You are on page 1of 29

EPORTING AND COMMUNICATION OF RESEARCH FINDINGS Research Report

The purpose writing research report is to document the research findings, to share the results with other interested groups, and apply the results in practice. It is a challenging job and requires imagination, creativity, and resourcefulness. The research report aims at telling the readers the problem identified, investigated and methods adopted, the results found and the conclusion reached.

The highest standard of correct usage of word and sentences is expected. The outcome of the study should be presented in a way that the consumer should understand the findings. The results can be presented through written word or through various kinds of pictorial displays. Graphs and tables are the two common methods of communicating results. Graphs are generally used to describe the data in question, and tables are used to summarize the findings (Brockopp &Hastings-Tolsma, 2003). Criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of both graphs and tables include the clarity of the presentation, its conciseness, and its adequacy in conveying appropriate information (Wilson, 1987, p.295). Bar graph, histogram, frequency polygon, pie diagram, pictorial charts are the common methods of displaying results diagrammatically. Tables are generally used to summarize the meaningful results of a study. They should be numbered in sequence and are referred with in the text. Tables should be accompanied by factual, precise description of their meaning. Scientific writing is the presentation of a set of reasons in support of a thesis, or proposition. The format suggested by the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, can be consulted for detailed matters of style (web address). A scientific report requires the same attention to good writing as does any other form of written persuasion. Key concepts are clarity, brevity, and felicity. Authors should be careful to avoid sexism and ethnic bias. References are cited in the text by author name and date of publication. Harvard style and Vancouver style are the commonly used methods of writing references. The reference list contains an entry for each work cited in the text, and no others. The parts of a paper are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. title, authors and their affiliations, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion, references, footnotes,

10. tables,

11. figure captions, and 12. figures.

The title should convey the main idea of the paper in a few words. The authors of the paper are listed in the order of the importance of their contributions. The abstract is a brief summary of the paper and includes elements from the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections. The introduction states the general problem the paper deals with, discusses the relevant literature, and states what the paper will contribute to the understanding of the problem. The method section tells what you did in the experiment in such a way that another person can evaluate the validity of the conclusions of the study and can repeat it in all essentials. The method section describes the subjects, apparatus, design, and procedure. The results section describes the results and their statistical analysis. Graphs and tables are described here. The discussion section interprets the results and relates them to the literature. It states the contributions that the study makes to the understanding of the problem posed in the introduction, and it deals with any weakness in the data or any qualifications of the conclusions.

Communicating Research Results

Scientific communication takes place in many ways, including archival publication in scholarly journals and informal communication among groups of scientists, known as invisible colleges. Research outcome needs to be shared with other professionals, regardless of the studys outcome. The investigator can present the findings in an oral format (conference presentations) or written format (journals or scientific publications). Nursing is a relatively a new profession and the body of knowledge needs to be developed. Publication of research findings in international journals makes the findings of the study available to professionals of other countries. The investigator should decide the appropriate format for presenting the findings. The steps in the publication process include choosing the journal, submitting the final manuscript along with a cover letter, revising the paper to account for reviewers comments, resubmitting the paper, reviewing the copyedited manuscript and reading the page proofs.

Oral presentations include most of the elements of the written paper in specified format. Practicing the talk before a sympathetic audience, preparing good visual aids, and speaking from an outline rather than reading the paper directly are keys to a good presentation.Poster presentations are an increasingly popular form of communicating results at scientific meetings.

The various parts of the paper are placed on a vertical surface in such a way that they can be read from a distance of several feet. The author remains near the poster to discuss the results with passersby.

Research Utilization

Nursing research contribute positively to the health care system.

Research utilization is the process of transferring research knowledge into practice, thus facilitating an innovative change in practice or the verification of existing practice protocols. Knowledge about published materials and what other people have tried is vital when exploring solutions to a problem. To enhance the integration of research and practice, nurses must have an organizational environment to in which enquiry and critical thinking are valued. Research utilization is helps in improving nursing practice by providing process by answers to clinical questions, evaluating effectiveness of the nursing actins, testing theories relevant to nursing practice and expanding nursing knowledge (Lanuza,1999)

