# Module #26

FATIGUE OF MATERIALS
TOPICS & REFERENCES
Mechanisms for Fatigue Fatigue Crack Propagation Ch. 14 in Meyers & Chawla S. Suresh, Fatigue of Materials, 2nd Ed., Cambridge (1998)

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Fatigue of Materials
• Many materials, when subjected to fluctuating stresses, fail. • The stresses required to cause failure are far below those needed to cause fracture on single application of load. • Fatigue failure is failure under dynamic loading. • Fatigue is the cause for more than 90% of all service failures in structural materials. It is something that you would like to avoid. • Fatigue failures generally occur with little or no warning (with catastrophic results).

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Fatigue Fractures
• They generally appear to be brittle.
Stress concentrators PSBs Inclusions Etc…

[Meyers & Chawla]
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[Hertzberg]

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Stress Cycles
σmax σa STRESS Δσ = σr 0 σmin σm TIME All fluctuating stress cycles are made up of a σm and a σa

Stress Range: Stress Amplitude (alternating stress): Mean Stress: Stress Ratio: Amplitude Ratio:

Δσ = σ r = σ max − σ min 2 σ + σ min σ m = max 2 R=

σa =

σ max − σ min

=

σr
2

σ min σ max 1− R σ A= a = σm 1+ R

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fatigue failures are statistical in nature. • Now we need to consider how fatigue parameters influence fatigue failure. Page 798 . • Thus.Stress Cycles σmax σ max ≠ σ min STRESS 0 σm TIME σmin • Real stress cycles are far more complex and unpredictable than the ideal one showed on the prior viewgraph.

Fatigue Results: the S-N curve • Engineering fatigue data is generally presented on S-N (or ε-N) curves. – S = applied stress – ε = applied strain – N = # cycles to failure Ferrous metals and other strain aging materials Examples: Low carbon steel Stainless steel Titanium Etc… S or ε SL Example: Al alloys Non-ferrous metals # cycles to failure (log scale) SL = fatigue/endurance limit Page 799 .

Page 800 .Fatigue Results: The S-N Curve σa σa Fatigue Limit Endurance Limit at 107 Cycles 102 104 106 108 102 104 106 108 Nf Nf • In materials exhibiting a fatigue limit.4 to 0. cyclic loading at stresses below the fatigue limit cannot result in failure. In steels SL/UTS = 0.5). • For non-ferrous materials we will generally define the fatigue strength as the stress that will cause fracture at the end of a specified number of cycles (usually 107).

146 Page 801 . Jones. Butterworth-Heinemann.Categories of Fatigue (1) (2) (3) M. 2nd Edition. Engineering Materials 1.F. p. Boston (1996). Ashby and D.R.

of bulk SUTS SYS Low-strain HIGH CYCLE Stress. N 103 104 105 105 107 108 Adapted from J. p. Shigley. Mischke. Boston (2004).R. and R. of bulk 100 101 102 Number of cycles to failure. McGraw-Hill. C. Mechanical Engineering Design. 7th Edition.Categories of Fatigue High-strain LOW CYCLE Finite life Infinite life Plastic deform. Budynas. Sa Elastic deform.E. 314 Page 802 .G.

..e. in the low-cycle fatigue (LCF) regime]. in the high-cycle fatigue (HCF) regime]. This is typical of the stresslife method which is most suitable for high-cycle applications [i. A Δσ 2 Δε 2 Δε O 2 ε Δσ 2 C Page 803 .Stress-Life or Strain-Life? • Most data is presented on S-N curves. Δεp B O-A-B reflects initial loading in tension. • However. Δεe σ • The strain-life method is more applicable where there is measurable plastic deformation [i. it is easier to implement strain-life experiments.e.

Strain-Life Method • It’s convenient to consider elastic and plastic strains separately. Nf and Hooke’s law. Δε = Δε elastic + Δε plastic • Elastic strain amplitude is determined from a combination of . Δε e σ a ⎛ σ ′f ⎞ = =⎜ ⎟ (2N f 2 E ⎝ E ⎠ ) b Δε e = elastic strain amplitude 2 σ a = true stress amplitude σ ′f = fatigue strength coefficient b = fatigue strength exponent Page 804 .

