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page 1 of 2 Up-Dated 01/25/01 HOT TAPPING I.

SCOPE Hot tapping and/or line Plugging is a last resort process required for on-line connections or isolating a piece of equipment or piping system. This procedure covers all hot tapping and/or plugging. Valve packing by tapping and injecting is not included. A connection will be defined as a hot tap on a case by case bases.


PROCEDURE Introduction Hot taps and hot line plugging are permissible "only" as a last resort; i.e., when safety, the time required and/or expense of isolation and decontamination is unreasonable or either of the preceding are less safe. If the facility is a covered process" as defined by OSHA 1910.119, then the sites Management of Change (MOC) Procedure must be followed. If a facility is not a covered process" then an appropriate safety review/audit should be performed prior to the execution of the hot tapping/plugging. A special permit is required for all hot taps according to Safety Procedures, Fire Permits and Vessel Entry/Fire Permits. Checklists (Attachment #3 H/T and Plugging Data Sheet, [7 pages]) are provided to assure pertinent questions are answered and due consideration is given to back-up drills, cutters, etc.


RESPONSIBILITIES Engineering Engineering responsibility includes design of nozzle and its support, type of inspection of the parent wall e.g. radio graph and/or ultra-sonic inspection, welding method and procedure, valve selection and specification of test pressures, method of testing and the test media, appropriate drawings and files up-dated. Special consideration must be given to testing media due to parent wall temperature and thickness. The engineer or tapping technician will assist other involved groups in the evaluation, planning, and execution. The parent metal, at the immediate location of the hot tap, shall be inspected prior to the welding of the nozzle onto the line, vessel, etc. The type, design and temperature of the parent metal will determine the type of wall inspection.

page 2 of 2 The engineer will determine if Corporate Engineering should be contacted. Typically, but not limited to, Corporate Engineering is contacted prior to performing a high risk tap and/or line plug e.g. lethal services, pressures greater than 1000 psig and/or temperatures greater than 600 oF. B. Inspection Group The Inspection Group representative will review and determine materials of construction, hot tap location wall thickness. Inspection Group representative will also recommend the welding method and procedure to the engineer. The Engineer will make a decision concerning x-raying of the hot tap valve and any other special testing or inspection requirements or procedures.


Mechanical Planner/Execution Foreman The Mechanical Planner/Execution Foreman is responsible for all phases of the planning, ordering, and execution of the job. In conjunction with the Inspection Group the Mechanical Planner/Execution Foreman is responsible for the proper inspection of the tapping and/or plugging machine, and witnessing of all tests specified by Engineering.


Operations The Operations Engineer/Planner is responsible for the initiation and completion of the hot tapping data list used for preplanning (Attachment #3 H/T and Plugging Data Sheet, 7 pages), and submitting these sheets with the permit request. With assistance from other groups, as required, the specification of department number, line or equipment number, process conditions, justification and the safety review for a hot tap or plug is also included in the Requestor's responsibility. At the completion of the job, the planner will send one copy of the completed data sheets to the responsible mechanical engineer; including the recovered coupon.

ATTACHMENT 1 page 1 of 2 HOT TAP REQUIREMENTS 1. Data sheets and job plans sent to the Operations Manager a minimum of 48 hours prior to the starting of welding. Hot Tap Valve and Fittings to be ordered and witness tested to API specifications, "0" leakage is preferred. Valve to be tapped through must be a FULL PORT VALVE. Two(2)points of egression. Sewers in area must be covered. Tarping is required to retain welding sparks. Two(2)fire extinguishers at Hot Tap Site Periodic sniff test. Area enclosed with barricade tape. Hot Tap machine to be tested and checked. a. Cutter to be dye checked and sharpness of cutter checked, (also spare cutter). b. Pilot drill dye checked and sharpness of drill checked, (also spares drill). c. Verify type of "U" pins (material, size and spares). Checklist of valve and hot tap machine after installed on nozzle. a. Ensure proper orientation of valve. If the tap is to be performed in the horizontal plane the preferred orientation is for the valve to be turned inverted i.e. the valve stem pointing at the ground, (hand wheel on the bottom). b. Check nozzle, valve and hot tap machine alignment. c. Verify diametrical clearance. d. Ensure valve will close when cutter is in retracted position. e. Ensure valve is open prior to initiating tap. f. Check lube oil PSV setting on hot tap machine. g. Check travel and turns of hot tap machine. Determine depth of cut and number of turns necessary. h. Have power source available for hot tap machine. i. Verify the hot tap machine has travel indicator. The nozzle and valve must first be strength tested by