Chapter 2: Scientific Paper Writing /Written Communication Introduction Whether writing a report, scientific literature review, or preparing a manuscript for publication in a major scientific journal, the quality of the final product is a reflection of the amount of work put into its preparation. In addition to our scientific background and creative abilities, a basic knowledge of the mechanics of scientific paper writing is essential. An overall rule of thumb is to remember the "3 C's": Conciseness, Completeness and Clarity. Each term is related to the others. For example, if one is concise, one is also clear. Clarity brings about understanding, and a total understanding is enhanced by the completeness of the discussion. Generally, a good paper answers the following questions: 1. WHY? Why was the research undertaken? Why is it important? 2. HOW? How was the "why" answered? How was the research carried out? 3. WHAT? What was found? What questions were answered? What questions or problems remain to be answered? This provides a working format around which the finished product is constructed. The actual section titles and content will vary depending on the specific type of the paper you are preparing. This chapter will give you step-by-step guidance on the basics of communicating your research findings in writing with particular emphasis to scientific paper writing for the purpose of publication. The basic principles, however, are applicable to writing any research reports not intended for publication. This chapter will also discuss important tips related to publishing your work. Aim The main purpose of this chapter is to enable health care professionals to communicate their research findings in writing more effectively. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com Communication 10 Learning Objectives By the end of this module, the trainee should: Be able to define a scientific paper Understand the basic sections of a scientific paper. Learn the purpose and organization of the various sections and the elements that Oral and Written

comprise them. Understand principles and styles of writing in public health and epidemiology. Appreciate the importance of quality in writing a scientific paper. Learn about effective strategies for dealing with requests of journal editors and reviewers /assessors. Be aware of ethics in publication Be aware of authorship responsibilities Be aware of the publication process Content 2.1. What is a Scientific Paper? A scientific paper is a written and published report describing original research results. The format of a scientific paper has been defined by centuries of developing tradition, editorial practice, scientific ethics and the interplay with printing and publishing services. The authors purpose is to inform an audience or others [scientists] about an important issue and to document the particular approach they used to investigate that issue. Scientific papers should be reviewed by scientific peers and published in a primary journal. In other words, a scientific publication is: i) the first publication of original research results, ii) in a form whereby others can repeat the experiments and test the conclusions, iii) in a peer reviewed publication (a journal or other source document) which is readily available within the scientific community.

Chapter 3: Oral Communication /Presentation Techniques


Content

Introduction Effective oral communication is an important but often overlooked and under practiced skill in scientific and academic endeavours. There are very few people having a natural talent for delivering outstanding presentations. On the other hand, foresight, hard work, and practice can carry most of the rest of us into the very good level of presentation skills. The purpose of this chapter is to provide basic strategies for presenting technical and scientific information in an oral presentation. This chapter is written as an introductory guide and a general reference for use when preparing a presentation. It contains useful tips and principles which can be applied whenever you are faced with making a public presentation. Aim The main purpose of this chapter is to enable health care professionals to orally communicate their research findings more effectively.

The ability to make a good presentation is as crucial as the ability to write effectively,

as it is one of the commonest ways of disseminating your research findings to a variety of audiences. Clear organization is vital to effective speaking to lead listeners mentally from where they are at the beginning of the presentation to where they are supposed to be at the end. The following steps will provide you tips that help you deliver good presentation. 3.1 Initial planning This is where you begin to tailor the talk to the situation, and for that reason this stage is very important for successful oral presentation. If the environment and audience are unfamiliar to you, this is a critical stage. It is important to begin this stage early the more lead time there is, the more time there will be to think about This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com Communication 28 good approaches to the topic and the more interesting and substantial the presentation will be. 3. Preparation After a clear idea is obtained on the purpose of the presentation and the audience, the next step is to start preparing what needs to be said and how. Unlike a conversation or a written document, a presentation is a one-shot attempt to make a point. For this reason, it is essential that presentations are well constructed and tidy, and that points be presented to the audience both in a logical sequence and unambiguously. This all takes a fair amount of time of preparation. So, start early! Determining the purpose of your presentation Oral and Written

