.AL HOTY-STANGER LTD.

CO
P.O. Box 1122 Al Khobar 31952 Saudi Arabia Tel # 03-8642539 Fax # 03-8981466

‫شةرةكةةة اةلةحةوةطةية سةتةاةنةجةرة اةلةمةحةدةوةدةةة‬

ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION PROCEDURE (GROOVE WELDS AWS D 1.1)

Procedure Reference No. Revision No. Issued To Date Issued Project Revision 0 1 2 Date 10 Apr, 1999 10 Dec 2007 26 Mar 2011

: AHS/GEN-UT/04 : 8 : AES ARABIA : 12 June 2011 : Revision Description First Issue Code Update Code Update

NDT Level III Approval: ______________________ JAYESH VANZA ASNT Level III (RT, UT, MT) Cert No.148374

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ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION PROCEDURE (GROOVE WELDS – AWS D1.1)

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 Scope Reference Personnel Qualification Equipment Search Units Calibration Blocks Equipment Qualification Procedure for Equipment Qualification Calibration for testing Testing Procedure Scanning Patterns Flaw Size Evaluation Preparation And Disposition Of Reports Acceptance Criteria

ATTACHMENTS I. II. III. IV. V. VII. IIW Calibration Block RC Resolution Block And DS BLOCK\ Transducer Positions Equipment Certification Format (Db Accuracy) Scanning Pattern f. UT Report Format Test Angle

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ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION PROCEDURE (GROOVE WELDS – AWS D1.1)

1.0

SCOPE
This procedure describes the method, technique and acceptance standards for the ultrasonic examination of steel groove welds and heat affected zones between the thickness 8.0 mm and 203 mm [5/16 in and 8in.] Inclusive.

2.0

REFRENCE
AWS D1.1 ASNT CP-189 Structural Welding Code –Steel (2008 ed.) NDT Personnel Qualification and Certification (2006 ed.)

3.0

PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION

3.1 All personnel performing Ultrasonic Examination And Evaluating the results shall be qualified and certified level II or Level III in accordance with written procedure Al-HOTY. 3.2 For all Saudi Aramco projects, technician’s performing the UT test shall be Saudi Aramco approved technician.

4.0

Equipment

4.1 An ‘A’ scan pulse-echo type of ultrasonic instrument suitable for use with transducers producing frequencies between 1 to 6 mega hertz shall be used. Equipment used for all Saudi Aramco project shall be from Saudi Aramco Equipment List. 4.2 section 8.1. The equipment shall have horizontal linearity accuracy as specified in the test procedure in

4.3 The equipment shall have internal stabilizations so that the variation in response shall not be greater than ± 1 db with the fluctuation of 15% nominal voltage value. In case of the battery operated units, there shall be a battery indicator to show that the level of charge of battery before the equipment gets shutoff. 4.4 The equipment shall have calibrated gain control of 1 or 2 db steps for adjustment over a range of 60-db .The accuracy of the attenuator setting shall be within ±1 db. 4.5 The range of the CRT display shall be in such a way that a 1db difference in amplitude is detected on the CRT. 4.6 The brand and Model of the ultrasonic equipment used shall be Krautkramer. Olympus, Stavely with the built in arrangements to satisfy the requirements of item 4.1 through 4.4.

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5.1 The search unit used shall contain single or dual transducer elements for e straight beam (Longitudinal wave) and single transducer with an angle wedge for angle beam (transverse wave). Each search unit shall be marked to clearly indicate the frequency of the transducer, nominal angle of refraction. And index point. 5.2 The size of the transducer shall be not less than ½ in.² (323 mm²) nor more than 1in. ²(645 mm²) active areas. The transducer shall be round or square. 5.3 The size of the angle beam transducers shall be 8 mm width and 9 mm height. The transducer crystal shall be square of rectangle in shape. 5.4 5.5 The transducer frequency shall be 2 to 2.5 Mhz, inclusive. The angle beam transducers° used shall be 45° 60°or 70° with an accuracy of ±2°

5.6 Couplant selection shall depend on chemical compatibility with the surface and the temperature of the specimen. 5.7 Couplants used on nickel base alloy shall not contain more 250 ppm of sulfur and on austenitic stainless steel or titanium shall not contain more than 250pp of halides.