3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.



ATTACHMENT 1 page 2 of 2 HOT TAP REQUIREMENTS hydrostatic or pneumatic means. Warning: Special precautions must be followed while performing the strength test using pressure. All personnel are to be kept at a safe distance until full pressure integrity has been proven. Once the maximum test pressure has been reached and held for a minimum of 10 minutes personnel may be allowed in the immediate area. The nozzle, valve and hot tap machine assembly must be tested to the system MAWP (maximum allowable working pressure) by hydrostatic or pneumatic methods. This test is performed after installation and prior to making the hot tap. **** On process lines, air free machine prior to tapping. The nozzle and machine must be air freed. With the hot tap valve open, pressure and de-pressure (typically at 100 psig) the assembly with an inert gas a minimum of three (3) times. The inert gas media used is typically nitrogen. Based on the process the machine may have to remain pressured with the inert gas or it may be de-pressured and the tapping machine bleed valve closed. After the Tapping machine and nozzle assembly air freed are the connection valve should be closed and the inert media supply line disconnected from the nozzle or the tapping machine. Contact Production/Operations to reduce flow in line (to be hot tapped) during the actual tapping process, if possible. Low flow rates are desirable. Notify Production/Operations and Safety when the hot tap is ready to begin. Notify Production/Operations and Safety when hot tap is complete. After Hot Tap is complete: a. Send coupon to Inspection Group. b. Prepare report on results.

13. 14. 15. 16.

See Item 10, 11 and Note under "Requirements for Tapping Contractor".

ATTACHMENT 2 page 1 of 1 HOT TAP COMPANY REQUIREMENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Hot Tap or Plugging Machine must be in good operating condition. Hot Tap Company must have back up cutter, pilot drill, and "U" pins. "U" Pins shall only to be used for retaining coupon. (2) Aluminum or Mild Steel pins are to be used, unless otherwise specified. Hot Tap machine must have travel indicator. The cutter, pilot drill, and "U" pins will be dye checked to assure mechanical integrity. (EquiStar Inspectors at the plant site). The EquiStar Inspector will check the cutter, pilot drill; back-up cutter and pilot drill for sharpness at the plant site). The Hot Tap or Plugging machine shall be tested (Hydrostatic or Pneumatic) after being bolted to valve and nozzle. The maximum time for a Hot Tap crew to be on site is 16 hours. One (1)-tapping technician from the contracted tapping company is required. An additional individual from either the tapping company, a qualified tapping tech., or a direct EquiStar employee may form the second man of the 2-man crew for each tap. If an EquiStar employee is used, the individual must be willing to accept the responsibility and have the functioning capability, after minimal training by the contracted tapping Tech., to perform any emergency procedures that may be required if the contracted tapping technician becomes incapacitated in any way or must be relieved temporarily. The EquiStar tapping crewmember should be one of the following; an experienced Mechanical Engineer, Maintenance Shop Foreman/Planner, Maintenance Specialist or a top rated, conscientious Mechanical Maintenance Technician. The crew must have (8) hours rest prior to starting or returning to site after (16 hours) of on site time or on any other job. Schedule relief crew if necessary. Hot Tap crew must be plant safety orientated. Adapter spool with minimum 3/4 drains connection and valve. Two (2) 1/2" (minimum) machine purge connection with valve.