The purpose of the presentation must be conceived in terms of the audiences perspective. The purpose need to be clearly evident at the beginning of the presentation. By knowing what they will be hearing from the beginning of the presentation, the audience can more easily focus their attention on the content presented and see connections between parts of the presentation. Main purposes of a presentation To instruct To inform/educate To persuade 3.2 Organizing the presentation The primary purpose of a presentation is to provide information which the audience will then remember at a later date. Detailed referencing of material or extensive review of data wont be remembered and becomes boring. A question that is often asked at this stage is Is this enough material for the presentation? It is important to develop a realistic view of how much material is appropriate, and the ability to be selective and eliminate non-essential material. These abilities are important factors in determining the quality of the presentation. Generally, oral presentations have an introduction that ends with the main point and a preview of the rest of the presentation, a main body, and a conclusion. These sections of a presentation need to fit together, and be linked clearly. A poorly structured talk will confuse and frustrate the audience

Learning Links www.rmit.edu.au/studyandlearningcentre/ February 2007 Ph: 9925 3600 Writing a research report A research report can be based on practical work, research by reading or a study of an organisation or industrial/workplace situation. 1.Preparing Identify the purpose/the aims of the research/research question. Identify the audience. lecturer/supervisor/company/organization management/staff. The amount of background included will vary depending on the knowledge of the audience. 2. Collecting and organising information There are two main sources of information depending on the research task: 1. Reading theory and other research 2. Research experiments, data collection questionnaires, surveys, observation, interviews. Organise and collate the information in a logical order. Make sure you record the bibliographic information of your reading as you go along. See Quick Tips on mind mapping techniques. 3. Planning Before writing the report, prepare a detailed plan in outline form. Consider the following: Logical organisation Information in a report must be organized logically. Communicate the main ideas followed by supporting details and

examples. Start with the more important or significant information and move on to the least important information. Headings Use headings and suitable sub headings to clearly show the different sections. In longer reports the sections should be numbered. 4. Writing the report 1. Draft the report from your detailed plan. 2. Do not worry too much about the final form and language, but rather on presenting the ideas coherently and logically. 3. Redraft and edit. Check that sections contain the required information and use suitable headings, check ideas flow in a logical order and remove any unnecessary information. 4. Write in an academic style and tone. Use a formal objective style. Generally avoid personal pronouns; however, some reports based on your own field experience or work placement can be reflective the first person can be used. For example, I observed... If in doubt about this, check with the lecturer.Learning Links www.rmit.edu.au/studyandlearningcentre/ February 2007 Ph: 9925 3600

Section Purpose Title page Title of report Student name/student number Course/subject

Date due Table of contents Shows the sections of the report Executive summary Gives a summary of the whole report Outlines -purpose, research method, findings, main conclusions and recommendations Mainly past tense Written last Introduction Outlines context, background and purpose Defines terms and sets limits of the research The reader/audience can easily identify what, how, why (Mainly uses past tense and can be written later although presented first) Methodology Explains how research was done and outlines how the data was collected Results/Findings may be combined Presents findings of the research Facts only - no interpretation Uses graphic form (eg. tables & graphs) Discussion Presents an interpretation and evaluation of the results. Analyses results - draws together different aspects of the findings, findings of other studies and refers to literature Conclusion may be combined

Brief statement of what was found Recommendations Suggest suitable changes/solutions Appendix Attachments of additional information (eg. surveys, questionnaires, glossary etc) References All references used Sections of a research report The table below summarises the general headings often used in research or laboratory reports. Check with your lecturer on the headings required for your assignments. NB Further headings and subheadings are content based and are particular to the individual report. Writing a research report or Abstract

purposes of writing research report

Reports communicate information which has been compiled as a result of research and analysis of data and of issues. Reports can cover a wide range of topics, but usually focus on transmitting information with a clear purpose, to a specific audience. Good reports are documents that are accurate, objective and complete. They should also be well-written, clearly structured and expressed in a way that holds the reader's attention and meets their expectations. The true value of the research may be assessed through a report since the written report may be the "only tangible product of hundreds of hours of work. Rightly or wrongly, the quality and worth of that work are judged by the quality of the written report - its clarity, organization and content" (Blake & Bly, 1993: 119). Often reports are structured in a way that reflects the information finding process and the writing up of the findings: that is, summary of the contents, introduction or background, methods, results, discussion, conclusion and/or recommendations. The inclusion of recommendations is one reason why reports are a common form of writing in industry, as the informed recommendations are useful for decision making. The scope and style of reports varies widely. It depends on three key factors: the report's intended audience, the report's purpose