Page 805 .Strain-Life Method (2) • The plastic strain component is described by the Manson-Coffin equation. Δε p σ a c = = ε ′f ( 2 N f ) 2 E Δε p 2 = plastic strain amplitude σ a = true stress amplitude ε ′f = fatigue ductility coefficient c = fatigue ductility exponent • The Manson-Coffin equation describes LCF.

In addition.Strain Life Method (3) Δε = Δε elastic + Δε plastic ∴ Δε Δε e Δε p ⎛ σ ′f ⎞ = + =⎜ ⎟ (2N f 2 2 2 ⎝ E ⎠ ) b + ε ′f ( 2 N f ) c • This is the Manson-Coffin relationship between fatigue life and total strain. the Manson Coffin equation breaks down because Nf decreases as temperature increases. Nf depends on cyclic frequency. ∆εP < ∆εe HCF c σ ′f E ELASTIC Total strain b PLASTIC 103 to 104 cycles 2Nf (log Scale) Page 806 . We can use it to determine the fatigue strength. ε ′f Strain Amplitude Δε/2 (log Scale) ∆εP > ∆εe LCF • At high temperatures.

• Strain-controlled cyclic loading is often found during thermal cycling (when a component expands and contracts due to fluctuations in temperature). • Local plastic strains at notches subjected to cyclic loading can also result in strain-controlled conditions near the root of the notch. • This is particularly dangerous when a component is made from materials exhibiting different coefficients of thermal expansion. Page 807 . This is due to constraint placed on the material near the root by the surrounding mass of material.Cyclic Strain-Controlled Fatigue • Strain amplitude is held constant during cycling. • It is also found during reversed bending between fixed displacements.

Trends for Engineering Metals [Dowling] • Constant strain-amplitude cycling: – High-strength materials are desirable for HCF. – High-strength materials have low values of ε′f and low ductility. – High ductility materials are desirable for LCF. – High-ductility materials have low values of σ′f and low strength. Page 808 .

the stress range. • Re-loading in tension completes the hysteresis loop. and its height Δσ. This is due to the Bauschinger effect. yielding begins in compression at a lower value than was observed in tension. Δε. • On unloading.Schematic stress-strain hysteresis loop • O-A-B reflects initial loading in tension. Δεe σ Δεp B A Δσ 2 Δε 2 Δε O 2 ε Δσ 2 C Page 809 . curve B-C. • A hysteresis loop is described by its width. the total strain range.

Response of Materials to Strain Cycles • Metals can harden or soften during fatigue depending upon their initial state. Control Condition Strain + 1 3 5 Time 2 4 Cyclic Hardening σ 3 5 Strain + 1 5 3 1 Time 2 4 2 4 ε Cyclic Softening σ 3 5 Strain + 1 1 3 5 Time 2 4 4 2 ε Page 810 .

0 0 σmin = 0 TIME σmax STRESS σa Δσ R = 0.σmax Effects of Mean Stress and Stress Ratio Variation of σm (and R) will cause the endurance limit to change STRESS σa R = -1.0 σm = 0 σmin σmax Δσ TIME 0 STRESS σa σm σmin σmax Δσ R = -0.0 σm σmin 0 TIME Page 811 .3 TIME 0 STRESS σa Δσ σm R = 0.

the fatigue life decreases! • As R increases.Effects of Mean Stress and Stress Ratio • As σm increases. the fatigue life increases! [Dieter] Page 812 .