6. 7.

8. 9. 10. 11.

Note: Items 10 and 11 must be used when tapping process lines or equipment.


REQUESTOR DATA RESPONSIBILITIES Data Responsibilities Operations Rep. ___________________________________ Date: _____/_____/_____, Dept. No. _____________________ Process _____________________________________________________ Max/Min Press. ________/________ psig Max/Min Temp. _______/_______ oF Size of Hot Tap Required _____in. Line No.___________________ Insulated Line ( )yes ( )no Why is this Hot Tap/Plug the most efficient way to perform this work? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

Note: Please attach a Digital Photograph of desired hot tap area. Safety Equipment Needed A. Fire Extinguisher ( ) Yes B. Radio Communications ( ) Yes C. Fresh Air Mask ( ) Yes D. Hot Tap Machine Power Source Acceptable: Gasoline Driven Engine ( ) Yes Diesel Driven Engine ( ) Yes Air Driven ( ) Yes Hand Operated ( ) Yes Potential Problems A. Loss of Coupon - Action to Take: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Burn Through During Welding - Action To Take: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ( ) No ( ) No ( ) No ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) No No No No


ATTACHMENT 3 Page 2 of 7 DATA SHEETS C. Metal Shaving in Line and/or Valve - Action To Take: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

Permits Needed Special Fire Permit Vapor Test Pneumatic Pressure Testing Manpower Fire Watch Operations To Furnish ( ) Yes ( ) Yes ( ) Yes ( ) Yes ( ) Yes ( ) No ( ) No ( ) No ( ) No ( ) No

Contacts With Units Down-Stream Units:____________________________________________________________ Location Mark location to be x-rayed or ultra-soniced. Mark exact location of proposed tap. Complete: Date ____________, Representative ______________________ Special Comments or Requirements __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________


Engineer Representative:__________________________________________ Hot Tap Technician:_______________________________________________ Approved Tapping Contractor Executing Work _______________________ Nozzle Details: Size ________,Length ________,Sch. ______________ Flange Rtg. _____________,Face ______________________________ Note: All Butt Weld Construction. Maximum Allowable Bending Moment on the Nozzle ____________in-lbs. (If the Tapping is Not in Vertical Plane) Mechanical Support Requirements: P - Permanent, T - Temporary Parent System: ( ) Yes ( ) No ( )P ( ) T Nozzle: ( ) Yes ( ) No ( )P ( ) T ( ) Yes ( ) No ( )P ( ) T Repad Details: ( ) No;ID = ______",OD = ______", Thickness ______" Can a Weld-O-Let Be Used: ( ) Yes ( ) No Split Tee: ( ) No; ID = ______", t = ______", Length = _________" Forged: ( ) Yes ( ) No, Note: A fabricated split tee may be used only after being approved by Plant Engineering and special Inspection techniques are followed. Type Of Flange on Split Tee _____________________________________ Valve Spec.; (FULL PORT) Gasket; Spec. No.: _________________ ( ) VOC, Size _______

Flange: ____________, Rating: ____________________ Type: ______________, Matl.: ____________________ Code # ___________________________________________ Type of Packing Required in Tapping Machine:_____________________ Tapping Machine Clearance: (See Drafting Manual) ________________ Type of Elastomer for Hot Plug: _________________________________ Hydrostatic - 1.5 Times Max. Allowable Working Pressure Pneumatic 1.25 Times Max. Allowable Working Pressure; (ASME Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII Div. 1) o o If Process Temperature Is Greater Than 212 F or Below 35 F See Section V. For pneumatic test if the test pressure is above 100 psig then an additional special permit is required. Test Pressures Leak Test: _______________psig Hydrostatic ( ) Pneumatic ( ) Strength Test: ___________psig Hydrostatic ( ) Pneumatic ( ) MAWP of the System,(this is used after the tapping machine is bolted to the nozzle):__________psig Hydrostatic ( ) Pneumatic ( )