6.0

CALIBRATION BLOCKS

6.1 The International Institute of welding (IIW) reference block shown in Attachment –1 for the ultrasonic examination shall be used for the distance and sensitivity. Calibration. 6.2 The RC reference resolution test block and Ds block shown in Atttachment-2 shall be used for the evaluating the resolution and db accuracy of the instrument and search unit combination with normal settings of instrument controls. 6.3 The use of a “corner” reflector for calibration purpose shall be prohibited.

7.0

Equipment Qualification

7.1 The horizontal linearity of the ultrasonic instrument shall be requalified at two-month interval of use of instrument and in each distance range in which the testing will be carried out. 7.2 The gain control (attenuator) of the instrument shall be checked for the calibration at he interval of every two months in conformance with Para 8.2. 7.3 Maximum internal reflections from each ultrasonic search unit shall be verified at every 40 hours of use of the instrument in conformance with Para 8.3. 7.4 Angle beam transducers shall be checked for every 8 hours of use for their angle to be within ± the flatness of the contact face and the beam exit point. Search units, which do not meet these requirements, shall be replaced.

8.0
8.1

Procedure for Equipment Qualification
Horizontal Linearity

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8.1.1 A straight beam search unit shall be coupled with IIW blocks at the position “G” shown I attachment –3 for bringing at least five back reflections on the CRT screen. The screen shall be adjusted to the qualification range required for the testing. 8.1.2 The First and Fifth back reflection shall be adjusted to their proper location with the use of range and delay controls of the instruments. 8.1.3 location examination. 8.1.4 screen width. Each indication shall be adjusted to reference level with gain control for horizontal

Each intermediate location of the back reflection shall be correct within 2% of the

8.1.5 Whenever the angle beam search unit is used the distance to the calibrated with this qualification procedure shall be doubled, as the longitudinal sound wave velocity is double the shear wave velocity. For example, the use of 200 mm screen calibration in shear wave would require 400 m screen calibration. 8.1.6 The horizontal linearity of the equipment shall be re-qualified at two –months intervals in each of the distance ranges that the instrument will be used. 8.2 8.2.1 attachment-3. 8.2.2 the mid screen. 8.2.3 40% of the screen height. Decibel (db) Accuracy A straight beam search unit shall be coupled to the Ds at position “T” as shown in The distance calibration shall be adjusted so that 50 mm back reflection indication is at The grain control shall be adjusted so that the indication is exactly at or slightly above

8.2.4 The search unit shall be move towards the position “U” in attachment –3 until the indication is at exactly 40% screen height. 8.2.5 The amplitude shall be increased 6 db with the gain control. The indication level should be at 80% screen height theoretically. 8.2.6 The db shall be recorded under “a” and actual % screen height under “b” from section 8.2.5 on the certification report in attachment – 4. 8.2.7 The search unit shall be moved further towards the position “u” until the indication is at exactly 40% screen height. Step 8.2.5 shall be repeated. 8.2.8 on attachment-4. Step 8.2.6 shall be repeated and the information recorded to the next consecutive line

8.2.9 Steps 8.2.7.8.2.8,8.2.9 shall be repeated consecutively till the full range of the gain control is reached. Minimum shall be 60 db. 8.2.10 The information from columns “a” and “b” shall be applied to the equation below to calculate the corrected db corrected db shall be recorded at column “c”

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8.2.11 Column “c” value shall be subtracted from column “a” value and the error recorded in column “d.” 8.2.12 instructed.

difference db

The information shall be tabulated in attachment-4 and the unit is evaluated as

8.2.13 The db information from column “e” shall be applied vertically and db reading from column “a” horizontally as X and Y coordinates for the plotting a Db Curve. 8.2.14 The longest horizontal length, as represented by the db reading difference, which can be inscribed in a rectangle representing 2 db in height denotes the db range in which the equipment meets the code requirements. The minimum allowable range shall be 60 db. 8.2.15 The instrument’s gain control shall be checked for correct calibration at two months intervals as per Para 8.2 8.3 Internal Reflection 8.3.1 The instrument shall be calibrated with an angle beam search unit for a range of 5 inches or 10 inches as described in section 10.5.1 8.3.2 equipment settings. 8.3.3 8.3.4 be free of any indication. 8.3.5 The search unit shall be removed from the calibrated block without changing any other The gain shall be increased by 20db than reference level. The CRT screen area beyond ½ inch sound path and above reference level height shall The period of check shall be verified every 40 hours of instrument use as per Para 8.3