and the type of information to be communicated; for example, technical reports communicate technical information, so the degree of technicality in the report will depend on the reader's familiarity and understanding of technical concepts. At university, you may be required to write several different types of reports. Technical and Business disciplines with an applied focus such as Engineering, Information Technology, Commerce, Accounting and Finance, will set report writing assignments that simulate the process of report writing in industry. Assignments are set in the form of a problem or a case study. The students research the problem, and present the results of the research in a report format to an imaginary client. Field reports are common in disciplines such as Law, Industrial Relations, Psychology, Nursing, History and Education. These types of reports require the student to analyse his or her observations of phenomena or events in the real world in light of theories studied in the course. Examples of field reports are a Court observation report, an observation report of a child or a patient for Developmental psychology or Nursing, a History site report, and a teaching observation report for Education. Scientific reports (also called laboratory reports) are another kind of report. They are common in all the Sciences and Social Sciences. These reports use a standard scientific report format describing methods, results and conclusions to report upon an empirical investigation. A more detailed and extensive type of this report is the research project report for fourth year honours students or research students involved in postgraduate studies. Methods Of writing research report
- you can either use a qualitative or a quantitative method, depending on your subject and personal preference.

- it is the method that you used in your research. QUALITATIVE METHOD: The aim is a complete and detailed description of what you have observed. Your data will be shown in pictures, words and/or objects. It is a subjective method of research due to the researcher's interpretation of events.

QUANTITATIVE METHOD: The aim is to classify features, to count them, and to construct statistics in an attempt to explain your observations. Your data will be shown in the form of numbers and/or statistics. So depending on either you are using qualitative or quantitative methods for your research will change your research method. Your research method will change depending on which method you use, but it will always be an explanation of the organized, systematic way (the method) that you used to find the answer (conclusion) to your question (the aim), but it will be relevant to the subject you are learning. It's basically how you did your research. -Sorry that it's a lot to read, but it's hard to explain without knowing your level of research and what subject it has to do with, so I tried to explain it in a couple of different ways... But I hope that helped.

Apa style of writing research report Running head: SAMPLE FOR STUDENTS 1 Sample APA Paper for Students Interested in Learning APA Style 6th Edition Jeffrey H. Kahn Illinois State University Author Note Jeffrey H. Kahn, Department of Psychology, Illinois State University. Correspondence concerning this sample paper should be addressed to Jeffrey H. Kahn, Department of Psychology, Illinois State University, Campus Box 4620, Normal, Illinois 61790-4620. E-mail: jhkahn@ilstu.edu.SAMPLE FOR STUDENTS 2 Abstract The abstract should be a single paragraph in block format (without paragraph indentation), and the appropriate length depends on the journal to which you are submitting, but they are typically

between 150 and 200 words. (Students should consult their instructor for the recommended length of the abstract.) Section 2.04 of the APA manual (American Psychological Association [APA], 2010) has additional information about the abstract. The abstract is important because many journal readers first read the abstract to determine if the entire article is worth reading. The abstract should describe all four parts of an empirical paper (i.e., Introduction, Method, Results, and Discussion). Consider writing one or two sentences summarizing each part of a paper, and youll have a nice abstract.SAMPLE FOR STUDENTS 3 Sample APA Paper for Students Interested in Learning APA Style Before getting started you will notice some things about this paper. First, everything is double-spaced. Second, margins are 1-inch wide on all sides. Third, there are several headings used throughout to separate different parts of the paper; some of the headings are in bold. Fourth, there is exactly one space after each punctuation mark (except for periods at the end of a sentence, after which there are two spaces). Fifth, the upper left of each page has a running head in all capital letters, and the upper right has the page number. Try to pay attention to all of these details as you look through this paper. Now that those details are out of the way, you should know that this first part of the paper

is called the Introduction section, yet it does not have a heading that actually says Introduction. Instead, the title of the paper is typed at the top of the first page (be sure to center the title, but do not put it in bold). In this section you would often start with a topic paragraph that introduces the problem under study. The importance of the topic should be pretty clear from the first paragraph or two of the Introduction. Section 2.05 of the APA manual (APA, 2010) will help give you some ideas about how to write this. The bulk of the Introduction section is background literature on the topic. Here a literature review is often very helpful to provide a theoretical or empirical basis for the research. Try to provide the reader with enough information on the topic to be able to conclude that the research is important and that the hypotheses are reasonable. Any prior work on the topic would be useful to include here, although prior work that is most directly related to the hypotheses would be of greatest value.SAMPLE FOR STUDENTS 4 Remember to cite your sources often in the Introduction and throughout the manuscript. Articles and books are cited the same way in the text, yet they appear different on the References page. For example, an article by Cronbach and Meehl (1955) and a book by Bandura (1986) are written with the authors names and the year of the publication in parentheses. However, if you