ATTACHMENT 3 Page 4 of 7 DATA SHEETS III. INSPECTION RESPONSIBILITIES Representative: ___________________________________________________________ Wall conditions at location of tap t = _________" MIN. t = ___________" MAX. t = _________" ACTUAL by ( ) X-ray ( ) Ultra-sonic Pitting: ( )Yes ( )No Scale: ( )Yes ( )No Welding Procedure No._____________________________________________________ Special Notes: ___________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Valve Inspection: ( )X-Ray ( )X-ray waived in lieu of Hydro test & Examination Hot Tap Nozzle To Vessel/Piping Weld Inspection Requirements: Visual Only ( ) Yes ( ) No Radiography Inspection Requirements ________________________________________ Ultrasonic Inspection Requirements __________________________________________ Dye Penetrant Requirements________________________________________________ Magnetic Particle Requirements _____________________________________________ Review NDE Requirements with Qualified Inspection Service ( ) Yes, ( ) No Qualified Inspection Service To Be Used _____________________________________ Witnessed By: _____________________________________________ IV. SAFETY AUDIT ( )Yes Date: ______________________ Special Precautions Required: A. The breaking of the connection between the tapping machine and the nozzle shall be considered a "FIRST BREAK" and the same safety precautions shall maintained. B.

Note: Some of the Services That Can Be Tapped Using Special Procedures and Extreme Caution are: Air, Chlorine, Acetylene and Oxygen.




Hydrostatic Hydrostatic pressure testing is a full strength test of the nozzle and is defined as 1.5 times the Maximum Allowable Working (temperature compensated) Pressure (MAWP). A hydrostatic test shall be used when: A. the process is compatible with water or the free water and moisture can be removed from the nozzle and/or the tapping machine. B. the parent metal is less than 212oF or above 35oF. The material of construction should be carefully checked to ensure that the water used in the hydrostatic test does not have to be heated prior to and during the test. Special water may be required (e.g. demineralized water) for the hydrostatic test. Pneumatic Pneumatic pressure testing is a full strength test of the nozzle and is defined as 1.25 times the Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP). An additional special permit is required if the test pressure is above 100 psig. A pneumatic test shall be used when: A. The process is not compatible with water or the free water and moisture cannot be removed from the nozzle and/or the tapping machine. B. The parent metal is greater than 212oF or less than 35oF. Normally a system is brought to operating conditions slowly. Since the hot tap nozzle will immediately see operating conditions, special precautions are required in addition to those normally taken for and during a pneumatic test. All butt welds shall be radio-graphed, the valve shall be hydrostatically tested, and the fillet welds dye checked (where applicable) prior to the pneumatic test. If a relief valve protects the line or vessel, the pneumatic test shall be defined as 1.25 times the MAWP of the system, temperature corrected. (MAWP is typically the relief valve setting.) If the line can be isolated from a vessel relief then the nozzle must be tested at 1.15 times the maximum design pressure. Inert Gas Media Preferred (argon or nitrogen). -----------------------------------------

