6/5/2012

T.Kartheeswaran Vavuniya Campus

Outline
• • • • • • • • • • • What is GSM GSM History GSM System Architecture GSM Call Operations Features of GSM What is Handoff Hand of Features GSM Handoff Handoff Architecture Type of Handoff Performance of Handoff
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Ready !!! To Handover

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What is GSM?
• Global System for Mobile (GSM) is a second generation cellular standard developed to cater voice services and data delivery using digital modulation

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GSM History
• 1982 Conference of European Posts and Telegraphs (CEPT) GSM (Group Special Mobile) group was formed to study and develop a pan-European public land mobile system • GSM Criteria –
– Good subjective speech quality, Low terminal and service cost – Support for international roaming –,one system for all of Europe – Ability to support handheld terminals, Support for range of new services and facilities, Enhanced Features, ISDN compatibility – Enhance privacy, Security against fraud

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GSM History Cont...
• • • • • • • 1980-GSM transferred to European Telecom 1991-Comerciallized 1992-First Customer 1993-36 GSM networks -22 Countries 1994-1.3 Million Subscribers 1996-25 Million Subscribers 1997-55 Million Subscribers
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System Architecture
• Mobile Station (MS)
Mobile Equipment (ME) Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)

• Base Station Subsystem (BBS)
Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Base Station Controller (BSC)

• Network Subsystem
Mobile Switching Center (MSC) Home Location Register (HLR) Visitor Location Register (VLR) Authentication Center (AUC) Equipment Identity Register (EIR)

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System Architecture Cont...

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GSM Operations
Speech Speech

Speech coding 13 Kbps Channel Coding 22.8 Kbps Interleaving 22.8 Kbps Burst Formatting 33.6 Kbps Ciphering 33.6 Kbps Modulation 270.83 Kbps Radio Interface

Speech decoding

Channel decoding

De-interleaving

Burst Formatting

De-ciphering

Demodulation
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Basic Features of GSM
• • • • • Call Waiting Call Hold Call Barring Call Forwarding Multi Party Call Conferencing

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Advanced Features Of GSM
• • • • • • Calling Line ID Alternate Line Service Closed User Group Advice of Charge Fax & Data Roaming

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What is Hand off
• What happens when mobile move to one area to another??? • In a cellular telephone network, handoff is the transition for any given user of signal transmission from one base station to a geographically adjacent base station as the user moves around

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Hand Off
BSC

BS1

BS2

BS3

2. Moving to of BS1’s still conversation 1. Connectout BS1 and startwithin connect to BS2 4. 3. Conversation ended – coverage – BS3’s coverage BS2’s BS3
Tor K Moseng, Handoff in Wireless Internet Access

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Hand Off

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BTS Signal Distribution

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Hand Off Must be!!!!
• • • • Perform Quickly Perform infrequently Imperceptible for users Perform Successfully

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Hand Off Features
• Maximize
– Performance – Reliability

• Maintain
– Seamless – Load Balancing

• Minimize
– Interference – No of Handoff
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When hand off occur??
• Initiated when received signal level drops below a certain threshold value. • Not as simple as it seems • Actually consider a time average of the received signal instead of the instantaneous level.

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When hand off occur??
• Define
– PMIN_USABLE as the minimum usable signal level – PHANDOFF as the threshold received signal level at which a handoff will be initiated – ∆ = PHANDOFF – PMIN_USABLE

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Handoff - Successful

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Handoff - Unsuccessful

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Why Handoff Fails?
• ∆ Too small (i.e. PHANDOFF too low) • High mobile speeds • Excessive delay at MSC
– High traffic level – Unavailability of channels

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When hand off occur??...
• Must optimize ∆. – Too large => too many handoffs – Too small => too many lost calls • Value of ∆ depends on – Environment – Expected mobile speeds – Time required to perform a handoff
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GSM Hand off
• Within the GSM system there are four types of handover that can be performed for GSM only systems: – Intra-BTS handover
– Changing frequency /slot due to the traffic same BS

– Inter-BTS Intra BSC handover
– Different BTS same BSE switch frequency and slot before release old

– Inter-BSC handover
– From one BSC to Another BSC controlled by MSC

– Inter-MSC handover
– between networks. Two MSCs control.

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GSM Hand off

 Three types of handover  Intra-BSC handover  Inter-BSC handover  Inter-MSC handover
BSC

MSC

MSC BSC

BSC

Tor K Moseng, Handoff in Wireless Internet Access

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Handoff

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Type of Hand Off
• Soft Hand off
– Hand off where a new connection is established before the old one is released

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Type of Hand Off
• Hard Hand off
– Hard handoff is one where an existing connection must be broken before the new one is established

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Type of Hand Off
• Softer Hand off
– It may also occur when a signal is replaced by a stronger signal from a different sector under the same base station

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Type of Hand Off
• Vertical Handoff • Horizontal Handoff

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Vertical Hand Off
• This handoff process of a mobile terminal takes place among access points supporting different network technologies. For example, the changeover of signal transmission from an IEEE 802.16 WiMax base station to a cellular GPRS network is considered as a vertical handoff process

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Vertical Hand Off

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Horizontal Hand Off
• In this handoff process, the handoff of a mobile terminal takes place between base stations supporting the same network technology. For example, the changeover of signal transmission due to the mobility of the mobile terminal from an IEEE 802.11bbase station to a neighbouring IEEE 802.11b base station is considered as a horizontal handoff process
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Horizontal Hand Off

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Performance
• Priority Schemes for Handoffs
– Goal is to minimize rate of handoff failure

• Guard Channel Concept
– reserve set of channels for handoffs only

• Queuing of Handoffs
– queue Serves handoffs on a FCFS basis

• Giving handoffs priority over call requests
– reduces rate of handoff failure desirable from user’s point of view
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Sri Lankan GSM Network

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Shall We Discuss????

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References(web)
• 3GPP, [Online]: www.3gpp.org • Jacques De Kegel, IBM & Wireless 2004, Presentation WIreless e-business EBO, [Online]: http://www.ti.kviv.be/Ittelecom/EBO_overview.pdf • Charles Perkins, Presentation at an IEEE 802 Handoff Tutorial, November 2002, [Online]: http://ieee802.org/16/tutorial/T80216-02_04.zip • Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, [Online]: http://en.wikipedia.org • GSM Handoff http://www.radioelectronics.com/info/cellulartelecomms/gsm_technical/han dover-handoff.php • Handoff http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/belide1343819-my-tech-semivar/ 39

Thank You

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