look on the References page they look a little different. Remember that APA style does not use footnotes or anything like that for citations. Two other things about citations are important. When a citation is written inside parentheses (e.g., Cronbach & Meehl, 1959), an ampersand is used between authors names instead of the word and. Second, when citing an authors work using quotations, be sure to include a page number. For example, Rogers (1961) once wrote that two important elements of a helping relationship are genuineness and transparency (p. 37). Notice that the page number is included here. Unless a direct quote is taken from a source, the page number is not included. The last section of the Introduction states the purpose of the research. The purpose can usually be summarized in a few sentences. Hypotheses are also included here at the end of this section. State your hypotheses as predictions (e.g., I predicted that...), and try to avoid using passive tense (e.g., It was predicted that...). You will notice that hypotheses are written in past tense because you are describing a study you have finished. Method The Method section is the second of four main parts of an empirical paper (see Section 2.06 of the APA [2010] manual). (Be aware that some papers are reviews of the literature and

therefore would not have a separate Method section.) There are typically three or four majorSAMPLE FOR STUDENTS 5 subsections in the Method although there can be more. These subsections are separated by headings which are described in sections 3.02 and 3.03 of the APA manual (APA, 2010). Participants This brief section describes the people who participated in your study. (They should be called participants, not subjects, by the way.) Mention the number of participants, the percentage of female and male participants, the mean age (where mean is abbreviated M), and their ethnicity or cultural background. Any other demographic information would be appropriate here. Research Design Experimental studies often have a section in the Method describing the design of the study. Typically the independent variables in the study would be described here. For example, the study might involve a 2-by-2 design with one independent variable being treatment/control conditions and the other independent variable being biological sex. It would be helpful to describe dependent variables in this subsection as well. Measures This section describes the tests or instruments used to collect data. It would be

appropriate to describe any questionnaires that you used. For example, if you used the MarloweCrowne Social Desirability Scale in your research, you may say that the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSD; Crowne & Marlowe, 1960) comprises 33 true-false items that measure social desirability. You would also provide the reader with information regarding the MCSD scores reliability and validity. Do this for each and every measure used in the study. In the event that the purpose of your paper is to develop a new questinnaire, you may wish toSAMPLE FOR STUDENTS 6 describe reliability and validity in the Results section (see below). However, you would only do this for a scale-development project. Procedure This section describes in great detail the data-collection procedures. Describe how participants were recruited, whether they participated alone or in groups, how informed consent or assent was obtained, what they were asked to do, how they were compensated for their participation, etc. It is hard to make this section too detailed. You should describe the procedure in a way that another researcher could conduct the same study (i.e., replicate it) just by reading about the procedure. Results The Results section may be the most difficult to write, at least until you get a little

practice with reporting statistical analyses. This is the section where the results of the data analyses are presented. Section 2.07 in the APA manual (APA, 2010) will help a little bit. Its often helpful to use tables (see Table 1) to help describe your results, especially when you have a lot of data to report, such as means and standard deviations. Table 2 provides another example of a table, this one describing correlations. You may find it helpful to remind the reader of the hypothesis before presenting each result. It is also a good idea to tell the reader what type of data analysis was done (e.g., correlation, ANOVA) before it is presented. State what alpha level you adopted; an alpha level of .05 is the standard. Although you should be sure not to try to interpret or explain your results here, it is appropriate to state whether or not your hypotheses were supported. Just dont try toSAMPLE FOR STUDENTS 7 explain why the hypotheses were or were not supported; thats why you have the Discussion section. Discussion The Discussion is the fourth and final section of the paper. This is the part where you interpret and explain your results. Try to explain why you found what you did in your study. Is it what you predicted? If not, why? You may have to think about your results in a theoretically