ATTACHMENT 3 Page 6 of 7 DATA SHEETS Steps for Pneumatic Testing of Hot Tapping or Plugging Nozzles Step 1 Initially 25 psig hold 10 minutes. Snoop test if possible, use other leak detection methods (ultrasonic leak detector, etc.) as required if unable to snoop test. Step 2 Barricade the area - there shall be no personnel in the immediate area once the initial 25 psig test and snoop check (where applicable) is completed. Step 3 Pressurize to 75 psig and hold 10 minutes. Step 4 Pressurize to 150 psig and hold 10 minutes. Step 5 Pressurize in 100 psig increments and hold 10 minutes at each increment until the specified pneumatic test pressure has been reached. Step 6 Hold at the specified test pressure for 30 minutes. Step 7 Slowly de-pressure and visually inspect after depressuring is complete. VI. SPLIT TEE WELDING GUIDELINES The sequence of welding and the depth of heat penetration must be closely controlled to maintain safety and trouble free reliability of the split tee hot tap fitting on the subject piping. The following will minimize the potential for burn through and will reduce the residual stresses, which could cause cracking of the attachment welds. Use small (3/32") welding rods or gas tungsten arc to reduce the area of heating and temperature penetration through the header wall. All edges shall be beveled 15o, per normal welding practice, and the inside edges of the long seams shall be back beveled 15o to prevent the split tee long seams from becoming welded to the parent pipe. The welding sequence should be as follows: 1. Tack the bottom half of the split tee into position. 2. Tack the top half of the split tee (with the branch connection) into position. The tack points should be along the long seam. 3. Cut loose both ends of the split tee by grinding off the tacks. 4. Complete (weld out) the long seam of the tee on ONE side and allow the fitting to cool to the parent pipe temperature. Note: During the welding process verify that the other long seam gap is not spreading and inspection of the root pass by a plant inspector is required. 5. Complete (weld out) the other tee long seam weld and again allow the tee to reach the parent pipe temperature. 6. Weld out one circumferential weld on the tee end and again allow the fitting to cool to the parent pipe temperature. 7. Weld out the remaining end of the tee to the pipe and allow the fitting to cool to the parent pipe temperature.

A. B.



ATTACHMENT 3 Page 7 of 7 DATA SHEETS VII. A. TAPPING ORIENTATION The preferred orientation of a hot tap is to tap in the vertical plane from the bottom side of the pipe. Most of the metal shavings will fall into the tapping machine. The possibility of losing the coupon is minimized and the potential of metal shavings preventing the valve from seating is also minimized. Some types of line stops or plugs, if the hot tap is being performed to stop the flow in the line, may not operate properly if inserted up-side-down therefor a vertical tap may be executed. The next preferred orientation of a hot tap is in the horizontal direction, where the tapping machine is parallel to the ground. To minimize the possibility of shavings or chips from preventing the valve from seating properly the valve must be inverted (the valve stem pointing towards the ground), the valve should be righted at the next opportunity. This method does not eliminate the risk of losing the coupon. If the tap is being performed to insert a line stop or plug to stop the flow in the line the machine to perform this function must be evaluated because not all plugging machines will function properly in the horizontal position. The last and least preferred orientation of a hot tap is in the vertical plane from the topside of the pipe. The chips fall into the line and the coupon has a highest probability of falling into the line.



VIII. PLUGGING GUIDELINES A. B. C. D. Large diameter pipes are typically out-of-round, the amount of non-concentricity must be determined either by radiograph or direct measurement. It must be determined if the internal diameter surface is relatively clean, free from foreign materials or process deposits. If the pipe internal surface is clean then the pressure and temperature of the process dictates the type (design) of plugging and the number of plugs required. When the internal pipe surface has foreign materials present, process deposits, or weld seams only one of two (2) types of plugs should be used: 1. High Press Stop, currently supplied by Team Inc. 2. Modified Muller Plug, currently supplied by Advance Valve Inc.

The above types of line plugs use the cut surface of the pipe wall to seal against unlike the typical line plug that uses the internal pipe wall as the sealing surface with the line plug.


