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The Spanish-American War The US Helps Cuba One year before the historic Cry of Pugad Lawin, a revolution

broke out in Cuba -another Spanish Colony that rose against the rampant abuses of the Spaniards. It became independent in 1898 after three years of revolt, with the help of United States. The Americans were supportive of the Cubans for various reasons: First- the US is a free country and Advocated democracy and freedom. 2nd- the US wants to protect its huge economic interest in Cuba, in the amount of $50,000,000. 3rd- a lot of stories reached the United States about Spanish maltreatment of Americans living in Cuba and this greatly angered the US citizens. Finally, since Cuba was located very near the US it was deemed covered by the protective mantle of the Monroe Doctrine. The US interest in the Philippines At that time, Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt, wanted a war to erupt between the US and Spain so he could strengthen and expand the US Navy, he immediately put his plan into place. On February 25, 1896, he ordered Commodore George Dewey to make Hong Kong the headquarters of the American Asiatic Squadron. He also directed Dewey to attack Manila Bay and destroy the Spanish fleet, the moment hostilities between Spain and US break out. The Spanish-American War Spain did not relish American intervention in its affairs. However, with the Philippine and Cuban revolutions going on, it could not afford to add the Americans to its enemy list, especially since the United States had more advanced technology and weaponry. In the face of Spains declining power, it tried to repair its rift with the US in order to avoid a disastrous war. On February 15, 1898, how ever a fateful event accrued in Cuba. The American warship Maine was blown up in Havana harbor, resulting in the death of its 260 officers and crewmembers. Although it was not proven that the Spaniards had sunk the Maine, the Americans called for war against Spain. Roosevelt was one of many US officials who considered the destruction of the Maine as act of treason and supported the declaration of war. Spain declared war on the United States on April 23, 1898. The United Sates declared war against Spain on April 25, 1898. On May 1, 1898, the United States Navy lead by Commodore George Dewey crushed the Spanish squadron in Manila Bay and the Spanish naval base at Sangley Point in Cavite. By June, 1898, the American had control of portions of the Philippine islands. The Spanish-American War ended with the Treaty of Paris signed on December 10, 1898. The treaty conferred ownership of the Spanish colonies of Guam, Puerto Rico and the Philippines to the United States. In turn, the U.S. paid Spain US$ 20 million. Continue toBattle of Manila Bay. The Battle of Manila Bay George Dewey, then a Commodore United States Navys Asiatic Squadron was waiting in Hong Kong when He received a cable from the then secretary of Navy, Theodore Roosevelt, stating that the war had begun between the US and Spain. Dewey sailed from Hong Kong on board his flagship Olympia with six other heavily armed ships. He brought with him a report on the location of the Spanish ships in Corregidor and Manila at dawn of May 1, 1898. Dewey entered Manila Bayalmost undetected. When he saw the Spanish ships, which

were under the command of General Patricio Montoya, he ordered his men to fire. The battle began at 5:41 in the morning and by 12:30 of the same day, the Spaniards were raising the white flag in surrender. Although The Spanish ships outnumbered those of the Americans; the weapons of the Americans were far more superior to those of the Spaniards. The battle proved to be too costly for the Spaniards, who lost 167 men and had 214 others wounded. As for the Americans, no ships were destroyed, and no soldier was killed or injured. The Battle of Manila Bay is considered one of the easiest encounters ever won in world history. The Siege of Manila By June 1898, General Emilio Aguinaldo had captured the whole of Luzon and was ready to storm Manila with the help of Gregorio del Pilar, Artemio Recarte, Antonio Montenegro, Pantaleon Garcia, and many other able generals. At that time, the term Manila referred to the walled city of Intramuros. Aguinaldos men surrounded the walls of Intramuros. Nearby areas like Tondo, Sta. Cruz, San Juan, and Caloocan were likewise secured. The Spaniards stubbornly hoped for the arrival of reinforcements from the Spanish mainland, but none ever came. Aguinaldo on the other hand, was firmly convinced that it just was a matter of days before the Spaniards surrendered. Therefore, he started planning for the declaration of Philippine independence. Continue to Revolutionary Government: Malolos Congress.

The Philippine Revolutionary Government The Malolos Congress Emilio Aguinaldo issued a decree on July 18, 1898 asking for the election of delegates to the revolutionary congress, another decree was promulgated five days later, which declared that Aguinaldo would appoint representatives of congress because holding elections is not practical at that time. He appointed 50 delegates in all (but this number fluctuated from time to time). In accordance with these two decrees, Aguinaldo assembled the Revolutionary Congress at the Brasoain Church in Malolos, Bulacan on September 15, 1898. The atmosphere was festive and the Pasig Band played the national anthem. After Aguinaldo had read his speech congressional elections were held among the delegates present. The following were among the most important achievements of the Malolos Congress: 1. In September 29, 1898, ratified the declaration of Philippine independence held at Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898 2. Passage of a law that allowed the Philippines to borrow P 20 million from banks for government expenses 3. Establishment of the Universidad Literatura de Filipinas and other schools 4. Drafting of the Philippine Constitution 5. Declaring war against the United States on June 12, 1899 Malolos Constitution A committee headed by Felipe Calderon and aided by Cayetano Arellano, the constitution was drafted, for the first time by representatives of the Filipino people and it is the first republican constitution in Asia. The constitution was inspired by the constitutions of Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Brazil, Belgium and France. After some minor revisions (mainly due to the objections of Apolinario Mabini), the final draft of the

