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**PISTON ENGINE INTAKE AND EXHAUST
**

SYSTEM DESIGN

P. O. A. L. D:virs

Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, University of Southampton,

Southampton SO17 1BJ, England

(Received 1 July 1994, and in ﬁnal form 21 March 1995)

The aim of intake and exhaust system design is to control the transfer of acoustic energy

from the sources and its emission by the system with minimal loss of engine performance.

A rational design process depends on the adoption of a design methodology based on

predictive modelling of acoustic behaviour. Virtually any system geometry can be modelled

by breaking it down to a sequence of simple elements or chambers. An initial design layout

is then produced with simple parametric models of individual element behaviour. This

design is then reﬁned to prototype level by systematic modiﬁcation of detail using realistic

assessments of system performance in its operational environment. Following prototype

validation by practical testing any further necessary development is again assisted by

predictive modelling. The application of appropriate procedures is illustrated by a series

of practical examples. These concern improvements in interior noise by control of intake

noise, of vehicle performance by reducing ﬂow losses, of the environment by control of

exhaust emissions and lastly with the control of ﬂow noise. This account concludes with

a brief outline of current and new developments involving integrated hybrid design

procedures. A further paper is being prepared describing silencer designs with their

experimental validation.

71996 Academic Press Limited

1. INTRODUCTION

The primary functions of an intake or exhaust system are ﬁrstly to eﬃciently channel fresh

air to the engine and exhaust gas to the atmosphere, and secondly to minimize intake and

exhaust noise emissions. Intakes must also ﬁlter particulates from the air while exhaust

systems may be required to process the exhaust gas to satisfy prescribed exhaust emission

standards or recover waste heat. Generally speaking, the gas must do work to reduce noise,

which results in pressure loss and thus reduces ﬂow eﬃciency, with a corresponding loss

of engine performance. Therefore eﬀective intake and exhaust system design involves

ﬁnding the best compromise between minimizing noise emission and maximizing engine

output and fuel eﬃciency.

There are a number of current initiatives concerned with the development of more

realistic methods for improved intake and exhaust system design. Applications include

road vehicles, tractors and commercial plant, rail traction, ship propulsion, power

generation, etc. The objectives include more eﬀective silencing performance to meet

inceasingly severe legislative targets for reduced noise and pollutant emissions on the one

hand, with optimized engine performance and fuel economy accompanied by

improvements in vehicle or plant subjective quality on the other. A typical procedure

followed during the design and development of an exhaust system for a heavy truck is set

out in Figure 1.

677

0022–460X/96/090677+36 $18.00/0 7 1996 Academic Press Limited

i. o. :. i. b:virs 678

Figure 1. Muﬃer development scheme.

The design process includes a careful tuning of all components of the intake/exhaust

system that inﬂuence noise emission with optimized matching of these to the engine

operational and breathing characteristics that inﬂuence pollutant emissions, performance

and economy. Together, these objectives can involve conﬂicting requirements, implying

that integrated design procedures are strongly desirable, if not essential. Starting with an

existing or notational system layout, an integrated assessment of the various performance

aspects begins with a detailed evaluation of the cyclic wave action throughout the intake,

valves, cylinder and exhaust corresponding to all likely conditions of engine operation [1].

This information may then be processed appropriately to assess current system

performance in terms of the various design objectives, to provide a rational basis for

systematic optimization of the design by implementing appropriate modiﬁcations to its

constituent elements.

Aerodynamic processes associated with the cyclic ﬂow through valves together with ﬂow

separation and vortex generation at junctions, expansions and the like provide the

signiﬁcant sources of inlet and exhaust noise through transfers of ﬂow energy to wave

energy. The acoustic characteristics of the corresponding intake and exhaust ducts have

a direct inﬂuence on the extent and eﬃciency of such energy transfer [2], as well as

controlling sound propagation along the ducts and sound emissions from their open

terminations. Thus one ﬁnds that intake or exhaust noise emission can be controlled or

modiﬁed by incorporating appropriate acoustically related geometrical and other features,

either to minimize the energy transfer from sources or to attenuate the sound as it

propagates through the system. This provides a fundamental base for intake/exhaust

system design methodology.

The spectral characteristics of the exhaust signal are normally dominated by an extensive

sequence of discrete tones that are harmonically related to the engine ﬁring frequency. In

many instances the bulk of the acoustic energy from the primary source is distributed

among the lower frequency components that may be diﬃcult to control. Signiﬁcant intake

noise emission is sometimes restricted to the ﬁrst two or three such harmonics. Both

practical experience and acoustic theory suggest that the spectral content of the acoustic

iis1oN rNciNr iN1:ir :Nb rxn:is1 brsicN 679

emissions of both intake and exhaust systems is strongly controlled by their acoustic

characteristics: that is, their spectral behaviour as an acoustic ﬁlter, which is readily

evaluated in the frequency domain. The noise emissions are also scaled in amplitude by

the cyclic ﬂow through the valves that provides the primary sources, which clearly are best

evaluated in the time domain. However, since such engine operations are cyclic, the valve

ﬂow time histories can be subsequently Fourier analyzed to provide the corresponding

spectral representation. Furthermore, noise emission measurements with the associated

subjective and legislative assessments are normally performed in the frequency domain,

and described in terms of the relevant spectral characteristics. Similar descriptions will be

adopted in the discussion of acoustic behaviour presented here.

One notes that an alternative description, commonly adopted during vehicle

development, is to classify the observed sound emissions into a sequence of harmonic

orders of the engine rotational frequency, each member covering the whole range of

operating speed at either full or part load. Such descriptions remain speciﬁc to each

particular engine conﬁguration: for example, with a four-cylinder four-stroke engine the

signiﬁcant orders are the second, fourth and so on and, although related to it, do not

necessarily directly represent the overall acoustic performance of the intake or exhaust

system.

The intake/exhaust system design process begins with the adoption of an appropriate

methodology or design strategy. There are a number of alternative approaches, but all

must take due account of the fact that the individual system elements, such as manifolds,

pipes, junctions, silencing elements and the like all interact acoustically [3, 4]. Thus changes

in the detail of one element may modify the combined acoustic behaviour of the remainder,

and in particular, the acoustic characteristics of any sources that excite the system. See

for example, Apendix C.

1.1. iN1:ir/rxn:is1 s.s1rx brsicN s1r:1rc.

The primary aim of intake and exhaust system acoustic design is to minimize both the

acoustic power transfer from the source and then its transmission along the system to the

open termination where it is radiated. This forms the major consideration in what follows

herein. However, depending on the application, other factors have a direct inﬂuence on

the design of each individual system, together with the appropriate procedures for its

realization. These include space, geometrical and operational constraints, unit cost,

reliability, durability and complexity, subjective reaction to emitted spectral characteristics

(noise quality) etc. Of this list, the inﬂuence of space constraints on acoustic design options

always requires consideration, due to the practical restrictions it imposes.

In the past, successful silencer system design and development has been largely empirical,

guided by a wealth of practical experience. A common situation concerns an existing

engine with its intake and exhaust system which has either been uprated or installed in

a new vehicle, resulting in the need for a systematic sequence of design changes, or

modiﬁcations of detail, to meet noise emission standards. However, such an approach is

often expensive in terms of manpower, time and other resources since each modiﬁed system

must be fabricated and tested before its performance can be assessed. With a new engine

or design project this ‘‘cut and try’’ approach to acoustic design can be tedious and

prohibitively expensive, while lacking a corresponding level of conﬁdence that an optimum

or even a satisfactory result will be achieved.

Such considerations have led to the development of more rationally based acoustic

design strategies where validated acoustic modelling [3–5] guided by insight and experience

is harnessed to the computing power of modern desk top computers to reﬁne an existing

design or develop a new one. As summarized in Table 1 it consists of ﬁve basic steps, the

i. o. :. i. b:virs 680

T:nir 1

Rational silencer design procedures

Step I Assemble relevant data

(i) existing noise signature

(ii) required noise levels etc.

(iii) installation physical and geometric constraints

(iv) gas inﬂows and temperatures

(v) engine operational features and constraints

Step II Establish design aim appropriate for current application

e.g., noise emissions, pollutant emissions, fuel economy, power optimization etc. Note:

such requirements normally conﬂict.

Step III Develop an initial system design

(i) Based on simple models of component acoustic behaviour,

(ii) or on data sheets and nomograms which codify and summarize experience,

(iii) or on bench test data for sets of ‘‘standard’’ components, adjusted for ﬂow and

temperature.

Step IV (a) Assess acoustic performance of initial design, then

(b) Optimize by introducing systematic changes in detail

(i) Use interactive computer programme, or

(ii) Data sheets guided by past experience.

Step V Prototype validation or development

(i) Build and validate ﬁrst prototype. Note: with one oﬀ and large industrial

applications the procedure ends with this design. Otherwise, when necessary

(ii) Reﬁne the design guided by new data from (i) with appropriate theoretical

predictions.

(iii) Build and validate second prototype and so on. Note: one or two such iterations

is normally suﬃcient.

ﬁrst two concerned with data assembly and speciﬁcation of an appropriate design aim.

The third step is concerned with the development of an initial design, and the fourth

with performance assessment, and then system reﬁnement guided by more realistic

computer-based calculations or their equivalent. The last step concerns the development

and testing of a prototype system along the lines of the procedure summarized in Appendix

A, while the whole process applied to the design of an exhaust system was illustrated in

Figure 1.

One notes that the basic requirements of such a design procedure include facilities

for noise measurements, a basic understanding of the acoustic behaviour of the system

as a whole, with that of its constituent elements, and appropriate computer software

for realistic acoustic modelling and performance prediction. Despite the obvious

advantages of an integrated approach to intake/exhaust system design, current procedures

treat the two systems independently, so the majority of the discussion presented here

will be concerned with this approach. This is based on noise emission measurements with

an existing engine including its intake and exhaust manifolds, to which an existing of

modiﬁed intake and exhaust system has been attached. So the design development is

concerned only with those parts of the system attached to the intake and exhaust manifold

ﬂanges.

1.2. b:1: coiirc1ioN

Appropriate procedures for piston engine noise emission measurements are

summarized in Appendix B. One notes that such measurements require appropriate

consideration of any contamination by acoustic sources that are harmonically related to

iis1oN rNciNr iN1:ir :Nb rxn:is1 brsicN 681

engine ﬁring frequency but not to intake or exhaust noise, as well as any contamination

by other background noise. One notes too that realistic measurement of intake noise

signatures can present special problems in avoiding contamination by other sources.

Similarly, reliable and repetititive measurements of exhaust noise signature may be subject

to uncertainties associated with the small but signiﬁcant ﬂuctuations in engine speed and

combustion conditions that are found to occur during practical testing, even on a test bed.

The corrected noise measurements are then appropriately processed to establish the

increase in acoustic performance required for the new design.

Other relevant data include the corresponding cyclically averaged mass ﬂow of air and

exhaust gas, with the associated temperatures throughout the system. Gas temperature is

of particular importance both in acoustic design and performance assessment since the

local value of the speed of sound has a direct inﬂuence on the acoustic behaviour of each

element. The speed of sound c is proportional to zT

K

, where T

K

is the gas temperature,

in degrees Kelvin, and also depends on the local physical properties of the gas which also

vary with temperature. The acoustic behaviour of an element at a frequency f is also

strongly related to the corresponding acoustic wavelength l=c/f (a list of symbols and

abbreviations is given in Appendix D).

To complete the data set for a speciﬁc application, one requires the relevant geometrical

constraints deﬁning volumes, lengths and cross-section areas that are available for silencing

units, with the routes for connecting pipes including bends etc. This then covers the

collection of the data and the establishment of the design aim in terms of the increase in

system acoustic performance required, that is the ﬁrst two steps in Table 1. The next two

steps concern the development of an appropriate acoustic design followed by its

optimization and validation in step ﬁve.

2. ACOUSTIC DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

A rational acoustic design depends on a clear understanding of the acoustic behaviour

of the individual system elements as well as that of the system as a whole. The acoustic

characteristics of both the system and its individual elements are determined primarily

by their geometry. Essentially this consists of a series of uniform pipes connecting

geometrically complex elements, including silencers, that are spaced along the ﬂow path

from the primary source of excitation at the valves to an open termination where the sound

is radiated. As indicated in Figure 1, the control of intake or exhaust noise emissions for

automotive application involves making the choice of appropriate silencer units, or

acoustic ﬁlters, conﬁgured to ﬁt within the spaces allocated for them during initial vehicle

layout. Some common generic types, which may be packaged together to form a complete

silencer box or unit, are illustrated in Figure 2. One can see that some geometric features

such as expansion chambers and perforated pipes are normally common to them all, while

others such as baﬄes, ﬁbrous sound absorbing packing, etc. will only feature in some of

them. The ‘‘tailpipes’’ connecting each chamber or silencing element to its successor have

been omitted, but one should note that these will have a signiﬁcant inﬂuence on their

‘‘installed’’ acoustic behaviour (see, for example, Appendix C2) and thus on the overall

system performance. It turns out that virtually any complex geometry, with its acoustic

behaviour, can be modelled as a train of simple elements operating in sequence or in

parallel. Thus the triﬂow unit in Figure 2, for example, can be broken down into a sequence

of simple elements. These include a perforated pipe leading to a ﬂow reversing expansion

chamber with an attached resonator which is followed by two more perforated pipes acting

acoustically both in series and in parallel with the ﬁrst, which then connect with a second

ﬂow reversing expansion.

i. o. :. i. b:virs 682

Figure 2. Silencer chamber types.

Wave reﬂection occurs at the junctions between each element, so the associated ﬂuid

motion consists of interfering waves superimposed on a mean ﬂow. Thus the acoustic

behaviour of all pipes is reactive, while that of the intake and exhaust systems and of their

individual elements is also reactive to a variable extent. Considerable simpliﬁcation of the

acoustic modelling of their behaviour [3, 4] is obtained by assuming that the positively and

negatively travelling component wave motions are plane and propagate without change

of shape, that is as acoustic disturbances.

The ﬁlter characteristics of each silencer unit are often established by measurement

and recorded on data sheets, or may be calculated by using appropriate analytic

modelling [3–11]. Since the elements interact acoustically with each other, realistic acoustic

performance prediction for the system is often more appropriately calculated with the

analytic models, rather than the measured behaviour of the individual elements. An outline

of such modelling techniques and the associated performance prediction is set out in

Appendix C. Analytic models for the elements illustrated in Figure 2 can be found there,

or in references [3–8].

2.1. :cois1ic cn:r:c1rris1ics or siirNcrr rirxrN1s

The acoustic behaviour of most intake and exhaust system elements is essentially

reactive, but separated ﬂow or ﬂow reversal, perforations, ﬁbrous packing and baﬄes may

all enhance the resistive contribution to their performance in roughly the order listed.

Reactive spectral behaviour is cyclic, exhibiting attenuation minima each time an

acoustically signiﬁcant length corresponds to an integer multiple of half the acoustic

wavelength of the excitation, as illustrated in Figures 3 and 4. The appropriate lengths for

most of the examples in Figure 2 include that of the expansion, the tail-pipe and the lengths

of any side-branches. Since several lengths are thus involved simultaneously, a simple

parametric description of their overall acoustic performance is not normally possible,

particularly when the inﬂuence of the tail-pipe and its termination impendance is included.

iis1oN rNciNr iN1:ir :Nb rxn:is1 brsicN 683

However, their general ranking in terms of relative attenuation per unit volume and

relative pressure loss or back pressure has been established from experience.

In automotive applications the overall acoustic performance is controlled by the

attenuation minima, whenever these correspond to one of the frequenies of excitation.

With stationary piston engines this correspondence can often be avoided by appropriate

design. Acoustic resonance is damped by adding resistance, so the performance at

attenuation minima can be improved by enhancing this factor in the design. Since space

is often restricted the lowest frequency components are normally the most diﬃcult to

control.

The relative eﬃciency of packed silencers is roughly proportional to the packing density,

the ﬂow resistance of the pack and the other acoustic properties of the ﬁbrous material.

Their attenuation performance tends to rise signiﬁcantly with increasing frequency, in

correspondence with the acoustic properties of the pack, while they normally exhibit low

back pressure. Their relative volumetric eﬃciency can be high, but tends to deteriorate in

service due to fouling and disintegration of the pack. They are also relatively heavy and

may cause suspension problems or may excite mechanical vibration of the vehicle

structure.

The relative acoustic eﬃciency of snubber, baﬄe or cross-ﬂow silencers is closely

related to the back presure or ﬂow losses they generate, which often tend to be high.

Their behaviour remains signiﬁcantly reactive so that high acoustic eﬃciency is

often restricted to speciﬁc sections of the frequency spectrum. Cross-ﬂow silencers are

obviously more compact that the other type, and so can have relatively better low

frequency attenuation performance for the same overall dimensions. The acoustic inﬂuence

of perforated pipes diminishes as the porosity increases while observation suggests it

becomes negligible with grazing ﬂow at Mach numbers less than 0·2 when the porosity

rises above 15%. On the other hand, low porosity implies high through-ﬂow losses, so

a formulation of the most eﬀective practical conﬁguration may be diﬃcult. Finally,

these silencer types can be signiﬁcant sources of ﬂow noise, particularly at higher

frequencies.

Triﬂow muﬄers are popular, relatively compact and have a high relative acoustic

eﬃciency. Their behaviour also tends to be strongly reactive at low frequencies so regions

of poor attenuation performance are often improved by adding resonators to the ﬂow

reversal chambers, as indicated in the example in Figure 2. Back pressure losses are directly

related to the changes in ﬂow momentum at ﬂow reversal and vary as the square of the

engine speed; thus they can lead to undesirable reductions in peak engine performance.

Vortex shedding at the ﬂow reversals may also introduce signiﬁcant ﬂow noise. The

observations concerning the acoustic behaviour of perforated pipes also apply to these

units.

The acoustic behaviour of expansion chambers which include side branch resonators

forming the bottom group in Figure 2, is discussed in the next section. They generally

exhibit the lowest back pressure. The acoustic performance at low frequencies can be

enhanced by adding a folded side branch, which acts in a similar manner to the resonator

included in the triﬂow muﬄer example.

2.2. sixiiirirb xobris or sibr-nr:Ncn rrsoN:1or irrrorx:Ncr

Simpliﬁed representations of the approximate acoustic performance of silencer units are

clearly of direct assistance when laying out an initial system design. Such descriptions can

take the form of simpliﬁed analytic models as set out in Appendix C2, of spectral

descriptions of either measured or calculated attenuation performance, or a sequence of

nomograms, performance charts, etc. Note that when such measured data is used for

i. o. :. i. b:virs 684

exhaust system design it should be appropriately rescaled to compensate for any change

of sound speed and wavelength with temperature. In all cases the information is most

useful when it relates the attenuation spectrum and similar acoustic characteristics to the

relevant geometric and structural features of the silencing element. This normally applies

only to simple systems.

Figure 3. Approximate acoustic performance. (a) Expansion chamber transfer: SPL1-SPL2; (b) tail or

connecting pipe transfer: SPL1-SPL2; (c) sidebranch transfer: SPL1-SPL2.

Figure 4. Attenuation of expansion chambers. (a) Xp=Xc ; 20 log(Sc /Sp )=15·9; (b) with two sidebranches:

Xs (1)=(0·5 Xp ; Xs (2)=0·5Xs (1); Xp /Xc=1; 20 log(Sc /Sp )=15·9.

iis1oN rNciNr iN1:ir :Nb rxn:is1 brsicN 685

Such spectral distributions of the acoustic behaviour of expansion chambers with side

branches are directly related to the lengths of the chamber and side branches and also to

that of the tail-pipe connecting it to the next silencing element along the system. They are

also inﬂuenced by the junction or termination impedance. The relative amplitude of the

attenuation maxima for chambers, or minima for tail-pipes, is closely related to the

chamber/pipe area ratio. The overall acoustic behaviour is the result of a summation of

the interacting contributions from all constituent components of the silencer or muﬄer

unit. However, assuming initially that they can act independently of each other provides

useful insight into their relative inﬂuence on acoustic performance. This is illustrated in

Figure 3 where attenuation expressed as SPL1–SPL2 is plotted against reduced frequency

2xf/c or 2x/l for each of them. One notes that the attenuation spectra for the chamber

and the tail or connecting pipe follow an identical pattern of repeated maxima and minima,

though that for the chamber is always positive while that for the other always remains

negative. One notes too that the minima occur at integer values of the reduced frequency,

while the ratio of the maxima to minima is 20 log

10

S

c

/S

p

.

Their combined performance, after adopting an open termination and making their

lengths equal for simplicity of illustration, is plotted in Figure 4(a). This demonstrates

clearly how the negative contribution from the tail-pipe degrades their combined

attenuation performance, particularly at those frequencies where a minimum in their

individual contributions occurs simultaneously. Thus, where possible, one should avoid

such coincidences by satisfying the following inequality.

X

c

/i$X

p

/j, i, j=1, 2, 3, (2.1)

for the allocation of expansion chamber or tail-pipe lengths X

c

, X

p

during the initia design

layout. The eﬀective or useful attenuation bandwidth, deﬁned say as the proportion of the

frequency interval between minima that the attenuation spectrum exceeds half its

maximum value, is also of practical interest. For the example in Figure 4(a) one sees that

this is about one-half. Such attenuation performance for a single chamber may still prove

acceptable when the engine speed is ﬁxed, so that the attenuation maxima at frequencies

ﬁxed by the system geometry can be tuned to correspond with the primary engine breathing

noise spectrum. But with the variable engine operating speed required for road vehicles

and other prime movers, it is clearly unacceptable.

