# Mayan Mathematics and Architecture

Goals 2000 - Partnerships for Educating Colorado Students

In Partnership with the Denver Public Schools and the Metropolitan State College of Denver

El Alma de la Raza Project

Mayan Mathematics and Architecture
By Julie Murgel Grades 5-8 Implementation Time for Unit of Study: 3 weeks

Goals 2000 - Partnerships for Educating Colorado Students El Alma de la Raza Curriculum and Teacher Training Project

Loyola A. Martinez, Project Director

El Alma de la Raza Series

Mayan Mathematics and Architecture
Unit Concepts
• • • • • Understand and use the Mayan numerical system Compare and contrast the Mayan numerical number system to the Egyptian, Roman, and Babylonian numerical systems Measure and calculate area, volume, and perimeter in a Mayan temple Create a three-dimensional Mayan temple Design a Mayan temple replica on the computer

Math Students develop number sense, understand and use appropriate math vocabulary, understand and use numbers and number relationships in problem-solving situations, and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems. (M1) Students develop spatial sense and use geometric concepts, properties, and relationships in problem-solving situations and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems. (M4) Students use a variety of tools and techniques to measure, apply the result in problemsolving situations, and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems. (M5) Students link concepts and procedures as they develop and use computational techniques, including estimation, mental arithmetic, paper-and-pencil, calculators, computers, and other manipulatives in problem-solving situations and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems. (M6) Students understand and use appropriate technologies to perform mathematical constructions and computations, simulate mathematical experiences, and to access, process, and communicate information related to the application of mathematics in problemsolving situations. (M7) Reading and Writing Students write and speak for a variety of purposes and audiences. (RW2) Students read to locate, select, evaluate, and make use of relevant information from a variety of media, reference, and technological sources. (RW5) Visual Art Students know and apply visual arts materials, tools, techniques, and processes. (A3)

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Introduction
The Golden Age of the Maya Civilization existed from around 250 B.C. to A.D. 800. About seven million Mayan Indians still live in parts of Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, Belize, Nicaragua, and southern Mexico. Two particularly intriguing elements of the Maya civilization are mathematics and architecture. The Mayan number system used base 20. Numbers were represented by dots and bars. Also, the number system contained the number zero, a concept unknown to the Greek and Egyptian civilizations. Mayan architecture is a fascinating subject. The Maya built many ornate temples of great height. They put vaulted hollows inside the roof sections to reduce weight. The structures contained many chambers and rooms. Within the city of Tikal alone, there were 3,000 buildings and more than 200 monuments. In the Yucatan Puuc region there is evidence of great site planning and architecture techniques. The Puuc design—buildings faced with limestone, archways framed by round columns, and elite mosaics—is named after this area. Many of the designs contained figures such as turtles, gods, or humans.

Implementation Guidelines
This unit is designed for students in grades 5–8. It is recommended that this unit be taught as an interdisciplinary unit with a social studies unit about the Ancient Maya Civilization. An assessment key as been provided for the lessons. Two lessons are about Mayan mathematics and four lessons are about Mayan architecture. Lesson 5 has been designed as a home project for students to complete while they are working on the rest of the unit in school.

Instructional Materials and Resources
Lesson 3 Lesson 6 Computer Internet access Computer access: ClarisWorks 2.1, 3.1, or 4.1

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Lesson Summary
Lesson 1 Mayan Numbers Identification, conversion, and use of Mayan Numbers. Mayan number chart Comparison of Number Systems A comparison and contrast between the Mayan numeral system and the Roman, Egyptian, and Babylonian sysrems. Using the Internet Exploration of Mayan mathematics and architecture. Mayan Architecture 1: El Castillo Making a paper-folding Maya pyramid and calculating the perimeter, area, and volume of the pyramid. Mayan Architecture 2: Replica of a Mayan Ruin Creating a model of a Mayan structure. Mayan Architecture 3: Computer Graphics Drawing a Mayan structure on the computer. Mayan Head Number Molds Mayan T-shirt

Lesson 2

Lesson 3 Lesson 4

Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 (Extended) Lesson 8 (Extended)