ATTACHMENT 4 Page 1 of 3 EXECUTION GUIDELINES AFTER COMPLETION OF THE DATA SHEETS A. B. Data sheet is to be sent/taken to the Operation Planner Operation Engr. _____________________________________________________________ Data sheet sent to the Operations Manager, a minimum of 48 hours prior to the starting of the welding. Operation Engr. _____________________________________________________________

Maintenance/Project communication: 1. Mechanical Foreman Contacted Operation Engr. 2. Welding Preparation Mechanical Foreman 3. Hot tap and fittings to be ordered Mechanical Foreman 4. Materials: Gasket, Studs, etc., necessary for the job. Mechanical Foreman 5. Lifting Equipment a. Crane b. Cherry Picker Mechanical Foreman 6. Scaffolding Required a. Personnel b. Hot Tap Machine and Hydraulic Driver Mechanical Foreman ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ FITTINGS AND VALVES A. Valves and fittings are to be tested and witnessed by an EquiStar Inspector. _____________________________________________________________


B. The valve to be tapped through must be a FULL PORT VALVE. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ SAFETY The following items shall be reviewed by the respective personnel, as listed below, in order to maintain safe execution of the hot-tapping procedures. A. Contact Safety for Sniff Test. Shift Foreman ____________________________________________________________ Permits Required: 1. Special permit 2. Entry permit (vehicle)



ATTACHMENT 4 Page 2 of 3 EXECUTION GUIDELINES 3. 4. 5. C. Welding machine Hot Tap machine Other machines or power equipment

Shift Foreman

Special Safety Requirements: 1. Two(2)points of egression 2. Sewers in the area covered 3. Tarping required to retain welding sparks 4. Two(2)fire extinguishers at the Hot Tap site 5. Periodic Sniff Test 6. Area enclosed with barricade tape 7. Scaffolding if required. Shift Foreman _____________________________________________________________ Communications established between Board Processor and Processor at the Hot Tap site during the welding and the hot tapping. Shift Foreman _____________________________________________________________ Welding on the nozzle(s) begins: (See Procedure) Mechanical Execution Foreman _____________________________________________________________




Testing of the nozzle (See Procedure) 1. Hydrostatic test or 2. Pneumatic test 3. Dye Check 4. Check the weld penetration and the integrity of the weld. 5. Insure the weld penetration does not interfere with the Hot Tap cutter teeth. Inspector _____________________________________________________________ Hot Tap machine to be tested and checked 1. Cutter to be dye checked and the sharpness of the cutter checked, (also the spare and cutter). 2. Dye check the pilot drill and verify the sharpness of the drill, (also the spare drill). 3. Verify the type of "U" pins (material and size, also any spares). Inspector _____________________________________________________________ Personnel 1. Technicians to assist where needed. Mechanical Execution Foreman _____________________________________________________________




ATTACHMENT 4 Page 3 of 3 EXECUTION GUIDELINES I. Checklist of valve and hot tap machine after it is installed on the nozzle. 1. Ensure the proper orientation of the valve. 2. Check nozzle, valve and hot tap machine alignment. 3. Verify diametrical clearance. 4. Ensure the valve will close when the cutter is in the retracted position. 5. Ensure the valve is open prior to starting the tap. 6. Check the lube oil PSV setting on the tapping machine. 7. Check the travel and the turns of the tap machine. Determine the depth of the cut and the number of turns necessary. 8. Have power source available or the hot tap machine. 9. Verify the hot tap machine has a travel indicator. Mechanical Execution Foreman _____________________________________________________________ Nozzle, valve, and hot tap machine (Hydrostatic or Pneumatic) shall be tested after installation, prior to making the hot tap. Mechanical Execution Foreman



Nozzle, valve and the hot tap machine shall be air freed. See Attachement 1 page 2 of 2. After air feeing is complete, disconnect the inert media supply from the nozzle and/or the tapping machine. Mechanical Execution Forman _____________________________________________________________ Contact Production/Operations to reduce the flow in the line to be hot tapped. Low flow is preferred during the actual tapping. Mechanical Execution Foreman _____________________________________________________________ Notify Production/Operations and Safety when the hot tap is ready to begin. Mechanical Execution Foreman _____________________________________________________________ Notify Production/Operations and Safety when the hot tap is complete. Mechanical Execution Foreman _____________________________________________________________ After the hot tap is complete: 1. Send the coupon to the Inspection Group. 2. Prepare report on the results. Mechanical Execution Foreman