constitution was presented to Aguinaldo. This paved the way to launching the first Philippine Republic. It established a democratic, republication government with three branches - the Executive, Legislative and the Judicial branches. It called for the separation of church and state. The executive powers were to be exercise by the president of the republic with the help of his cabinet. Judicial powers were given to the Supreme Court and other lower courts to be created by law. The Chief justice of the Supreme Court was to be elected by the legislature with the concurrence of the President and his Cabinet. First Philippine Republic The first Philippine Republic was inaugurated in Malolos, Bulacan on January 21, 1899. After being proclaimed president, Emilio Aguinaldo took his oath of office. The constitution was read article by article and followed by a military parade. Apolinario Mabini was elected as a prime minister. The other cabinet secretaries were: Teodoro Sandico, interior; Baldomero Aguinaldo, war; Gen. Mariano Trias, finance & war;Apolinario Mabini, foreign affairs; Gracio Gonzaga for welfare, Aguedo Velarde, public instruction; Maximo Paterno, public works & communication; and Leon Mara Guerrero for agriculture, trade & commerce. The Philippine National Anthem Aguinaldo commissioned Julian Felipe, a composer from Cavite province was asked to write an an instrumental march for the proclamation of independence ceremony. The original title was "Marcha Filipina Magdalo". This was later changed to "Marcha Nacional Filipina". The lyrics was added in August 1899 based on the poem titled "Filipinas" by Jose Palma. The original lyrics was written in Spanish, then to English (when the Flag Law was abolished during the American period) then later, was translated to Tagalog, which underwent another change of title to Lupang Hinirang, the Philippine National Filipino-American Hostilities Emilio Aguinaldo agreed to hold a peace conference between Filipino and American leaders. The conference lasted from January 9 to 29 in 1899. It ended without definite results, because the Americans were actually just biding time, waiting for more reinforcements to arrive from the US. Hostilities finally exploded between the Filipinos and Americans on February 4, 1899 in San Juan. An American soldier named Robert Grayson, saw 4 armed Filipino men on San Juan Del Mote Bridge and ordered them to stop, but they ignored him. This prompted Grayson to fire at the men, who immediately fired back. The following day MacArthur ordered his troops to openly engage the Filipinos in battle. The Filipino American War was on. From San Juan, American soldiers marched on to Pasig and nearby areas. In a matter of days, they were able to overrun Guadalupe, Pateros, Marikina, and Caloocan. General Antonio Luna and his men showed great heroism when they attacked Manila on the night of February 24, 1899. They burned the living quarters of the Americans in Tondo and Binondo, and reached as far as Azarraga Street (now Claro M. Recto Avenue), where they met by formidable American troops. Luna was forced to retreat to Polo, Bulacan two days later. When American reinforcements arrived in the Philippines, General Elwell Otis immediately attacked the northern part of Manila, while General Henry Lawton went to the south. General Arthur MacArthu, Jr.marched to Malolos, which was then the capital of the Philippine Republic. Malolos was

taken on March 31, 1899. By this time, however, Aguinaldo had already moved his headquarters to San Fernando, Pampanga. General Fredrick Funston crossed the Pampanga River in April 1899 and entered San Fernando. On May 5, the Americans had gained control of Pampanga. Fortunately, Aguinaldo was able to flee to San Isidro, Nueva Ecija. The death of Antonio Luna. A significant event that greatly weakened Aguinaldos forces was the death of General Antonio Luna, acknowledged as the best and most brilliant military strategist of the Philippine Revolution. He was brave, intelligent, and well educated; but he also had a fiery temper, and was a strict disciplinarian. His harsh and rough manner earned him a lot of enemies, who latter plotted to kill him. In June 1899 Luna was at his command post in Bayambang, Pangasinan when he received a telegram allegedly sent by Aguinaldo. The telegram instructed him to proceed to Aguinaldos headquarters in Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija. On June 5, Luna arrived at the headquarters, a convent on the town plaza in Cabanatuan, but was told that Aguinaldo left for Tarlac. Angry, Luna went out of the convent and was met and killed by Captain Pedro Janolino with Kawit, Cavite troops. General Luna was buried at the nearby churchyard. Aguinaldo's role on his death is not clear and his killers were never charged or investigated. Aguinaldo Flees. Philippine military strategies began to fail with the death of Antonio Luna. The generals started to disagree among themselves, and the Filipinos began losing battles. On November 13, 1899, General Emilio Aguinaldo fled to Calasiao, Pangasinan with his wife, son, mother sister, and some Cabinet members. The Americans followed in hot pursuit; but Aguinaldo still managed to elude them. However, he soon realized that being constantly on the run put the women in his group at great disadvantage. So, on December 25, 1899, he surrendered them to the American Aguinaldo then continued his march from Pangasinan to Palanan, Isabela. There he stayed for some time, since the place was mountainous and difficult to approach. Aguinaldos loyal men guarded all roads leading to the area.