Returning to Figure 3, one sees that the attenuation spectra of side branches also exhibit

a pattern of maxima and minima, with the minima again at integer multiples of the reduced

frequency. Here the attenuation is always positive, but with high maximum values that

are ideally inﬁnite being restricted only by acoustic damping, which is found to increase

with the Mach number u

o

/c of the mean ﬂow with velocity u

0

. Since spectral measurements

are often described in one-third octave bands, a similar value can be adopted for the useful

attenuation bandwidth of a side branch. One notes too that the maximum attenuation of

all three components of expansion chambers occurs when

X/l=n/4, n=1, 3, 5, . . . , (2.2)

which provides a design criterion for the choice of optimum component lengths for well

tuned expansion chamber silencers.

The combined performance of an expansion chamber with the same ratio of chamber

to tail-pipe length, but now with two appropriately scaled side branches added, is

illustrated in Figure 4(b). When this is compared with Figure 4(a) the marked improvement

in attenuation performance for the same overall chamber and tail-pipe dimensions is

obvious. The lengths of the side branches were chosen so that the attenuation peaks

of the longer one correspond to the minima of the chamber and tail-pipe combination

i. o. :. i. b:virs 686

and the ﬁrst peak of the shorter one lies between those of the longer side branch. Note

too that the eﬀective attenuation spectrum is almost continuous, thus providing the

wide bandwidth that is required when engine operating speeds vary signiﬁcantly in

service.

The comparison of Figures 4(a) and 4(b) not only demonstrates the improvement in

performance within the same space resulting from the addition of side branches, but also

that the side branches provide the more signiﬁcant contributions to the overall

performance. Therefore, to simplify the calculations for the initial design, these can be

restricted to the contributions to the acoustic performance by the side branches, with any

further contributions from the chamber and tail-pipe being ignored and all acoustic

interactions neglected.

A similar set of simpliﬁed design criteria is not normally available with the other types

of silencer illustrated in Figure 2, since as well as component lengths, several further

parameters have a signiﬁcant if not major inﬂuence on their acoustic behaviour and

performance. Furthermore, the acoustic interactions that exist between such muﬄer units

and their connecting pipes also introduces uncertainties, even when their individual

performance can be appropriately represented or modelled [8, 9]. Although the pipes

connecting silencer units always inﬂuence the system behaviour, experience indicates that

the ﬁnal tail-pipe length always has a signiﬁcant inﬂuence on overall system performance

which may be seriously degraded when its length is not well chosen.

2.2.1. Resonators and folded side branches

Resonators are used to provide attenuation at low frequencies, or to eliminate

undesirable deﬁciencies in system performance at particular frequencies. The classical

description of Helmholtz resonator acoustic behaviour is often based on an analogy that

can be drawn with tuned vibration absorbers for mechanical systems. The pressure

ﬂuctuation in the resonator volume then represents the elastic restoring force with the

inertia of the oscillating ﬂow through the restriction or neck providing the equivalent

mass. However, this simple lumped mass and stiﬀness model ceases to be realistic when

the acoustic length of the resonator exceeds one-quarter of the acoustic wavelength,

though the fundamental resonance may still tend to dominate the performance. A more

realistic description of resonator behaviour appropriate for intake/exhaust system

design is to calculate its equivalent acoustic length [3] and then treat it as a tuned side

branch.

Folded side branches, as illustrated in Figures 5(a) and 5(b) provide a compact method

of packaging the acoustically long side branches required at low frequencies into relatively

short expansion chambers. This requires the chamber cross-section to be 10 to 15

times that of the pipe, so is only possible when space constraints allow this. In Figure 5(a),

the chamber is sub-divided into inner and outer annuli, with lengths X

i

and X

o

and

corresponding areas S

i

and S

o

, respectively, surrounding the pipe with internal diameter

d. The cross-section shapes of the annuli have little inﬂuence on the acoustic performance,

so that elliptical and other sections can be adopted to optimize the use of space. But such

alternatives may enhance sound radiation from the outer surface. To accommodate the

end corrections associated with acoustic wave transfer across discontinuities (see Appendix

C5) the length of the radial connection between inner and outer annuli should be around

0·5 d while that of the gap between the inlet and outlet pipes should exceed 1·5 d, which

speciﬁes the minimum value of the factor b in Figure 5. The eﬀective acoustic length l

s

of

the folded side-branch is expressed to a fair approximation by

l

s

=X

i

+(S

o

/S

i

)X

o

, (2.3)

iis1oN rNciNr iN1:ir :Nb rxn:is1 brsicN 687

Figure 5. Expansion chambers with folded side branches. In (b) the entrance to the exit pipe is at the plane

between L1 and L2.

so long as S

o

/S

i

is less than two. Otherwise it has been found that the eﬀective length l

s

becomes progressively less than this as the area ratio increases. During performance

optimization the resonator ﬁlter can be tuned by varying the diameter of the shell

separating the two annuli, and thus the ratio S

o

/S

i

, leaving all other dimensions unaltered.

Since the performance, as for a simple expansion chamber, is proportional to the ratio

S

i

/S

p

, this may be accompanied by a small loss of peak performance as the ratio S

o

/S

i

increases and hence S

i

/S

p

decreases.

Space permitting, two folded side branches may be packaged into one silencer box

as shown in Figure 5(b) to increase the attenuation bandwidth as in Figure 4(a).

The available length X

c

may be apportioned appropriately into two sub-units of length

L

1

and L

2

. One can readily establish from the geometry shown in the ﬁgure the

inequality

L

1

+L

2

QX

c

, (2.4)

with

l

1

=L

1

−bd+(S

0

/S

i

)(L

1

−d/2), l

2

=L

2

−(d/2)+(S

o

/S

i

)(L

2

−d/2), (2.5a, b)

which can be solved for L

1

, L

2

and S

o

/S

i

for given values of the eﬀective acoustic lengths

l

1

, l

2

and the pipe internal diameter d. A proper allowance for the wall thickness should

be included in the area ratio calculations. Appropriate tuning during optimization may be

performed by adjusting all, or any one, of the ratio S

o

/S

i

, the axial positions of the gap

in the pipe, or the axial position of the baﬄe separating L

1

and L

2

, while leaving the overall

dimensions constant.

i. o. :. i. b:virs 688

2.3. i:.oi1 or :N iNi1i:i brsicN

The majority of piston engines are employed in vehicle propulsion, where the intake and

exhaust noise emission is strongly dependent on engine rotational frequency and power

output. Thus the intake or exhaust system attenuation spectrum must be continuous over

a wide band of frequencies. Secondly, the elements of the system must ﬁt within the

space constraints set by the overall vehicle design, which normally has been established

beforehand, For example, one empirical though not necessarily realistic rule for specifying

the total silencer volume required is to relate this to the swept cylinder volume. The two

factors concerning attenuation and space imply that eﬀective design for vehicle application

generally represents a challenging acoustic design problem. Such problems can be severe

for intakes since the allocated space is often highly restricted. The fact that the gas

temperature and associated sound speed falls along the exhaust system from manifold to

outlet, and also that the temperature distribution will change with engine load and speed

and with road speed, gear ratio and ambient conditions, will introduce special problems

for exhaust design.

The systematic design procedure set out in Table 1 and Figure 1 is based on a

comprehensive range of silencer options, such as those in Figure 2, together with the

codiﬁed data on their acoustic performance and other relevant characteristics. The initial

design is the result of a feasibility study, which begins a design layout by listing the number,

position and external dimensions of all silencer boxes with their connecting pipes that will

ﬁt within the available space. It continues with a rational choice of those silencer types

or options that experience indicates are likely to produce the speciﬁed attenuation without

incurring excessive back pressure or other penalties. It is also desirable that there should

be simple parametric models of the acoustic performance of their components. We have

seen that a fair approximation to the acoustic performance of side branch expansion

chambers can be calculated simply in terms of the lengths of the side branches. It was

demonstrated in Figure 4(b) that, when the lengths are appropriately chosen, an expansion

chamber with two side branches has a continuous attenuation spectrum of at least 10 dB

at moderate (6:1) area expansion ratios, while the back pressure produced is relatively low.

Since they meet all the requirements just listed we shall adopt this type for any illustrative

examples that follow. One notes that if the acoustic performance remains deﬁcient after

system optimization, then such simple units can be replaced with an alternative type that

exhibits a higher volumetric acoustic eﬃciency, in spite of any associated back pressure

penalties it may entail.

2.3.1. Choosing leading parameters for silencer elements

In assigning appropriate lengths l

i

to the individual side branches, one notes from

equation (2.2) that each side branch has attenuation maxima at frequencies corresponding

to 4l

i

=nl, n=1, 3, 5, . . . , while l=c/f. Thus the tuning is directly related to the sound

speed c as well as to the side branch length. With intakes this is constant, but with exhaust

systems it falls progressively from manifold to outlet so, for simplicity, during the initial

layout calculations we shall adopt a constant reference value c

r

which is an appropriate

mean value. This is justiﬁed initially since interactions have also been neglected, while later

optimization calculations with a computer program will adopt the appropriate local sound

speed for the performance predictions and also take account of acoustic interactions

between the elements.

Clearly, the longest side branch of length l

1

will provide the attenuation required at the

low frequeny end of the spectrum. Practical experience indicates that space restrictions

often mean that this is the most diﬃcult part of the noise spectrum to silence eﬀectively.

iis1oN rNciNr iN1:ir :Nb rxn:is1 brsicN 689

Thus assignment of side branch lengths should begin say at the lowest one-third octave

band with centre frequency f

r

. The corresponding side branch should be tuned to this

frequency so that

l

1

=c

r

/4f

r

. (2.6)

One also notes that this side branch will produce an attenuation spectra with useful

attenuation at frequencies 3f

r

, 5f

r

, etc. One then assigns the remaining side branch lengths

so that their combined performance provides a continuous spectrum of high attenuation.

They combine most eﬀectively when their lengths form a geometric series, so that

successive lengths are in the ratio

l

(i+1)

/l

i

=3

(−1/m)

, i=1, 2, 3, . . . , (m−1), (2.7)

where m is the total number of side branches. When space permits, two or more side

branches can be accommodated in series in a single box, while the longest ones will

probably be folded. Optimum packaging considerations normally ﬁx the sequence in which

they are installed along the system, but this can modify the acoustic performance, since

the lengths of connecting pipes between boxes is extended by the side branches. The best

sequence can be decided during optimization.

2.4. irrbic1ivr 1rcnNiqirs :iiiirb 1o s.s1rx brvrioixrN1

Adoption of rational predictive techniques can enhance the quality of intake/exhaust

design and greatly reduce development time. Valid predictions must always include the

inﬂuence of acoustic interaction between component elements, of mean ﬂow and of gas

temperature (see Appendix C). They should, where possible, include the inﬂuence of

interaction between the system and primary sources at the valves with noise generation

elsewhere by turbulent ﬂow and vorticity (ﬂow noise) and any ﬂanking transmission. Thus,

for vehicle applications, prototypes are normally built and tested to validate the design.

This is hardly feasible for large industrial or ‘‘one oﬀ’’ designs, since the associated cost

is then prohibitive.

System performance reﬁnement begins with an acoustic assessment of the initial

design layout. A program that ﬁrst calculates the relative amplitudes of the incident and

reﬂected waves at say each area discontinuity is perhaps the most useful (Table 2). Such

information then directly provides the impedance, reﬂection coeﬃcient and other relevant

spectral acoustic data at many locations along the system. This also allows the designer

to assess the relative contributions of each individual element to the overall system

performance. At this stage, for example, the attenuation performance spectra of the system

and of its components can be deﬁned according to equation (C10) in Appendix C.

Such theoretical predictions can be used to ascertain the likely eﬀect of systematic

modiﬁcations to the system detail design and layout, thus minimizing the number of

expensive prototype stages required. Each step of this development provides additional

insight into system behaviour to guide the development of further appropriate changes to

reﬁne the design.

Flow noise has been found to have a major inﬂuence on the maximum attenuation

achieved under operating conditions. Since its inﬂuence is not normally included

in theoretical performance assessments, any such predictions suggesting a very high

attenuation performance may be unrealistic [9, 12] and thus misleading. Experience

indicates that design modiﬁcations concentrated on increasing attenuation where acoustic

theory predicts a minimum usually lead most rapidly to improvements in installed

performance. Theoretical predictions can also be used to enhance the detailed design

stages, allowing rapid design reﬁnement of the ﬁrst prototype.

i. o. :. i. b:virs 690

T:nir 2

Theoretical calculation of system performance

Step I Assemble relevant data

(i) System layout, geometry and relevant structural features.

(ii) Cycle averaged mass ﬂow for intake and exhaust.

(iii) Ambient and other relevant operational conditions.

(iv) Cycle averaged exhaust valve outlet temperature and gas species.

Note: Step (iv) concerns exhaust systems only.

Step II Calculate exhaust ﬂow and temperature distribution

(i) Calculate hot surface area of system elements.

(ii) Estimate relevant heat transfer coeﬃcients.

(iii) Estimate ﬂow temperature distribution.

(iv) Estimate static pressure and Mach number distribution.

Note: Steps (ii)–(iv) require iterative calculations.

Step III Evaluate acoustic wave propagation at each frequency

(i) Choose appropriate analytic model for each element.

(ii) Starting at the open termination calculate the relative incident and reﬂected wave

amplitudes throughout the system for the relevant systematic sequence of frequencies.

Step IV Describe system performance

(i) Present acoustic impedance and reﬂection coeﬃcient spectra.

(ii) Present attenuation and insertion loss spectra.

Note: alternatively, sound emissions may be presented for each engine order versus

r.p.m.

(iii) Present system back pressure or ﬂow losses at relevant operating conditions.

Other assessments of system performance can be useful at this stage. When the source

volume velocity and impedance are known, the predicted insertion loss (see equation (C9))

provides a useful index to guide the ﬁnal design assessment, as it often corresponds to

direct measurement. Note, however, that this index relates to the system as a whole and

gives little insight into the contributions of individual components. The inﬂuence of ﬂow

noise can also be minimized by attention to ﬂow path detail design as can the ﬂow losses

or system back pressure.

As well as validating the design, the fabrication and testing of a prototype provides

useful insight into the system behaviour. The results provide additional data to guide any

further modiﬁcations that may be necessary. Theoretical predictions can usefully be

adopted to assess and reﬁne designs directly on the vehicle. This now includes the

consideration of mounting attachments, noise radiated from system surfaces and

associated vehicle noise transmission characteristics. Such an addition to the total noise

emission by the system is often called ﬂanking transmission.

2.5. 1nrorr1ic:i irrbic1ioN or s.s1rx irrrorx:Ncr

Realistic predictions of the acoustic behaviour with the associated characteristics of

system performance form an essential part of any rational design process. As well as

spectral descriptions of acoustic behaviour, the calculations should provide estimates

of the system back pressure or static pressure loss. As well as the geometric and other

structural features of the system, the acoustic characteristics depend on the distribution

of ﬂow temperature and Mach number, so these must be established ﬁrst.

Thus the ﬁrst calculation to be made concerns the temperature distribution, which in

turn is a function of the cycle averaged mass ﬂow and temperature of the gas leaving the

exhaust valve with its physical properties, the ambient conditions surrounding the system

with its geometry and relevant structural features. The temperature distribution depends

iis1oN rNciNr iN1:ir :Nb rxn:is1 brsicN 691

on the heat transfer from gas to system boundaries and thus on the associated heat transfer

coeﬃcients. Since these also depend on the Reynolds and Prandtl numbers in the ﬂowing

gas at the boundaries, the calculations are necessarily iterative. The Mach number is also

a function of temperature and ﬂow velocity which depends on the local gas temperature,

so the Mach number calculations are those appropriate to compressible ﬂow with axially

varying static temperature.

Once realistic estimates of temperature and Mach number have been established then

the relevant acoustic spectral characteristics can be calculated at one frequency at a time,

starting at the open termination and progressing to the valves [3, 13]. This requires

appropriate analytic models of each element in the system [4] that have been incorporated

into computer programs that run, say, on any small desk top machine. Suitable Fortran

programs are available for this purpose.

3. SELECTED EXAMPLES OF INTAKE AND EXHAUST SYSTEM DESIGN

The application of the rational design procedure, summarized in Table 1, to the control

of noise emission from intake and exhaust is demonstrated by a sequence of practical

examples. Experience with the many diﬀerent applications listed in the second paragraph

of the introduction indicates the general applicability of the approach to successful

acoustic design. Of these, the smallest was a 1 cc displacement model diesel and the largest

a 30 MW electric generator! Some representative examples have been selected from this

list. The ﬁrst concerns the control of boom in the cabin of a current production pick-up

truck, by the suppression of noise emission from the intake pipe. The second concerns

the development of a low back pressure exhaust system to improve the performance

and economy of a production car. The third concerns the control of high noise levels

experienced on the sun deck of a passenger ship from the main engine exhausts, while the

fourth concerns the development of an optimized system with high acoustic peformance

for the original Quiet Heavy Vehicle project. The last two are also documented in the

literature.

The designs chosen all have the common feature that the noise control ﬁlters consist

of side branch expansion chambers which were discussed in sections 2.2 and 2.3, and are

thus directly relevant in that context.

3.1. coN1roi or iN1:ir Noisr rxissioN

The problem arose in connection with a pronounced boom with a level of 85 dB(A)

and centred at 114 Hz that was experienced in the driving cab of a small pick-up truck

at full throttle with engine speeds around 3400 r.p.m. This corresponded to the ﬁring

frequency or second order (2E) of the engine rotational frequency. The boom frequency

corresponded to fast cruise in ﬁfth gear at 120 km/h and equivalent road speeds in

lower gears, with a corresponding impact on vehicle quality. Acoustic investigations

demonstrated that a strong vertical mode existed in the cabin at 120 Hz, while a

pronounced acoustic resonance occurred in the engine compartment centred around 95 Hz.

They also traced the source of the body boom to the sound emitted at the open end of

the intake pipe.

To control the intake emissions at or near 114 Hz, suﬃcient space was available in the

engine compartment to replace the 48 mm diameter intake pipe with a re-sited and

appropriately tuned expansion chamber resonator 240 mm long with a maximum diameter

of 200 mm (see section 2.2.1). The design followed the approach set out in Table 1 with

the conﬁguration shown in Figure 5(a) being used. At the local ambient conditions, the

i. o. :. i. b:virs 692

acoustic wavelength at 114 Hz is 3·07 m, giving the necessary eﬀective sidebranch acoustic

length l

s

of 0·77 m according to equations (2.2). From equation (2.3), the maximum

chamber length available suggested that an area ratio S

o

/S

i

of at least three was required,

noting that this exceeded the speciﬁed limit of two. This however provided suﬃcient

information for dimensioning an initial design to predict its installed performance with a

computer. This was found to be tuned to 160 Hz, so it was retuned to just below 120 Hz

by increasing the ratio S

o

/S

i

to 4·55. The ﬁnal design had a chamber length of 240 mm

with an outer shell internal diameter of 166 mm and a bell-mouthed intake pipe 44 or

60 mm long.

The new intake dimensions and the predicted silencer performance is shown in

Figure 6(a). Note that the bell-mouth entry was retained, although not shown by the

drawing. The improvement in the environment within the cab resulting from the cotnrol

of intake noise is illustrated in Figure 6(b), which speaks for itself!

3.2. rxn:is1 s.s1rxs vi1n iov riov iossrs

The inﬂuence of back pressure on vehicle performance and economy is clearly

established by experience. This example forms part of a feasibility study of the likely

improvements that could be obtained to these without a corresponding loss of acoustic

performance. The study was conﬁned to the lower engine size range of current production

cars, where an existing system was replaced by a new design with signiﬁcantly reduced

pressure loss. One obvious method of doing so is to increase the pipe diameter slightly,

with a corresponding signiﬁcant reduction of the ﬂow dynamic pressure. However, this

implies reduced expansion ratios for the silencer boxes with a corresponding reduction of

acoustic performance.

The speciﬁcation restricted any new exhaust system layout to following the existing route

but permitted enlargement of the boxes to occupy fully available space, but it prohibited

the use of sound absorbing packing. As well as drawings of the existing system outline,

together with any further volume expansion at the boxes, unsilenced (straight pipe) noise

spectra were supplied for a sequence of engine speeds at full load. Mass ﬂow and

temperature distributions measured with the existing system were also provided. The noise

spectra were combined to give a composite noise spectrum in one-third octave bands

rescaled to 7·5 m as shown in Figure 7(a). When all 20, say, bands are silenced to the same

level, then this should be less than 75–10 log

10

20, or 62 dB(A), to produce an overall

exhaust noise level of 75 dB(A). Upon concentrating on the ﬁrst 10 loudest ones, the

requirement becomes 65 dB(A) (see Figure 7(a)). The diﬀerence in spectral levels represents

the system attenuation required or the design aim.