9.0
9.1

CALIBRATION WITH IIW BLOCK
Longitudinal Mode (refer to Attachment 3)

9.1.1 Distance calibration: The transducer shall be set in position “g” on the IIW block. The transducer shall be adjusted to produce indications at 25 mm, 50mm, 75mm.100mm etc on the CRT 9.1.2 Amplitude: The transducer shall be set in Position “G” n the IIW block and the gain adjusted until the maximized indication from first back reflection attains 50 to 75% screen height. 9.1.3 Resolution: the transducer shall be set in position “F” on the IIW block and the instrument-transducer combination shall resolve three distances. 9.2 Transverse Wave Mode (Shear wave, refer to Attachment 3) 9.2.1 Placing the transducer at position “D” on the IIW block shall check the transducer sound entry point. The transducer shall be moved until the signal from the radius is maximized. The point of transducer, which aligns with radius line on the calibration block, is the point of sound entry.

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9.2.2 The angle of the transducer shall be checked as follows; The transducer shall be set in the position “B” on IIW block for angles 40 ° through 60° or in the position “C” on IIW block for angles 60° through 70°. For the selected angle the transducer shall be moved back and forth over the line indicative of the transducer angle until the signal from the radius is maximized. The sound entry point on the transducer. 9.2.3 ±2°. Shall be compared with the angle mark on the calibration block. It shall not exceed

9.2.4 Distance Calibration: The transducer shall be set in position ”D” on the IIW block (any angle). The instrument shall then be adjusted to attain indications at 100 mm or 225 mm on CRT. 9.2.5 Amplitude or Sensitivity Calibration. The transducer shall be set in position A on Y the IIW block. The maximized signal shall then be adjusted from the 1.59 mm hole to attain a horizontal reference-line height indication. The maximum decibel reading obtained shall be used as the Reference level ”B” reading on the UT Report. 9.2.6 Resolution: The transducer shall be set on resolution block position’s” for 70°angle, position “R” for 60°. The instrument and transducer shall resolve the three test holes, at least to the extent of distinguishing the peaks of the indications from the three holes.

10.0

CALIBRATION FOR TESTING

10.1 Position of Reject Control. All calibrations and tests shall be made with the reject (clipping or suppression) control turned off .Use of the reject (clipping or suppression) control may alter the amplitude linearity of the instrument and invalidate test results. 10.2 Technique. Calibration for sensitivity and horizontal sweep (distance) shall be made by the ultrasonic operator just prior to and at the location of testing of each weld. 10.3 Recalibration. Recalibration shall be made after a change of operators, each two-hour maximum time interval, or when the electrical circuitry is disturbed in any way, which includes the following. i. ii. iii. iv. v. Transducer change Battery change Electrical outlet change Coaxial cable change Power outage (failure)

10.4 Calibration for straight beam testing of base metal shall be made with the search unit applied to face A (Attachment-60 of the base metal and performed as follows: 10.4.1 Sweep. The horizontal sweep shall be adjusted for distance calibration to present the sensitivity of at least two-plate thickness on the CRT screen 10.4.2 Sensitivity. The sensitivity shall be adjusted at a location free of indication so that the first back reflection from the far side of the plate will be 50% to 75% of full screen height. 10.5 Calibration for angle beam testing shall be performed as follows: 10.5.1 The horizontal sweep shall be adjusted to represent the actual sound path distance by using the IIW block or alternative blocks as specified. The distance calibration shall be made using either the 5 in (125 mm) range or 10 in (250 mm) range in the CRT screen, whichever is appropriate, If however, the joint

