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A development project with the aim to: • propose good practices • establish simple criteria • research and develop easy to apply models • present the state of art of prevention and protection of the environment for conducting environmental risk analysis at industrial sites in France.
The complexity of the system
The 4 parts of the method Part 1 • evaluate the harm potential of chemical substances • evaluate the transport potential of a pollution towards the environmental targets Part 2 • estimate the vulnerability of the environmental targets Part 3 • define the principal measures of prevention and protection from accidental environmental pollutions Part 4 .
No ARIA 15.598 .Accidentology:ARIA database http://www. ground and surface waters can give us useful feedback on: • causes and circumstances of accidents • routes of contamination • type of industrial installations and activities • substances implicated • consequences and impact permitting us to evaluate in a first quick approach the danger (frequency&impact) of an industrial site or activity.fr/ The study of previous accidental pollutions of soils.aria.developpement-durable.gouv.
from a ruptured pipeline.The most common routes of contamination • Discharge of fire-fighting water into the aquatic environment • Discharge through the sewage system or cooling water system • Discharge through the rain drainage system • Direct release (e. or a failed valve) • Overfilling of a storage vessel • Release to the atmosphere and then contamination through deposition (particles or rain) • Discharge through the ground). .g.
lakes. sea transport .source Atmosphere Environment: humans plants animals volatilization Soil Unsaturated zone Saturated zone run off infiltration human activities: fishing. farming… target rivers to rivers.
Simplified schema of accidental pollution SOURCE TRANSPORT TRANSPORT TARGET TARGET .
land inclination etc. kids etc.The 3 modules of the method TRANSPORT POTENTIAL (physicochemical properties) HARM POTENTIAL (toxicity. number of species) .) DANGER VULNERABILITY (endangered species.) transport TOPOGRAPHY (distance to water bodies. quantity) source PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES (type of soil. vegetation etc.) KINETICS DAMAGE target IMPACT MAGNITUDE (area affected.
Problems: • interactive relations among the three modules • complexity of physical 2 phase approach: phenomena • diversity of cases preliminary risk analysis • high cost and difficulty of performing an extensive research of the detailed risk analysis • amount of data needed surroundings • domino effects • objective evaluation of the impact How to apply the same method to every case??? .
Hazard identification (SEVESO2 inst.) Preliminary Risk Analysis Basic data over the 3 modules NO RISK ? NOT SURE Detailed Risk Analysis Elaborate data over the 3 modules YES NO RISK ? Cost effective barriers? NO YES YES Possible barriers? YES RISK TRIVIAL NO RISK UNACCEPTABLE ALARP .
Preliminary analysis STEP 1: Source Substance identification Quantity Toxicity Mobility Basic data available NO QSAR possible ? NO ? Detailed analysis YES YES Danger evaluation NO NOT SURE STOP Danger exists? YES perform STEP 2: transport .
Preliminary analysis STEP 2: Transport Step1: Substance data Site properties Soil type Distance to water bodies Natural & artificial barriers Transport potential evaluation NO Data missing ? YES Transport Possible STOP NO ? NOT SURE Detailed analysis YES perform STEP 3: target .
barriers YES Protection prevention possible? NO .Preliminary analysis STEP 3: Target Step 3: Transport data Vulnerability of the environment Identification of area and population touched NO Data missing ? YES STOP NO Impact important ? NOT SURE Detailed analysis YES Apply measures.
soil) •use of available software to model the substance behavior in the environment Detailed analysis . kow. koc. kh.SOURCE • quantity Evaluation of the harm potential with the use of classes of danger ( Seveso legislation) • toxicity • basic physical parameters: volatility. half-life • past accidents involving the substance Protection or • existent methods of post-accidental treatment prevention possibility Preliminary analysis •exact physical and chemical data (Tb. solubility Evaluation of mobility • basic chemical parameters: reactivity(basic products) . radioactivity.) • reaction chains and products with regard to other substances present in the site (factory. viscosity etc. +persistance biodegradability. viscosity.
vegetation. mineral and chemical composition. porosity.Transport • site limits • possible pathways • presence of natural or artificial barriers • distance to water bodies • soil types and basic properties • consider only advection and dispersion of the substance and estimation of the transport distance and time in order of magnitude • exact data on soil properties (permeability. water retention) • data on dispersion and degradation constants and consideration of other physical and also chemical phenomena during the transport • modeling with the use of appropriate software • climatic data over the area Detailed analysis Preliminary analysis .
air.U . potable water quality) • use of the impact evaluation table (E.Target • quick estimation of the human population near the area • quick estimation of fauna and flora around the area • presence of extremely vulnerable populations (Natura 2000) • identification of principal human activities that may be affected from a soil or river pollution (land use. water and groundwater intake quality post-accidental • ways of exposure to the pollution • life conditions • economical estimation of damage and repair costs • societal health effects • time of reconstitution of the area • use of software to model the impact Detailed analysis Preliminary analysis . BARPI) • quick estimation of economical losses • soil.
Frequency evaluation Past accidents in the specific site Past accidents in similar sites Frequency estimation with the use of tables qualitative : EVENT Possible but Very improbable extremely improbable Improbable Probable Very Probable Common semi-quantitative: FREQUENCY CLASS 10-6 10-5 105 10-4 104 10-3 10-2 10-1 101 1 10 (from F-2 to F6) F6 F5 F4 F3 103 F2 102 F1 F0 1 F-1 10 F-2 .
Measures of prevention and protection • Measures designed to prevent risks of leakage (pipeline. vessel rupture etc.) • Measures designed to prevent risks of soil infiltration et run off of pollutants • Measures of preventing the transport of the pollutant towards the target • Protection barriers to limit pollution inside the installation's limits • Treatments for inland waters remediation and pollution control • Methods of soil remediation and pollution control .
Summary PHASE 1: preliminary analysis PHASE 2: detailed analysis COST.EFFECTIVE MEASURES STEP 1 source STOP STEP 2 transport STEP 1 source STOP STEP 2 transport STEP 3 target STEP 3 target STOP .
Tasks still to be done • still simple tools that can be used to estimate the order of magnitude of the transport have to be improved ( equations. indicateurs etc) • need for consequence and danger tables that can be used from every country and every industry .