Aguinaldo is Captured Gen. Funston plotted the capture of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo. On the night of March 6, 1901, He boarded the American warship Vicksburg and docked at Casiguran Bay on March 14. From Palanan Funston group reached Aguinaldos headquarters in Palanan on March 23, 1901. The Macabebe Scouts pretended to have been sent by Lacuna, with the American officials as their prisoners. Thus Aguinaldo have no idea of his impending capture until Tal Placido of the Macabebe Scouts embraced him. The Americans then declared the arrest of Aguinaldo and his men in the name of the United States government. Aguinaldo was brought to Manila and presented to then military Governor-General Arthur MacArthur, Jr. (father of General Douglas MacArthur) at Malacanang Palace. On April 19, 1901 he finally pledged allegiance to the United States. The Philippine Revolution Ends The first to yield to the Americans was by General Simion Ola. He surrendered to Colonel Harry Bandoltz in Guinobatan Albay on September 25.1903. Other revolutionaries soon followed.

permanent colonial government by the United States. Military Government General Wesley Merritt was the highest-ranking American official in the Philippines after Spaniards surrendered Manila on August 13, 1898. He established a military government and became the first American Military governor of the Philippines. The objectives of the Military government are: 1) to establish peace and order to the Philippines, and 2) to prepare Philippines for civil governance. The government in the Philippines can be classified into opposition and collaboration. The Americans used propaganda and other means to win the Filipinos to their side. The Schurman The first commission was chaired by Dr. Jacob G. Schurman, president of Cornell University. Thus it became known as the Schurman Commission. Their group arrived on the Philippines on February 4, 1899. The commission proposed the following: 1. Establish civil governments in areas were peace and order had been restored 2. Set up a bicameral legislature with members of the lower house to be all elective 3. Appoint American and Filipino member of the Upper house to head the cabinet 4. Preserve Philippine natural resources 5. Create a civil service system 6. Assign highly qualified Filipinos to important government positions The US Congress adopted all the recommendation of the Schurman commission. The Taft Commission On March 16, 1900, United States President William McKinley appointed the then Judge William Howard Taft to head the second Philippine Commission, which would also be known as the Taft Commission. Taft would become GovernorGeneral of the Philippines and later, the president of the U.S. McKinley wanted to hasten the transition of the Philippine military government into a civil one. The Taft Commissions was given executive and legislative powers it could use to achieve the Presidents objective. The Commission arrives in the Philippines on June 3, 1900. It began legislative work on September 1, the first law it passed set aside P2 million for the construction of treads and bridges. From September 1900 to August 1902, the Commission was able to enact 440 pieces of legislation for the Philippines. Some of these laws included the Municipal and Provincial codes, which established municipal and provincial governments all over the country, and laws organizing the Philippine Constabulary and the countries judicial system. Aside from enacting laws the commissions also visited various provinces and help it in the government peace efforts. The Spooner Amendment The Philippine Bill of 1902 - Cooper Act The modification sponsored by Senator John C. Spooner, allowed the US president to fully administer the Philippines. Thus, the military government of the Philippines was replaced with a civil one albeit temporary pending the legislation of United States Congressman Henry Allen Cooper sponsored the Philippine Bill of 1902, also known as the Cooper Act. The bill proposed the creation and administration of a civil Civil Government under Taft The Philippine civil government was inaugurated on July 4, 1901, with William Howard Taft as its first governor, the powers and duties of a governor were passed on to Taft. The Taft Commission continuing functioning as legislative body. Cayetano Arellano was the first Filipino to hold a high position of government he was named Chief Justice of the Supreme Court on May 28, 1899. Gregorio Araneta was appointed as Secretary of Justice and finance. Trinidad Pardo de Tavera, Benito Legarda, and Jose Luzuriaga were selected as members of the Philippine Commissions. The Philippine Commonwealth Era The Commonwealth era is the 10 year transitional period in Philippine history from 1935 to 1945 in preparation for independence from the United States as provided for under the Philippine Independence Act or more popularly known as the Tydings-McDuffie Law. The Commonwealth era was interrupted when the Japanese occupied the Philippines in January 2, 1942. The Commonwealth government, lead by Manuel L. Quezon andSergio S. Osmea went into exile in the U.S., Quezon died of tuberculosis while in exile and Osmea took over as president. At the same time, the Japanese forces installed a puppet government in Manila headed by Jose P. Laurel as president. This government is known as the Second Philippine Republic. On October 20, 1944, the Allied forces led by Gen. Douglas MacArthur landed on the island of Leyte to liberate the Philippines from the Japanese. Japan formally surrendered in September 2, 1945. After liberation, the Commonwealth government was restored. Congress convened in its first regular session on July 9, 1945. It was the first time the peoples representatives have assembled since their election on November 11, 1941. Manuel Roxas was elected Senate President, and Elpidio Quirino was chosen President Pro Tempore. Jose Zulueta was speaker of the house, while Prospero Sanidad became speaker pro Tempore. The first law of this congress, enacted as commonwealth act 672, organized the central bank of the Philippines. The commonwealth deal also tackled the issue of collaboration. In September 1945 the counter intelligence corps presented the people who were accused of having collaborated with, or given aid to, the Japanese. Included were prominent Filipinos who had been active in the puppet government that the Japanese had been established. A Peoples Court" was created to investigate and decide on the issue. Amidst this sad state of affairs, the third commonwealth elections were held on April 23, 1946. Sergio Osmea and Manuel Roxas vied for the Presidency. Roxas won thus becoming the last president of the Philippine Commonwealth. The Commonwealth era formally ended when the United States granted independence to the Philippines, as scheduled on July 4, 1946. Important legislations and events during the American period that made the Philippines a commonwealth of the United States:

government in the Philippines. President Roosevelt signed it into law in July 2, 1902.