The original system had two silencer boxes. The space available showed that one box

could be extended in length and subdivided to give two expansion chambers, while the

cross-section of both the original boxes could also be increased slightly. This gave an

increase in silencer volume of some 60%, which was necessary, since the volumetric

acoustic eﬃciency of straight through expansion chambers with side branches is somewhat

lower than the relatively high ﬂow loss types used in the original system. Thus with three

chambers it was possible to install a maximum of six side branches, though ﬁve were

adopted in this case, to accommodate the longest required. The length adopted in initial

design layout for this was 0·7 m calculated from equation (2.6) with f

r

=200 Hz and

c

r

=550 ms

−1

. The lengths of the other ﬁve was scaled according to equation (2.7), with

m=5.

The initial design was transferred to the computer and then optimized for acoustic

performance. Before doing so, some attention was paid to reducing back pressure by

increasing the downpipe internal diameter from 32 to 38 mm with the remainder from 35

iis1oN rNciNr iN1:ir :Nb rxn:is1 brsicN 693

Figure 6. Overall interior noise recorded at full throttle in fourth gear. (a) Predictions for modiﬁed silencer

design: ——, 40 mm intake pipe; - - -, 60 mm pipe; (b) noise measurements: - - -, normal vehicle; ——, with

optimized silencer.

to 38 mm. The ﬁrst prototype had an unacceptable performance at 800 Hz, though it was

otherwise satisfactory. The second prototype was deemed to be satisfactory, as was

conﬁrmed by the drive by test results in Figure 7(b). The system back pressure was halved,

resulting in some 20% increase in peak power and 30% improvement in fuel consumption.

The maximum interior noise levels were also reduced by 5 dB at the rear seat, though

the reason for this was not established. These improvements were accompanied by a

modest, but acceptable increase in drive by noise levels. Although the silencer boxes were

i. o. :. i. b:virs 694

Figure 7. Exhaust noise at 7·5 m. (a) Composite spectra for open pipe, adjusted to 7·5 m from outlet; (b) Drive

by measurements: ——, standard; - - -, ISVR design.

iis1oN rNciNr iN1:ir :Nb rxn:is1 brsicN 695

signiﬁcantly bulkier, the relative fabrication costs and weight increase of the new system

remained modest, due to the simple design.

3.3. snii x:iN rNciNr rxn:is1 Noisr coN1roi

As built, the passenger ship concerned was not ﬁtted with exhaust silencers on the two

main turbocharged engines, which made low frequency contributions to the excessively

noisy environment on the sun deck under cruising conditions. The generator exhausts,

which were silenced, produced noise levels from 25 to 30 dB below that of the main engines,

while the main contributions above 250 Hz came from the engine room supply fans.

Observations of the engine noise emissions with the fans switched oﬀ gave levels of around

110 dB below 50 Hz, falling oﬀ sharply above this frequency to approximately 90 and then

more slowly to 75 dB at 250 Hz. A weighted overall main engine exhaust noise level on

the sun deck was assessed at about 85 dB(A). The fans required acoustic treatment but

obviously the main engine exhausts also needed to be silenced.

The exhaust pipe was 1·1 m diameter and appropriate space for a silencer was very

restricted below deck. However, by rerouting the generator exhaust stacks a suﬃcient but

somewhat irregularly shaped space was found at the top of the funnel! This was about

4·5 m long with roughly the same cross-section as a 2·2 m diameter cylinder. During cruise

the engines ran at a set constant speed driving a variable pitch propeller, so the frequency

of the exhaust noise spectral components remained ﬁxed, though their level varied

somewhat. Full advantage was taken of this fact during the 22 design calculation trials

with diﬀerent chamber lengths and volumes, which were all tuned to attenuate the

signiﬁcant components. The details can be found in reference [14], so are not repeated here.

The most likely option with predicted overall emissions of 65 dB(A) was built and installed,

one for each engine in the corresponding funnels as shown in Figure 8. An insertion loss

of 20 dB to 64 dB(A) was achieved by each of these two simple compact side branch

expansion chamber silencers resulting in a combined contribution of 67 dB(A) from the

main engine exhausts.

3.4. 1nr iNriirNcr or riov Noisr oN :cois1ic irrrorx:Ncr

The last example concerns the development of a high acoustic performance exhaust

system for noise control during the ﬁrst Quiet Heavy Vehicle prototype development.

This was aimed at determining the technical feasibility and cost of reducing the noise

levels of heavy diesel-engine goods vehicles to levels some 10 dB(A) lower than the then

current values. Since engine surface noise presented a major problem in achieving this

goal it was decided to reduce exhaust noise emission to below the level at which its

contribution was signiﬁcant. Thus this was assigned an upper limit of 69 dB(A) [15], while

engine turbocharger performance restricted the maximum back pressure to 45 mm of

mercury.

Finding adequate space on a tractor unit for an exhaust system designed to meet this

challenging speciﬁcation presented an initial problem. Vehicle manoeuvrability precluded

mounting it in the popular position behind the cab and the only possible free space was

below the front bumper. The ﬁnal design, that would ﬁrst ﬁt within the only space available

is illustrated in Figure 9(a), consisted of two cylindrical boxes 0·25 m diameter and almost

2 m long. This layout required four sharp bends with their associated ﬂow losses. To reduce

the back pressure, the exhaust pipe diameter was increased from 100 to 125 mm at the entry

to the 180° bend, thus reducing the ﬂow dynamic pressure by a factor of 2·4 in the second

box. The initial bend design included steady ﬂow diﬀusion by distributing expansion

around the bend, but in the ﬁnal construction it was replaced by the abrupt expansion

shown, with an associated increase in pressure loss from 25 mm to 35 mm Hg.

i. o. :. i. b:virs 696

Figure 8. Insertion loss spectra. (a) Noise signature of unsilenced engine at 420 r.p.m, 3 Hz ﬁlter, NR91;

84 dB(A); (b) ——, predicted silenced spectrum at 420 r.p.m. (65 dB(A)); - - -, measured spectrum at 460 r.p.m.

(67 dB(A)); (c) insertion loss: ——, predicted at 420 r.p.m.; w, estimated from silenced measurements at

460 r.p.m.

iis1oN rNciNr iN1:ir :Nb rxn:is1 brsicN 697

Figure 9. (a) Silencer design for Foden QHV showing perforated tube sections in extended inlet and outlet

pipes (side branches). First chamber of ﬁrst silencer sheated with 3 mm asbestos and outer layer of 1·2 mm thick

aluminium sheet; (b) test bed measurements at full load, adjusted to 7·5 m; averaged for eight speeds from 1000

to 2500 r.p.m; ——, peak open pipe; - - -, omitting perforate bridges (ﬂow noise); ——, silenced, peak measured;

—×—, peak predicted.

The perforated tube sections bridging the openings between the pipe and expansion

chambers also reduced the back pressure signiﬁcantly as well as reducing ﬂow noise. The

inﬂuence of ﬂow noise is illustrated in Figure 9(b) which compares three composite

one-third octave band noise spectra, measured at eight engine speeds with full load, with

theoretical predictions, after they have all been rescaled to 7·5 m. One should also

note the good agreement between predicted and measured performance below 300 Hz,

where the relative inﬂuence of ﬂow noise is known to remain small. At any of the

speeds tested the maximum emitted exhaust noise levels at full load were 67 dB(A) with

the ﬁnal prototype design which then increased to 69 dB(A) with the ﬁnal operational

version.

i. o. :. i. b:virs 698

The choice of hole size and perforate porosity was found to have a signiﬁcant inﬂuence

on both the acoustic performance and the ﬂow generated noise. The best acoustic

performance was obtained with small holes and high porosity. Flow noise and pressure

loss also increased with both hole and size and porosity. However, a practical limit to the

minimum acceptable hole size is provided by their tendency to clog with fouling during

normal service. A fair compromise that was adopted had 3 mm diameter holes with 10%

porosity, though this was halved in one box for the operational version. The signiﬁcant

inﬂuence on silencer performance by fouling during service is described in reference [16],

where it is strongly recommended that fouling should be removed by steam cleaning during

regular maintenance so that the acoustic performance is maintained.

4. INTEGRATED SYSTEM ACOUSTIC DESIGN

An integrated procedure begins with a detailed calculation of the cyclic wave action

throughout intake, valves, cylinder and exhaust corresponding to all conditions of

engine operation. The valves and cylinder with the manifolds represent a time varying

system, while the remainder of the intake and exhaust system act mainly as a passive

acoustic ﬁlter. It is clear from previous discussion that this may not be strictly true in

practice but represents a useful ﬁrst approximation. The analysis of wave action in the time

varying components of the running engine is best performed in time. However, realistic

time domain descriptions of wave action in all those parts of the system with complex

geometry, such as acoustic ﬁlters and the like, do not currently exist. It is clear also that

realistic models of their acoustic behaviour are readily established in the frequency

domain. Since the wave motion is cyclic, a time domain description is readily Fourier

transformed to the frequency domain and vice versa. This suggests a hybrid approach to

the calculation of the integrated wave action throughout the system [1, 4] as summarized

in Table 3.

Since we are concerned with intake/exhaust system design for the control of noise

emissions, it will again be assumed that the engine already exists with relevant test data

deﬁning power output, mechanical, volumetric and thermal eﬃciency, while valve design

and manifold layout are already established. The concern here is to evaluate the wave

action for any given speed and load.

In practice any such calculations are necessarily iterative, since the time domain

calculations require realistic time varying boundary conditions at the two interfaces with

the ﬁlters. These are deﬁned in time by an appropriate Fourier transformation of the

corresponding acoustic reﬂection coeﬃcient spectra. Such acoustic calculations require

time averaged values of gas mass ﬂow and temperature. These can be calculated initially

with reference to the associated thermodynamics of the engine cycle as set out in Table 4.

The time required to calculate the wave action in the manifolds is considerably reduced

if an initial pressure distribution can be established there by an appropriate Fourier

transform of the local acoustic impedance spectrum combined with the cyclic mass or

volume velocity time history of the ﬂow through the valves. This in turn can modify the

cyclically averaged values of gas mass ﬂow and temperature at the interfaces, since these

depend on appropriate choice of the values of p

1

and T

1

in Table 4.

Practical experience [17] has already demonstrated that the hybrid approach provides

realistic narrow band predictions of intake and exhaust noise emissions, along with realistic

estimates of the engine breathing performance. Further details of the approach with the

results of some validation experiments made with a highly tuned current production engine

can be found in reference [18]. Thus, by adopting this methodology, a rational balance

may be struck between optimum engine performance and reduced noise emission. The

iis1oN rNciNr iN1:ir :Nb rxn:is1 brsicN 699

T:nir 3

Integrated hybrid description of wave action

This can be represented as a combination of wave motion in cyclically time varying parts with

wave motion in the time stationary parts. That part associated with moving boundaries and high

ﬂuctuating pressure amplitudes (non-linear processes) is best analysed in the time domain. Spectral

characteristics of acoustic ﬁlters and the sound emissions are best described in the frequency

domain.

Quasi-linear Thermodynamics Quasi-linear

acoustics non-linear acoustics

Frequency Initial conditions Frequency

analysis analysis

Interface

b.c.

Interface

b.c. Time domain

analysis

Initial conditions are deﬁned by: (i) engine cycle thermodynamics; (ii) inverse Fourier transform of

acoustic impedance spectra at interface. The boundary conditions at the interface are deﬁned by an

inverse Fourier transform of acoustic reﬂection coeﬃcient spectra.

T:nir 4

Initial estimates for acoustic assessments

Engine running at cyclic frequency fc

with compression ratio r

power output/cylinder P

intake temperature T1

intake pressure p1

swept volume/cylinder V

port or pipe area Sp

volumetric eﬃciency hn

mechanical eﬃciency hm

ideal thermal eﬃciency ht=1−r

−(g−1)

polytropic index n

For each cylinder calculate

(1) Ideal work per cycle W=P/ht hmfc ;

(2) Cycle constant K=V[r/(r−1)]{r

(n−1)

−1}/(n−1);

(3) Cycle index b=(1+W/(Kp1))

1/n

;

(4) Cyclic exhaust volume Ve=V[b(r−2)+1]/(r−1)];

(5) Exhaust temperature Te=T1b.

Values passed to acoustic programs:

Te to predict exhaust temperature distribution and to deﬁne exhaust gas propeties;

Me exhaust Mach number, Vefc /(Spc)e ;

Mi intake Mach number, Vfchn /(Spc)i .

Note: The program will provide updated values of p1, T1, also it must check that mass ﬂow and

momentum balance is maintained.

i. o. :. i. b:virs 700

resulting software has the distinct advantage of being suﬃciently compact to run eﬃciently

on a desk top computer.

4.1. o1nrr brvrioixrN1s

Sophisticated models of combustion and other factors describing notional engine

peformance already exist and form a basis for current engine design and development.

The obvious next stage is to develop a completely predictive procedure for engine

noise emissions and performance, by replacing measured engine performance data by

predictions. Some progress in this direction seems to have already been made elsewhere

[19], though relevant technical details are not available. Essentially, however, it apparently

will provide similar facilities to those already available through the hybrid approach,

although it does seem to require extensive computational resources.

5. LITERATURE ON EXHAUST SYSTEM DESIGN

The references cited here with the further references they include have been chosen to

provide an complete and adequate description of valid intake and exhaust system acoustic

modelling that is of direct relevance to design.

Much has been published by eminent authorities and others on practical or theoretical

studies of system acoustic performance and exhaust noise. Unfortunately, the material

to be found there is often of restricted value for direct application to rational design

methodology. There are a number of reasons for this. Many theoretical and experimental

studies have been concerned with transmission loss and thus have neglected the existence

of interactions between components, although experience has demonstrated that these

have a major inﬂuence on practical behaviour. Others omit essential experimental or

structural detail when reporting the results of observations [9] so the results, though

potentially useful, cannot be practically applied. For mathematical convenience others

may have concentrated on simpliﬁed theoretical modelling, to the neglect of suﬃcient

physical realism or insight, so that the solutions are not valid for practical design nor

appropriate to guide decisions during the design process. For example, the inﬂuence of

mean ﬂow on system tuning and acoustic energy transport may be neglected. Similarly,

the inevitable presence of evanescent waves at an area discontinuity may be omitted from

the theoretical modelling. Sometimes one of these factors may be included, but not the

other. Worse perhaps, some studies expound ideas or present results which are misleading.

For these reasons the references selected were deliberately restricted to those found

appropriate for intake and exhaust system design, although the list may then appear

somewhat parochial!

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author wishes to thank the referees for their helpful comments and suggestions for

improving this paper.

REFERENCES

1. P. O. A. L. D:virs and M. F. H:rrisoN 1957 Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics 15(3),

369–374. Hybrid systems for I. C. engine breathing noise synthesis.

2. P. O. A. L. D:virs 1992 ISVR Technical Report 207. Intake and exhaust noise.

3. P. O. A. L. D:virs 1988 Journal of Sound and Vibration 174, 91–115. Practical ﬂow duct

acoustics.

4. P. O. A. L. D:virs 1992 ISVR Techical Report 213. Practical ﬂow duct acoustic modelling.

iis1oN rNciNr iN1:ir :Nb rxn:is1 brsicN 701

5. J. W. Siiiiv:N and M. J. Crocirr Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 64(1), 207–215.

Analysis of concentric tube resonators having unpartitioned cavities.

6. J. W. Siiiiv:N 1979 Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 66, 772–788. A method for

modelling perforated tube muﬄer components.

7. P. O. A. L. D:virs 1993 Noise Control Engineering 40, 135–141. Realistic models for predicting

sound propagation in ﬂow duct systems.

8. P. O. A. L. D:virs 1991 Journal of Sound and Vibration 151, 333–338. Transmission matrix

representation of exhaust system acoustic characteristics.

9. G. D. C:iiov and K. S. Pr:1 1988 Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers

C19/88, 39–46. Insertion loss of engine intake and exhaust silencers.

10. P. E. Do:i 1992 Journal of Sound and Vibration 124, 945–948. Acoustic wave propagation in

a homentropic, irrotational, low Mach number mean ﬂow.

11. P. O. A. L. D:virs and P. E. Do:i 1990 Journal of Sound and Vibration 138, 345–350. Wave

transfer to and from conical diﬀusers with mean ﬂow.

12. P. O. A. L. D:virs 1981 Journal of Sound and Vibration 77, 191–209. Flow acoustic coupling

in ducts.

13. P. O. A. L. D:virs 1988 Journal of Sound and Vibration 122, 389–392. Plane wave acoustic

propagation in hot gas ﬂows.

14. P. O. A. L. D:virs 1973 Proc. I.M.A.S. 73, London, Transactions of the Institute of Marine

Engineers, 1974, Series B, 4, 59–65. Exhaust system silencing.

15. J. W. T.irr 1979 Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers 193(23), 137–147.

The TRRL Quite Heavy Vehicle Project.

16. P. M. NrisoN and M. C. P. UNbrrvoob 1982 TRRL Supplementary Report 746. Operational

performance of the TRRL quiet heavy vehicle.

17. M. F. H:rrisoN and P. O. A. L. D:virs 1994 Proceedings of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers

C487/019, 183–190. Rapid predictions of vehicle intake/exhaust noise.

18. M. F. H:rrisoN 1994 Ph.D. Thesis University of Southampton. Time and frequency domain

modelling of vehicle intake and exhaust systems.

19. M. Pr:1 1993 Noise and Vibration Worldwide (March/April), 8–11. Expert system addresses

exhaust noise and overall silencer performance.

APPENDIX A: PROTOTYPE DEVELOPENT PROGRAMME

I. Carry out realistic assessment of initial design

(i) Include (a) mass ﬂow, gas properties and temperatures etc.

(b) acoustic interaction between components

(c) all relevant geometric and structural features

(d) eﬀective acoustic models of all elements.

(ii) Identify all spectral regions of low relative attenuation.

II. Reﬁne initial design to develop ﬁrst prototype

(i) Assess relative contribution of each element to overall attenuation.

(ii) Make appropriate systematic adjustments to system layout.

(iii) Theoretically assess their eﬀect on raising attenuation performance.

(iv) Make appropriate systematic changes to element detail design.

(v) Theoretically assess their eﬀect on raising attenuation performance.

(vi) Restrict ﬂow noise and back pressure by ﬂow path improvements.

(vii) Theoretically reassess the design at all engine speeds and loads.

III. Build and test a ﬁrst prototype directly on vehicle

(i) Compare measured insertion loss or attenuation with design aim.

(ii) Identify areas requiring further improvement.

(iii) Further reﬁne design using theoretical assessments.

(iv) Assess the inﬂuence of system mounts and surface vibration on vehicle noise

(ﬂanking transmissions).

i. o. :. i. b:virs 702

IV. Test and assess second prototype etc.

Notes: (a) Uncertainties always exist due to the inﬂuence of

(i) Flow noise

(ii) Interactions with source

(iii) Flanking transmission.

(b) Tests of each prototype extend the database to guide any future

modiﬁcations.

APPENDIX B: ENGINE EXHAUST NOISE SIGNATURE MEASUREMENT

Purpose: To provide data with unsilenced or original system representing all operating

speed and load conditions, to establish an acoustic design aim.

(A) Engine installed in vehicle

Performed either with open pipe or original system. ‘A’ weighted one-third octave spectra

often recorded, or data processed to each relevant engine order.

(i) Data derived from drive by (I.S.O.) trial records.

Note: There will be contamination by other coherent sources.

(ii) Rolling road measurements obtained near exhaust pipe discharge.

Notes: (a) Pipe or system can be routed to minimize contamination.

(b) Narrow band spectral measurements possible.

(iii) Vehicle mounted microphone near exhaust outlet.

Notes: (a) Contamination by wind noise, tyre noise etc.

(b) Representative warm up and operating conditions possible.

(iv) Pipe wall mounted transducers, with digital signal capture and processing.

Note: Transducer cooling and calibration can be a problem.

(b) Test bed measurements

Advantages: Test conditions under close control with automated data capture and

processing possible.

(i) Microphone near exhaust outlet. (a) ‘‘open pipe or original system’’ (b) ‘‘new design

validation’’ results may describe an insertion loss spectrum, or improvements in

performance at the relevant engine orders.

Notes: (a) temperature gradients, etc., may not be representative

(b) a speciﬁc site environment is essential

(c) installation and operating costs may be relatively high.

(ii) Pipe wall mounted pressure transducers—digital signal capture and processing.

Notes: (a) rapid and comprehensive data capture possible,

(b) characteristics of individual components can be quantiﬁed,

(c) with appropriate test bed automation, transient and steady state behaviour

can be measured,

(d) initial system installation costs can be balanced against additional

ﬂexibility and reduced running time,

(e) ﬂuctuating pressure amplitudes high—non-linear transducer response?

(f) changes in exhaust driving signal with modiﬁed exhaust system can be

established,

(g) data may still not properly represent all actual operational conditions, e.g.,

temperature environment in system.

iis1oN rNciNr iN1:ir :Nb rxn:is1 brsicN 703

APPENDIX C: ASSESSMENT OF SOUND EMISSION FROM INTAKES

AND EXHAUSTS

C.1. iN1robic1ioN

A realistic quantitative prediction of source emission from intake or exhaust requires

relevant and reliable descriptions both of the excitation and of the resulting wave energy

transmission to the open termination. All intake and exhaust systems consist of a sequence

of pipes connecting the silencer boxes, dust ﬁlters and other essential components that

include various discontinuities either in cross-section area or wall impedance. Since any

discontinuity both reﬂects and transmits wave energy, the wave motion throughout the

system consists of positively and negatively travelling interfering waves. So long as

the transverse dimensions remain a small fraction of the signiﬁcant wavelengths, a valid

approximation is that the associated ﬂuid motion remains one-dimensional. Provided also

that the waves propagate through the pipes without a signiﬁcant change of shape, one can

adopt the acoustic approximation and describe the wave motion by linear acoustic models

in the frequency domain.