By experiment the inside wall temperature is 700 oF. Tested on a 4 sch. 40 pipe with a wall thickness of 0.237 Dead Air (non-Flowing) Heli-arch diameter of hot spot was 0.748 or 0.439 in2 Stick-arch weld the diameter of the hot spot was 0.950 or 0.709 in.2 Ethylene decomposition temperature API Hot Tap Paper Publication 2201, K22014 order number $30.00 Pipeline Maintenance Welding D12750 $495.00

Welding Note: (Performed at Corpus Facility) Material - SA-516_70 Thickness - 0.8125 Repad - 1 Thick and 15 Diameter Nozzle - 8, SCH 1000, SA-106B Test Plate - 27 square, to minimize heat sink potential Air Flow - Air flow minimized to reduce convection cooling effects Temperature Measurement - Taken on the shell plate opposite of the weld are and adjacent to the weld area to confirm temperature comparability. Goal - Develop a weld procedure which would keep the inside wall temperature below 500oF on the interior of the column. PROCEDURE Weld Rod - 3/32 low hydrogen with minimal weaving Time - 1 minute interval between the time one rod was completed and the next rod began Technique - Alternating quadrants are required on the nozzle/column and nozzle/repad joints - Outer repad fillet weld skip welding between adjacent quadrants without 1 minute pause RESULTS: 1. Heat effected zone (400oF to 500oF) no wider than 1-1/2 per weld pass 2. Brinell Hardness on the welds and the heat effected zone did not exceed 203 BHN, (It is recommended not to exceed 215 BHN on carbon steel) Note: If a process has the properties that will result in auto-refrigeration, e.g. ethylene, or heat generation, e.g. hydrogen the tapping machine must be pressured to the operating pressure of the parent system using a medium that is compatible with the process. Typically this is an inert gas such as nitrogen.


Processes that Require Special Consideration AIR In the presence of oil or carbon, will support combustion if the metal wall is heated to the metal is heated to the auto ignition. 2. Caustic If the concentration and temperature are such that the fabrication specifications call for stress relieving, stress corrosion of the base metal can occur upon the addition of localized heat, if material specification requires Pre or Post Heat Treating. 3. Chlorine Carbon steel will burn in the presents of chlorine and a high localized heat. Metal temperature must be less than 3000F. 4. Hydrogen If pressure is above the Nelson curve limit (see API 941) due to the possibility of hydrogen attach of the base metal. 5. Chlorinated Hydrocarbons ( VCM/EDC) May experience exothermic decomposition reactions if the metal temperature resulting from welding and hot tapping could initiate such a reaction at the maximum expected pressure. Such reactions could have the potential for causing localized hot spots on the pipe wall and could lead to sudden failure. 6. Hydrochloric Acid & Phosphoric Acid HCL and metal will burn similar to chlorine at high temperatures. Acids, chlorides, peroxides, or other chemicals likely to decompose or become hazardous from the heat induced by welding. 7. Oxygen & Oxygen Enriched Process With the application of heat, the metal may auto-ignite. 8. Freons Likely to decompose from heat induced by the welding, rapid weld cooling rate could cause cold lapping and excessive shrinkage. 9. Ethylene & Propylene May experience exothermic decomposition reactions if the metal temperature resulting from the welding and/or hot tapping could initiate such a reaction at the maximum expected pressure. A reaction such as this could have the potential for causing localized hot spots on the pipe walls and could result in a sudden failure. 10. Ammonia Anhydrous May decompose from the heat induced during welding. 1.