Here are some of the more important provisions of the Cooper Act: Ratification of all changes introduced in the Philippine government by the president of the U.S., such as the establishment of the Philippine Commission, the office of the civil governor and the Supreme court Extension of the American Bill of Rights to the Filipinos except the right of trial by jury Creation of bicameral legislative body, with the Philippine Commission as the upper house and a still-to-be-elected Philippine Assembly as the Lower House Retention of the executive powers of the civil governor, who was also president of the Philippine Commission Designation of the Philippine Commission as the legislating authority for non-Christian tribes Retention of the Judicial powers of the Supreme court and other lower courts Appointment of two Filipino resident commissioners who would represent the Philippines in the US Congress but would not enjoy voting rights Conservation of Philippine natural resources The bill contained 3 provisions that had to be fulfilled first before the Philippine Assembly could be establishing these were the: Complete restoration of peace and order in the Philippines Accomplishment of a Nationwide census Two years of peace and order after the publication of the census The Philippine Assembly The assembly was inaugurated on October 16, 1907 at the Manila Grand Opera House, with US secretary of War William Howard Taft as guest of honor. Sergio Osmea was elected Speaker while Manuel Quezon was elected Majority Floor leader. The Recognition of the Philippine Assembly paved the way for the establishment of the bicameral Philippine Legislature. The Assembly functioned as the lower House, while the Philippine Commission served as the upper house. Resident Commissioners Benito Legarda and Pablo Ocampo were the first commissioners. Other Filipinos who occupied this position included Manuel Quezon, Jaime de Veyra, Teodoro Yangco, Isaro Gabaldon, and Camilo Osias. The Jones Law To further train the Filipinos in the art of government, the U.S. Congress enacted the Jones Law on August 29, 1916. It was the first official document that clearly promised the Philippine independence, as stated in its preamble, as soon as a stable government was established. The Jones Law or the Philippine Autonomy act, Replace the Philippine bill of 1902 as the framework of the Philippine government. It provide for the creation of the executive powers. The vice governor general, assisted by his Cabinet, would exercise executive powers. The vice governor would act concurrently as the Secretary of Education. Creation of the Council of State

Upon the recommendation of Manuel L. Quezon and Sergio Osmea, Governor General Francis Burton Harrison issued an executive order on October 16, 1981, creating the first Council of State in the Philippines. It was the Councils duty to advise the governor general on matters such as the creation of policies for administering government offices. The Council held meetings once a week and whenever the governor general called for one. It was composed of the governor general, the department secretaries, the speaker of the Lower House, and the Senate president. During Harrisons term, the executive and legislative branches of government worked harmoniously with each other. The Os-Rox Mission One delegation, however, that met with partial success was the Os-Rox Mission, so called because it was headed by Sergio Osmea and Manuel Roxas. The Os-Rox group went to the United States in 1931 and was able to influence the U.S. Congress to pass a pro-independence bill by Representative Butter Hare, Senator Henry Hawes, and Senator Bronso Cutting. The Hare-Hawes-Cutting Law provided for a 10-year transition period before the United States would recognize Philippine independence. U.S. President Herbert Hoover did not sign the bill; but both Houses of Congress ratified it. When the Os-Rox Mission presented the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Law to the Philippine Legislature, it was rejected by a the American High Commissioner representing the US president in the country and the Philippine Senate, specifically the provision that gave the U.S. president the right to maintain land and other properties reserved for military use. Manuel Quezon was tasked to head another independence mission to the united States. The Tydings-McDuffie Law In December 1933, Manuel L. Quezon returned to the Philippines from the United States with a slightly amended version of the Hare-Hawes-Cutting bill authored by Senator Milliard Tydings and representative McDuffie. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the new U.S. president, signed it into law on March 24, 1934. The Tydings-McDuffie Act (officially the Philippine Independence Act of the United States Congress; Public Law 73-127) or more popularly known as the The Tydings-McDuffie Law provided for the establishment of the Commonwealth government for a period of ten years preparatory to the granting of Independence

Japanese Occupation of the Philippines During Word War II On December 8, 1941, Japan invaded the Philippines. Clark Air Base in Pampanga was first attacked and also Nichols Field outside Manila was attacked, then on December 22, The Japanese forces landed at the Lingayen Gulf and continued on to Manila. General Douglas MacArthurdeclared Manila an open city on the advice of commonwealth President Manuel L. Quezon to avoid its destruction. Manila was occupied by the Japanese on January 2, 1942. MacArthur retreated with his troops to Bataan while the commonwealth government withdrew to Corregidor island before proceeding to the United States. The joint American and Filipino soldiers in Bataan finally surrendered on April 9, 1942. MacArthur escaped to Corregidor then proceeded to Australia. The 76,000 captured soldiers were forced to embark on the infamous "Death March" to a prison camp more than 100 kilometers north. An estimated

10,000 prisoners died due to thirst, hunger and exhaustion. The Huks

one of the main objectives of the KALIBAPI, but still Japanese failed to gain the trust of the Filipinos. Gen. Douglas MacArthur Returns