Since the emitted sound is normally described by its acoustic spectrum, descriptions of

the wave motion in terms of the complex amplitudes of each spectral component of the

ﬂuctuating acoustic pressure p and particle velocity u, as they relate to plane acoustic

wave motion, are relevant here. The corresponding complex amplitudes of each spectral

component with wavenumber k=2pf/c, or v/c, are then given by p

+

for positively and

p

−

for negatively travelling waves. With plane acoustic waves, at each frequency the

spectral component amplitudes are related by

p=p

+

+p

−

, r

0

c

0

u=p

+

−p

−

, (C1, 2)

where r

o

and c

o

are, respectively, the local ambient density and sound speed, while p, u,

p

+

and p

−

are all functions of position along the system. Equation (C1) is valid irrespective

of the presence of a steady mean ﬂow u

o

, while equation (C2) is similarly valid [3] so long

as the viscothermal eﬀects remain negligible.

One notes that waves propagate without change of shape (i.e., acoustically) only so long

as their ﬂuctuating pressure amplitude remains a small fraction of the ambient presure.

In manifolds in particular, the wave amplitude exceeds this limit by a substantial

margin. However, in practice the distance between discontinuities remains too short

for signiﬁcant wave steepening to occur, so that wave propagation there may still

be adequately described by the corresponding acoustic waves. One notes too that the

valve/manifold combination represents a time varying system so that temporal descriptions

of the wave motion are then appropriate. However, since the engine operations are cyclic

the wave motion can be analysed in time and then Fourier transformed to provide its

equivalent spectral description. Thus all discussions of wave propagation that follow

here will be expressed in terms of the relevant spectral component amplitudes p and u

or alternatively, the corresponding component wave amplitudes p

2

and calculated one

frequency at a time.

C.2. crNrr:i xobris or :cois1ic irrrorx:Ncr

As described in section 2.2, compact spectral descriptions summarizing the acoustic

behaviour of the system, or of each of its constituent elements, play an essential role

in rational system design and optimization. At each frequency, acoustic plane wave

transmission across an individual element or sequence of elements is illustrated in

Figure A1. Here S represents the source of excitation for the element or sequence T, for

which Z represents the acoustic impedance at its termination, with reﬂection coeﬃcient

r=p

−

2

/p

+

2

.

i. o. :. i. b:virs 704

Figure A1. Plane wave acoustic transmission across elements.

At each frequency, the wave components p

2

1

on the source side of T can be related to

p

2

2

on the load side by

p

+

1

=T

11

p

+

2

+T

12

p

−

1

, p

−

1

=T

21

p

+

1

T

22

p

−

2

, (C3a, b)

where T

11

, T

12

, T

21

and T

22

are the four elements of the scattering transmission matrix [T]

deﬁning the transfer. The complex values of these four elements are functions of geometry,

of the undisturbed values r

o

and c

o

, of the frequency of excitation, and of the mean ﬂow

Mach number M, but remain independent of the value of Z. Obviously equations (C1)

and (C2) imply that the ﬂuctuating acoustic pressure p

1

and velocity u

1

on the source side

of T can be related to p

2

and u

2

on the load side in terms of the corresponding impedance

transfer matrix [t] by expressions analogous to equations (C3). The relative diﬃculty of

measuring acoustic particle velocity u compared with measurements of p, combined with

the restricted validity [3] of equation (C2), suggests that the scattering matrix [T] provides

a more robust description of the measured or predicted wave transfer than does the

impedance matrix [t].

Returning to Figure A1, we see that acoustic wave transmission across T can also be

expressed in terms of the transmission coeﬃcients

T

i

=p

+

1

/p

+

2

, T

r

=p

−

1

/p

−

2

, (C4a, b)

together with the reﬂection coeﬃcient r where

r=p

−

2

/p

+

2

, or r=(z−1)/(z+1), (C5a, b)

and z=Z/rc; also note tht p

−

1

/p

+

1

=rT

r

/T

i

. The transmission coeﬃcients are related to the

elements of the scattering matrix [T] by

T

i

=T

11

+rT

12

, T

r

=(T

21

/r)+T

22

, (C6a, b)

and it is evident that T

i

and T

r

are both functions of r and hence of Z as well as of the

element’s geometry, r, c, f and M. To evaluate the elements of [T], one can easily show

[8] that calculation or measurement of T

i

and T

r

with two diﬀerent loads Za, Zb is

necessary, unless [T] possesses reciprocal properties. This cannot be true when mean ﬂow

is present, or when viscothermal or ﬂow associated losses are signiﬁcant, when evanescent

waves are present and, as it turns out, when the element is not geometrically reciprocal.

Thus transfer coeﬃcients might be preferred to transfer matrix representations, despite the

apparent convenience of the latters’ independence of the load Z. Finally, one should note

that both representations remain independent of the source of excitation, so long as it

remains external to the element.

C.3. siNcir i:r:xr1rr brscrii1ioNs

Intake and exhaust noise emission is often described in terms of the acoustic power

radiated. A more useful description for system design is provided by the acoustic power

W of each spectral component. Acoustic power is normally evaluated from measurements

or calculations of the time averaged acoustic energy ﬂux across unit area, expressed by

the acoustic intensity I. In free space, for each spectral component, I=

1

2

Re(p*u) where

* indicates the complex conjugate, and p and u are the complex amplitudes (in this

iis1oN rNciNr iN1:ir :Nb rxn:is1 brsicN 705

representation the

1

2

appears to correspond to time averaging of the real simple harmonic

signals over a period). In the present context when a mean ﬂow with Mach number u

o

/c

o

is invariably present, sound energy is also convected by the mean ﬂow. Thus within

the system and with plane acoustic waves, the spectral components of the acoustic energy

ﬂux per unit area are expressed [3] by

r

o

c

o

I=(1+M)

2

=p

+

=

2

−(1−M)

2

=p

−

=

2

, (C7)

where =p

+

=

2

and =p

−

=

2

are the squared moduli of p

+

and p

−

.

Single parameter descriptions of system acoustic performance are common. Normally

they deﬁne the acoustic attenuation of the system or element T, or of its transmission loss

index TL, or insertion loss index IL, all expressed in decibels. The transmission loss

of an acoustic element is usually deﬁned as the diﬀerence in power ﬂux in free space

between that incident on and that transmitted across it and is then an invariant property

of the element. With reference to the element T in Figure A1, after establishing anechoic

conditions by setting Z=rc or r=0, then

TL=10 log

10

[(S

1

I

1

)/(S

2

I

2

)], (C8)

where the intensity or power ﬂux may be found from equation (C7) and S

i

is the

cross-sectional area of the duct. This index neglects acoustic interaction with other system

elements, so is hardly relevant for intake or exhaust design assessments.

The insertion loss is the measured change in power ﬂux at a speciﬁed receiver, when the

acoustic transmission path between it and the source is modiﬁed by the insertion of the

element, provided that the impedances of both source and receiver remain invariant. If W

1

is the power at the receiver before the insertion of the element, and W

2

that measured or

calculated afterwards, then the insertion loss index is deﬁned by

IL=10 log

10

(W

1

/W

2

). (C9)

In practice it is normally necessary to provide a reference duct system of known

performance to measure or calculate W

1

and then repeat this procedure with the element

or system of interest. This also implies that the source impedance should be known and

invariant. Since the impedance presented at the source by the reference system will

normally diﬀer from that under test, due compensation to the results may be necessary

to account for any corresponding changes to the source when its impedance is not

eﬀectively inﬁnite.

A simple index of performance, which remains independent of an external source, but

is dependent only on the acoustic characteristics of the system with its operating load Z,

is the attenuation index AL expressed as

AL=20 log

10

=T

i

=, (C10)

which can provide a convenient guide when the source impedance is unknown.

C.4. :cois1ic rxci1:1ioN or iN1:ir or rxn:is1 s.s1rxs

The transfer of acoustic energy or sound power from the source to the system is strongly

inﬂuenced by the acoustic impedance or load that the system presents to the source. The

acoustic characteristics of both system and source are functions of the frequency so the

discussion that follows here applies strictly to each spectral component although it also

applies in general to all of them. The acoustic circuit corresponding to Figure A1 has been

extended to include two representations of the source in Figure A2.

In the acoustic circuit of Figure A2(a) the source is now represented by one spectral

component of ﬂuctuating volume velocity with root mean square value V

s

and associated

i. o. :. i. b:virs 706

Figure A2. Acoustic representation of sources driving a system.

internal eﬀective shunt impedance Z

e

, while the corresponding system impedance at the

source plane Z

1

=p

1

/u

1

. This representation corresponds say to ﬂuctuating mass injection

with an eﬀective volume velocity V

s

=u

s

S

s

. One notes that at the source plane the circuit

model represents continuity of pressure with the soure strength equated to a discontinuity

of volume velocity. Thus this is equivalent to an acoustic monopole source in free space.

The power output of this source is given by

W

r

=Re{p*

1

V

s

}==V

2

s

=Re{Z

1

/(1+Z

1

/Z

e

)}/S

s

, (C11a, b)

where the * represents the complex conjugate. Alternatively, when the source is associated

with ﬂuctuating aerodynamic forces, the circuit model of Figure A2(b) now represents the

continuity of velocity u

s

across the source plane with the source strength f

s

equated to the

discontinuity of pressure (P

s

−p

1

) acting over area S

s

, or (P

s

−p

1

)S

s

. This is equivalent to

an acoustic dipole source in free space. The power output is given by

W

f

=Re{ f *

s

u

s

}== f

2

s

=Re{M

I

}, (C12a, b)

where the input ‘‘mobility’’ M

I

=u

s

/f

s

, which also equals 1/Z

e

S

s

for the circuit in

Figure A2(b). Analogous expressions can be derived for the sources of excitation by mixing

noise associated with turbulent shear layers.

In practice, the source of excitation may include a combination of factors related to

ﬂuctuating mass, to ﬂuctuating force and to ﬂow turbulence. In all such cases the

associated acoustic power delivered by the source to the system depends on the magnitude

of the source impedance among other factors, while the acoustic emission from the open

termination to the surroundings depends also on the eﬃciency [4] of power transfer

through it. To illustrate the inﬂuence of the source and system impedance on such

emissions, consider again the acoustic circuit of Figure A2(a). At the source plane the mass

ﬂux balance is given by

u

1

=u

s

−p

1

/Z

e

, or Z

e

u

s

=p

1

+r

o

c

o

u

1

z

e

, (C13a, b)

where z

e

=Z

e

/r

o

c

o

. Substituting for p

1

and r

o

c

o

u

1

in terms of the corresponding wave

component amplitudes p

2

1

from equations (C1, 2) into equation (C13b) and then making

use of equations (C4a, b) and equation (C5b), one obtains

p

+

2

=Z

e

u

s

/[(1+z

e

)T

i

+(1−z

e

)rT

r

]. (C14)

iis1oN rNciNr iN1:ir :Nb rxn:is1 brsicN 707

If W

1

is the observed reference power and W

2

is the observed power with system T

2

, when a

reference system T

1

is replaced by another system T

2

, provided the termination impedance

Z and thus r remain constant and also similarly for Z

e

and u

s

, one ﬁnds that

(W

1

/W

2

)==(p

+

2

)

1

/(p

+

2

)

2

=

2

, (C15)

which can be substituted for (W

1

/W

2

) in equation (C9) deﬁning the insertion loss index.

This is a common and convenient description of system performance.

C.5. soiNb iroi:c:1ioN :ioNc iN1:irs :Nb rxn:is1s

A physically realistic analysis of sound propagation along intakes and exhausts must

begin with a complete analytical model of the associated ﬂuid motion: that is, the equations

of mass, linear momentum and energy transport, with those describing the relevant ﬂuid

properties and the geometrical and surface properties of the boundaries. Useful and

suﬃciently valid descriptions are obtained by assuming that the transfer processes remain

isentropic and that the system is time invariant. With the acoustic approximation, sound

propagation along the regular elements or pipes, can then be described by a linearized wave

equation [3, 10] that may normally be Fourier transformed on the time t to describe the

associated spectral characteristics. This procedure is described for plane wave propagation

in Data sheet 1 (Data sheets 1–5 follow Appendix D).

Similar spectral descriptions of wave transfer across discontinuities may also be derived

[3] by matching the associated ﬂuid motion over appropriate surfaces on either side of the

discontinuity, which together with any relevant ﬁxed boundaries form a control volume.

The equations expressing conservation of mass, energy and momentum are then expressed

in integral form [3, 11]. The processes associated with the boundary conditions may include

losses as well as the generation of non-propagating (evanescent) higher order modes, whose

inﬂuence (normally reactive) must be included. One classical method of doing so it by the

addition of an appropriate end correction [3] at such junctions. This general procedure is

set out in Data sheet 2, with applications to open terminations, expansions with losses,

and expansions and contractions with side branches, respectively, in Data sheets 3–5. These

summarize part of the analysis set out in reference [3], so further details and other examples

may be found there.

It has already been shown in equations (C6) that sound propagation along any acoustic

component is always controlled, amongst other factors, by the impedance of its

termination. Therefore it is logical to begin the acoustic analysis from its open termination,

where the reﬂection coeﬃcient (see Data sheet 3), or the associated impedance is simply

calculated. This then deﬁnes the termination impedance of the system component nearest

to the open end. Its input impedance then becomes the termination impedance for the next

adjacent component and so on. Thus, in contrast to what one might expect the calculation

of sound propagation along the system should begin at an open termination and proceed

in sequence along the elements towards the source.

When the source characteristics are known, system acoustic performance can be

expressed as insertion loss, as deﬁned by equation (C9). If they have not been speciﬁed,

which is usually the case, the relative acoustic performance may be expressed in terms

of the system attenuation or equation (C10). Note that transmission loss, since it omits

the inﬂuence of the termination, is not a relevant index here. Note too that such

calculations rarely include the inﬂuence of ﬂow noise generated by turbulence and

separating ﬂow elsewhere along the system. All acoustic performance predictions are

subjected to uncertainties, to the extent that ﬂow noise and the primary source

characteristics remain undeﬁned, in addition to any other deﬁciencies in the acoustic

modelling.

i. o. :. i. b:virs 708

APPENDIX D: LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS

a duct radius

c speed of sound

d pipe internal diameter

eij end correction at area discontinuities

f cyclic frequency

F ﬂuid boundary forces, fs ﬂuid force acting at source

h speciﬁc enthalpy

I acoustic intensity

k wavenumber, v/c

L length, characteristic length

l acoustic length

M Mach number uo /co

MI source mobility us /fs

m number of side branches

n polytropic index

P mechanical power

Pr Prandtl number for acoustic medium

p pressure

RM reﬂection coeﬃcient modulus at Mach number M

r pressure reﬂection coeﬃcient, compression ratio

S cross-section area

s ﬂuctuating entropy

T system element

Tij elements of scattering matrix [T]

Ti , Tr , forward and backward transmission coeﬃcients

TK, To ambient absolute temperature

u ﬂuid velocity

V control volume

Vs source volume velocity

W acoustic power

X component length

x axial displacement

Z acoustic impedance p/u

a visco-thermal factor

b complex wavenumber

g ratio of the speciﬁc heats

d pressure perturbation associated with ﬂuctuating entropy

z speciﬁc impedance ratio Z/rc

h eﬃciency

l acoustic wavelength

n kinematic viscosity

r density

v radian frequency 2pf

Subscripts

c chamber, or cyclic

i inner annulus

p pipe

r reference, averaged

o ambient value, outer annulus

s source, side branch

DATA SHEET 1: ACOUSTIC WAVE PROPAGATION ALONG FLOW DUCTS

A uniform pipe of length l, radius a, and mean ﬂow at Mach number M=u

o

/c

o

is

illustrated in Figure A3. Dynamic equilibrium for ﬂuctuations when u(x, t)=u

o

+u, etc,

iis1oN rNciNr iN1:ir :Nb rxn:is1 brsicN 709

Figure A3. Uniform pipe with mean ﬂow.

is expressed by

r

o

[1/1t+u

o

(1/1x)]u

+

=−1p

+

/1x, r

o

[1/1t+u

o

1/1x]u

−

=−1p

−

/1x.

This is satisﬁed at any x by

p

+

(x, t)=p

+

(0) exp i(vt−k

+

x), u

+

(x, t)=u

+

(0) exp i(vt−k

+

x),

p

−

(x, t)=p

−

(0) exp i(vt+k

−

x), u

−

(x, t)=u

−

(0) exp i(vt+k

−

x),

where k

+

=v/(c

o

+u

o

) and k

−

=v/(c

o

−u

o

). Also

p(x, t)=p

+

x

+p

−

x

, r

o

c

o

u(x, t)=p

+

x

−p

−

x

p(x, t)=p

+

(0) exp i(Mk*x)[exp(−ik*x)+r

o

exp(ik*x)] exp(i vt).

where k*=(k

+

+k

−

)/2=(v/c

o

)/(1−M

2

)=k/(1−M

2

). This represents a progressive and

interfering wave motion, with node spacing deﬁned by k*.

reﬂection coeﬃcients: r

o

=p

−

(0)/p

+

(0), r

x

=p

−

x

/p

+

x

=(zx−1)/(zx+1);

impedances: Z

o

=p(0)/u(0), Z

x

=p

x

/u

x

=r

o

c

o

(p

+

x

+p

−

x

)/(p

+

x

−p

−

x

),

zx=Z

x

/r

o

c

o

=(1+r

x

)/(1−r

x

);

transmission coeﬃcients: T

i

=p

+

e

/p

+

o

, T

r

=p

−

e

/p

−

o

.

Note: with viscothermal wave attenuation, replace k by b, where b=v/c

o

+a(1−i),

a=(1/ac

o

)(vn/2)

0.5

[1+(g−1)Pr

−0.5

], in which n is the kinematic viscosity and Pr the Prandtl

number. Then

p(x, t)=p

+

x

+p

−

x

, r

o

c

o

u(x, t)=d

+

p

+

x

−d

−

x

p

−

x

.

where

d

2

=[k+a(1−i)]/[k3Ma(1−i)].

DATA SHEET 2: WAVE COMPONENT TRANSFER AT DISCONTINUITIES

Given the geometry, M, T, p

+

2

, p

−

2

, to ﬁnd p

+

1

and p

−

1

where mean variables are p

o

, r

o

,

u

o

etc, acoustic ﬂuctuations, p, r, u, etc.

Follow a sequence of analytical steps.

(1) Identify and prescribe a relevant control volume V, with surface S.

(2) For the volume V set out the integral relations describing:

(i) conservation of mass f

S

r'u' dS=0 where r'=r

o

+r, u'=u

o

+u;

(ii) conservation of energy f

S

[h'+(u')

2

/2 ] dS; note; with isentropic processes

r=p/c

2

o

, enthalpy, h'=h

o

+p/r

o

+T

o

s and with ﬂuctuating entropy, s=(−1/

r

o

T

o

)d/(g−1), r=(p+d)/c

2

o

;

i. o. :. i. b:virs 710

(iii) momentum ﬂux balance f

S

[r'(u')

2

+p'] dS=a F=0, with ﬁxed boundaries.

Otherwise a F represents applied boundary forces.

(3) Subtract the terms relating to the mean motion from (i), (ii) and (iii).

(4) Discard ﬂuctuating terms of order higher than the ﬁrst (acoustic approximation).

(5) Express ﬂuctuating velocity u, density r and pressure p in terms of the equivalent

progressive component wave amplitudes p

+

and p

−

.

(6) Satisfy all relevant conditions at ﬁxed boundaries. With rigid boundaries the

component of u' normal to it will be zero. Either, (i) add appropriate set of

evanescent higher order modes, or (ii) add appropriate end corrections, an eﬀective

procedure.

(7) The result will be a set of three equations expressing p

+

1

and p

−

1

in terms of p

+

2

, p

−

2

and d. With isentropic processes, d=0, so that (i) with either (ii) or (iii) are suﬃcient.

Otherwise, eliminate d ﬁrst, to give two new equations in terms of p

+

2

and p

−

2

alone.

(8) Solve for p

+

1

and p

−

1

in terms of p

+

2

and p

−

2

.

(9) Evaluate T

i

, T

r

, r

1

, for given r

2

=p

−

2

/p

+

2

.

DATA SHEET 3: PLANE WAVE REFLECTION AT AN OPEN UNFLANGED PIPE

The end of the pipe illustrated in Figure A4 is at −l

o

, where r=R

M

exp iu=

−R

M

exp(−2ikl

M

).

With zero mean ﬂow and plane waves, pipe radius a, 0QkaQ1·8:

(a) with kaQ0·5, l

o

/a=0·6133−0·1168(ka)

2

; 0·5QkaQ2, l

o

/a=0·6393−0·1104ka;

(b) R

o

=1+0·01336 ka−0·59079(ka)

2

+0·33756(ka)

3

−0·6432(ka)

4

.

Figure A4. (a) An open unﬂanged pipe and end correction; (b) the modulus RM of the reﬂection coeﬃcient

r, as a function of Helmholtz number ka, for inﬂow and for outﬂow when RM=Rof(M).

iis1oN rNciNr iN1:ir :Nb rxn:is1 brsicN 711

With inﬂow at Mach number aMq0 (with smooth inﬂow a=1)

(a) 0QMQ0·4, l

M

=l

o

[1−M

2

];

(b)

6

0QMQ0·4

0QaMQ0·6

7

R

M

=R

o

[(1−aM)/(1+aM)]

0·9

.