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calculators. explain. ACTIVITIES After the teacher illustrates and describes the Mayan numeric system. subtraction. Observe how to convert a Mayan number to our number system and vice-versa. and dividing Mayan numbers. Then complete section 2 on Worksheet 1 and all of Worksheet 2. including estimation. multiplication. With the teacher. understand and use appropriate math vocabulary. (M6) BENCHMARK(S) Students construct and interpret number meaning through real-world experiences and the use of hands-on materials and relate these meanings to mathematical symbols and numbers. Students will use Mayan numbers to add. What will be done to help students learn this? INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Task description Guided practice Independent practice Graphic organizer PRELIMINARY LESSON PREPARATION To ease understanding of base 20. and other manipulatives in problem-solving situations and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems. understand and use numbers and number relationships in problem-solving situations. and division—in problem-solving and real world situations. (M1) Students link concepts and procedures as they develop and use computational techniques. and divide. OBJECTIVE(S) Students will identify Mayan numbers.Lesson 1: Mayan Numbers What will students be learning? STANDARD(S) Students develop number sense. Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 4 . mental arithmetic. They symbolized their numbers using dot and bars. subtract. multiplying. paper-and-pencil. computers. where a dot equaled 1 and a bar equaled 5. and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems. Independently. practice adding. Students will convert a base 10 number to a base 20 number (Mayan) and vice-versa. subtracting. multiply. SPECIFICS The Maya used a base 20 number system. Students model. practice identifying Mayan numbers on Worksheet 1. practice solving math problems that contain Mayan numbers on Worksheet 3. and use the four basic operations—addition. it is recommended that the teacher review with the students the concept of base 10 and powers of 10.

and 3. 2.Lesson 1 (cont.) RESOURCES/MATERIALS Mayan Mathematics Worksheets 1. overhead transparency sheet of Mayan Number Chart ASSESSMENT Use attached key to evaluate Mayan Mathematics Worksheets 1. Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 5 . 3. 2.

Mayan Number Chart Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Mayan Form Number 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Mayan Form Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 6 .

12 = ____________________ 16. identify each of the following numbers: 1. = ____________ 3. = ____________ 2. = ____________ 4. 10 = ____________________ 20. 6 = ____________________ 13. 0 = ____________________ Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 7 . = ____________ 9. 20 = ____________________ 12. = ____________ Section 2 Directions: Convert and draw the Mayan numerical symbol for each number: 11. 11 = ____________________ 19.Mayan Numbers: Worksheet 1 Name: __________________________ Section 1 Directions: Using the Mayan Number Chart. 13 = ____________________ 14. = ____________ 6. 4 = ____________________ 18. 9 = ____________________ 15. = ____________ 5. 17 = ____________________ 17. = ____________ 10. = ____________ 7. = ____________ 8.

11 = 19. identify each of the following numbers: 1. 6 = 13. 10 = 20. 12 = 16. = 4 2. = 16 10. = 7 7. = 15 8. = 9 3. = 2 6. 17 = 17. = 11 9. = 6 5. = 5 4. 4 = 18. 20 = 12. 0 = Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 8 . 13 = 14. 9 = 15. = 0 Section 2 11.Mayan Numbers: Worksheet 1 Answer Key Section 1 Directions: Using the Mayan Number Chart.

using the example as a guide.665 1’s 1 × 18 Total = Power of 20 8000’s Mayan Number Meaning Value Power of 20 8000’s Mayan Number Meaning Value 400’s 400’s 20’s 20’s 1’s Total = 1’s Total = Power of 20 8000’s Mayan Number Meaning 8000 × 4 Value Power of 20 8000’s Mayan Number Meaning Value 400’s 400 × 5 400’s 20’s 20 × 8 20’s 1’s 1 × 16 Total = 1’s Total = 9 Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students .000 Power of 20 8000’s Mayan Number Meaning 8000 × 6 Value 400’s 400 × 4 1. Power of 20 8000’s Mayan Number Meaning 8000 × 2 Value 16.600 400’s 400 × 16 20’s 20 × 3 60 20’s 20 × 5 1’s 1×5 Total = 5 17.Mayan Numbers: Worksheet 2 Name: __________________________ Directions: Complete the following charts.