meaningful way. Also, how do your findings fit in with previous theory and literature? Are your results consistent or inconsistent with what has been found in the past? If they are inconsistent, how can you explain this? The explanation and interpretation of results will probably be the biggest part of the Discussion. There are at least two additional parts of the discussion. First, include limitations of the study. Describe the ways in which the internal or external validity of the study may have been compromised. Was the sample biased? Were the measures problematic? Think about what you would do different next time if you conducted a similar study. Future research ideas are often discussed when limitations are discussed. Second, describe the implications of your findings to theory and practice. Answer the question, How does my study add to psychological theory? Also, think about practical applications of your findings. Perhaps give some additional directions for future research. When youve done that, you have written a paper in APA style!SAMPLE FOR STUDENTS 8 References American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52, 281-302. doi:10.1037/h0040957 Crowne, C. P., & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 349-354. doi:10.1037/h0047358 Rogers, C. R. (1961). On becoming a person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. SAMPLE FOR STUDENTS 9 Table 1 Sample Table Describing Fake Data Variable A Variable B M SD M SD Men (n = 100) 32.61 8.95 17.08 5.25 Women (n = 80) 33.02 9.17 16.91 5.13 Note. These data were totally made up. They are just presented to give you an idea about how to present information in a table. SAMPLE FOR STUDENTS 10 Table 2 Convergent and Discriminant Validity of Depression Scale Variable Correlation Convergent Validity Self-Esteem .44*

Hopelessness .51** Discriminant Validity Social Desirability .11 Anxiety .22 *p < .05; **p < .01.

Referencing using Vancouver style



About this resource Vancouver style Part 1: In-text citations Part 2: Collating a reference list A sample reference list in Vancouver style Further reading Printable copy of this resource (69 KB)

About this resource


The Vancouver style of referencing is so named because it was first published by the Vancouver Group, which expanded and evolved into the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). ICMJE produces and updates their guidelines for publication, which are known as the Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. These guidelines are available on the ICMJE web site. For referencing formats consistent with the Uniform requirements, users are directed to the sample reference list in the Vancouver style, which is available on the web site of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM). The Vancouver style is largely based on the style NLM uses for its databases. The examples of reference list entries provided in this resource are selected from the sample Vancouver style reference list on the NML web site, updated August 2009. Many more examples are available at the NLM web site. You should always check your unit guide and/or with academic staff (unit chair, lecturer or tutor) to make sure this is the correct style for your unit. Your assignment will present facts and conclusions based on those facts. It is necessary to reference the sources of your information. This establishes the authority of your work and acknowledges the researchers and writers you have drawn on in your paper.

You must reference all material you use from all sources and acknowledge your sources in the body of your paper each time you use a fact, a conclusion, an idea or a finding from someone's work. It is necessary to cite your sources each time you:

reproduce an author's exact words (quote), that is, copy word for word directly from a text use you own wording (summarise or paraphrase) to explain or discuss what someone has said.

If you copy an entire table, chart, diagram or graph or if you take only some of the data contained in such sources, you must provide a reference. Sources such as journals, books, encyclopedias, computer programs and software, information from the internet, reports, newspapers, interviews, radio and television must be cited in the body of your paper and detailed in a reference list at the end. Information from Deakin study guides and readers must also be acknowledged.

Vancouver style
The Vancouver style consists of the following elements: (1) citations in the body of the paper, using consecutive numbers in parentheses. Note that some journals use superscript (raised) numbers rather than numbers in parentheses. (2) a numbered reference list at the end of the paper giving the details of each source referred to. Part 1 of this resource deals with citing sources in the body of the paper. Part 2 deals with how to present reference entries for some of the common types of sources that students are likely to use in their assignments.

Part 1: In-text citations


In-text citations are references provided in the body of a paper to each work cited - books, journal articles, reports, material from the internet and the like. Consecutive numbers (either in parentheses or superscript) are used for the sources cited. The same number is used for a source throughout a paper. This number is determined by the first citation of the source. So, for example, if a work is the fourth source cited in a paper, it will be referred to as (4) or by the superscript number 4 throughout that paper. When two or more references appear at the same point in the text, the relevant numbers are separated by commas, e.g. (4, 7) or hyphen, e.g. (4-7) or .
4-7 4,7

if using superscript. Three or more consecutive citations are joined by a

Reference numbers are usually placed outside full stops and commas, but journals vary in their practice. The example that follows demonstrates the use of in-text citations. It is from the Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals, updated April 2010. An "author" is generally considered to be someone who has made substantive intellectual contributions to a published study, and biomedical authorship continues to have important academic, social, and financial implications.(1) ... In the past, readers were rarely provided with information about contributions to studies from those listed as authors and in acknowledgments.(2) Some journals now request...