In the midst of fear and chaos, some farmers of Pampanga banded together and created local brigades for their protection. Luis Taruc, Juan Feleo, Castro Alejandrino, and other leaders of organized farmers held a meeting in February 1942 in Cabiao, Nueva Ecija. In that meeting, they agreed to fight the Japanese as a unified guerrilla army. Another meeting was held the following month, where in representatives from Tarlac, Pampanga and Nueva Ecija threshed out various details regarding their organization, which they agreed to call "Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon" or HUKBALAHAP. Taruc was chosen to be the Leader of the group, with Alejandrino as his right hand man. The members were simply known as Huks! The Philippine Executive Commission In accordance the instructions of President Manuel Quezon to Jorge Vargas, the Filipino officials in Manila were told to enter into agreements and compromises with the Japanese to mitigate the sufferings of the people under the iron-clad rule of the Japanese. On January 23, 1942 the Philippine Executive Commission was established, with Vargas as chairman. the following was appointed as department heads: Benigno Aquino, Sr., interior; Antonio de las Alas, finance; Jose P. Laurel, justice; Claro M. Recto, education, health, and public welfare; and Quintin Paredes, public works and communication; Jose Yulo was named Chief Justice of the Supreme court. The following month, an election was held for members of The Preparatory Commission for Philippine Independence (PCPI). The purpose of PCPI is to draw up a constitution for a free Philippines. Jose Laurel became its head. Against the will of the PCPI delegates the new Constitution was finalized on July 10, 1943. Two months later it was ratified by the KALIBAPI, which was the only political party allowed to exist at that time. KALIBAPI is the acronym for "Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas". The new constitution, which noticeably lacked a bill of rights contained 12 articles lifted from the 1935 constitution that fitted the wishes of the Japanese. It was meant to be in effect only temporarily, while the Philippines still in chaos. After the war, a new constitution would again be drafted for the new Philippine Republic. The Second Republic On September 20 1943, the KALIBAPI- under the leadership of its director general, Benigno Aquino Sr. held a party convention to elect 54 members of the National Assembly. The Assembly was actually made up of 108 members; but half of this number was composed of incumbent governors and city mayors. Jose P. Laurel was elected as president of the second republic (the first republic was Aguinldo's Malolos Republic) and both Benigno Aquino Sr. & Ramon Avancena as a vicepresidents. The new republic was inaugurated on October 14 1943 on the front steps of the legislative building in Manila. The Philippine flag was hoisted as the national anthem was played. Meanwhile, the Japanese started using propaganda to gain the trust and confidence of Filipinos who refused to cooperate with them. They hung giant posters and distribute their materials that contains such slogans as "the Philippines belong to the Filipinos." they also used newspapers, movies, and others to publicize the same idea. Promoting Japanese propaganda was

From Australia, Allied forces slowly advanced toward the Philippines, bombing several Japanese strongholds until they regained control of areas previously occupied by the enemy. The bombings began on September 21 1944, and barely a month later, on October 20, 1944, the Americans landed triumphantly in Leyte. Once a shore, General Douglas MacArthur said; "I have Returned." Sergio Osmea was Part of MacArthurs group. He had taken over Manuel L. Quezon as president after the latter past way at Saranac Lake, New York on August 1944. From October 23 to October 26, 1944 the Americans engaged Japanese forces in the Battle of Leyte Gulf. Consider as the biggest naval battle in World History, this historic encounter almost destroyed the entire Japanese fleet and rendered in incapable of further attack. The US victory in the battle of Leyte Gulf is said to have signaled the beginning of Philippine liberation from the Japanese. By mid-December, the American soldiers had reached Mindoro. The Japanese, meanwhile, secured other area where their thought other American units would land. Nevertheless, US liberation forces successfully docked at Lingayen Gulf on January 9, 1945. The news alarmed the Japanese. Lt. Gen. Tomoyuki Yamashita, supreme commander of the Japanese troops in Manila, mobilize his kamikazes (Japanese suicide pilots); but they failed to stop Americans. The Japanese also deployed MAKAPILI units to defend Manila but neither succeeds. On December 8, 1944, President Laurel and his cabinet moved to Baguio upon orders of Yamashita, who is also known as the tiger of Malaya. The Japanese forces retreated to Yamashita line a jungle battlefront stretching along the Sierra Madre Mountains from Antipolo, Rizal to Appari Cagayan. The Japanese in Manila would not give up easily. In fact, it took 3 weeks of intense fighting before they finally surrendered on February 23. Gen. MacArthur continued to liberate other parts of the country. And finally proclaim general freedom from the Japanese on July 4, 1945. Continue to Philippine Independence from the Americans.

Philippine Independence from the Americans Freedom is among the rights that Filipinos did not enjoy during the Spanish rule. It was a struggle for the Philippine revolutionary leaders to achieve independence from foreign power. The Filipinos fought countless battles, resulting to bloody revolutions since the 19th century under the Spanish government. The Filipino forces were persistent to achieve independence for the country. In 1896, the Philippine Revolution started, which incriminated Jose Rizalresulting to his execution on allegations of treason and rouse the Katipunan in Cavite to organize in two groups creating conflict. At the break of the Spanish-American war, the Filipino leaders saw the war between Spain and America as an opportunity to free the Philippines from the claws of the Spanish colony; hence, supported the United States with military forces including indispensable intelligence. America summoned Aguinaldo to return to the Philippines from exile