600 400’s 400 × 16 6.000 400’s 400 × 5 2.000 400’s 400 × 4 1.000 Power of 20 8000’s Mayan Number Meaning 8000 × 5 Value 40.518 Power of 20 8000’s Mayan Number Meaning 8000 × 1 Value 8.600 20’s 20 × 10 200 20’s 20 × 10 200 1’s 1 × 15 Total = 15 10.000 Power of 20 8000’s Mayan Number Meaning 8000 × 1 Value 8.202 Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 10 .000 400’s 400 × 5 2.000 400’s 400 × 5 2.815 Power of 20 8000’s Mayan Number Meaning 8000 × 4 Value 32.000 20’s 20 × 8 160 20’s 20 × 10 200 1’s 1 × 16 Total = 16 34.000 Power of 20 8000’s Mayan Number Meaning 8000 × 6 Value 16.Mayan Numbers: Worksheet 2 Answer Key Power of 20 8000’s Mayan Number Meaning 8000 × 2 Value 16.400 20’s 20 × 3 60 20’s 20 × 5 100 1’s 1×5 Total = 5 17.000 400’s 400 × 4 1.215 1’s 1 × 15 Total = 15 9.176 1’s 1×2 Total = 2 42.665 1’s 1 × 18 Total = 18 54.

Be sure the final answer is in Mayan numerical symbols. compute each problem.Mayan Numbers: Worksheet 3 Directions: Using the Mayan numerical system. Name: __________________________ Total = Total = Total = ÷ Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students Total = 11 .

130 ÷ 18 6 Total = 3 12 Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students . Check your answer by subtracting the two complete numbers.346 11.006 90.352 8000 × 4 32.000 400 × 15 6. Check your answer by adding the two complete numbers.503 11.400 Subtract across each line first.Mayan Numbers: Worksheet 3 Answer Key 8000 × 2 16.346 11.820. 340 12 22.430.006 Total = Add across each line first.915 42. 20 × 5 1×3 Total = 100 12 34.022 Total = 3.000 20 × 17 1 × 12 11.000 400 × 6 2.

However. RESOURCES/MATERIALS encyclopedia: “N” for number systems Mayan Number Chart Worksheets 4 and 5 ASSESSMENT Use key to grade Worksheets 4 and 5. Eventually people found ways to count by arranging numbers. 12.Lesson 2: Analysis of Number Systems What will students be learning? STANDARD(S) Students develop number sense. outlining. Egyptian numbers. and Babylonian numbers on Worksheet 4. Egyptians. understand and use numbers and number relationships in problem-solving situations. Different number systems had different bases. Many of the ancient number systems started with the number 1. understand and use appropriate math vocabulary. Students prepare written and oral presentations using strategies such as list. 10. and narration. Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 13 . Compare and contrast the ancient number systems of the Romans. strings. and even 60. and pebbles to count. and Babylonians with the Mayan number system. What will be done to help students learn this? INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Organizer Student-directed activity Summarizing ACTIVITY Complete the charts for Roman numbers. cause/ effect relationships. SPECIFICS Primitive people used fingers. (RW2) BENCHMARK(S) Students construct and interpret number meanings through real-world experiences and the use of hands-on materials and relate these meanings to mathematical symbols and numbers. 20. Refer to the number charts in an encyclopedia or to the information provided by the teacher. Students will prepare a comparison chart for three different ancient number systems. Write a summary paragraph of your findings on Worksheet 5. the Mayan numerical system had a symbol for zero. and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems. comparison/contrast. OBJECTIVE(S) Students will compare/contrast the Mayan numerical system to other ancient number systems. problem/solution. (M1) Students write and speak for a variety of purposes and audiences. There were systems of base 5.

They used a wedge-like design for their symbol. The Arabs introduced the system to Europe. V (5) is greater than the second symbol. V (5) is greater than the first.000 Arabic Babylonian 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 14 . Roman Number System: The Romans used letters to symbolize numbers. Babylonian Number System: The Babylonian number system used base 60. The first symbol. Mayan Number System: The Maya wrote their numbers from bottom to top. They used two principles: the additive principle and the subtractive principle. The position of a number determines its value. They used groups of symbols to represent numbers. Arabic Roman Arabic Roman 1 2 3 4 5 Arabic Egyptian 6 7 8 9 10 Arabic Egyptian 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Arabic Babylonian 8 9 10 100 1000 10. In fact. For example. where it was translated into Arabic and used by Arabic mathematicians. Arabic Number System: The Arabic number system uses base 10.000 100. the number VI (6) uses the additive principle. They represented their numbers with hieroglyphics (picture writing). It is the number system we use today in the modern world. They used a base 20 system. and so on. the number system was developed in India..Number Systems: Worksheet 4 Name: __________________________ Directions: Complete the following charts. using the example as a guide. The second group illustrated the 60’s place. the Babylonians also developed a base 10 number system. where it became widely used. I (1). The first group illustrated the 1’s place. so you add the two symbols. They also had a symbol which represented zero.C. The Mayan number chart is in Lesson 1. In the number IV (4). The Arabic number system was not developed or used by ancient Arabs. The Romans used base 10 and started their number system at 1. so you subtract the first symbol from the second. Egyptian Number System: The Egyptians used a base 10 number system. The position of the number did not change the value of the number. the second symbol. By 1500 B. They symbolized their numbers with bars and dots. I (1). The number system was brought to Persia. The Egyptian system started at the number 1 and did not include symbols between 2 and 9.