With separating inﬂow, pressure loss coeﬃcient K

p

, a=1+(0·4K

p

)

0·5

.

With outﬂow at Mq0,

(a) (i) l

M

=l

o

or (ii) l

M

=l

o

[1−M

2

], data inconclusive:

(b) R

M

=R

o

f(M), see plots above.

A rather complex power series ﬁt deﬁning f(M) exists.

Note that the evaluation of k and M requires the appropriate sound speed c

o

corresponding to the local gas thermodynamic conditions.

DATA SHEET 4: TRANSFER CONDITIONS AT A FLOW DUCT EXPANSION

The control volume V is a plane at x, where Figure A5(b) shows mean velocity and

Figure A5(c) acoustic pressure distribution. Note u

r

/u

o

01, p/p¯01, where p¯ is the average

acoustic pressure.

For the ﬂuctuating quantities, the acoustic approximation gives

A. Conservation of mass:

g

S

1

(r

o

u+u

o

r)

1

dS

1

=

g

S

2

(r

o

u+u

o

r)

2

dS

2

.

With wave component amplitudes, M=u

o

/c

o

, this becomes

[(1+M)p

+

1

−(1−M)p

−

1

]S

1

=(S

2

+S

1

M)p

+

2

−(S

2

−S

1

M)p

−

2

+dS

1

M.

B. Conservation of energy:

g

S

1

(T

o

s+p/r

o

+u

o

u)

1

dS

1

=

g

S2

(T

o

s+p/r

o

+u

o

u)

2

dS

2

.

Figure A5. Transfer conditions at a ﬂow duct expansion.

i. o. :. i. b:virs 712

With wave component amplitudes, and r

o

constant, this becomes

(1+M)p

+

1

+(1−M)p

−

1

=(1+M)p

+

2

+(1−M)p

−

2

−d/(g−1).

C. Momentum balance: Since V:0, M0constant, p/p¯01·0, and

[(ru

2

o

+2r

o

u

o

u)

2

−(ru

2

o

+2r

o

u

o

u)

1

]S

1

=p

1

S

1

−p

2

S

2

+p

3

S

3

.

With wave component amplitudes, since (p

+

3

+p

−

3

)S

3

=(p

+

2

+p

−

2

)S

3

this gives

[(1+M(M+2))p

+

1

+(1+M(M−2))p

−

1

]S

1

=[M(M+2)p

+

2

+M(M−2)p

−

2

+dM

2

]S

1

.

Note distribution of p

1

, p

2

, p

3

, across plane at x, from Figure A5(c). With isentropic

processes, d=0, so that equation (A) with either (B) or (C) deﬁnes wave transfer neglecting

evanescent waves. To include these by adopting end corrections, see Data sheet 5.

DATA SHEET 5: WAVE TRANSFER ACROSS EXPANSIONS AND CONTRACTIONS

WITH SIDEBRANCHES

Figure A6 shows the geometry for calculation of component wave transfers across a

discontinuity.

With pipe radius a

1

, chamber hydraulic radius a

2

, one has the following steps.

Step 1: Calculate end correction e

21

=0·63a

1

{1−exp[−(1−a

2

/a

1

)/1·5]}.

Step 2: Calculate side branch acoustic lengths, with physical length L at (a), l

3

=[L

3

+e

21

]

at (b), l

3

=−[L

3

+e

21

].

Step 3: Calculate side branch reﬂection coeﬃcients r

3

at (a), r

3

=exp(2ikl

3

)/r

o

at (b),

r

3

=r

o

exp(−2ikl

3

).

Step 4: Evaluate p

3

=p

+

3

+p

−

3

=p

+

3

(1+r

3

), u

3

=p

+

3

(1−r

3

)r

o

c

o

.

Step 5: For control volume V, note that over V, p

2

=p

3

=p

1

, and so for mass

g

S

1

(r

o

u+u

o

r)

1

dS

1

+

g

S

3

r

o

u

3

dS

3

=

g

S

2

(r

o

u+u

o

r)

2

dS

2

,

and for energy

g

S

1

(T

o

s+p/r

o

+u

o

u)

1

dS

1

=

g

S

2

(T

o

s+p/r

o

+u

o

u)

2

dS

2

=

g

S

3

(p

3

/r

o

)dS

3

;

when processes are not isentropic include a momentum balance; see Data sheet 4.

Step 6: Express the three (or four) equations in terms of component waves,

p=p

+

+p

−

, r

o

c

o

u=p

+

−p

−

, r=(p

+

+p

−

)/c

2

o

(if isentropic).

Step 7: Use p

+

3

(1+r

3

)=p

+

2

+p

−

2

to eliminate u

3

=(p

+

2

+p

−

2

)(1−r

3

)/(1+r

3

).

Step 8: Solve for p

+

1

and p

−

1

in terms of p

+

2

and p

−

2

for (a), or vice versa for (b).

Step 9: Evaluate T

i

, T

r

etc, for known complex amplitudes p

+

2

and p

−

2

; see Figure A1.

Note: For a complete chamber calculate transfer from (b) to (a) using Data sheet 1.

With intakes transfer will be from (a) to (b).

Figure A6. Geometry for calculation of component wave transfers across a discontinuity. (a) Expansion;

(b) contraction.

678

. . . .

Figure 1. Muﬃer development scheme.

The design process includes a careful tuning of all components of the intake/exhaust system that inﬂuence noise emission with optimized matching of these to the engine operational and breathing characteristics that inﬂuence pollutant emissions, performance and economy. Together, these objectives can involve conﬂicting requirements, implying that integrated design procedures are strongly desirable, if not essential. Starting with an existing or notational system layout, an integrated assessment of the various performance aspects begins with a detailed evaluation of the cyclic wave action throughout the intake, valves, cylinder and exhaust corresponding to all likely conditions of engine operation [1]. This information may then be processed appropriately to assess current system performance in terms of the various design objectives, to provide a rational basis for systematic optimization of the design by implementing appropriate modiﬁcations to its constituent elements. Aerodynamic processes associated with the cyclic ﬂow through valves together with ﬂow separation and vortex generation at junctions, expansions and the like provide the signiﬁcant sources of inlet and exhaust noise through transfers of ﬂow energy to wave energy. The acoustic characteristics of the corresponding intake and exhaust ducts have a direct inﬂuence on the extent and eﬃciency of such energy transfer [2], as well as controlling sound propagation along the ducts and sound emissions from their open terminations. Thus one ﬁnds that intake or exhaust noise emission can be controlled or modiﬁed by incorporating appropriate acoustically related geometrical and other features, either to minimize the energy transfer from sources or to attenuate the sound as it propagates through the system. This provides a fundamental base for intake/exhaust system design methodology. The spectral characteristics of the exhaust signal are normally dominated by an extensive sequence of discrete tones that are harmonically related to the engine ﬁring frequency. In many instances the bulk of the acoustic energy from the primary source is distributed among the lower frequency components that may be diﬃcult to control. Signiﬁcant intake noise emission is sometimes restricted to the ﬁrst two or three such harmonics. Both practical experience and acoustic theory suggest that the spectral content of the acoustic

679

emissions of both intake and exhaust systems is strongly controlled by their acoustic characteristics: that is, their spectral behaviour as an acoustic ﬁlter, which is readily evaluated in the frequency domain. The noise emissions are also scaled in amplitude by the cyclic ﬂow through the valves that provides the primary sources, which clearly are best evaluated in the time domain. However, since such engine operations are cyclic, the valve ﬂow time histories can be subsequently Fourier analyzed to provide the corresponding spectral representation. Furthermore, noise emission measurements with the associated subjective and legislative assessments are normally performed in the frequency domain, and described in terms of the relevant spectral characteristics. Similar descriptions will be adopted in the discussion of acoustic behaviour presented here. One notes that an alternative description, commonly adopted during vehicle development, is to classify the observed sound emissions into a sequence of harmonic orders of the engine rotational frequency, each member covering the whole range of operating speed at either full or part load. Such descriptions remain speciﬁc to each particular engine conﬁguration: for example, with a four-cylinder four-stroke engine the signiﬁcant orders are the second, fourth and so on and, although related to it, do not necessarily directly represent the overall acoustic performance of the intake or exhaust system. The intake/exhaust system design process begins with the adoption of an appropriate methodology or design strategy. There are a number of alternative approaches, but all must take due account of the fact that the individual system elements, such as manifolds, pipes, junctions, silencing elements and the like all interact acoustically [3, 4]. Thus changes in the detail of one element may modify the combined acoustic behaviour of the remainder, and in particular, the acoustic characteristics of any sources that excite the system. See for example, Apendix C. 1.1. / The primary aim of intake and exhaust system acoustic design is to minimize both the acoustic power transfer from the source and then its transmission along the system to the open termination where it is radiated. This forms the major consideration in what follows herein. However, depending on the application, other factors have a direct inﬂuence on the design of each individual system, together with the appropriate procedures for its realization. These include space, geometrical and operational constraints, unit cost, reliability, durability and complexity, subjective reaction to emitted spectral characteristics (noise quality) etc. Of this list, the inﬂuence of space constraints on acoustic design options always requires consideration, due to the practical restrictions it imposes. In the past, successful silencer system design and development has been largely empirical, guided by a wealth of practical experience. A common situation concerns an existing engine with its intake and exhaust system which has either been uprated or installed in a new vehicle, resulting in the need for a systematic sequence of design changes, or modiﬁcations of detail, to meet noise emission standards. However, such an approach is often expensive in terms of manpower, time and other resources since each modiﬁed system must be fabricated and tested before its performance can be assessed. With a new engine or design project this ‘‘cut and try’’ approach to acoustic design can be tedious and prohibitively expensive, while lacking a corresponding level of conﬁdence that an optimum or even a satisfactory result will be achieved. Such considerations have led to the development of more rationally based acoustic design strategies where validated acoustic modelling [3–5] guided by insight and experience is harnessed to the computing power of modern desk top computers to reﬁne an existing design or develop a new one. As summarized in Table 1 it consists of ﬁve basic steps, the

2.680 .g. with that of its constituent elements. Otherwise. 1. . so the majority of the discussion presented here will be concerned with this approach. (iii) Build and validate second prototype and so on. Step V Prototype validation or development (i) Build and validate ﬁrst prototype.. Step IV (a) Assess acoustic performance of initial design. Despite the obvious advantages of an integrated approach to intake/exhaust system design. and the fourth with performance assessment. Note: with one oﬀ and large industrial applications the procedure ends with this design. noise emissions. to which an existing of modiﬁed intake and exhaust system has been attached. then (b) Optimize by introducing systematic changes in detail (i) Use interactive computer programme. a basic understanding of the acoustic behaviour of the system as a whole. power optimization etc. and appropriate computer software for realistic acoustic modelling and performance prediction. Note: one or two such iterations is normally suﬃcient. ﬁrst two concerned with data assembly and speciﬁcation of an appropriate design aim. or (ii) Data sheets guided by past experience. So the design development is concerned only with those parts of the system attached to the intake and exhaust manifold ﬂanges. Step III Develop an initial system design (i) Based on simple models of component acoustic behaviour. . current procedures treat the two systems independently. One notes that the basic requirements of such a design procedure include facilities for noise measurements. and then system reﬁnement guided by more realistic computer-based calculations or their equivalent. Appropriate procedures for piston engine noise emission measurements are summarized in Appendix B. (iii) installation physical and geometric constraints (iv) gas inﬂows and temperatures (v) engine operational features and constraints Step II Establish design aim appropriate for current application e. (iii) or on bench test data for sets of ‘‘standard’’ components. pollutant emissions. This is based on noise emission measurements with an existing engine including its intake and exhaust manifolds. adjusted for ﬂow and temperature. . T 1 Rational silencer design procedures Step I Assemble relevant data (i) existing noise signature (ii) required noise levels etc. The last step concerns the development and testing of a prototype system along the lines of the procedure summarized in Appendix A. Note: such requirements normally conﬂict. The third step is concerned with the development of an initial design. when necessary (ii) Reﬁne the design guided by new data from (i) with appropriate theoretical predictions. fuel economy. while the whole process applied to the design of an exhaust system was illustrated in Figure 1. (ii) or on data sheets and nomograms which codify and summarize experience. One notes that such measurements require appropriate consideration of any contamination by acoustic sources that are harmonically related to .

Gas temperature is of particular importance both in acoustic design and performance assessment since the local value of the speed of sound has a direct inﬂuence on the acoustic behaviour of each element. Other relevant data include the corresponding cyclically averaged mass ﬂow of air and exhaust gas. with the routes for connecting pipes including bends etc. and also depends on the local physical properties of the gas which also vary with temperature. which then connect with a second ﬂow reversing expansion. lengths and cross-section areas that are available for silencing units. which may be packaged together to form a complete silencer box or unit. but one should note that these will have a signiﬁcant inﬂuence on their ‘‘installed’’ acoustic behaviour (see. Essentially this consists of a series of uniform pipes connecting geometrically complex elements. with its acoustic behaviour. Thus the triﬂow unit in Figure 2. the control of intake or exhaust noise emissions for automotive application involves making the choice of appropriate silencer units. reliable and repetititive measurements of exhaust noise signature may be subject to uncertainties associated with the small but signiﬁcant ﬂuctuations in engine speed and combustion conditions that are found to occur during practical testing. As indicated in Figure 1. even on a test bed. are illustrated in Figure 2. including silencers. It turns out that virtually any complex geometry. One can see that some geometric features such as expansion chambers and perforated pipes are normally common to them all. 681 engine ﬁring frequency but not to intake or exhaust noise. etc. where TK is the gas temperature. One notes too that realistic measurement of intake noise signatures can present special problems in avoiding contamination by other sources. To complete the data set for a speciﬁc application. Appendix C2) and thus on the overall system performance. that are spaced along the ﬂow path from the primary source of excitation at the valves to an open termination where the sound is radiated. that is the ﬁrst two steps in Table 1. The corrected noise measurements are then appropriately processed to establish the increase in acoustic performance required for the new design. while others such as baﬄes. with the associated temperatures throughout the system. one requires the relevant geometrical constraints deﬁning volumes. conﬁgured to ﬁt within the spaces allocated for them during initial vehicle layout. 2. for example. The acoustic behaviour of an element at a frequency f is also strongly related to the corresponding acoustic wavelength l=c/f (a list of symbols and abbreviations is given in Appendix D). Some common generic types. will only feature in some of them. ﬁbrous sound absorbing packing. The ‘‘tailpipes’’ connecting each chamber or silencing element to its successor have been omitted. Similarly. . ACOUSTIC DESIGN DEVELOPMENT A rational acoustic design depends on a clear understanding of the acoustic behaviour of the individual system elements as well as that of the system as a whole. The next two steps concern the development of an appropriate acoustic design followed by its optimization and validation in step ﬁve. for example. The speed of sound c is proportional to zTK . This then covers the collection of the data and the establishment of the design aim in terms of the increase in system acoustic performance required. The acoustic characteristics of both the system and its individual elements are determined primarily by their geometry. These include a perforated pipe leading to a ﬂow reversing expansion chamber with an attached resonator which is followed by two more perforated pipes acting acoustically both in series and in parallel with the ﬁrst. or acoustic ﬁlters. as well as any contamination by other background noise. can be modelled as a train of simple elements operating in sequence or in parallel. in degrees Kelvin. can be broken down into a sequence of simple elements.

Considerable simpliﬁcation of the acoustic modelling of their behaviour [3. Silencer chamber types. while that of the intake and exhaust systems and of their individual elements is also reactive to a variable extent. rather than the measured behaviour of the individual elements. a simple parametric description of their overall acoustic performance is not normally possible. The acoustic behaviour of most intake and exhaust system elements is essentially reactive. An outline of such modelling techniques and the associated performance prediction is set out in Appendix C. 2. . Since the elements interact acoustically with each other. Reactive spectral behaviour is cyclic. Since several lengths are thus involved simultaneously. The appropriate lengths for most of the examples in Figure 2 include that of the expansion. or may be calculated by using appropriate analytic modelling [3–11]. exhibiting attenuation minima each time an acoustically signiﬁcant length corresponds to an integer multiple of half the acoustic wavelength of the excitation. . The ﬁlter characteristics of each silencer unit are often established by measurement and recorded on data sheets. . particularly when the inﬂuence of the tail-pipe and its termination impendance is included. Analytic models for the elements illustrated in Figure 2 can be found there. the tail-pipe and the lengths of any side-branches. as illustrated in Figures 3 and 4. Wave reﬂection occurs at the junctions between each element.1. realistic acoustic performance prediction for the system is often more appropriately calculated with the analytic models. but separated ﬂow or ﬂow reversal. that is as acoustic disturbances. so the associated ﬂuid motion consists of interfering waves superimposed on a mean ﬂow. Figure 2.682 . perforations. ﬁbrous packing and baﬄes may all enhance the resistive contribution to their performance in roughly the order listed. 4] is obtained by assuming that the positively and negatively travelling component wave motions are plane and propagate without change of shape. . Thus the acoustic behaviour of all pipes is reactive. or in references [3–8].

2. With stationary piston engines this correspondence can often be avoided by appropriate design. The relative eﬃciency of packed silencers is roughly proportional to the packing density. They are also relatively heavy and may cause suspension problems or may excite mechanical vibration of the vehicle structure. In automotive applications the overall acoustic performance is controlled by the attenuation minima. while they normally exhibit low back pressure. On the other hand. low porosity implies high through-ﬂow losses. or a sequence of nomograms. relatively compact and have a high relative acoustic eﬃciency. and so can have relatively better low frequency attenuation performance for the same overall dimensions. which acts in a similar manner to the resonator included in the triﬂow muﬄer example. particularly at higher frequencies. The relative acoustic eﬃciency of snubber. 2. Vortex shedding at the ﬂow reversals may also introduce signiﬁcant ﬂow noise. so the performance at attenuation minima can be improved by enhancing this factor in the design. Cross-ﬂow silencers are obviously more compact that the other type. etc. Triﬂow muﬄers are popular. whenever these correspond to one of the frequenies of excitation. which often tend to be high. 683 However. The acoustic inﬂuence of perforated pipes diminishes as the porosity increases while observation suggests it becomes negligible with grazing ﬂow at Mach numbers less than 0·2 when the porosity rises above 15%. so a formulation of the most eﬀective practical conﬁguration may be diﬃcult. is discussed in the next section. Their behaviour remains signiﬁcantly reactive so that high acoustic eﬃciency is often restricted to speciﬁc sections of the frequency spectrum. in correspondence with the acoustic properties of the pack. of spectral descriptions of either measured or calculated attenuation performance. Acoustic resonance is damped by adding resistance. Back pressure losses are directly related to the changes in ﬂow momentum at ﬂow reversal and vary as the square of the engine speed. Note that when such measured data is used for . Their behaviour also tends to be strongly reactive at low frequencies so regions of poor attenuation performance are often improved by adding resonators to the ﬂow reversal chambers. thus they can lead to undesirable reductions in peak engine performance. Such descriptions can take the form of simpliﬁed analytic models as set out in Appendix C2. Finally. Since space is often restricted the lowest frequency components are normally the most diﬃcult to control. the ﬂow resistance of the pack and the other acoustic properties of the ﬁbrous material. performance charts. The acoustic behaviour of expansion chambers which include side branch resonators forming the bottom group in Figure 2. - Simpliﬁed representations of the approximate acoustic performance of silencer units are clearly of direct assistance when laying out an initial system design. The acoustic performance at low frequencies can be enhanced by adding a folded side branch. Their attenuation performance tends to rise signiﬁcantly with increasing frequency. these silencer types can be signiﬁcant sources of ﬂow noise. but tends to deteriorate in service due to fouling and disintegration of the pack. baﬄe or cross-ﬂow silencers is closely related to the back presure or ﬂow losses they generate. The observations concerning the acoustic behaviour of perforated pipes also apply to these units. their general ranking in terms of relative attenuation per unit volume and relative pressure loss or back pressure has been established from experience. Their relative volumetric eﬃciency can be high. They generally exhibit the lowest back pressure. as indicated in the example in Figure 2.

(a) Expansion chamber transfer: SPL1-SPL2. . . (c) sidebranch transfer: SPL1-SPL2. . 20 log(Sc /Sp )=15·9. 20 log(Sc /Sp )=15·9. (b) tail or connecting pipe transfer: SPL1-SPL2. exhaust system design it should be appropriately rescaled to compensate for any change of sound speed and wavelength with temperature. In all cases the information is most useful when it relates the attenuation spectrum and similar acoustic characteristics to the relevant geometric and structural features of the silencing element.684 . Figure 3. (b) with two sidebranches: Xs (1)=(0·5 Xp . Xs (2)=0·5Xs (1). . Xp /Xc=1. Approximate acoustic performance. Figure 4. This normally applies only to simple systems. Attenuation of expansion chambers. (a) Xp=Xc .