Part 2: Collating a reference list


An important purpose of the reference list is to identify the sources cited in the paper so that readers can locate them. The reference list should appear at the end of the paper and provide the full bibliographic information about the sources cited. The list is arranged in numerical order, so readers can go from the number in the body of the paper to the full details of the source.

Initials follow the family names of authors and editors, with no space or full stops between the initials of an author, e.g. Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Commas are used to separate each author's name. Note that 'and' is not used to separate the last two names. Each entry is set flush against the left margin, and the number is followed by a full stop, as in the examples that follow.

Journal article
The following information is included for journal articles: author(s), article title, abbreviated journal title, year, month (if applicable), day (if applicable), volume number, issue number (if applicable), page numbers.

Minimal capitalisation is used for the article title, i.e. only the first word and words that normally would begin with a capital letter are capitalised. Full stops are used after the last author's initials, after the article title, after the abbreviated journal title and at the end of the entry. The date is followed by a semicolon (with no space after it) and the volume number or issue number is followed by a colon (with no space after it). Journal titles should be abbreviated. For the accepted abbreviations, consult the NML web site No punctuation is used in journal abbreviations, except a full stop at the end. Months are abbreviated to the first three letters.

The page range is provided, i.e. the first and last page numbers of articles. The number of digits in the second part of the page range is limited to those needed for clarity, without repeating digits unnecessarily, e.g. 284-7 not 284-287.

One to six authors


For a journal article written by six or fewer authors, provide the names of all the authors. Example: 1. Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7. Note: no 'and' separates the last two names.

Continuous pagination
Many medical journals use continuous pagination, i.e. each issue does not begin at page 1, but the sequence of page numbers continues through all the issues that make up a volume. In journals that use continuous pagination, page numbers are sufficient to indicate the location of articles in volumes. As an option, if a journal carries continuous pagination throughout a volume, the month and issue number may be omitted, as follows. Example: 1. Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:284-7.

More than six authors


For a journal article written by more than six authors, list the first six authors followed by the phrase 'et al' meaning 'and others'. Example: 2. Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002;935(1-2):40-6.

Optional addition of a database's unique identifier


If a database's unique identifier is provided, it can be added at the end of the reference list entry. Example:

1. Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7. PubMed PMID: 12140307.

Organisation as author
For a journal article that lists an organisation (rather than an individual) as an author, provide the name of the organisation in the author position. Example: 3. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):679-86.

Book
When listing a book in a reference list, note the following points:

As for a journal article, for a book written by more than six authors, the names of the first six are provided, followed by the phrase 'et al'. If the author is an organisation, the organisation name is provided in the author position, as for a journal article. Book titles, like journal article titles, use minimal capitalisation. Edition number is provided only for second (or later) editions. Full stops are used after the last author's initials, after the book title, after the edition number (if provided) and at the end of the entry. The city of publication is followed by a colon (with a space after it) and the publisher is followed by a semicolon (with a space after it). A relatively unknown city/place of publication is followed by state or country abbreviation in parentheses, e.g. White Plains (NY).

Personal author(s)
The following information is included, in the following order: author(s), book title, edition number (if not the first), city, publisher, year. Example: 4. Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.

Chapter in a book

In your assignments you may want to refer to an article, report or chapter in an edited book containing contributions by a number of writers. In this instance, you need to acknowledge the author(s) whose work you are citing with a number in parentheses (or a superscript number) at the relevant point in your paper, as you would for journal articles, books and other sources. In the reference list entry you need to give the name of the author(s) you cited plus the chapter title and information about the publication in which the work appears. The following information is included: author(s) cited, chapter title, editor(s), title of the book in which the work appears, city, publisher, year, volume number (if applicable) and page numbers.

Follow the standard format for a book when presenting author, title, city and publisher of the book in which the chapter appears. Minimal capitalisation is used for the chapter title, as for the book title. The word 'In' is used to introduce the book in which the chapter appears. The page range is provided, i.e. the first and last page numbers of the article, limited to those needed for clarity, without repeating digits unnecessarily. Note that the letter p. (for 'page' or 'pages') is used for chapters in books. The letter p. is not used for page numbers of journal articles.

Example: 5. Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.