They used groups of symbols to represent numbers.000 Arabic Babylonian 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students . The Mayan number chart is in Lesson 1. The Egyptian system started at the number 1 and did not include symbols between 2 and 9. The position of a number determines its value. Egyptian Number System: The Egyptians used a base 10 number system. They used a base 20 system. The second group illustrated the 60’s place. the number VI (6) uses the additive principle. where it became widely used. They used a wedge-like design for their symbol. For example. and so on. where it was translated into Arabic and used by Arabic mathematicians. I (1). The first symbol.000 100. I (1). They symbolized their numbers with bars and dots. the second symbol. By 1500 B. Babylonian Number System: The Babylonian number system used base 60.Number Systems: Worksheet 4 Answer Key Roman Number System: The Romans used letters to symbolize numbers. Arabic Roman Arabic Roman 1 2 3 4 5 Arabic I II III IV V Egyptian 6 7 8 9 10 Arabic VI VII VIII IX X Egyptian 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Arabic Babylonian 8 9 10 100 1000 10. They used two principles: the additive principle and the subtractive principle. In the number IV (4).C. In fact. so you add the two symbols. Arabic Number System: The Arabic number system uses base 10. Mayan Number System: The Maya wrote their numbers from bottom to top. V (5) is greater than the second symbol. the Babylonians also developed a base 10 number system. The first group illustrated the 1’s place. It is the number system we use today in the modern world. so you subtract the first symbol from the second. The number system was brought to Persia.. The Arabs introduced the system to Europe. The position of the number did not change the value of the number. They also had a symbol which represented zero. They represented their numbers with hieroglyphics (picture writing). the number system was developed in India. V (5) is greater than the first. The Arabic number system was not developed or used by ancient Arabs. The Romans used base 10 and started their number system at 1.

1. Compare and contrast the Egyptian number system and the Mayan number system. Likenesses: Differences: 2. Likenesses: Differences: 3. Compare and contrast the Babylonian number system and the Mayan number system. Compare and contrast the Roman number system and the Mayan number system.Number Comparison: Worksheet 5 Name: __________________________ Directions: Use the number charts on Worksheet 4 and the Mayan number chart to complete this page. Likenesses: Differences: Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 16 .

3. Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 17 . Roman system used base 10 and Mayan system used base 20. Likenesses: Differences: The Babylonian system used base 60 and the Mayan system used base 20. Compare and contrast the Babylonian number system and the Mayan number system. Compare and contrast the Roman number system and the Mayan number system. Numbers greater than 6 are symbolized with the symbols for 5 and 1.Number Comparison: Worksheet 5 Answer Key 1. The position of a numeral was significant in the Mayan system but not in the Egyptian. Mayan system had a symbol for zero. Roman system did not Roman system had additive and subtractive principles. The Mayan system had a symbol for zero. 2. Egyptian system did not. Likenesses: Differences: Egyptian system used base 10 and the Mayan system used base 20. Compare and contrast the Egyptian number system and the Mayan number system. Likenesses: Numbers 1–4 are symbolized with a single symbol. the Babylonian system did not. Differences: Mayan system had a symbol for zero.