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configuration or thickness prevents full examination of the weld at either of these settings, the distance calibration shall be made using 15 or 20 in (400 mm or 500 mm) range as required. NOTE: The horizontal location of all screen indications is based on the location at which the left side of the trace deflection breaks the horizontal base line. 10.5.2 Zero Reference level. The zero reference level sensitivity used for discontinuity evaluation (“b” on the UT report) shall be attained by adjusting the calibrated gain control of the discontinuity detector, so that a maximized horizontal trace deflection (adjusted to horizontal reference line height with calibrated gain control) results on the CRT between 40% and 60% screen Height, in conformance with Para 9.2.4

11.0

TESTING PROCEDURES

11.1 An “X” line for discontinuity location shall be marked on the test face of the Weldments in a direction parallel to the weld axis. The location distance perpendicular to the weld axis is based on the dimensional figures on the detail drawing and usually falls on the centerline of the butt joint welds, and always falls on the near face of the connecting number of t and corner joint welds) the face opposite Face C) Refer Attachment6. 11.2 A “Y” accompanied with a weld identification number shall be clearly marked on the base metal adjacent to the weld that is ultrasonically test. This marking is used for the following purposes a) b) c) d) Weld Identification Identification of Face A Distance measurement and direction (+ or_) from the line “X” line Location measurement from welds ends or edges.

11.3 Cleanliness. All surfaces to which a search unit is applied shall be free of weld spatter, dirt, grease, oil, (other than used as a Couplant), paint, and loose scale and shall have a contour permitting intimate coupling. 11.4 Couplant: A Couplant material shall be used between the search unit and the test material. The Couplant shall be either glycerin or cellulose gum or water mixture of suitable consistency. A wetting agent may be added if needed. Light machine oil may be used for Couplant on calibration blocks. 11.5 Extent of Testing .the entire base metal through which ultrasound must travel to test the weld shall be tested for laminar reflectors using a straight beam search unit conforming to the requirements and calibrated in accordance with 10.4.If any area of base metal exhibits total loss of back reflection or an indication equal to or greater than the original back reflecting height is located in a position that will interfere with the normal weld scanning procedure, its size location and depth from A face shall be determined and reported on the ultrasonic test report and an alternate weld scanning procedure shall be used. 11.5.1 section 13. Reflector Size .The reflector size evaluation procedure shall be in accordance with

11.5.2 Inaccessibility. Areas for which complete inspection was not practicable shall also be noted. Along with the reason why the inspection was incomplete. If part of a weld is inaccessible to testing in accordance with the requirements of Attachment =6 due to laminar content recorded in accordance with 11.5, the testing shall be conducted using one or more of the following alternative procedures as necessary to attain full weld coverage:

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a) Weld surface (S) shall be ground flush. b) Testing From Faces A and b shall be performed. c) Other search unit angles shall be used.

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11.6 Testing of Welds. Welds shall be tested using an angle beam search unit with the instrument calibrated using the angle as shown in Attachment-6.Following calibration and during testing, the only instrument adjustment permitted is the sensitivity level adjustment with the calibrated gain control (attenuator) the reject (clipping or suppression) control shall be turned off. Sensitivity shall be increased from the reference level for weld scanning in accordance with tables in section 15 and 16 (Acceptance criteria as applicable). 11.6.1 in attachment-6 Scanning. The testing angle and scanning procedure shall be in accordance with shown