and with confidence towards the pleasant US relations, Aguinaldo anticipated independence from Spain with the help of America. Returning to the Philippines and leading the Filipino troops to hold the fort of Luzon with success except for Intramuros, Aguinaldo declared the Philippine Independence from the Spanish colonial government on June 12, 1898 under the First Philippine Republic. The Philippine National flag was held up, and swayed proudly before the joyous cries of the Filipinos by 4:20 in the afternoon at General Aguinaldos balcony of his mansion in Kawit, Cavite. Albeit, the fact that Spain lost the battle to the Filipino troops, Admiral George Dewey schemed to convince the Spaniards to surrender to America. It was an act of betrayal by America that no sooner short-lived the celebration of Philippine independence when America annexed the Spanish colonies to include the Philippines. The Filipino forces were determined to continue their efforts against imperialist power leading to a bloody fight against the American Army in February 1899 when America refused to grant Philippines the long-sought Independence. The Philippine-American War erupted in February 4, 1899 in the struggle of the Filipinos for freedom conflicting with the interests of America to become a world power by establishing overseas empire to include the Philippines under the US imperial rule. The Filipino forces applied conventional, then guerrilla tactics in fighting against the US army as they become fully aware, under the leadership of General Emilio Aguinaldo, of the strength of the US military heavily equipped with superior firearms.Although, General Aguinaldo was captured in 1901, the insurgencies, particularly by the Muslim Moros in the Southern part of the Philippines continued. Nonetheless, America was preparing Philippines for independence that started with the creation of civil government. The US President Woodrow Wilson promised Philippine Independence and started to entrust authority over Filipino leaders with the establishment of the Philippine Senate by a democratic election. The Philippine Commonwealth, with elected President Manuel L. Quezon, was instituted in 1935 under the TydingsMcDuffie Act that granted Philippines its self-government, although the legislative power was not absolute, which still required approval from the US President. At that time, it was a good start towards the eventual Philippine Independence. When the events were gearing towards Philippine independence as promised by the United States of America, the Japanese invasion and occupation bolstered in a surprise. Bataan was surrendered to the Japanese but President Quezon along with Osmea fled to America. World War II broke out that created immense damage to Filipinos with roughly about one million casualties. After the war, Manuel Roxas was elected President in April 1946 for the independent Second Republic of the Philippines. In a formal declaration, the American flag was lowered in Luneta, Manila and raised the Filipino National flag in tri-color of red, white, and blue looked up by proud Filipinos. Finally, independence was granted to the Republic of the Philippines dated July 4, 1946. The National anthem of the Philippines was played next to Americas. It was indeed a moment of liberating glory, for all Filipinos after pools of blood were shed in many revolutions. July 4, however, holds less inspiration for the Filipinos according to the elected President of the Republic of the Philippines in 1961,Diosdado Macapagal. Macapagal believes that the June 12, 1896 declaration of the Philippine independence by General Emilio Aguinaldo brings to memory the heroes of the revolution and therefore, Philippine independence is best commemorated in honor of the Filipino revolutionary heroes. Hence, President Macapagal changed the date of celebration of the Philippine independence from

July 4 to June 12, which the Filipinos celebrate each year up to this time. Continue to The Philippines During Martial Law. The Philippines During Martial Law Proclamation of Martial Law: On September 21, 1972, President Ferdinand E. Marcos placed the Philippines under Martial Law. The declaration issued under Proclamation 1081 suspended the civil rights and imposed military authority in the country. Marcos defended the declaration stressing the need for extra powers to quell the rising wave of violence allegedly caused by communists. The emergency rule was also intended to eradicate the roots of rebellion and promote a rapid trend for national development. The autocrat assured the country of the legality of Martial Law emphasizing the need for control over civil disobedience that displays lawlessness. Marcos explained citing the provisions from the Philippine Constitution that Martial Law is a strategic approach to legally defend the Constitution and protect the welfare of the Filipino people from the dangerous threats posed by Muslim rebel groups and Christian vigilantes that places national security at risk during the time. Marcos explained that martial law was not a military takeover but was then the only option to resolve the countrys dilemma on rebellion that stages national chaos threatening the peace and order of the country. The emergency rule, according to Marcoss plan, was to lead the country into what he calls a New Society. Marcos used several events to justify martial law. Threat to the countrys security was intensifying following the reestablishment of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) in 1968. Supporters of CPPs military arm, the New Peoples Army, also grew in numbers in Tarlac and other parts of the country. The alleged attempt to the life of then Minister of Defense Juan Ponce Enrile gave Marcos a window to declare Martial Law. Marcos announced the emergency rule the day after the shooting incident. Marcos also declared insurgency in the south caused by the clash between Muslims and Christians, which Marcos considered as a threat to national security. The Muslims were defending their ancestral land against the control of Christians who migrated in the area. The minority group organized the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) in Malaysia and pushed for the autonomy of Mindanao from the national government. The move was initially supported by most Filipinos and was viewed by some critics as a change that solved the massive corruption in the country. Martial law ceased the clash between the executive and legislative branches of the government and a bureaucracy characterized by special interest. Marcos started to implement reforms on social and political values that hindered effective modernization. To match the accomplishments of its Asian neighbors, Marcos imposed the need for self-sacrifice for the attainment of national welfare. His reforms targeted his rivals within the elite depriving them of their power and patronage but did not affect their supporters (US Library of Congress, Martial Law and the Aftermath). Thirty-thousand opposition figures including Senator Benigno Aquino, journalists, student and labor activists were detained at military compounds under the Presidents command (Proclamation 1081 and Martial Law). The army and the Philippine Constabulary seized weapons and disbanded private armies controlled by prominent politicians and other influential figures (Proclamation 1081 and Martial Law). Marcos took control of the legislature and closed the Philippine Congress (Proclamation 1081 and Martial Law). Numerous media outfits were either closed down or operated under tight control (Proclamation 1081 and Martial Law). Marcos also