organize. Students paraphrase. organization. and technological sources. pyramids. evaluate. markets. understand and use appropriate math vocabulary. and speaking purposes. Architecture: The Maya built entire cities containing many different types of structures. Record any URLs that refer to Mayan numbers and/or architecture. What will be done to help students learn this? INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Student-directed activity Reading comprehension PRELIMINARY LESSON PREPARATION Obtain signed Internet permission slips before allowing students to use the Internet. and plazas. (RW5) BENCHMARK(S) Students construct and interpret number meanings through real-world experiences and the use of hands-on materials and relate these meanings to mathematical symbols and numbers. housing units. and technological sources as they select information for their reading. This can be witnessed in the types of buildings constructed. select. writing. and use of various media. Students should be able to find many sites on the Internet that contain colorful pictures of these architectural structures. evaluate. and synthesize information. Review process of how to retrieve information on the Internet with students. The Mayan cities were ceremonial cities rather than commerce cities. (M1) Students read to locate. Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 18 .Lesson 3: Internet Search What will students be learning? STANDARD(S) Students develop number sense. the Maya even built courts to play a hand ball game. In fact. reference. summarize. ACTIVITY Search for “Maya” by using a search engine. and make use of relevant information from a variety of media. reference. castles. including temples. OBJECTIVE(S) Students will increase their understanding of the Mayan numerical system and Mayan architecture by using the Internet as a resource. SPECIFICS Mathematics: The Mayan number system can be located on the Internet at many different addresses. understand and use numbers and number relationships in problem-solving situations. Summarize your findings on Worksheet 6. and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems. Students understand the structure.

astro.com/terra/cultures/mayan/mayan1.com/wired/fil/pages/huntmayancivi.html Digging for the Ancient Maya http://www.okcommerce.html ASSESSMENT Summary sheet (Worksheet 6) demonstrates thorough research.) RESOURCES/MATERIALS Internet permission forms Internet access Summary sheet (WS 6) URLs: http://www.html History of Mayan Culture http://www.uva.kn.civilization.html http://www.ca/membrs/civiliz/maya/mmc01eng.pacbell.Lesson 3 (cont.nl/michielb/maya/links. Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 19 .

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Directions: Summarize. 5. 2. 3. 1.Internet Search: Worksheet 6 Name: __________________________ Directions: Please list ten URLs you have found that relate to Mayan mathematics or Mayan architecture. 4. 9. 7. 8. in your own words. _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 20 . information gathered about Mayan mathematics or Mayan architecture from Internet sites. 10. 6.

and volume of a replica of a Mayan pyramid. describe. computer. SPECIFICS The replica is a model of El Castillo. Students understand and apply the attributes of linear dimensions. mass. and other manipulatives in problem-solving situations and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems. volume. construct. In fact. and analyze geometric shapes in one. capacity. OBJECTIVE(S) Students will construct a replica of a Mayan pyramid. mental arithmetic. perimeter. temperature. a four-stairway pyramid at Chichén Itzá. time. properties. The Maya are believed to have celebrated a manifestation of the god Kukulcan. including estimation. Maya still celebrate this occurrence today. Students will measure and compute the perimeter. During the spring and fall equinoxes. area. paper-and-pencil. weight. use. the feathered serpent at this pyramid. (M4) Students use a variety of tools and techniques to measure. and three dimensions. Formulas needed to complete the lab sheet are: Perimeter of a rectangle/square = Two Lengths + Two Widths (2L + 2W) Area of a rectangle/square = Length x Width (A=L × W) Volume of a rectangle/square = Length x Width x Height (A=L × W × H) What will be done to help students learn this? INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Teacher modeling Hands-on activity Independent practice Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 21 . and angle measurement in problem-solving situations. two. Students develop. apply the result in problem-solving situations. and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems. and analyze algorithms and formulas. area. (M6) BENCHMARK(S) Students recognize. and relationships in problem-solving situations and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems. a serpent appears to slither down El Castillo. (M5) Students link concepts and procedures as they develop and use computational techniques. draw.Lesson 4: Mayan Architecture 1—El Castillo What will students be learning? STANDARD(S) Students develop spatial sense and use geometric concepts. calculators.

Please note that area was calculated of the pieces flat. not as the surface area of rectangular prisms. while the patterns are flat. After completing the pyramid. Piece 1 is the entire page. construct the replica of El Castillo by following the guidelines. Then. complete the third table on Worksheet 7. ACTIVITY Before beginning the paper-folding activity. When copying patterns on a photocopier.) PRELIMINARY LESSON PREPARATION Teacher should construct a model of El Castillo for the students to use as a guide. complete table 1 and 2 on Worksheet 7. Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 22 .Lesson 4 (cont. be careful not to cut off borders or change sizes of patterns. and volume. so that the students can see the actual height. Score the pyramid by visual observation. Also. Complete the perimeter and area section on Worksheet 7 first. MATERIALS colored pencils/markers rulers glue El Castillo Lab: Worksheet 7 pyramid pieces El Castillo Temple Guideline Sheet ASSESSMENT Score lab sheet (Worksheet 7) by using the key. perimeter. Wait until the pieces are put together to calculate the volume. the teacher should review with the students how to use a ruler and calculate area. and might confuse students when they go to measure and cut.