–Goodman 1 ⎡ ⎤ σm σ a = σ o ⎢1 − σ UTS ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) R = negative Linear R = -1 R=0 –Gerber σo 2 ⎡ ⎤ σm σ a = σ o ⎢1 − σ UTS ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( ( ) Parabolic R = positive –Soderberg ⎡ ⎤ σ a = σ o ⎢1 − σ m σ ⎥ YS ⎣ ⎦ 1 ) Linear σYS Mean Stress σUTS R=1 Most experimental data lies between the Goodman and Gerber values. Page 813 .Effects of Mean Stress and Stress Ratio •There are several empirical equations to relate the alternating stress to the mean stress. The Goodman relation is more conservative and is safer for design purposes.

Cumulative Damage and Life Exhaustion • Most engineering structures are subjected to variable amplitude loading as is illustrated below.43 • As you can see. • The total life used can be expressed as: N1 N N + 2 + 3 + N f1 N f 2 N f 3 + Ni N fi Page 814 . The number of cycles to failure for σa1 is Nf1. a certain stress amplitude (σa1) is applied for a number of cycles (N1). [Dowling] Figure 9. There will be additional expressions for regions of loading with different stress amplitudes. • The fraction of life used is N1 /Nf1.

. [Dowling] Figure 9. when 100% of the fatigue life is exhausted).43 N N1 N + 2 + 3 + N f1 N f 2 N f 3 =∑ i Ni =1 N fi • Fatigue failure is expected when the life fractions sum to unity (i.Cumulative Damage and Life Exhaustion • The Palmgren-Miner rule can be used to determine whether or not the fatigue life is exhausted. Page 815 .e.

Figure 9. when 100% of the fatigue life is exhausted).Cumulative Damage and Life Exhaustion • If the variable amplitude loading cycle is repeated a number of times.. it is convenient to sum cycle ratios over one repetition of the history and to then multiply that fraction by the number of repetitions required to reach unity.e. fatigue failure is expected when the repeated life fractions sum to unity (i. • As before.44 [Dowling] ⎡ Ni ⎤ B f ⎢∑ =1 ⎥ N fi ⎦ one repetition ⎣ i B f = number of repetitions to failure Page 816 .

The Fatigue Process σ I II III σ Page 817 .

Unstable crack growth or failure σ Page 818 . II.THE FATIGUE PROCESS • There are 3 stages: I. Crack initiation Crack propagation or stable crack growth σ I II III III.

Page 819 . Most cracks initiate at free surfaces. we are concerned with how long it will take for a crack to grow to a critical length. • Everything starts with crack initiation! • Crack initiation is not well understood.Fatigue Crack Growth (1) • Regardless of the mechanism that controls fatigue at elevated temperatures. in those instances where cracks initiate within a solid. some sort of interface is usually involved. However.

Page 820 . slip occurs uniformly through a grain.211-213] • • • In fatigue.• • Where “slip” fits in. which leaves slip bands on the surface. some grains show slip lines while others will not. dislocations Fatigue Crack Growth (2) Slip planes [Proc. Crystalline solids generally deform by slip. Fewer slip lines are produced than the actual number of fatigue cycles. Roy. v. Additional deformation produces additional slip lines. Soc. slip rapidly reaches a saturation value. 242 (1959) p. In many materials. In unidirectional deformation. resulting in distorted regions of heavy slip.. A.

• Cracks are generally found to occur in these regions of heavy deformation. slip lines in fatigue tend to be grouped into distinct bands (i. regions of locally heavy deformation)..e. Some bands are more “persistent” than others. Page 821 .Fatigue Crack Growth (3) • THUS. We call them persistent slip bands.

CRACK INITIATION [Reed-Hill & Abbaschian] [Reed-Hill & Abbaschian] Page 822 .

• PSBs are embryonic fatigue cracks that open when small tensile strains are applied. Later they assume directions perpendicular to the applied stress (Stage II). Page 823 . Persistent Slip Bands and Crack Initiation [Dieter] [Reed-Hill & Abbaschian] • • Once formed cracks will initially propagate along slip planes (Stage I).