1) for the allocation of expansion chamber or tail-pipe lengths Xc . The overall acoustic behaviour is the result of a summation of the interacting contributions from all constituent components of the silencer or muﬄer unit. where possible. 2. is also of practical interest. Xc /i$Xp /j. it is clearly unacceptable. Xp during the initia design layout. One notes too that the maximum attenuation of all three components of expansion chambers occurs when X/l=n/4. deﬁned say as the proportion of the frequency interval between minima that the attenuation spectrum exceeds half its maximum value. one should avoid such coincidences by satisfying the following inequality. One notes that the attenuation spectra for the chamber and the tail or connecting pipe follow an identical pattern of repeated maxima and minima. When this is compared with Figure 4(a) the marked improvement in attenuation performance for the same overall chamber and tail-pipe dimensions is obvious. is closely related to the chamber/pipe area ratio. assuming initially that they can act independently of each other provides useful insight into their relative inﬂuence on acoustic performance. However.2) which provides a design criterion for the choice of optimum component lengths for well tuned expansion chamber silencers. . Such attenuation performance for a single chamber may still prove acceptable when the engine speed is ﬁxed. Since spectral measurements are often described in one-third octave bands. but with high maximum values that are ideally inﬁnite being restricted only by acoustic damping. . (2. For the example in Figure 4(a) one sees that this is about one-half. 685 Such spectral distributions of the acoustic behaviour of expansion chambers with side branches are directly related to the lengths of the chamber and side branches and also to that of the tail-pipe connecting it to the next silencing element along the system. a similar value can be adopted for the useful attenuation bandwidth of a side branch. . one sees that the attenuation spectra of side branches also exhibit a pattern of maxima and minima. j=1. so that the attenuation maxima at frequencies ﬁxed by the system geometry can be tuned to correspond with the primary engine breathing noise spectrum. The eﬀective or useful attenuation bandwidth. Their combined performance. This demonstrates clearly how the negative contribution from the tail-pipe degrades their combined attenuation performance. (2. n=1. is plotted in Figure 4(a). though that for the chamber is always positive while that for the other always remains negative. They are also inﬂuenced by the junction or termination impedance. which is found to increase with the Mach number uo /c of the mean ﬂow with velocity u0 . This is illustrated in Figure 3 where attenuation expressed as SPL1–SPL2 is plotted against reduced frequency 2xf/c or 2x/l for each of them. But with the variable engine operating speed required for road vehicles and other prime movers. after adopting an open termination and making their lengths equal for simplicity of illustration. particularly at those frequencies where a minimum in their individual contributions occurs simultaneously. The relative amplitude of the attenuation maxima for chambers. Here the attenuation is always positive. One notes too that the minima occur at integer values of the reduced frequency. or minima for tail-pipes. . with the minima again at integer multiples of the reduced frequency. while the ratio of the maxima to minima is 20 log10 Sc /Sp . The combined performance of an expansion chamber with the same ratio of chamber to tail-pipe length. i. is illustrated in Figure 4(b). 3. 5. 3. Thus. The lengths of the side branches were chosen so that the attenuation peaks of the longer one correspond to the minima of the chamber and tail-pipe combination . but now with two appropriately scaled side branches added. Returning to Figure 3.

The comparison of Figures 4(a) and 4(b) not only demonstrates the improvement in performance within the same space resulting from the addition of side branches. In Figure 5(a). . Therefore. the acoustic interactions that exist between such muﬄer units and their connecting pipes also introduces uncertainties. 2. 9]. . as illustrated in Figures 5(a) and 5(b) provide a compact method of packaging the acoustically long side branches required at low frequencies into relatively short expansion chambers. However. and the ﬁrst peak of the shorter one lies between those of the longer side branch. but also that the side branches provide the more signiﬁcant contributions to the overall performance. these can be restricted to the contributions to the acoustic performance by the side branches. . to simplify the calculations for the initial design. The classical description of Helmholtz resonator acoustic behaviour is often based on an analogy that can be drawn with tuned vibration absorbers for mechanical systems. this simple lumped mass and stiﬀness model ceases to be realistic when the acoustic length of the resonator exceeds one-quarter of the acoustic wavelength. Note too that the eﬀective attenuation spectrum is almost continuous.3) . respectively. several further parameters have a signiﬁcant if not major inﬂuence on their acoustic behaviour and performance. The pressure ﬂuctuation in the resonator volume then represents the elastic restoring force with the inertia of the oscillating ﬂow through the restriction or neck providing the equivalent mass. so is only possible when space constraints allow this.2. This requires the chamber cross-section to be 10 to 15 times that of the pipe. even when their individual performance can be appropriately represented or modelled [8. A similar set of simpliﬁed design criteria is not normally available with the other types of silencer illustrated in Figure 2. Although the pipes connecting silencer units always inﬂuence the system behaviour. or to eliminate undesirable deﬁciencies in system performance at particular frequencies. The cross-section shapes of the annuli have little inﬂuence on the acoustic performance. But such alternatives may enhance sound radiation from the outer surface. since as well as component lengths. which speciﬁes the minimum value of the factor b in Figure 5. with lengths Xi and Xo and corresponding areas Si and So .686 . though the fundamental resonance may still tend to dominate the performance. To accommodate the end corrections associated with acoustic wave transfer across discontinuities (see Appendix C5) the length of the radial connection between inner and outer annuli should be around 0·5 d while that of the gap between the inlet and outlet pipes should exceed 1·5 d. surrounding the pipe with internal diameter d. Furthermore. Folded side branches. A more realistic description of resonator behaviour appropriate for intake/exhaust system design is to calculate its equivalent acoustic length [3] and then treat it as a tuned side branch. with any further contributions from the chamber and tail-pipe being ignored and all acoustic interactions neglected. (2. thus providing the wide bandwidth that is required when engine operating speeds vary signiﬁcantly in service. The eﬀective acoustic length ls of the folded side-branch is expressed to a fair approximation by ls=Xi+(So /Si )Xo . experience indicates that the ﬁnal tail-pipe length always has a signiﬁcant inﬂuence on overall system performance which may be seriously degraded when its length is not well chosen.1. so that elliptical and other sections can be adopted to optimize the use of space. the chamber is sub-divided into inner and outer annuli. Resonators and folded side branches Resonators are used to provide attenuation at low frequencies.

4) which can be solved for L1 . L2 and So /Si for given values of the eﬀective acoustic lengths l1 . and thus the ratio So /Si . leaving all other dimensions unaltered. this may be accompanied by a small loss of peak performance as the ratio So /Si increases and hence Si /Sp decreases. One can readily establish from the geometry shown in the ﬁgure the inequality L1+L2QXc . In (b) the entrance to the exit pipe is at the plane between L1 and L2 . the axial positions of the gap in the pipe. while leaving the overall dimensions constant. or the axial position of the baﬄe separating L1 and L2 . two folded side branches may be packaged into one silencer box as shown in Figure 5(b) to increase the attenuation bandwidth as in Figure 4(a). l2=L2−(d/2)+(So /Si )(L2−d/2). During performance optimization the resonator ﬁlter can be tuned by varying the diameter of the shell separating the two annuli. so long as So /Si is less than two. or any one. (2. . Since the performance. with l1=L1−bd+(S0 /Si )(L1−d/2). Space permitting. l2 and the pipe internal diameter d. The available length Xc may be apportioned appropriately into two sub-units of length L1 and L2 . Otherwise it has been found that the eﬀective length ls becomes progressively less than this as the area ratio increases. as for a simple expansion chamber. 687 Figure 5.5a. b) (2. Expansion chambers with folded side branches. is proportional to the ratio Si /Sp . Appropriate tuning during optimization may be performed by adjusting all. of the ratio So /Si . A proper allowance for the wall thickness should be included in the area ratio calculations.

. where the intake and exhaust noise emission is strongly dependent on engine rotational frequency and power output. while the back pressure produced is relatively low. The two factors concerning attenuation and space imply that eﬀective design for vehicle application generally represents a challenging acoustic design problem. The majority of piston engines are employed in vehicle propulsion. 5. 2. Practical experience indicates that space restrictions often mean that this is the most diﬃcult part of the noise spectrum to silence eﬀectively. when the lengths are appropriately chosen. in spite of any associated back pressure penalties it may entail. position and external dimensions of all silencer boxes with their connecting pipes that will ﬁt within the available space. which normally has been established beforehand. while later optimization calculations with a computer program will adopt the appropriate local sound speed for the performance predictions and also take account of acoustic interactions between the elements. It continues with a rational choice of those silencer types or options that experience indicates are likely to produce the speciﬁed attenuation without incurring excessive back pressure or other penalties. We have seen that a fair approximation to the acoustic performance of side branch expansion chambers can be calculated simply in terms of the lengths of the side branches. an expansion chamber with two side branches has a continuous attenuation spectrum of at least 10 dB at moderate (6:1) area expansion ratios. The fact that the gas temperature and associated sound speed falls along the exhaust system from manifold to outlet. . and also that the temperature distribution will change with engine load and speed and with road speed. 2. Thus the intake or exhaust system attenuation spectrum must be continuous over a wide band of frequencies. then such simple units can be replaced with an alternative type that exhibits a higher volumetric acoustic eﬃciency. while l=c/f. together with the codiﬁed data on their acoustic performance and other relevant characteristics. Thus the tuning is directly related to the sound speed c as well as to the side branch length. will introduce special problems for exhaust design.1. one notes from equation (2. gear ratio and ambient conditions. . It was demonstrated in Figure 4(b) that. .3. . Such problems can be severe for intakes since the allocated space is often highly restricted.2) that each side branch has attenuation maxima at frequencies corresponding to 4li=nl. The initial design is the result of a feasibility study. which begins a design layout by listing the number. Clearly. Choosing leading parameters for silencer elements In assigning appropriate lengths li to the individual side branches. for simplicity.688 . the longest side branch of length l1 will provide the attenuation required at the low frequeny end of the spectrum. during the initial layout calculations we shall adopt a constant reference value cr which is an appropriate mean value. but with exhaust systems it falls progressively from manifold to outlet so. Secondly. n=1. the elements of the system must ﬁt within the space constraints set by the overall vehicle design. One notes that if the acoustic performance remains deﬁcient after system optimization. 3. This is justiﬁed initially since interactions have also been neglected. It is also desirable that there should be simple parametric models of the acoustic performance of their components. For example. The systematic design procedure set out in Table 1 and Figure 1 is based on a comprehensive range of silencer options. . . one empirical though not necessarily realistic rule for specifying the total silencer volume required is to relate this to the swept cylinder volume. With intakes this is constant. Since they meet all the requirements just listed we shall adopt this type for any illustrative examples that follow. such as those in Figure 2.3. .

This also allows the designer to assess the relative contributions of each individual element to the overall system performance. One then assigns the remaining side branch lengths so that their combined performance provides a continuous spectrum of high attenuation. so that successive lengths are in the ratio l(i+1) /li=3(−1/m) . . At this stage. (2. The best sequence can be decided during optimization. A program that ﬁrst calculates the relative amplitudes of the incident and reﬂected waves at say each area discontinuity is perhaps the most useful (Table 2). Each step of this development provides additional insight into system behaviour to guide the development of further appropriate changes to reﬁne the design. (m−1). Such information then directly provides the impedance. 3. while the longest ones will probably be folded. prototypes are normally built and tested to validate the design. When space permits. . i=1. of mean ﬂow and of gas temperature (see Appendix C). allowing rapid design reﬁnement of the ﬁrst prototype. System performance reﬁnement begins with an acoustic assessment of the initial design layout. 2. include the inﬂuence of interaction between the system and primary sources at the valves with noise generation elsewhere by turbulent ﬂow and vorticity (ﬂow noise) and any ﬂanking transmission. since the lengths of connecting pipes between boxes is extended by the side branches. 12] and thus misleading. Such theoretical predictions can be used to ascertain the likely eﬀect of systematic modiﬁcations to the system detail design and layout.7) where m is the total number of side branches. 2. Since its inﬂuence is not normally included in theoretical performance assessments. They combine most eﬀectively when their lengths form a geometric series. Adoption of rational predictive techniques can enhance the quality of intake/exhaust design and greatly reduce development time.6) One also notes that this side branch will produce an attenuation spectra with useful attenuation at frequencies 3fr . for example. . reﬂection coeﬃcient and other relevant spectral acoustic data at many locations along the system. The corresponding side branch should be tuned to this frequency so that l1=cr /4fr . thus minimizing the number of expensive prototype stages required. . They should. Flow noise has been found to have a major inﬂuence on the maximum attenuation achieved under operating conditions. Theoretical predictions can also be used to enhance the detailed design stages. where possible. since the associated cost is then prohibitive. etc. This is hardly feasible for large industrial or ‘‘one oﬀ’’ designs. two or more side branches can be accommodated in series in a single box. Experience indicates that design modiﬁcations concentrated on increasing attenuation where acoustic theory predicts a minimum usually lead most rapidly to improvements in installed performance. .4. the attenuation performance spectra of the system and of its components can be deﬁned according to equation (C10) in Appendix C. but this can modify the acoustic performance. 689 Thus assignment of side branch lengths should begin say at the lowest one-third octave band with centre frequency fr . Thus. for vehicle applications. (2. Valid predictions must always include the inﬂuence of acoustic interaction between component elements. Optimum packaging considerations normally ﬁx the sequence in which they are installed along the system. 5fr . any such predictions suggesting a very high attenuation performance may be unrealistic [9.

(ii) Cycle averaged mass ﬂow for intake and exhaust. As well as validating the design.p. Thus the ﬁrst calculation to be made concerns the temperature distribution. (iv) Cycle averaged exhaust valve outlet temperature and gas species. the fabrication and testing of a prototype provides useful insight into the system behaviour. (ii) Estimate relevant heat transfer coeﬃcients. the ambient conditions surrounding the system with its geometry and relevant structural features. sound emissions may be presented for each engine order versus r. that this index relates to the system as a whole and gives little insight into the contributions of individual components. Describe system performance (i) Present acoustic impedance and reﬂection coeﬃcient spectra. which in turn is a function of the cycle averaged mass ﬂow and temperature of the gas leaving the exhaust valve with its physical properties. Evaluate acoustic wave propagation at each frequency (i) Choose appropriate analytic model for each element. Note. (ii) Starting at the open termination calculate the relative incident and reﬂected wave amplitudes throughout the system for the relevant systematic sequence of frequencies. Other assessments of system performance can be useful at this stage. (iv) Estimate static pressure and Mach number distribution. Note: Steps (ii)–(iv) require iterative calculations. . T 2 Theoretical calculation of system performance Step I Step II Step III Step IV Assemble relevant data (i) System layout. The inﬂuence of ﬂow noise can also be minimized by attention to ﬂow path detail design as can the ﬂow losses or system back pressure. the acoustic characteristics depend on the distribution of ﬂow temperature and Mach number. As well as spectral descriptions of acoustic behaviour. 2.m. geometry and relevant structural features. the calculations should provide estimates of the system back pressure or static pressure loss. so these must be established ﬁrst. Such an addition to the total noise emission by the system is often called ﬂanking transmission. as it often corresponds to direct measurement. Theoretical predictions can usefully be adopted to assess and reﬁne designs directly on the vehicle. As well as the geometric and other structural features of the system.690 . Calculate exhaust ﬂow and temperature distribution (i) Calculate hot surface area of system elements. Note: alternatively. When the source volume velocity and impedance are known. (ii) Present attenuation and insertion loss spectra. . Note: Step (iv) concerns exhaust systems only. The temperature distribution depends . The results provide additional data to guide any further modiﬁcations that may be necessary. (iii) Present system back pressure or ﬂow losses at relevant operating conditions. the predicted insertion loss (see equation (C9)) provides a useful index to guide the ﬁnal design assessment. noise radiated from system surfaces and associated vehicle noise transmission characteristics. (iii) Estimate ﬂow temperature distribution. . however.5. (iii) Ambient and other relevant operational conditions. Realistic predictions of the acoustic behaviour with the associated characteristics of system performance form an essential part of any rational design process. This now includes the consideration of mounting attachments.

The Mach number is also a function of temperature and ﬂow velocity which depends on the local gas temperature. so the Mach number calculations are those appropriate to compressible ﬂow with axially varying static temperature.1). Experience with the many diﬀerent applications listed in the second paragraph of the introduction indicates the general applicability of the approach to successful acoustic design. At the local ambient conditions.3. while the fourth concerns the development of an optimized system with high acoustic peformance for the original Quiet Heavy Vehicle project. 3. The last two are also documented in the literature. 3. This requires appropriate analytic models of each element in the system [4] that have been incorporated into computer programs that run.p. They also traced the source of the body boom to the sound emitted at the open end of the intake pipe. the smallest was a 1 cc displacement model diesel and the largest a 30 MW electric generator! Some representative examples have been selected from this list.m. The design followed the approach set out in Table 1 with the conﬁguration shown in Figure 5(a) being used. by the suppression of noise emission from the intake pipe.1. The designs chosen all have the common feature that the noise control ﬁlters consist of side branch expansion chambers which were discussed in sections 2. Acoustic investigations demonstrated that a strong vertical mode existed in the cabin at 120 Hz. with a corresponding impact on vehicle quality.2 and 2. the . The boom frequency corresponded to fast cruise in ﬁfth gear at 120 km/h and equivalent road speeds in lower gears. This corresponded to the ﬁring frequency or second order (2E) of the engine rotational frequency. To control the intake emissions at or near 114 Hz. say. and are thus directly relevant in that context. Of these. on any small desk top machine. Once realistic estimates of temperature and Mach number have been established then the relevant acoustic spectral characteristics can be calculated at one frequency at a time. suﬃcient space was available in the engine compartment to replace the 48 mm diameter intake pipe with a re-sited and appropriately tuned expansion chamber resonator 240 mm long with a maximum diameter of 200 mm (see section 2. to the control of noise emission from intake and exhaust is demonstrated by a sequence of practical examples. 13]. The second concerns the development of a low back pressure exhaust system to improve the performance and economy of a production car. Since these also depend on the Reynolds and Prandtl numbers in the ﬂowing gas at the boundaries. 691 on the heat transfer from gas to system boundaries and thus on the associated heat transfer coeﬃcients. starting at the open termination and progressing to the valves [3.2. Suitable Fortran programs are available for this purpose. The ﬁrst concerns the control of boom in the cabin of a current production pick-up truck. SELECTED EXAMPLES OF INTAKE AND EXHAUST SYSTEM DESIGN The application of the rational design procedure. the calculations are necessarily iterative. while a pronounced acoustic resonance occurred in the engine compartment centred around 95 Hz. summarized in Table 1. The problem arose in connection with a pronounced boom with a level of 85 dB(A) and centred at 114 Hz that was experienced in the driving cab of a small pick-up truck at full throttle with engine speeds around 3400 r. The third concerns the control of high noise levels experienced on the sun deck of a passenger ship from the main engine exhausts.

since the volumetric acoustic eﬃciency of straight through expansion chambers with side branches is somewhat lower than the relatively high ﬂow loss types used in the original system. .7). The ﬁnal design had a chamber length of 240 mm with an outer shell internal diameter of 166 mm and a bell-mouthed intake pipe 44 or 60 mm long. which was necessary. with m=5. although not shown by the drawing. This example forms part of a feasibility study of the likely improvements that could be obtained to these without a corresponding loss of acoustic performance. the maximum chamber length available suggested that an area ratio So /Si of at least three was required. where an existing system was replaced by a new design with signiﬁcantly reduced pressure loss.3). One obvious method of doing so is to increase the pipe diameter slightly. The study was conﬁned to the lower engine size range of current production cars. Before doing so.2. while the cross-section of both the original boxes could also be increased slightly. However. bands are silenced to the same level. with a corresponding signiﬁcant reduction of the ﬂow dynamic pressure. The noise spectra were combined to give a composite noise spectrum in one-third octave bands rescaled to 7·5 m as shown in Figure 7(a). The speciﬁcation restricted any new exhaust system layout to following the existing route but permitted enlargement of the boxes to occupy fully available space. though ﬁve were adopted in this case. This however provided suﬃcient information for dimensioning an initial design to predict its installed performance with a computer. to produce an overall exhaust noise level of 75 dB(A). some attention was paid to reducing back pressure by increasing the downpipe internal diameter from 32 to 38 mm with the remainder from 35 . Thus with three chambers it was possible to install a maximum of six side branches. acoustic wavelength at 114 Hz is 3·07 m. together with any further volume expansion at the boxes. so it was retuned to just below 120 Hz by increasing the ratio So /Si to 4·55. the requirement becomes 65 dB(A) (see Figure 7(a)). The diﬀerence in spectral levels represents the system attenuation required or the design aim. . then this should be less than 75–10 log10 20. From equation (2. or 62 dB(A). giving the necessary eﬀective sidebranch acoustic length ls of 0·77 m according to equations (2. The initial design was transferred to the computer and then optimized for acoustic performance. this implies reduced expansion ratios for the silencer boxes with a corresponding reduction of acoustic performance. which speaks for itself! 3. The lengths of the other ﬁve was scaled according to equation (2. The improvement in the environment within the cab resulting from the cotnrol of intake noise is illustrated in Figure 6(b). The length adopted in initial design layout for this was 0·7 m calculated from equation (2. unsilenced (straight pipe) noise spectra were supplied for a sequence of engine speeds at full load. When all 20. As well as drawings of the existing system outline. to accommodate the longest required. say. .692 . The space available showed that one box could be extended in length and subdivided to give two expansion chambers. This gave an increase in silencer volume of some 60%. Note that the bell-mouth entry was retained. Upon concentrating on the ﬁrst 10 loudest ones. This was found to be tuned to 160 Hz. The original system had two silencer boxes. Mass ﬂow and temperature distributions measured with the existing system were also provided.2).6) with fr=200 Hz and cr=550 ms−1 . The new intake dimensions and the predicted silencer performance is shown in Figure 6(a). noting that this exceeded the speciﬁed limit of two. but it prohibited the use of sound absorbing packing. The inﬂuence of back pressure on vehicle performance and economy is clearly established by experience.

though the reason for this was not established. ——. resulting in some 20% increase in peak power and 30% improvement in fuel consumption.. 40 mm intake pipe. . Although the silencer boxes were . The maximum interior noise levels were also reduced by 5 dB at the rear seat. The system back pressure was halved. 693 Figure 6.-. though it was otherwise satisfactory. 60 mm pipe. to 38 mm. The second prototype was deemed to be satisfactory. (b) noise measurements: . Overall interior noise recorded at full throttle in fourth gear. normal vehicle. These improvements were accompanied by a modest.-. but acceptable increase in drive by noise levels. as was conﬁrmed by the drive by test results in Figure 7(b). The ﬁrst prototype had an unacceptable performance at 800 Hz. (a) Predictions for modiﬁed silencer design: ——.. with optimized silencer.