A = L × W. area. 4. Piece 1. 2. P = 2L + 2W. and volume of El Castillo. Perimeter is the sum of the distance around a geometric figure: for a rectangle. 2. 2. Piece 1.El Castillo Lab: Worksheet 7 Name: __________________________ Directions: Calculate the perimeter. Total area = 3. Area is the amount of space inside a flat geometric figure: for a rectangle. 5. 3. Volume is the amount of space inside a three-dimensional geometric figure: V = L × W × H. 3. Total volume = Length Width Height V=L×W×H Length Width A=L×W Length Width P = 2L + 2W Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 23 . Piece 1. 4. 1. 3. Total perimeter = 2. 4. by measuring the dimensions of the two-dimensional pieces on following pages and using the formulas indicated.

75 inches3 12.5 inches 7. Length 8.5 inches Width 11 inches 10 inches 9 inches 8 inches Total area = A=L×W 93.5 inches 5. Piece 1.0 inches Width 4.25 inches3 13. Perimeter is the sum of the distance around a geometric figure: for a rectangle.5 inches Width 11 inches 10 inches 9 inches 8 inches Total perimeter = P = 2L + 2W 39 inches 35 inches 31 inches 27 inches 132 inches 2.5 inches 6.50 inches3 8.00 inches3 19.5 inches 2.0 inches 3.5 inches2 44 271 inches2 inches2 3. Length 6.5 inches2 75 inches2 58.5 inches 3.5 inches 6.50 inches3 Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 24 . Area is the amount of space inside a flat geometric figure: for a rectangle.5 inches 5. 3.5 inches 7. Piece 1.0 inches 2. 5. A = L × W. 3. 2.5 inches 3.0 inches Height 1 inch 1 inch 1 inch 1 inch 2 inches Total volume = V=L×W×H 26. 2. 4.5 inches 4. 4.5 inches 5.El Castillo Lab: Worksheet 7 Answer Key 1.00 inches3 79. P = 2L + 2W. Piece 1. 3.5 inches 3. Volume is the amount of space inside a three-dimensional geometric figure: V = L × W × H. 2. Length 8. 4.

Glue the 4 staircases on each 3 side of the pyramid. 5 D. Glue piece 2 centered on top of piece 1. Using glue. 4 E. and 5. 2 1 7 6 Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 25 . Piece 1 4. B. make folds and cuts on marked areas. Repeat steps 3 and 4 to put together pieces 2. 6 7. C. fasten the corners and sides of piece 1 to form a rectangular prism. Glue piece 3 centered on top of piece 2. 2. Glue piece 4 centered on top of piece 3. Cut out all sections of the temple. 7. A. and 9 like an accordion.Mayan Architecture: El Castillo Temple Guideline Sheet These seven steps are directions for completing the El Castillo Temple. Glue piece 5 centered on top of piece 4. 1 5. 3 4 5 To make four staircases. fold pieces 6. 1. 2 6. Color and decorate all parts of the Mayan Temple. To assemble the temple use the following sequence of steps. 8. 3. 3. Starting with piece 1. 4.

y . .Piece 1 yyy .. Cut Fold y ..

.Piece 2 yyy .. Cut Fold Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 27 y ... yyy . .

Cut Fold Piece 3 y .Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students yy . 28 . yy ...

. Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students yy . Cut Fold 29 Piece 4 Piece 6 ..yy . yy . yy ...

Piece 7 Piece 8 Piece 9 Cut Fold Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 30 .