11.6.2 Butt joints - All butt joints welds shall be tested from each side of the weld axis. Corner and t-Joint welds shall be primarily tested from one side of the weld axis only. All welds shall be tested using the applicable scanning pattern or patterns shown in Attachment - 5 as necessary to detect both longitudinal and transverse flaws. It is intended that, as a minimum, all welds be tested by passing sound through the entire volume of the weld and the heat-affected zone in two crossing directions, wherever practical. 11.6.3 Maximum Indication. When a discontinuity indication appears on the screen, the maximum attainable indication from the discontinuity shall be adjusted to produce a horizontal reference level trace deflection on the CRT screen. This adjustment shall be made with the calibrated gain control (attenuator), and the instrument reading in decibels shall be used as the “Indication Level, a” for calculating the “Indication Rating d (Attachment-7) 11.6.4 Attenuation Factor. The “Attenuation Factor, c” on the test report is attained by subtracting I in 25mm) from the sound path distance and multiplying the remainder by 2.this factor shall be rounded to the nearest db value. Fractional values less than ½ db shall be reduced to the lower db level and those to ½ or greater increased to the higher level. 11.6.5 Indication Rating. The “Indication Rating d” in the UT Report (Attachment-7), represents the algebraic difference in decibels between the indication level and the reference level with correction for attenuation as indicated in the following expressions: Instruments with gain in db: 11.7 a-b-c=d Instruments with attenuation in db: b-a-c=d Length of discontinuities. The length shall be determined in accordance with section 13.2. 11.8 Basis for Acceptance or rejection. Each weld discontinuity shall be accepted or rejected on the basis of its indication rating and its length, in accordance with section 15 for statically loaded structures or section 16 dynamically loaded structures, which ever is applicable. Only those discontinuities, which are unacceptable, need be recorded on the test report. Except that for welds designated in the contract documents as being “Facture Critical.” acceptable ratings that are 6db within 6db, inclusive of the minimum unacceptable rating shall be recorded on the test report. 11.9 Identification of Rejected Area. Each unacceptable discontinuity shall be indicated on the weld by a mark directly over the discontinuity for its entire length. The depth from the surface and indication rating shall be noted on nearby base metal. 11.10 Retest Reports. Evaluation of retested repaired weld areas must be tabulated on anew line on the report form, If the original report form is used, an R1, R2…Rn 11.11 Shall prefix the indication number. If additional report forms are used, the R number shall prefix the report number.

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12.0
12.1 12.1.1 12.1.2 tested is covered. 12.1.3 transducer width. 12.2 12.2.1 12.2.2

SCANNING PATTERNS (See Attachments-5)
Longitudinal Discontinuities. Scanning Movement A. Rotation angle a=10° Scanning Movement B Scanning distance b shall be such that the section of weld being Scanning Movement C Progression distance c shall be approximately one-half the Note: Movements A, B and C are combined into one scanning pattern. Transverse Discontinuities. Scanning pattern D is to be used when welds are ground flush. Scanning pattern E is to be used when the weld reinforcement is not ground flush. Scanning angle=15 °max Note: the scanning pattern is to be used such that the full weld section is covered

12.2.3

Electroslag or Electro gas Welds (Additional Scanning Pattern)- Scanning Pattern E Search unit rotation angle e between 45° and 60°. Note: The scanning pattern shall be such that the full weld section is covered.

13.0

FLAW SIZE EVALUATION

13.1 Straight (longitudinal) Beam Testing .The size of lamellar discontinuities is not always easily determined, especially those that are smaller than the transducer size. When the discontinuity is larger than the transducer, a full loss of back reflection will occur and a 6db loss of amplitude and measurement to the centerline of the transducer is usually reliable for determining flaw edges. However beginning outside of the discontinuity must make the approximate size evaluation of those reflectors, which are smaller than the transducer, with the equipment calibrated in accordance with 10.4 and moving the transducer toward the area of discontinuity until an indication on the CRT screen begins to form. The leading edge of the search unit at this point is indicative of the edge discontinuity. 13.2 Angle beam (shear) testing the following procedure shall be used to determine lengths of indications, which have db ratings more serious than for a class D indication. The length of such indication shall be determined by measuring the distance between the transducer centerline locations where the indication rating amplitude drops 50% (6db) below the rating for the applicable flaw classification. This length shall be recorded under “discontinuity length” on the test report. Where warranted by flaw amplitude, this procedure shall be repeated to determine the length of Class A, Band C flaws.

14.0
14.1

PREPARATION AND DISPOSITION OF REPORTS
Non-Rejectable indications shall be recorded.

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14.2 Rejectable indication shall be relocated in the Report form (Attachment-7) As a minimum; the type of indication, location and extent (length) shall be recorded. 14.3 14.3.1 14.3.2 14.3.3 14.3.4 14.3.5 14.3.6 14.3.7 14.3.8 14.3.9 For each testing, the following information shall be recorded Procedure identification. Equipment identification. Probe size frequency and angle(s) used Couplant used. Calibration block identification. Equipment reference level gain. Identification of material scanned. Surface condition and surface from which testing was conducted. UT Technicians Identity, qualification level, signature and Date.

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