(c) Irreversible slip in the PSB creating effective interfacial dislocations which put the slip band in a state of compression. Persistent Slip Bands This is just a visualization of how they can form. Figure 4. Phil. A.• PSBs are embryonic fatigue cracks that open when small tensile strains are applied. p. [Suresh. 405-426). (d) The combined effects of applied stresses and internal stresses. Mag. Gösele and Mughrabi. (a) The critical annihilation distance for screw and edge dislocations. 1981. v.4. Bigger arrows indicate repulsive forces on interfacial dislocations and smaller arrows denote forces caused by the applied load (After Essman. (b) Mechanism of extrusion formation by combined glide and dislocation annihilation. 138] Page 824 . 44. pp.

p.[Felbeck & Atkins.431] Page 825 .

[Meyers & Chawla] Page 826 . The rate of crack propagation is low (on the order of a few Å/cycle). A few cracks nucleate along crystallographic slip planes. The fracture surface in Stage I is nearly featureless.Stage I • • • Cracks propagate via crystallographic shear modes.

Pelloux.M. [Dieter] Page 827 . Plenum Press (1981) pp. From R.Stage II • Stage II crack propagation shows ripples/striations. Latanision and J. 241-251 • • Each striation represents the position of the advancing crack.N. Pickens.” in Atomistics of Fracture.R.M. edited by R. Striations are the result of a combination of crack propagation and blunting. The crack propagation rate is high (on the order of a μm/cycle). “Fractography.

Δσ da ao dN Nf N (# cycles) Variation in fatigue crack length with # cycles to failure Page 828 . Fatigue Life a (crack length) ac Incr.Stage III • The fatigue crack becomes too large. • The Kc of the material is exceeded resulting in fast fracture.

Stage III • The fatigue crack becomes too large. • The Kc of the material is exceeded resulting in fast fracture. ac Fatigue Life a (crack length) Incr. Δσ da ao dN Nf N (# cycles) Variation in fatigue crack length with # cycles to failure Page 829 .

It predicts the crack growth rate in the region of stable crack growth (Stage II). Page 830 .Fatigue Crack Propagation (1) • The crack growth rate can be expressed as: da m = Cσ a a n dN C = constant σ a = alternating stress a = crack length m = a constant ranging from 2 to 4 n = a constant ranging from 1 to 2 • Is equation can be re-written in terms of the total accumulated strain: da = C1ε m1 dN C1 = constant ε = total strain m1 = a constant ranging from 2 to 4 • This is known as the Paris equation.

The crack could result from the presence of a manufacturing defect... Consider a thin sheet specimen of width w with a crack already in it. Applied Stress y σij θ x a w Applied Stress • The stress near the crack tip is: σ ij = K Fij (θ ) + .Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics Method • • We can make fatigue crack propagation more useful by relating it to linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). 2π r Page 831 .

e. we are interested in the critical K values (i. Kc) .Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics Method σ ij = K Fij (θ ) + . 2π r • The K is the stress intensity factor that we defined previously as fracture toughness.. Page 832 . • Of course. σ ) = σ π a ⋅ F ( a w) = σ π a ⋅Y Shape factor... K = F ( a. depends on specimen shape and crack geometry • Values of K have been tabulated for materials with different crack geometries.

. ΔK correlates with the fatigue crack growth rate. πσ2a/E) which is equaled by the energy required to extend a crack. • If you exceed Kc the crack opens up. Δσ = σ max − σ min K = Yσ π a ∴ ΔK = K max − K min = Y Δσ π a • For constant Δσ. Page 833 . This is illustrated on the next page.e.Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics Method • At Kc an incremental increase in the crack length (da) results in a small change in the elastic strain energy release rate (i. If you are below Kc it does not.

Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics Method a (crack length) Incr. Δσ Incr. Page 834 . ΔK Variation in fatigue crack length with # cycles to failure a ao dN da N (# cycles) • Obviously da = F (ΔK ) dN • The variation of the fatigue crack growth rate with ΔK is shown on the next page.