QQQQQQQ ...yy . ......... yyyy .... QQQQQQQ ... yyyy .. QQQQQQQ .. ..... Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students yyy .......... QQQQQQQQQ . Cut Fold QQQQQQQQQ ...... Bottom Piece 5 QQQQQQQQQ .......... yy ........... QQQQQQQ ... yyy . yyyy ........... yyyy ...... yyy ..... QQQQQQQQQ .. yyy 31 yyy .....

use. and relationships in problem-solving situations and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems. plaza. Students will describe in writing their replica of a Mayan ruin and explain the steps they used to build their ruin. sweathouse. time. Recommended time frame for completion: three weeks. and analyze algorithms and formulas. Students understand and apply the attributes of linear dimensions. weight. perimeter. SPECIFICS This lesson has been written as a home project to correlate with the work being done in school. computers. It is a wonderful way to get parents/guardians involved with the students academic work. two. describe. pyramid. temperature. and analyze geometric shapes in one. and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems. draw. (M6) Students write and speak for a variety of purposes and audiences. paper-and-pencil. Students write and speak for a variety of purposes. Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 32 . construct. and other manipulatives in problem-solving situations and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems. including estimation. (RW2) BENCHMARK(S) Students recognize. Students develop. mass. or house). Students will measure and compute the volume of their ruin.Lesson 5: Mayan Architecture 2— Replica of a Mayan Ruin What will students be learning? STANDARD(S) Students develop spatial sense and use geometric concepts. and three dimensions. capacity. temple. volume. Attached is a detailed explanation of the assignment to be sent home with the students. (M4) Students use a variety of tools and techniques to measure. calculators. apply the results in problem-solving situations. and angle measurement in problem-solving situations. properties. (M5) Students link concepts and procedures as they develop and use computational techniques. area. OBJECTIVE(S) Students will design their own replica of a Mayan ruin (palace. mental arithmetic.

RESOURCES/MATERIALS student contracts Idea Diagram (Worksheet 8) Project Guidelines scoring rubric books: Lost Cities of the Maya by Claude Baudez and Sydney Picasso The Maya World (rev. Brainstorm ideas for the project. Davis Mesoamerica’s Ancient Cities by William M. Below is a list of books that have wonderful illustrations of Mayan architecture. Stuart Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 33 . ed. Complete the Idea Diagram and return it within a week of beginning the project. (Use the scoring rubric as a guide also. Rohn Maya Ruins in Central America in Color by William M. Allow 10–15 minutes of each class day to answer any questions or concerns regarding the assignment. Ferguson and Arthur H. Benson Excavations in the Great Plaza. North Terrace. Fill out the project contract and return it to the teacher..) Calculate and measure the volume of your ruin. Royce Pre-Columbian Architecture of Mesoamerica by Doris Heuyden A Guide to Ancient Maya Ruins (2nd ed.Lesson 5 (cont. Ferguson and John Q.) What will be done to help students learn this? INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Questioning Student-directed activity Summarizing Sequencing Discussions Idea diagram PRELIMINARY LESSON PREPARATION Have pictures of Mayan ruins available for students to analyze.) by Elizabeth P. and North Acropolis of Tikal by William Coe Désiré Charnay: Expeditionary Photographer by Keith F.) by C. Write a detailed explanation of your ruin and the steps that were used to build your model. ACTIVITY As a class. The teacher might consider creating a few examples of ways students could construct their ruin. read and discuss the directions for the project. Bruce Hunter The Art and Architecture of Ancient America by George Kubler An Album of Maya Architecture by Tatiana Proskouriakoff America’s Ancient Cities by Gene S. create a Mayan ruin that correlates with guidelines. rev. At home.

The summary is incomplete or contains many grammatical errors. SCORING RUBRIC: 4. 1. Replica is incomplete. Problem-solving skills are used effectively. The summary is well written and free of grammatical errors. The summary contains many errors that interfere with the reading. Replica is completed but lacks creativity and accuracy.) ASSESSMENT Complete the scoring rubric for each student. Replica demonstrates creativity along with accuracy.Lesson 5 (cont. Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 34 . Problem-solving is sound. 3. The summary is readable and contains few grammatical errors. Replica is well-constructed but lacks creativity. but may be incomplete. Exceptional problem-solving skills are evident. 2. Problem solving is fragmented.

______________________________________. have read the guidelines and scoring rubric and understand the project assigned to me. Signature of Student: _____________________________________________________ Signature of Parent/Guardian: ____________________________________________ Signature of Teacher: _____________________________________________________ Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 35 . I have explained the Mayan Architecture Project to my parent/guardian(s). I agree to complete my Mayan Architecture Project by __________ (due date).Mayan Architecture 2: Replica of a Mayan Ruin Student Contract Name of Student: _________________________________ I.

