

eff

effective viscosity, Pa.s

mol

molecular viscosity, Pa.s

strain rate

molecular kinematic viscosity, m

2

.s

-1

specific dissipation rate, m

2

.s

-3

density, kg.m

-3

i

scalar quantities

i

mean scalar quantities

'

i

fluctuating scalar quantities

swirl number

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