allegedly funnelled millions of the countrys money by placing some of his trusted supporters in strategic economic positions to channel resources to him. Experts call this the crony capitalism. The deterioration of the political and economic condition in the Philippines triggered the decline of support on Marcos plans. More and more Filipinos took arms to dislodge the regime. Urban poor communities in the countrys capital were organized by the Philippine Ecumenical Council for Community and were soon conducting protest masses and prayer rallies. These efforts including the exposure of numerous human rights violations pushed Marcos to hold an election in 1978 and 1981 in an aim to stabilize the countrys chaotic condition. Marcos, in both events, won the election; however, his extended term as President of the Republic of the Philippines elicited an extensive opposition against his regime. Social unrest reached its height after former Senator Benigno Aquino was murdered. The incident sent thousands of Filipinos to the streets calling for Marcos removal from post. Turning again to his electoral strategy, Marcos held a snap election in 1986 but what he hoped will satisfy the masses only increased their determination to end his rule that seated Corazon Aquino, widow of Benigno Aquino, as President of the Philippines ousting Marcos from Malacaang Palace and ending the twenty-one years of tyrant rule. EDSA People Power Revolution The Philippines was praised worldwide in 1986, when the socalled bloodless revolution erupted, called EDSA People Powers Revolution. February 25, 1986 marked a significant national event that has been engraved in the hearts and minds of every Filipino. This part of Philippine history gives us a strong sense of pride especially that other nations had attempted to emulate what we have shown the world of the true power of democracy. The true empowerment of democracy was exhibited in EDSA by its successful efforts to oust a tyrant by a demonstration without tolerance for violence and bloodshed. Prayers and rosaries strengthened by faith were the only weapons that the Filipinos used to recover their freedom from President Ferdinand Marcoss iron hands. The Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA) stretches 54 kilometers, where the peaceful demonstration was held on that fateful day. It was a day that gathered all Filipinos in unity with courage and faith to prevail democracy in the country. It was the power of the people, who assembled in EDSA, that restored the democratic Philippines, ending the oppressive Marcos regime. Hence, it came to be known as the EDSA People Powers Revolution. he revolution was a result of the long oppressed freedom and the life threatening abuses executed by the Marcos government to cite several events like human rights violation since the tyrannical Martial Law Proclamation in 1972. In the years that followed Martial Law started the suppressive and abusive yearsincidents of assassination were rampant, particularly those who opposed the government, individuals and companies alike were subdued. The Filipinos reached the height of their patience when former Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Sr. was shot and killed at the airport in August 21, 1983, upon his return to the Philippines from exile in the United States. Aquinos death marked the day that Filipinos learned to fight. His grieving wife, Corazon Cojuangco-Aquinoshowed the Filipinos and the world the strength and courage to claim back the democracy that Ferdinand Marcos arrested for his personal caprice. Considering the depressing economy of the country, Ninoys death further intensified the contained resentment of the Filipinos. In the efforts to win back his popularity among the

people, Marcos held a snap presidential election in February 7, 1986, where he was confronted with a strong and potent opposition, Corazon Aquino. It was the most corrupt and deceitful election held in the Philippine history. There was an evident trace of electoral fraud as the tally of votes were declared with discrepancy between the official count by the COMELEC (Commission on Elections) and the count of NAMFREL (National Movement for Free Elections). Such blatant corruption in that election was the final straw of tolerance by the Filipinos of the Marcos regime.The demonstration started to break in the cry for democracy and the demand to oust Marcos from his seat at Malacaang Palace. The revolt commenced when Marcos' Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile and the Armed Forces Vice-Chief of Staff command of Fidel V. Ramos, both withdrew their support from the government and called upon the resignation of then President Marcos. They responsibly barricaded Camp Crame and Camp Aguinaldo and had their troops ready to combat against possible armed attack organized by Marcos and his troops. The Catholic Church represented by Archbishop Jaime Cardinal Sin along with the priests and nuns called for the support of all Filipinos who believed in democracy. Radyo Veritasaired the message of Cardinal Sin that summoned thousands of Filipinos to march the street of EDSA. It was an empowering demonstration that aimed to succeed peacefully with the intervention of faith. Nuns kneeled in front of tanks with rosaries in their hands and uttering their prayers. With the power of prayers, the armed marine troops under the command of Marcos withdrew from the site. Celebrities expressed their support putting up a presentation to showcase the injustices and the anomalies carried out by the Marcos administration. Finally, in the morning of February 25, 1986, Corazon Aquino took the presidential oath of office, administered by the Supreme Court Associate Justice Claudio Teehankee at Club Filipino located in San Juan. Aquino was proclaimed as the 11th President of the Republic of the Philippines. She was the first lady president of the country. People rejoiced over their victory proving the success of the EDSA Peoples Power Revolution, the historic peaceful demonstration. Although in 2001, there was an attempt to revive People Power in the efforts to oust then President Joseph Estrada, it was not as strong as the glorifying demonstration in 1986. The bloodless, People Power Revolution in EDSA renewed the power of the people, strengthened the meaning of democracy and restored the democratic institutions of government. Continue to the 5th Republic (1986) up to the Present Time. Fifth Republic (1986Present Time) The worlds eye was on the Philippines after it successfully toppled down almost a decade of dictatorship rule through a peaceful demonstration tagged as the EDSA Peoples Power Revolution. After the widowed wife of former Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Sr. was elected into office, President Corazon Cojuangco-Aquino faced both economic and political problems of the country. Her rule as president began on February 25, 1986 after taking oath at the Club Filipino in San Juan, Metro Manila. She was the 11th president of the Philippines and the first woman to become president of the country. She was tasked to put together a nation devastated by the rule of her predecessor Ferdinand E. Marcos. It was not an easy task since the countrys economic condition was in its worse state since 1982. Filipinos living below the poverty line is alarmingly increasing in number. Aquino also struggled with Marcos