Material Restrictions Carbon steel (if the process or thickness does not require post weld heat treatment) and austenitic steels are generally the only materials which can be effectively welded on while in service. The following alloys should be restricted or reviewed carefully from in service welding or hot tapping for the following reasons: 1. Chrome Steels Typically, these steels require Pre & Post weld heat treatment which may be difficult to do effectively with process flow removing the required heat. 2. Aluminum The flowing characteristics of this metal during welding makes it extremely susceptible to a blow out. 3. Stress Relieved Carbon Steel The inability to PWHT would damage the required material properties. 4. Lined or Cladded Materials The purpose of the internal liner or cladding is negated when a hot tap is performed.

Flow Considerations 1. To define the maximum allowable internal pressure of the line or equipment while welding use the following: Modified Barlow Equation: P= 2SE(t-c)/D o Where: P = Maximum allowable internal pressure, psi S = Maximum allowable tensile stress at the actual internal temperature, psi (applicable code governs) E = Joint Efficiency t = Actual minimum wall thickness, inches D o = Outside diameter, inches c = A correction factor for the depth of the weld penetration. A correction of 3/32 inches has been recommended by ASME Gas Standards Committee. Note: If the maximum allowable pressure calculated is greater than the actual internal pressure, the hot tap can be made. Typically 60% of the wall is considered molten. Metal temperatures during the welding process must be above the atmospheric dew point to exclude moisture from the weld. Lines to be hot tapped shall be full (gas or liquid) and flowing. On lines e.g. flare headers where there may be insufficient or no flow, it will be necessary to flood the line with steam, inert gas or hydrocarbons to maintain a steady flow in the line during the welding operation. The following are general recommended velocities during welding. a. Liquid1.3 feet per second minimum 4.0 feet per second maximum b. Gas-

2. 3.


1.3 feet per second minimum No maximum velocity

Physical Limitations 1. Pitting or Laminations Welding should not be performed with a pitted area because of the possibility of a blow out. A lamination may rupture if a fluid is vaporized in the trapped pocket. Proximity to a Point Welding should be restricted within 18 inches of a flange or threaded connection, 3 inches weld seam, and 24 inches of a riveted joint. Welding within these limits could distort the metal sufficiently to result in leakage. Metal Thickness Greater than 0.75 inches Difficulty has been experienced when hot tapping thick steels, in excess of 0.75 inches, if the hot tap is made horizontally, or on the underside of the pipe, metal shavings may present a problem. Stress relieving may be required for carbon steel due to its thickness, which could not be performed effectively. Atmospheric Storage Tanks (Hydrocarbons) Prior to any attempt should to hot tap or weld on tanks above the liquid, i.e. vapor space, requires special review due to the possibility of ignition within the vapor space. Vessels on tanks to be hot tapped should contain a liquid level 2 feet above the highest point of the welding.





THE HOT TAPPING LAMENT Here Ye Here Ye Let It Be Known And Forever More Cast In Stone From the Bottom Side Is the Preferable Direction If theres enough Clearance To make a Hot Tap Connection If on the Horizontal A Tapping Machine is Inserted The Valve Stem MUST Always Be Inverted To Cut from the Top Is the WORST choice of all Because of Gravity The pipe coupon may FALL Anonymous 7/29/88



1. API Recommended Practices 2201 Fourth Edition, September 1995; Procedures for Welding or Hot Tapping on Equipment on Equipment in Service. 2. API Pipe Plugging Practices Publication 2209 First Edition, October 1978 3. Battelle Report on Investigation and Prediction of Cooling Rates During Pipeline Maintenance Welding to American Petroleum Institute, December 1991. 4. Battelle Report Users Manual for Battelles Hot-Tap Thermal-Analysis Models 1991. 5. C. H. Britt, Hot Tapping in Cryogenic Service, ASME 1974 6. H. W. Mishler, J. F. Kiefner, and D. G. Howden, Procedures For Repair and Hot Tap Welding on Pressurized Pipelines. A separate report issued August 1, 1977. 7. George E. Linnert, Welding Metallurgy, Volume 2. 8. C. W. Warren, Hot Tapping Under Pressure, Chemical Engineering Progress, Loss Prevention, Volume 9, 1975.