Crack initiation – little or no crack growth II. Crack propagation – Paris law region III. Unstable crack growth – accelerated crack growth Page 835 .Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics Method Crack Growth Rate (log scale) I II K max → K c III p 1 ΔK th No crack growth da p = A ( ΔK ) dN Stress intensity factor range ΔK Variation in fatigue crack growth rate with stress intensity factor I.

Page 836 . and test conditions. • The influence of the mean stress. Gomez and Anderson (1961) showed that the fatigue crack growth rate could be related to the stress intensity factor range by the relationship: da p = A ( ΔK ) dN where A and p are constants that depend upon material. written in terms of the stress ratio R. environment.Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics Method • Paris. is given by: A ( ΔK ) da = dN (1 − R ) K c − ΔK p • An increase tends to increase crack growth rates in all portions of the crack growth curve.

and environment. III. Growth rates are controlled by microstructure. environment.Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics Method Region I. and frequency. Comments Growth rates are controlled by microstructure. Page 837 . σm. In this region. and thickness. Growth rates are controlled by microstructure. σm. p=3 for steels and 3-4 for Al alloys. II.

62. The results indicate that fatiguecrack growth rates are not structure-sensitive. ΔK for several Ti. this is in contrast to most mechanical properties. Al. and steel alloys.FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH RATES ARE STRUCTURE INSENSITIVE (a) dc/dN vs. 380 (1969). Trans. ASM. [Courtney. p. (b) The same data replotted as dc/dN vs. 590] Page 838 . This comes from Bates and Clark. ΔK/E. Normalizing ΔK by dividing by the modulus (E) produces a curve (with some scatter about it) in which crack-growth rates in several materials cannot be as clearly differentiated as they are in (a).

Temperatures are in the creep regime. How do we correlate everything that is going on? – Are we talking about creep enhanced by fatigue environment? – Are we talking about fatigue enhanced by creep? – What is the answer? Page 839 .Creep-Fatigue Interactions • Materials are generally used in “hostile” environments where diffusional processes can operate and/or where they are subject to environmental attack. The environment is “toxic.” Rotational stresses and differences in thermal expansion result in cyclic loading. High-temperature turbine blade in an aircraft engine. – Ex.

Page 840 . • Several modes of high temperature fracture are illustrated on the next viewgraph. which is followed by cavity growth and cavity coalescence resulting in a flaw of critical size.Creep-Fatigue Interactions • When the cyclic stress or strain amplitude is small compared to the mean stress (i. creep). – This definition also applies when temperature is high and the applied frequency is low.e. σa << σm) – creep accelerated by fatigue. • At high temperatures fracture is caused by grainboundary cavitation.e. • Under opposite circumstances we have fatigue failure accelerated by diffusional processes (i...

Modes of High-Temperature Fracture [Frost & Ashby] Page 841 .

Creep-Fatigue Interaction • Recall from fracture mechanics that tensile stresses tend to open up cracks whereas compressive stresses tend to heal cracks. • How can cyclic loading accelerate creep? GBS balanced by diffusion [Courtney. p. 603] Page 842 .

• Behavior is different in actual materials.. p.Fracture Criterion for Creep-Fatigue [Courtney. Model makes conservative prediction Model makes un-safe prediction Page 843 . 595] ∑N Ni fi +∑ ti =1 t fi N i = # cycles at stress amplitude σ ai N fi = # cycles to failure at stress amplitude σ ai ti = time spent at stress-temperature combination t fi = creep fracture life • Model predicts linear relationship. 1st Ed.

• The frequency of cyclic loading (ν) also has an effect. Influence of Environment (1) [Courtney. sample lifetimes are smaller for a given plastic strain range. 604] Page 844 . Elevated temperatures can enhance this effect. The next pages shows this.• Exposure to high temperatures generally reduces Nf at a given Δεpl. • Oxygen in air can also have an “embrittling” effect on the fatigue life of materials. When ν is lower. p.

Influence of Environment (2) [Courtney] Page 845 .

Influence of Environment (3) Transgranular high-cycle fatigue Transgranular high-cycle fatigue [Courtney. p. 605] Page 846 .