supporters in the Armed Forces of the Philippines who attempted to remove her from power. The group of soldiers, who called themselves members of the Reform the Armed Forces Movement or RAM, staged seven coup attempts against the Aquino administration. The attack held in August 28, 1987, which killed at least 53 people and injured more than 200 others, was the most serious attack the government experienced. These attacks worsened the economic condition of the Philippines as investors became wary about Aquinos ability to rebuild the country. TheInternational Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and the United States also forced the government to fulfill its obligations to pay an estimated $27.2 billion worth of debt Aquino inherited from the previous administration. To be eligible for IMFs rehabilitation programs, Aquino instigated reforms towards a freer economy. These reforms ended monopolization of the agricultural industry of the country, reduced tariffs and lifted import controls in the Philippines. The political condition of the country at that time did not look any better. To resolve the issue, Aquino commissioned a referendum that would be the framework for the new government. It tackled various issues from shifting the government from presidential to parliamentary, to economic reforms involving foreign participations. Due to its immediate necessity, details of the referendum were left to the legislature to determine. Released in February 1987, the new charter easily won the approval of the public. The rule that followed Aquinos presidency established steadier governance of the Philippines. Fidel V. Ramos took office in 1992 and immediately worked on the countrys recovery. Ramos initiated the Social Reform Agenda or SRA that was geared towards alleviating poverty. The Gross National Product reached an average of 5 percent annually, which translated to a growth in the average family income of the Filipinos. He undertook the implementation of Build-OperateTransfer (BOT) law which improved public infrastructure and deregulated several industries to help liberalize the economy. The country also saw improvements in its relations to secessionist Moro Islamic Liberation Front or MNLF as Ramos achieved a peace agreement with the group. Ramos bagged the first UNESCO Peace Award yet given to an Asian for this effort. He also came to be known as the Centennial President for his successful supervision of the 100th anniversary of the countrys independence from the Spanish rulecelebrated in June 12, 1998. A film actor, Joseph Ejercito Estrada, succeeded Ramos as president in 1998. He was the previous mayor in the municipality of San Juan, Metro Manila and vice president of Ramos, Estrada was placed into office by a wide margin of vote. He gained support in the election for his promise to begin a pro-poor administration that his predecessors failed to promote in their respective platforms. This support dwindled down as his administration was rattled by corruption. Critics accused him of failing to live up to his promises due to the resurfacing of cronyism in the government. Efforts made by Ramos to resolve political conflicts in Mindanao were also threatened as Estrada launched an all-out war against the Islamic group in Mindanao called the Moro Islamic Liberation Front in March 21, 2000. In the same year, Ilocos Sur Governor Luis Chavit Singson accused Estrada of receiving Php 400 million from him as payoff from illegal gambling profits. The revelation led to Estradas impeachment in November 12, 2000 and his ouster from presidency in January 20, 2001. Then Supreme Court Chief Justice Hilario Davide, Jr. swore-in vice-president, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo as president the same day.

The Philippine Constitution allows the president to ran for a second term if he/she was sworn into office by succession and served in less than 4 years, otherwise the president is limited to one term of office. Arroyo was qualified to ran for another term. Indeed, she did. In the 2004 Philippine General Election, Arroyo declared her presidential candidacy and she was seated into office for the second time. Arroyo promoted a Stronger Republic under her rule, which was geared toward vigorous economic reforms. However, her administration was bombarded with several controversies and impeachment attempts in the last five years. Hence, as she announced her disinterest to extend her term or run for office in the 2010 elections, critics expressed their apprehensions. Once, Arroyo had broken the peoples trust when she declared that she was not interested to run in the 2004 elections. Protesters express their disappointment every so often rallying at the streets calling against the Charter Change (Cha-Cha) and now the Constituent Assembly (Con-Ass), which is currently promoted by the Arroyos supporters in Congress when the Cha-Cha attempt has become improbable receiving critical disapproval. The representatives in the lower house of Congress were said to have made the move independently to pass the Con-Ass however, many are skeptic of the true agenda of the Arroyo administration as the 2010 election countdown nears. Supporters of Arroyo are pushing for a change of government from a Presidential to a Parliamentary form. This will enable Arroyo run for parliament and become prime minister. On the May 10, 2010 general elections, Arroyo run and won for congresswoman for the 2nd district of Pampanga province. Making her the first president to hold a lower office after occupying the highest office of the land. On her first day as congresswoman, Arroyo filed a resolution calling for Congress to hold a Constitutional Convention to amend the constitution. On June 30, 2010, Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III, a.k.a Noynoy Aquino, was proclaimed as president of the republic together with Jejomar Cabauatan Binay as vicepresident.