Figure 7. standard. (b) Drive by measurements: ——. adjusted to 7·5 m from outlet.-. . (a) Composite spectra for open pipe.694 . . Exhaust noise at 7·5 m. . ISVR design. .. .

. This was aimed at determining the technical feasibility and cost of reducing the noise levels of heavy diesel-engine goods vehicles to levels some 10 dB(A) lower than the then current values. The ﬁnal design. consisted of two cylindrical boxes 0·25 m diameter and almost 2 m long. the relative fabrication costs and weight increase of the new system remained modest. The initial bend design included steady ﬂow diﬀusion by distributing expansion around the bend. with an associated increase in pressure loss from 25 mm to 35 mm Hg. due to the simple design. The most likely option with predicted overall emissions of 65 dB(A) was built and installed. which made low frequency contributions to the excessively noisy environment on the sun deck under cruising conditions. An insertion loss of 20 dB to 64 dB(A) was achieved by each of these two simple compact side branch expansion chamber silencers resulting in a combined contribution of 67 dB(A) from the main engine exhausts. so are not repeated here. that would ﬁrst ﬁt within the only space available is illustrated in Figure 9(a). A weighted overall main engine exhaust noise level on the sun deck was assessed at about 85 dB(A). by rerouting the generator exhaust stacks a suﬃcient but somewhat irregularly shaped space was found at the top of the funnel! This was about 4·5 m long with roughly the same cross-section as a 2·2 m diameter cylinder. thus reducing the ﬂow dynamic pressure by a factor of 2·4 in the second box. Since engine surface noise presented a major problem in achieving this goal it was decided to reduce exhaust noise emission to below the level at which its contribution was signiﬁcant. the passenger ship concerned was not ﬁtted with exhaust silencers on the two main turbocharged engines. During cruise the engines ran at a set constant speed driving a variable pitch propeller.3. The exhaust pipe was 1·1 m diameter and appropriate space for a silencer was very restricted below deck.4. Finding adequate space on a tractor unit for an exhaust system designed to meet this challenging speciﬁcation presented an initial problem. one for each engine in the corresponding funnels as shown in Figure 8. 3. so the frequency of the exhaust noise spectral components remained ﬁxed. The last example concerns the development of a high acoustic performance exhaust system for noise control during the ﬁrst Quiet Heavy Vehicle prototype development. The details can be found in reference [14]. Thus this was assigned an upper limit of 69 dB(A) [15]. while engine turbocharger performance restricted the maximum back pressure to 45 mm of mercury. The fans required acoustic treatment but obviously the main engine exhausts also needed to be silenced. falling oﬀ sharply above this frequency to approximately 90 and then more slowly to 75 dB at 250 Hz. while the main contributions above 250 Hz came from the engine room supply fans. Full advantage was taken of this fact during the 22 design calculation trials with diﬀerent chamber lengths and volumes. As built. but in the ﬁnal construction it was replaced by the abrupt expansion shown. the exhaust pipe diameter was increased from 100 to 125 mm at the entry to the 180° bend. However. The generator exhausts. Observations of the engine noise emissions with the fans switched oﬀ gave levels of around 110 dB below 50 Hz. 695 signiﬁcantly bulkier. Vehicle manoeuvrability precluded mounting it in the popular position behind the cab and the only possible free space was below the front bumper. This layout required four sharp bends with their associated ﬂow losses. produced noise levels from 25 to 30 dB below that of the main engines. which were all tuned to attenuate the signiﬁcant components. To reduce the back pressure. which were silenced. though their level varied somewhat. 3.

w.m. .m. Figure 8. predicted at 420 r. .m. 3 Hz ﬁlter.p.. .m. measured spectrum at 460 r.696 . NR91.p. . (a) Noise signature of unsilenced engine at 420 r. estimated from silenced measurements at 460 r.p.m. (b) ——.p.p. (67 dB(A)).-. . 84 dB(A). (65 dB(A)). (c) insertion loss: ——.. Insertion loss spectra. predicted silenced spectrum at 420 r.

measured at eight engine speeds with full load. 697 Figure 9.-. omitting perforate bridges (ﬂow noise). peak open pipe. At any of the speeds tested the maximum emitted exhaust noise levels at full load were 67 dB(A) with the ﬁnal prototype design which then increased to 69 dB(A) with the ﬁnal operational version. ——. silenced. The perforated tube sections bridging the openings between the pipe and expansion chambers also reduced the back pressure signiﬁcantly as well as reducing ﬂow noise. peak measured. The inﬂuence of ﬂow noise is illustrated in Figure 9(b) which compares three composite one-third octave band noise spectra. averaged for eight speeds from 1000 to 2500 r. adjusted to 7·5 m. First chamber of ﬁrst silencer sheated with 3 mm asbestos and outer layer of 1·2 mm thick aluminium sheet. —×—.p. after they have all been rescaled to 7·5 m.m. with theoretical predictions. peak predicted.. One should also note the good agreement between predicted and measured performance below 300 Hz. . (b) test bed measurements at full load. where the relative inﬂuence of ﬂow noise is known to remain small. (a) Silencer design for Foden QHV showing perforated tube sections in extended inlet and outlet pipes (side branches). ——. .

It is clear also that realistic models of their acoustic behaviour are readily established in the frequency domain. while valve design and manifold layout are already established. However. a time domain description is readily Fourier transformed to the frequency domain and vice versa. since these depend on appropriate choice of the values of p1 and T1 in Table 4. it will again be assumed that the engine already exists with relevant test data deﬁning power output. In practice any such calculations are necessarily iterative. A fair compromise that was adopted had 3 mm diameter holes with 10% porosity. The best acoustic performance was obtained with small holes and high porosity. INTEGRATED SYSTEM ACOUSTIC DESIGN An integrated procedure begins with a detailed calculation of the cyclic wave action throughout intake. Since we are concerned with intake/exhaust system design for the control of noise emissions. a practical limit to the minimum acceptable hole size is provided by their tendency to clog with fouling during normal service. . Flow noise and pressure loss also increased with both hole and size and porosity. However. . Since the wave motion is cyclic. since the time domain calculations require realistic time varying boundary conditions at the two interfaces with the ﬁlters. These are deﬁned in time by an appropriate Fourier transformation of the corresponding acoustic reﬂection coeﬃcient spectra. Further details of the approach with the results of some validation experiments made with a highly tuned current production engine can be found in reference [18]. . realistic time domain descriptions of wave action in all those parts of the system with complex geometry. These can be calculated initially with reference to the associated thermodynamics of the engine cycle as set out in Table 4. cylinder and exhaust corresponding to all conditions of engine operation. The signiﬁcant inﬂuence on silencer performance by fouling during service is described in reference [16]. The analysis of wave action in the time varying components of the running engine is best performed in time. Practical experience [17] has already demonstrated that the hybrid approach provides realistic narrow band predictions of intake and exhaust noise emissions. The choice of hole size and perforate porosity was found to have a signiﬁcant inﬂuence on both the acoustic performance and the ﬂow generated noise. where it is strongly recommended that fouling should be removed by steam cleaning during regular maintenance so that the acoustic performance is maintained. Such acoustic calculations require time averaged values of gas mass ﬂow and temperature. This in turn can modify the cyclically averaged values of gas mass ﬂow and temperature at the interfaces. The valves and cylinder with the manifolds represent a time varying system. valves.698 . volumetric and thermal eﬃciency. It is clear from previous discussion that this may not be strictly true in practice but represents a useful ﬁrst approximation. a rational balance may be struck between optimum engine performance and reduced noise emission. 4] as summarized in Table 3. do not currently exist. mechanical. The concern here is to evaluate the wave action for any given speed and load. by adopting this methodology. along with realistic estimates of the engine breathing performance. This suggests a hybrid approach to the calculation of the integrated wave action throughout the system [1. The time required to calculate the wave action in the manifolds is considerably reduced if an initial pressure distribution can be established there by an appropriate Fourier transform of the local acoustic impedance spectrum combined with the cyclic mass or volume velocity time history of the ﬂow through the valves. Thus. The . such as acoustic ﬁlters and the like. 4. though this was halved in one box for the operational version. while the remainder of the intake and exhaust system act mainly as a passive acoustic ﬁlter.

Note: The program will provide updated values of p1 . Quasi-linear acoustics Frequency analysis Initial conditions are deﬁned by: (i) engine cycle thermodynamics.c. T 4 Initial estimates for acoustic assessments Engine running at cyclic frequency fc with compression ratio r power output/cylinder P intake temperature T1 intake pressure p1 swept volume/cylinder V port or pipe area Sp volumetric eﬃciency hn mechanical eﬃciency hm ideal thermal eﬃciency ht=1−r−(g−1) polytropic index n For each cylinder calculate (1) Ideal work per cycle W=P/ht hm fc . (4) Cyclic exhaust volume Ve=V[b(r−2)+1]/(r−1)]. also it must check that mass ﬂow and momentum balance is maintained. (2) Cycle constant K=V[r/(r−1)]{r (n−1)−1}/(n−1). (5) Exhaust temperature Te=T1 b. Spectral characteristics of acoustic ﬁlters and the sound emissions are best described in the frequency domain.c. . Quasi-linear acoustics Frequency analysis Interface b. That part associated with moving boundaries and high ﬂuctuating pressure amplitudes (non-linear processes) is best analysed in the time domain. Thermodynamics non-linear Initial conditions Time domain analysis Interface b. Mi intake Mach number. Values passed to acoustic programs: Te to predict exhaust temperature distribution and to deﬁne exhaust gas propeties. T1 . Me exhaust Mach number. Vfc hn /(Sp c)i . Ve fc /(Sp c)e . T 3 Integrated hybrid description of wave action 699 This can be represented as a combination of wave motion in cyclically time varying parts with wave motion in the time stationary parts. (3) Cycle index b=(1+W/(Kp1 ))1/n. The boundary conditions at the interface are deﬁned by an inverse Fourier transform of acoustic reﬂection coeﬃcient spectra. (ii) inverse Fourier transform of acoustic impedance spectra at interface.

O. although the list may then appear somewhat parochial! ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author wishes to thank the referees for their helpful comments and suggestions for improving this paper. to the neglect of suﬃcient physical realism or insight. Practical ﬂow duct acoustics. A. LITERATURE ON EXHAUST SYSTEM DESIGN The references cited here with the further references they include have been chosen to provide an complete and adequate description of valid intake and exhaust system acoustic modelling that is of direct relevance to design. the material to be found there is often of restricted value for direct application to rational design methodology. so that the solutions are not valid for practical design nor appropriate to guide decisions during the design process. resulting software has the distinct advantage of being suﬃciently compact to run eﬃciently on a desk top computer.1. Sophisticated models of combustion and other factors describing notional engine peformance already exist and form a basis for current engine design and development. L. Much has been published by eminent authorities and others on practical or theoretical studies of system acoustic performance and exhaust noise. P. but not the other. A. L. A. D 1988 Journal of Sound and Vibration 174. some studies expound ideas or present results which are misleading. Many theoretical and experimental studies have been concerned with transmission loss and thus have neglected the existence of interactions between components. Others omit essential experimental or structural detail when reporting the results of observations [9] so the results. O. Intake and exhaust noise. 4. O. . . O. D 1992 ISVR Technical Report 207. P. For mathematical convenience others may have concentrated on simpliﬁed theoretical modelling. Worse perhaps. however. . A. although it does seem to require extensive computational resources. 91–115. P. by replacing measured engine performance data by predictions. cannot be practically applied. Some progress in this direction seems to have already been made elsewhere [19]. L. although experience has demonstrated that these have a major inﬂuence on practical behaviour. 5. . 2.700 . Hybrid systems for I. D and M. C. P. H 1957 Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics 15(3). F. 4. though potentially useful. Essentially. the inevitable presence of evanescent waves at an area discontinuity may be omitted from the theoretical modelling. Sometimes one of these factors may be included. L. Unfortunately. For these reasons the references selected were deliberately restricted to those found appropriate for intake and exhaust system design. though relevant technical details are not available. engine breathing noise synthesis. 3. Practical ﬂow duct acoustic modelling. the inﬂuence of mean ﬂow on system tuning and acoustic energy transport may be neglected. For example. Similarly. it apparently will provide similar facilities to those already available through the hybrid approach. REFERENCES 1. The obvious next stage is to develop a completely predictive procedure for engine noise emissions and performance. D 1992 ISVR Techical Report 213. There are a number of reasons for this. 369–374.

D 1973 Proc. F. 73 . P. J. 12. L. A. Rapid predictions of vehicle intake/exhaust noise. (b) acoustic interaction between components (c) all relevant geometric and structural features (d) eﬀective acoustic models of all elements. 137–147. 8. 10. A method for modelling perforated tube muﬄer components. A. London. Wave transfer to and from conical diﬀusers with mean ﬂow. . C and K. Transmission matrix representation of exhaust system acoustic characteristics. O. APPENDIX A: PROTOTYPE DEVELOPENT PROGRAMME I. O. P. (iv) Make appropriate systematic changes to element detail design. 9. 701 5. Exhaust system silencing. J.D. (iii) Theoretically assess their eﬀect on raising attenuation performance. P. T 1979 Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers 193(23). Time and frequency domain modelling of vehicle intake and exhaust systems. E. 11. P. Realistic models for predicting sound propagation in ﬂow duct systems. S 1979 Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 66. 345–350. G. Analysis of concentric tube resonators having unpartitioned cavities. M. Build and test a ﬁrst prototype directly on vehicle (i) Compare measured insertion loss or attenuation with design aim. 6. M. W. A. II. 191–209. Thesis University of Southampton. E. gas properties and temperatures etc. O. A. 14. L.A. J. (ii) Identify areas requiring further improvement. W. D 1991 Journal of Sound and Vibration 151. A. C. U 1982 TRRL Supplementary Report 746. 333–338. L. D. D 1992 Journal of Sound and Vibration 124. L. Plane wave acoustic propagation in hot gas ﬂows. A. L. (iv) Assess the inﬂuence of system mounts and surface vibration on vehicle noise (ﬂanking transmissions). O. S and M. P. O. (ii) Identify all spectral regions of low relative attenuation.S. Acoustic wave propagation in a homentropic.M. D 1993 Noise Control Engineering 40. 13. H and P. D 1988 Journal of Sound and Vibration 122. (v) Theoretically assess their eﬀect on raising attenuation performance. 39–46. 772–788. 945–948. 135–141. P. (ii) Make appropriate systematic adjustments to system layout. 18. 15. N and M. D 1990 Journal of Sound and Vibration 138. Reﬁne initial design to develop ﬁrst prototype (i) Assess relative contribution of each element to overall attenuation. I. O. P 1988 Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers C19/88. H 1994 Ph. 183–190. (iii) Further reﬁne design using theoretical assessments. C Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 64(1). D 1994 Proceedings of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers C487/019. S. Series B. P 1993 Noise and Vibration Worldwide (March/April). L. Flow acoustic coupling in ducts. Transactions of the Institute of Marine Engineers. P. 4. The TRRL Quite Heavy Vehicle Project. Operational performance of the TRRL quiet heavy vehicle. F. 16. low Mach number mean ﬂow. 19. 389–392. P. (vi) Restrict ﬂow noise and back pressure by ﬂow path improvements. 1974 . 59–65. D 1981 Journal of Sound and Vibration 77. L. D and P. M. O. W. 17. irrotational. III. A. 8–11. M. Insertion loss of engine intake and exhaust silencers. (vii) Theoretically reassess the design at all engine speeds and loads. J. 207–215. 7. Expert system addresses exhaust noise and overall silencer performance. Carry out realistic assessment of initial design (i) Include (a) mass ﬂow. P.

. (b) Narrow band spectral measurements possible. IV. Notes: (a) rapid and comprehensive data capture possible. Test and assess second prototype etc. ‘A’ weighted one-third octave spectra often recorded. (d) initial system installation costs can be balanced against additional ﬂexibility and reduced running time. temperature environment in system.g. Note: There will be contamination by other coherent sources. Note: Transducer cooling and calibration can be a problem. (e) ﬂuctuating pressure amplitudes high—non-linear transducer response? (f) changes in exhaust driving signal with modiﬁed exhaust system can be established. (a) ‘‘open pipe or original system’’ (b) ‘‘new design validation’’ results may describe an insertion loss spectrum.) trial records. (b) Representative warm up and operating conditions possible. or improvements in performance at the relevant engine orders. (ii) Pipe wall mounted pressure transducers—digital signal capture and processing. or data processed to each relevant engine order. (iv) Pipe wall mounted transducers. Notes: (a) Pipe or system can be routed to minimize contamination. Notes: (a) Contamination by wind noise.S. APPENDIX B: ENGINE EXHAUST NOISE SIGNATURE MEASUREMENT Purpose: To provide data with unsilenced or original system representing all operating speed and load conditions. . transient and steady state behaviour can be measured. Notes: (a) Uncertainties always exist due to the inﬂuence of (i) Flow noise (ii) Interactions with source (iii) Flanking transmission. e. (c) with appropriate test bed automation. to establish an acoustic design aim. (b) Test bed measurements Advantages: Test conditions under close control with automated data capture and processing possible. . . (A) Engine installed in vehicle Performed either with open pipe or original system. (iii) Vehicle mounted microphone near exhaust outlet.O. (g) data may still not properly represent all actual operational conditions... tyre noise etc. may not be representative (b) a speciﬁc site environment is essential (c) installation and operating costs may be relatively high. (b) characteristics of individual components can be quantiﬁed. etc. (ii) Rolling road measurements obtained near exhaust pipe discharge. (i) Microphone near exhaust outlet.702 . (b) Tests of each prototype extend the database to guide any future modiﬁcations. (i) Data derived from drive by (I. with digital signal capture and processing. Notes: (a) temperature gradients.