Newspaper article
For a newspaper article, the following information is provided: author(s) if given, title of article, title of newspaper, year, month, day, section (if applicable), page or pages, column number.

Minimal capitalisation is used for the article title. Maximal capitalisation is used for the newspaper title, i.e. all major words are capitalised. Note the abbreviations: Sect. for section; col. for column; months are abbreviated to the first three letters. The date is followed by a semicolon (with no space after it) and the section is followed by a colon (with no space after it). Section may not always be applicable.

Example:

6. Tynan T. Medical improvements lower homicide rate: study sees drop in assault rate. The Washington Post. 2002 Aug 12;Sect. A:2 (col. 4).

Audiovisual material
For referencing audiovisual material such as audiotapes, videocassettes, slides and films, follow the format for a book and indicate the medium, i.e. the type of material, in square brackets after the title. Example: 7. Chason KW, Sallustio S. Hospital preparedness for bioterrorism [videocassette]. Secaucus (NJ): Network for Continuing Medical Education; 2002.

Electronic material
CD-Rom
For referencing a CD-ROM, follow the format for a book and indicate the medium in square brackets after the title, i.e. [CD -ROM]. Example: 8. Anderson SC, Poulsen KB. Anderson's electronic atlas of hematology [CD-ROM]. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002.

Journal article on the internet


To reference a journal article published on the internet, provide the bibliographic details as for a print journal, with the following additions:

After the abbreviated journal title, add the word 'Internet' in square brackets. Add the date you cited the material, providing year, month (abbreviated) and day in square brackets, with no punctuation marks, followed by a semicolon, e.g. [cited 2002 Aug 12]; After the volume and issue number, provide an indication of the number of pages or the number of screens in square brackets, e.g. [about 1 p.]. Use the phrase 'Available from:' followed by the URL (web address).

Example: 9. Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12];102(6):[about 1 p.]. Available from: http://www.nursingworld.org/AJN/2002/june/Wawatch.htm.

Article with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


If an article has a DOI, this should be provided after the page number details. The number is added after the letters 'doi'. Example: 10. Zhang M, Holman CD, Price SD, Sanfilippo FM , Preen DB, Bulsara MK. Comorbidity and repeat admission to hospital for adverse drug reactions in older adults: retrospective cohort study. BMJ. 2009 Jan 7;338:a2752. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a2752. PubMed PMID: 19129307; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2615549.

Home page/web site


For referencing a home page/web site it is necessary to provide the title of the home page/web site followed by the word 'Internet' in square brackets. Headquarters (city) of the organisation and the name of the organisation should be provided, together with the copyright date or span of dates. The date of update and the date the material was cited should be given in square brackets. The URL is provided after the phrase 'Available from:' Example: 11. Cancer-Pain.org [Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources, Inc.; c2000-01 [updated 2002 May 16; cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.cancer-pain.org/. Note that standards for referencing material from the internet are still being developed. You will see certain variations in the referencing of online materials among journals that use the Vancouver style, just as there are slight differences in their referencing of print sources. It is important to be consistent in referencing sources within a paper, and to maintain as much style consistency as possible between the referencing of print and online sources.

A sample reference list in Vancouver style


References 1. Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:284-7. 2. Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002;935(1-2):40-6. 3. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):679-86.

4. Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA . Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002. 5. Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113. 6. Tynan T. Medical improvements lower homicide rate: study sees drop in assault rate. The Washington Post. 2002 Aug 12;Sect. A:2 (col. 4). 7. Chason KW, Sallustio S. Hospital preparedness for bioterrorism [videocassette]. Secaucus (NJ): Network for Continuing Medical Education; 2002. 8. Anderson SC, Poulsen KB. Anderson's electronic atlas of hematology [CD-ROM]. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002. 9. Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12];102(6):[about 1 p.]. Available from: http://www.nursingworld.org/AJN/2002/june/Wawatch.htm. 10. Zhang M, Holman CD, Price SD, Sanfilippo FM , Preen DB, Bulsara MK. Comorbidity and repeat admission to hospital for adverse drug reactions in older adults: retrospective cohort study. BMJ. 2009 Jan 7;338:a2752. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a2752. PubMed PMID: 19129307; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2615549. 11. Cancer-Pain.org [Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources, Inc.; c2000-01 [updated 2002 May 16; cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.cancer-pain.org/.