Apply 5 to 6 layers. 7. Two-dimensional drawing on poster board. Dough Recipe 3 cups flour 11⁄4 cups warm water 1 cup salt Preheat oven to 250°. 8. Three-dimensional model out of papier-maché and wire. 4. Two-dimensional painting on poster board.Choice List 1. Place pieces on a cookie sheet and bake for one hour and 45 minutes to 2 hours. Three-dimensional model out of balsa wood. Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 37 . 3. or dough. tag board. Cut dough into pieces for a design. 6. Using a rolling pin. Two Home Recipes for Papier-mâché 1 ⁄2 cup flour or 3 ⁄4 cup water 1 1 ⁄2 cup white glue ⁄2 cup water Cut 1-inch-wide strips of newspaper. until golden brown. Three-dimensional model out of popsicle sticks or toothpicks. Place strips over a structure one at a time. Three-dimensional model of paper. Allow each layer to dry overnight before adding the next layer. 5. 2. Two-dimensional architecture floor plan. Three-dimensional model out of modeling clay. roll out the dough about 1⁄2 inch thick. cardboard. Dip strips in papier-mâché and run strip between fingers to remove extra mix.

Mayan Architecture 2 Idea Diagram Mayan Ruin to be replicated: _______________________________________ Name ____________________________________________ Choice Number: _______________ Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students Materials to be Used: Methods to be Used: Description of Model 38 .

and problem-solving situations. use the tip sheet and examples to make your own temple of Tikal. using one of the examples and the tip sheet to make a computer-generated drawing of the temple of Tikal. SPECIFICS Ah Cacaw. Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 39 . It is believed that 40. the teacher should complete the assignment. Ah Cacaw set the standard for Mayan architecture. ball courts. ACTIVITIES After the teacher explains the directions for the activity. What will be done to help students learn this? INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Student-directed activity Computer-assisted instruction PRELIMINARY LESSON PREPARATION Before giving the assignment to the students. market places. evaluate each student’s temple. OBJECTIVE(S) Students will use appropriate technology to create a graphic design of a ancient Mayan temple. process. RESOURCES/MATERIALS instruction (tip) sheet examples computer access to ClarisWorks or Word Perfect ASSESSMENT Using the examples as guides. and a sweathouse. and to access. Create the temple using the software ClarisWorks (Drawing). began the construction of Temple I and Temple II in Tikal. (M7) BENCHMARK(S) Students use appropriate traditional and electronic technologies in a variety of formats to extend and enhance mathematical learning and to simulate mathematical models. With these two temples. simulate mathematical experiences. The temples were very ornamental and of great height. and communicate information related to the application of mathematics in problem-solving situations.000 people once inhabited the city of Tikal. developed Tikal with temple-pyramids. The son and grandson of Ah Cacaw. concepts. a palace compound. the greatest city sovereign of Tikal. Yaxkin and Chitam.Lesson 6: Mayan Architecture 3—Computer Graphics What will students be learning? STANDARD(S) Students understand and use appropriate technologies to perform mathematical constructions and computations.

11. To move a line. Once you have a text box. 4. Click on the line you wish to move. 5. Now you can move the line with your mouse or cursor keys. Now push the delete button on the keyboard. 9. 10. Draw lines using your mouse on the grid. click on the arrow key in the tool box. Using the tool box on the left-hand side of the screen. you can type inside the box. To erase a line. To draw a rectangle. Your line is highlighted if it has two little black boxes on each end. 3. (Click and drag) Click on the line in the tool box each time to start a new line. click on the arrow key in the tool box. To thicken lines. Then choose a thickness. click on the square in the tool box. 2. Using only lines. Then using your mouse draw a rectangle on the grid. click on the box that has colors or the box next to the color box. Then choose the color or shade you want. To color or shade in an area. Then draw a text box on the grid. 8. 7. begin to create a temple. First open ClarisWorks-Drawing. 6. (Click and drag diagonally) To write letters or numbers. Start at the bottom of your paper. click on the A in the tool box. click on the line with your mouse. Click on the line you wish to erase. Your line is highlighted if it has two little black boxes on each end. click on the box that contains three lines on the bottom of the tool box. Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 40 .Architecture 3: Instruction (Tip) Sheet 1.

Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 41 .

Goals 2000 Partnership for Educating Colorado Students 42 .