Since any discontinuity both reﬂects and transmits wave energy. So long as the transverse dimensions remain a small fraction of the signiﬁcant wavelengths. or of each of its constituent elements.1. at each frequency the spectral component amplitudes are related by p=p++p−. descriptions of the wave motion in terms of the complex amplitudes of each spectral component of the ﬂuctuating acoustic pressure p and particle velocity u. Thus all discussions of wave propagation that follow here will be expressed in terms of the relevant spectral component amplitudes p and u or alternatively. the wave motion throughout the system consists of positively and negatively travelling interfering waves. One notes that waves propagate without change of shape (i. A realistic quantitative prediction of source emission from intake or exhaust requires relevant and reliable descriptions both of the excitation and of the resulting wave energy transmission to the open termination. However. The corresponding complex amplitudes of each spectral component with wavenumber k=2pf/c. the wave amplitude exceeds this limit by a substantial margin. C. one can adopt the acoustic approximation and describe the wave motion by linear acoustic models in the frequency domain.2. 2 2 . r0 c0 u=p+−p−. so that wave propagation there may still be adequately described by the corresponding acoustic waves. APPENDIX C: ASSESSMENT OF SOUND EMISSION FROM INTAKES AND EXHAUSTS 703 C. are then given by p+ for positively and p− for negatively travelling waves. 2) where ro and co are. Provided also that the waves propagate through the pipes without a signiﬁcant change of shape. while equation (C2) is similarly valid [3] so long as the viscothermal eﬀects remain negligible. the local ambient density and sound speed. since the engine operations are cyclic the wave motion can be analysed in time and then Fourier transformed to provide its equivalent spectral description. for which Z represents the acoustic impedance at its termination. However. respectively. are relevant here. with reﬂection coeﬃcient r=p−/p+.2. All intake and exhaust systems consist of a sequence of pipes connecting the silencer boxes. while p. One notes too that the valve/manifold combination represents a time varying system so that temporal descriptions of the wave motion are then appropriate. or v/c. Equation (C1) is valid irrespective of the presence of a steady mean ﬂow uo . Since the emitted sound is normally described by its acoustic spectrum. acoustic plane wave transmission across an individual element or sequence of elements is illustrated in Figure A1.. the corresponding component wave amplitudes p2 and calculated one frequency at a time. As described in section 2. compact spectral descriptions summarizing the acoustic behaviour of the system. acoustically) only so long as their ﬂuctuating pressure amplitude remains a small fraction of the ambient presure. u. a valid approximation is that the associated ﬂuid motion remains one-dimensional.e. p+ and p− are all functions of position along the system. in practice the distance between discontinuities remains too short for signiﬁcant wave steepening to occur. play an essential role in rational system design and optimization. Here S represents the source of excitation for the element or sequence T. as they relate to plane acoustic wave motion. dust ﬁlters and other essential components that include various discontinuities either in cross-section area or wall impedance. With plane acoustic waves. In manifolds in particular. At each frequency. (C1.

as it turns out. of the frequency of excitation. also note tht p− /p+=rTr /Ti . but remain independent of the value of Z. when the element is not geometrically reciprocal. b) together with the reﬂection coeﬃcient r where r=p−/p+. despite the apparent convenience of the latters’ independence of the load Z. the wave components p2 on the source side of T can be related to 1 p on the load side by 2 2 p+=T11 p++T12 p−. The complex values of these four elements are functions of geometry. C. . In free space. The transmission coeﬃcients are related to the 1 1 elements of the scattering matrix [T] by Ti=T11+rT12 . To evaluate the elements of [T]. one can easily show [8] that calculation or measurement of Ti and Tr with two diﬀerent loads Za. (C5a. . This cannot be true when mean ﬂow is present. 2 2 or r=(z−1)/(z+1). b) and z=Z/rc. Zb is necessary. . expressed by the acoustic intensity I. we see that acoustic wave transmission across T can also be expressed in terms of the transmission coeﬃcients Ti=p+/p+ . and p and u are the complex amplitudes (in this . Returning to Figure A1. c. The relative diﬃculty of measuring acoustic particle velocity u compared with measurements of p. unless [T] possesses reciprocal properties. combined with the restricted validity [3] of equation (C2). 1 2 (C4a. f and M. or when viscothermal or ﬂow associated losses are signiﬁcant. so long as it remains external to the element.704 . and of the mean ﬂow Mach number M. At each frequency. r. Plane wave acoustic transmission across elements. 1 1 2 (C3a. suggests that the scattering matrix [T] provides a more robust description of the measured or predicted wave transfer than does the impedance matrix [t]. Figure A1. T12 . T21 and T22 are the four elements of the scattering transmission matrix [T] deﬁning the transfer. 1 2 Tr=p− /p− . I=1 Re(p*u) where 2 * indicates the complex conjugate. Tr=(T21 /r)+T22 . Finally. A more useful description for system design is provided by the acoustic power W of each spectral component. Thus transfer coeﬃcients might be preferred to transfer matrix representations. of the undisturbed values ro and co . 1 2 1 p−=T21 p+T22 p−. b) where T11 . for each spectral component. (C6a. Obviously equations (C1) and (C2) imply that the ﬂuctuating acoustic pressure p1 and velocity u1 on the source side of T can be related to p2 and u2 on the load side in terms of the corresponding impedance transfer matrix [t] by expressions analogous to equations (C3). b) and it is evident that Ti and Tr are both functions of r and hence of Z as well as of the element’s geometry. Intake and exhaust noise emission is often described in terms of the acoustic power radiated. Acoustic power is normally evaluated from measurements or calculations of the time averaged acoustic energy ﬂux across unit area. one should note that both representations remain independent of the source of excitation. when evanescent waves are present and.3.

Since the impedance presented at the source by the reference system will normally diﬀer from that under test. +2 −2 + − (C7) where =p = and =p = are the squared moduli of p and p . In the present context when a mean ﬂow with Mach number uo /co is invariably present. is the attenuation index AL expressed as AL=20 log10 =Ti =. or insertion loss index IL. all expressed in decibels. the spectral components of the acoustic energy ﬂux per unit area are expressed [3] by ro co I=(1+M)2 =p+=2−(1−M)2 =p−=2. or of its transmission loss index TL. A simple index of performance. so is hardly relevant for intake or exhaust design assessments. sound energy is also convected by the mean ﬂow. If W1 is the power at the receiver before the insertion of the element. The acoustic characteristics of both system and source are functions of the frequency so the discussion that follows here applies strictly to each spectral component although it also applies in general to all of them. With reference to the element T in Figure A1. C. This also implies that the source impedance should be known and invariant. Normally they deﬁne the acoustic attenuation of the system or element T. Single parameter descriptions of system acoustic performance are common. which remains independent of an external source. The transfer of acoustic energy or sound power from the source to the system is strongly inﬂuenced by the acoustic impedance or load that the system presents to the source. (C9) In practice it is normally necessary to provide a reference duct system of known performance to measure or calculate W1 and then repeat this procedure with the element or system of interest. This index neglects acoustic interaction with other system elements. Thus within the system and with plane acoustic waves. and W2 that measured or calculated afterwards.4. 1 2 705 representation the appears to correspond to time averaging of the real simple harmonic signals over a period). (C8) where the intensity or power ﬂux may be found from equation (C7) and Si is the cross-sectional area of the duct. which can provide a convenient guide when the source impedance is unknown. due compensation to the results may be necessary to account for any corresponding changes to the source when its impedance is not eﬀectively inﬁnite. then the insertion loss index is deﬁned by IL=10 log10 (W1 /W2 ). then TL=10 log10 [(S1 I1 )/(S2 I2 )]. but is dependent only on the acoustic characteristics of the system with its operating load Z. The transmission loss of an acoustic element is usually deﬁned as the diﬀerence in power ﬂux in free space between that incident on and that transmitted across it and is then an invariant property of the element. provided that the impedances of both source and receiver remain invariant. The insertion loss is the measured change in power ﬂux at a speciﬁed receiver. In the acoustic circuit of Figure A2(a) the source is now represented by one spectral component of ﬂuctuating volume velocity with root mean square value Vs and associated (C10) . The acoustic circuit corresponding to Figure A1 has been extended to include two representations of the source in Figure A2. after establishing anechoic conditions by setting Z=rc or r=0. when the acoustic transmission path between it and the source is modiﬁed by the insertion of the element.

To illustrate the inﬂuence of the source and system impedance on such emissions. one obtains p+=Ze us /[(1+ze )Ti+(1−ze )rTr ]. One notes that at the source plane the circuit model represents continuity of pressure with the soure strength equated to a discontinuity of volume velocity. 2 (C14) . . Substituting for p1 and ro co u1 in terms of the corresponding wave component amplitudes p2 from equations (C1. (C13a. Alternatively. when the source is associated with ﬂuctuating aerodynamic forces. . Thus this is equivalent to an acoustic monopole source in free space. while the corresponding system impedance at the source plane Z1=p1 /u1 . This is equivalent to an acoustic dipole source in free space. the source of excitation may include a combination of factors related to ﬂuctuating mass. the circuit model of Figure A2(b) now represents the continuity of velocity us across the source plane with the source strength fs equated to the discontinuity of pressure (Ps−p1 ) acting over area Ss . or Ze us=p1+ro co u1 ze . b) where the input ‘‘mobility’’ MI=us /fs . In all such cases the associated acoustic power delivered by the source to the system depends on the magnitude of the source impedance among other factors. 2) into equation (C13b) and then making 1 use of equations (C4a. The power output is given by Wf=Re{ f s* us }== f s2 =Re{MI }. Analogous expressions can be derived for the sources of excitation by mixing noise associated with turbulent shear layers. Acoustic representation of sources driving a system. b) and equation (C5b). which also equals 1/Ze Ss for the circuit in Figure A2(b). This representation corresponds say to ﬂuctuating mass injection with an eﬀective volume velocity Vs=us Ss . Figure A2. while the acoustic emission from the open termination to the surroundings depends also on the eﬃciency [4] of power transfer through it. The power output of this source is given by Wr=Re{p* Vs }==V s2 =Re{Z1 /(1+Z1 /Ze )}/Ss .706 . b) where ze=Ze /ro co . or (Ps−p1 )Ss . (C12a. b) where the * represents the complex conjugate. 1 (C11a. to ﬂuctuating force and to ﬂow turbulence. . At the source plane the mass ﬂux balance is given by u1=us−p1 /Ze . consider again the acoustic circuit of Figure A2(a). internal eﬀective shunt impedance Ze . In practice.

707 If W1 is the observed reference power and W2 is the observed power with system T2 . and expansions and contractions with side branches. since it omits the inﬂuence of the termination. Thus. 2 2 (C15) which can be substituted for (W1 /W2 ) in equation (C9) deﬁning the insertion loss index. With the acoustic approximation. as deﬁned by equation (C9). where the reﬂection coeﬃcient (see Data sheet 3). Similar spectral descriptions of wave transfer across discontinuities may also be derived [3] by matching the associated ﬂuid motion over appropriate surfaces on either side of the discontinuity. when a reference system T1 is replaced by another system T2 . Note that transmission loss. whose inﬂuence (normally reactive) must be included. in Data sheets 3–5. can then be described by a linearized wave equation [3. or the associated impedance is simply calculated. When the source characteristics are known. These summarize part of the analysis set out in reference [3]. with applications to open terminations. Its input impedance then becomes the termination impedance for the next adjacent component and so on. A physically realistic analysis of sound propagation along intakes and exhausts must begin with a complete analytical model of the associated ﬂuid motion: that is. respectively. Note too that such calculations rarely include the inﬂuence of ﬂow noise generated by turbulence and separating ﬂow elsewhere along the system. linear momentum and energy transport. expansions with losses. This is a common and convenient description of system performance. Useful and suﬃciently valid descriptions are obtained by assuming that the transfer processes remain isentropic and that the system is time invariant. the equations of mass. 11]. It has already been shown in equations (C6) that sound propagation along any acoustic component is always controlled. by the impedance of its termination. with those describing the relevant ﬂuid properties and the geometrical and surface properties of the boundaries. is not a relevant index here. so further details and other examples may be found there. . Therefore it is logical to begin the acoustic analysis from its open termination. sound propagation along the regular elements or pipes.5. in contrast to what one might expect the calculation of sound propagation along the system should begin at an open termination and proceed in sequence along the elements towards the source. If they have not been speciﬁed. This then deﬁnes the termination impedance of the system component nearest to the open end. This general procedure is set out in Data sheet 2. the relative acoustic performance may be expressed in terms of the system attenuation or equation (C10). The processes associated with the boundary conditions may include losses as well as the generation of non-propagating (evanescent) higher order modes. The equations expressing conservation of mass. This procedure is described for plane wave propagation in Data sheet 1 (Data sheets 1–5 follow Appendix D). provided the termination impedance Z and thus r remain constant and also similarly for Ze and us . to the extent that ﬂow noise and the primary source characteristics remain undeﬁned. All acoustic performance predictions are subjected to uncertainties. amongst other factors. One classical method of doing so it by the addition of an appropriate end correction [3] at such junctions. system acoustic performance can be expressed as insertion loss. which together with any relevant ﬁxed boundaries form a control volume. one ﬁnds that (W1 /W2 )==(p+)1 /(p+ )2 =2. C. energy and momentum are then expressed in integral form [3. 10] that may normally be Fourier transformed on the time t to describe the associated spectral characteristics. which is usually the case. in addition to any other deﬁciencies in the acoustic modelling.

etc. Dynamic equilibrium for ﬂuctuations when u(x. radius a. characteristic length acoustic length Mach number uo /co source mobility us /fs number of side branches polytropic index mechanical power Prandtl number for acoustic medium pressure reﬂection coeﬃcient modulus at Mach number M pressure reﬂection coeﬃcient. outer annulus s source. t)=uo+u. or cyclic i inner annulus p pipe r reference. TK . v/c length. To u V Vs W X x Z a b g d z h l n r v . APPENDIX D: LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS duct radius speed of sound pipe internal diameter end correction at area discontinuities cyclic frequency ﬂuid boundary forces. and mean ﬂow at Mach number M=uo /co is illustrated in Figure A3. . side branch DATA SHEET 1: ACOUSTIC WAVE PROPAGATION ALONG FLOW DUCTS A uniform pipe of length l. . . averaged o ambient value.708 a c d eij f F h I k L l M MI m n P Pr p RM r S s T Tij Ti . . compression ratio cross-section area ﬂuctuating entropy system element elements of scattering matrix [T] forward and backward transmission coeﬃcients ambient absolute temperature ﬂuid velocity control volume source volume velocity acoustic power component length axial displacement acoustic impedance p/u visco-thermal factor complex wavenumber ratio of the speciﬁc heats pressure perturbation associated with ﬂuctuating entropy speciﬁc impedance ratio Z/rc eﬃciency acoustic wavelength kinematic viscosity density radian frequency 2pf Subscripts c chamber. Tr . fs ﬂuid force acting at source speciﬁc enthalpy acoustic intensity wavenumber.

t)=p+−p− x x p(x. p+.5 ]. x x ro co u(x. (ii) conservation of energy fS [h'+(u')2/2 ] dS. acoustic ﬂuctuations. r. (2) For the volume V set out the integral relations describing: (i) conservation of mass fS r'u' dS=0 where r'=ro+r. with surface S. ro [1/1t+uo 1/1x]u−=−1p−/1x. with node spacing deﬁned by k*. u−(x. t)=u+(0) exp i(vt−k+x). 709 Figure A3. t)=d+p+−d− p− . e o Note: with viscothermal wave attenuation. p− . x x where d2=[k+a(1−i)]/[k3Ma(1−i)]. reﬂection coeﬃcients: ro=p−(0)/p+(0). . ro co u(x. Follow a sequence of analytical steps. Then p(x. a=(1/aco )(vn/2)0. 2 2 1 1 uo etc. e o Tr=p− /p− . x x x DATA SHEET 2: WAVE COMPONENT TRANSFER AT DISCONTINUITIES Given the geometry. Uniform pipe with mean ﬂow. ro . p−(x. t)=p−(0) exp i(vt+k−x). u+(x. in which n is the kinematic viscosity and Pr the Prandtl number.5 [1+(g−1)Pr−0. This represents a progressive and interfering wave motion. where k*=(k++k−)/2=(v/co )/(1−M 2 )=k/(1−M 2 ). transmission coeﬃcients: Ti=p+ /p+ . to ﬁnd p+ and p− where mean variables are po . t)=p+(0) exp i(Mk*x)[exp(−ik*x)+ro exp(ik*x)] exp(i vt). x x Zx=px /ux=ro co (p++p− )/(p+−p− ). T. u'=uo+u. is expressed by ro [1/1t+uo (1/1x)]u+=−1p+/1x. rx=p− /p+=(zx−1)/(zx+1). h'=ho+p/ro+To s and with ﬂuctuating entropy. impedances: Zo=p(0)/u(0). (1) Identify and prescribe a relevant control volume V. M. t)=u−(0) exp i(vt+k−x). r=(p+d)/co . where k+=v/(co+uo ) and k−=v/(co−uo ). t)=p++p− . replace k by b. where b=v/co+a(1−i). with isentropic processes 2 r=p/co . s=(−1/ 2 ro To )d/(g−1). u. t)=p+(0) exp i(vt−k+x). t)=p++p− . This is satisﬁed at any x by p+(x. p. Also p(x. x x x x zx=Zx /ro co=(1+rx )/(1−rx ). etc. enthalpy. note.

with ﬁxed boundaries. so that (i) with either (ii) or (iii) are suﬃcient. to give two new equations in terms of p+ and p− alone. With rigid boundaries the component of u' normal to it will be zero. d=0. for given r2=p− /p+ . 0QkaQ1·8: (a) with kaQ0·5. Express ﬂuctuating velocity u. Subtract the terms relating to the mean motion from (i). Figure A4. Satisfy all relevant conditions at ﬁxed boundaries. as a function of Helmholtz number ka. p− 1 1 2 2 and d. Discard ﬂuctuating terms of order higher than the ﬁrst (acoustic approximation). density r and pressure p in terms of the equivalent progressive component wave amplitudes p+ and p−. (b) the modulus RM of the reﬂection coeﬃcient r. for inﬂow and for outﬂow when RM=Ro f(M). . 0·5QkaQ2. 1 1 2 2 Evaluate Ti . lo /a=0·6393−0·1104ka. lo /a=0·6133−0·1168(ka)2. . . pipe radius a. (b) Ro=1+0·01336 ka−0·59079(ka)2+0·33756(ka)3−0·6432(ka)4. or (ii) add appropriate end corrections. 2 2 Solve for p+ and p− in terms of p+ and p− .710 . where r=RM exp iu= −RM exp(−2iklM ). (ii) and (iii). Otherwise. eliminate d ﬁrst. r1 . an eﬀective procedure. Either. Otherwise a F represents applied boundary forces. Tr . 2 2 (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) DATA SHEET 3: PLANE WAVE REFLECTION AT AN OPEN UNFLANGED PIPE The end of the pipe illustrated in Figure A4 is at −lo . The result will be a set of three equations expressing p+ and p− in terms of p+ . (a) An open unﬂanged pipe and end correction. With isentropic processes. (iii) momentum ﬂux balance fS [r'(u')2+p'] dS=a F=0. With zero mean ﬂow and plane waves. . (i) add appropriate set of evanescent higher order modes.

data inconclusive: (b) RM=Ro f(M). where Figure A5(b) shows mean velocity and Figure A5(c) acoustic pressure distribution. For the ﬂuctuating quantities. S2 With wave component amplitudes. Conservation of energy: (To s+p/ro+uo u)1 dS1= g (To s+p/ro+uo u)2 dS2 . p/p01. With inﬂow at Mach number aMq0 (with smooth inﬂow a=1) 711 (a) 0QMQ0·4. M=uo /co . Note that the evaluation of k and M requires the appropriate sound speed co corresponding to the local gas thermodynamic conditions. With outﬂow at Mq0. Transfer conditions at a ﬂow duct expansion. Note ur /uo01. (a) (i) lM=lo or (ii) lM=lo [1−M 2 ]. 1 1 2 2 B. see plots above. the acoustic approximation gives A. Conservation of mass: g g S1 (ro u+uo r)1 dS1= S1 g (ro u+uo r)2 dS2 . a=1+(0·4Kp )0·5 . S2 Figure A5. . this becomes [(1+M)p+−(1−M)p− ]S1=(S2+S1 M)p+−(S2−S1 M)p−+dS1 M. lM=lo [1−M 2 ]. A rather complex power series ﬁt deﬁning f(M) exists. DATA SHEET 4: TRANSFER CONDITIONS AT A FLOW DUCT EXPANSION The control volume V is a plane at x. With separating inﬂow. pressure loss coeﬃcient Kp . (b) 6 0QMQ0·4 0QaMQ0·6 7 RM=Ro [(1−aM)/(1+aM)]0·9 . where p is the average ¯ ¯ acoustic pressure.

S2 g (To s+p/ro+uo u)1 dS1= S1 g (To s+p/ro+uo u)2 dS2= S2 g (p3 /ro )dS3 . With wave component amplitudes. so that equation (A) with either (B) or (C) deﬁnes wave transfer neglecting evanescent waves. d=0. (b) contraction. Step 4: Evaluate p3=p++p−=p+ (1+r3 ). and so for mass g and for energy (ro u+uo r)1 dS1+ S1 g ro u3 dS3= S3 g (ro u+uo r)2 dS2 . M0constant. 2 2 Note: For a complete chamber calculate transfer from (b) to (a) using Data sheet 1. 1 1 2 2 With wave component amplitudes. To include these by adopting end corrections. l3=[L3+e21 ] at (b). Step 2: Calculate side branch acoustic lengths. see Data sheet 5. p3 . p2=p3=p1 . 1 1 2 2 Note distribution of p1 . r3=exp(2ikl3 )/ro at (b). With pipe radius a1 . and ro constant. p=p++p−. 2 r=(p++p−)/co (if isentropic). S3 when processes are not isentropic include a momentum balance. see Data sheet 4. . . from Figure A5(c). one has the following steps. Figure A6. Step 1: Calculate end correction e21=0·63a1 {1−exp[−(1−a2 /a1 )/1·5]}. or vice versa for (b). (1+M)p++(1−M)p−=(1+M)p++(1−M)p−−d/(g−1). 3 3 3 3 Step 5: For control volume V. with physical length L at (a). chamber hydraulic radius a2 . u3=p+ (1−r3 )ro co . since (p++p− )S3=(p++p− )S3 this gives 3 3 2 2 [(1+M(M+2))p++(1+M(M−2))p− ]S1=[M(M+2)p++M(M−2)p−+dM 2 ]S1 . p2 . see Figure A1. Step 6: Express the three (or four) equations in terms of component waves. Geometry for calculation of component wave transfers across a discontinuity. r3=ro exp(−2ikl3 ). and ¯ 2 [(ru +2ro uo u)2−(ruo +2ro uo u)1 ]S1=p1 S1−p2 S2+p3 S3 . Tr etc. Step 7: Use p+ (1+r3 )=p++p− to eliminate u3=(p++p− )(1−r3 )/(1+r3 ). 3 2 2 2 2 Step 8: Solve for p+ and p− in terms of p+ and p− for (a). across plane at x. this becomes C. DATA SHEET 5: WAVE TRANSFER ACROSS EXPANSIONS AND CONTRACTIONS WITH SIDEBRANCHES Figure A6 shows the geometry for calculation of component wave transfers across a discontinuity. ro co u=p+−p−. With isentropic processes. Step 3: Calculate side branch reﬂection coeﬃcients r3 at (a). . l3=−[L3+e21 ]. 1 1 2 2 Step 9: Evaluate Ti . p/p01·0. . With intakes transfer will be from (a) to (b). for known complex amplitudes p+ and p−. (a) Expansion. Momentum balance: 2 o Since V:0. note that over V.712 .

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