MICR3011 Notes INTRODUCTION Ancient Greek physicians treated the individual NOT the disease  Blood – heart  Phlegm

– brain  Black bile – spleen  Yellow bile – liver Middle Ages   

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New religious doctrines Causes of disease = visitations from divine providence Great plagues attributed to - Supernatural causes - Influence of undesirable people Increase trade > greater movement of people Crusades + warfare Growth of cities = crowding + lack of sanitation spread of disease - Result: plague, typhus, leprosy common Treatments - Bleeding - Purging - Emetics - Diaphoretics - Stimulation of the nervous system

Renaissance Era  Treatments: chemists used heavy metals - Antimony, mercury - Cure = good luck - Harmful  Operations = great risk of infection - Mortality rate 80% - Pus > normal reaction to surgery  Universities = scientific basis for teaching 17th + 18th Centuries  Changes in religious, political + cultural doctrines (scientific methods accepted)  Surgical + scientific instruments improved - Eg. Microscope (Anton van Leeuwenhoek)  Industrial revolution  Scientific exploration of disease; cleanliness + sanitation  Hospital-trained experts  Common diseases: throat infections, scarlet fever, diphtheria, TB, smallpox  1796 – Jenner’s smallpox vaccine 19th Century   

Cholera in Europe Public Health Services – sewage systems; reticulated water Register of Births, Deaths & Marriages

heavy metals .Keep people in poverty CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY Classical view of Infectious Disease  Bacteria classified as commensals OR pathogens  If microbe DOES NOT CAUSE DISEASE .Signs + symptoms distinctive = effective isolation .Host = carrier .Host is colonised  If microbe CAUSES DISEASE .WHO 10 year global eradication program  Vaccine effective  Required only one administration  Isolation policy for patients until last scab separated Today’s problems  Antimicrobial resistance  Major infection diseases .Commensal = normal flora: present at site without causing pathology  If microbe SOMETIMES CAUSES DISEASE .No other host for virus . tuberculosis + malaria .HIV/AIDS.Sulphonamides . streptomycin Antibiotic resistance developed World War II 1980: Smallpox dead! .Penicillin.Other poxviruses shared antigens .Patients not contagious during incubation period . cause? Study of infectious diseases & chemotherapy Antimicrobial era .Host is infected Staphylococcus aureus  Site as normal flora . Koch Identified tubercle bacillus & cholera Vibrio Basic principles of modern diagnostic microbiology Studied bacteria Investigated human + animal diseases Vaccines Antisepsis  Pasteur -  Lister - Last Century        World War I 1918 influenza pandemic.Single serotype .Dyes.

Colonises GIT .Facultative aerobe .Osteomyelitis (inflammation of bone) .Vagina Beneficial for .Most are ENDOGENOUS .Pyogenic superficial infections .Can spread anal-oral  Beneficial for .Enteric infections .Non-pathogenic strains prime immune system Characteristics of microbe .Competition: space + nutrients .Pneumonia .Meningitis in neonates .Complete haemolysis .Facultative anaerobe .Impetigo .   .Skin > can spread person-to-person .Nose > colonises nose then spreads to skin .UTIs .Enteric = bile tolerant .G+ve clusters .Lactose fermenter  Diseases caused .Strain dependent! .Coagulase +ve .Capsule .Surgical wound infections .Systemic blood infections .Most numerous aerobic microbe in large intestine .Ritter’s disease Escherichia coli  Site as normal flora .Produces vitamin K for human well-being  Characteristics of microbe .Abdominal wound infection .Toxins: exfoliative + enterotoxins (strain specific) Diseases caused .G-ve rod .

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