BODY FLUIDS Body fluids, total volume : 50 percent (in obese) to 70 percent (lean) of body weight Intracellular : 0.3 - 0.

4 of body weight Extracellular : 0.2 - 0.3 of body weight Blood Total volume Males : 69 ml/kg body weight Females : 65 ml/kg body weight Plasma volume Males : 39 ml/kg body weight Females : 40 ml/kg body weight Red blood cell volume Males : 30 ml/kg body weight (1.15 - 1.21 L/m2 body surface area) Females : 25 ml/kg body weight (0.95 - 1.00 L/m2 body surface area) Blood acid-base Normal range Arterial Venous 7.35 - 7.45 7.32 - 7.42 35 - 45 41 - 51 0 ± 2.5 — 23 - 27 26 - 30 22 - 26 24 - 28 22- 26 — 96 - 97 40 - 70 80 - 100 25 - 40

Actual pH PCO2 (mmHg) Base excess (mmol/L blood) Total CO2 (mmol/L plasma) Actual bicarbonate (mmol/L plasma) Standard bicarbonate(mmol/L plasma) Oxygen saturation (%) Oxygen tension PO2 (mmHg) CEREBROSPINAL FLUID Cells Chloride Glucose pH Pressure Protein, lumbar Albumin a1-globulins a2-globulins b-globulins g-globulins Protein, cisternal Protein, ventricular

< 5/mm3, all lymphocytes 600 - 700 mg/dl 45- 75 mg/dl or 60% of serum glucose 7.34 - 7.43 50-180 mm H2O 15 - 45 mg/dl 58% 9% 8% 10% 10% (5-12%) 15 - 25 mg/dl 5 - 15 mg/dl

CHEMICAL CONSITUTENTS OF BLOOD Antistreptolysin titre Acetoacetate Acid phosphatase Acid phosphatase, prostatic Aldolase 150 - 200 units/ml 0.2 - 2.0 mg/dl 0.5 - 12.0 Bodansky units/dl 2.5 - 12.0 IU/L 1.0 - 6.0 IU/L

4 micromoles/dl 94-95% 0-5% 0-2% 0.140 mEq/L 98-110 mEq/L 9-10.3.140 µg/dl .1.1.4 .1 .4 .40 mg/dl 6 .1920 mg/dl < 0.160 µg/dl 0 . quantitative (adults) IgG IgE IgA IgM Males Females IgD (Ramsay's method) Insulin.4 mg/dl 200 µg/dl 3.65 mmol (2.12 Bodansky units/dl 1.10 Wohlgemuth units/dl 0.1 mmol (1.1 mg/dl 0.5 mg/dl 0.10.2 .400 mg/dl 30 .110 mg/dl 5-10 IU/g Hb Negative 570 . qualitative Immunoglobulin.500 mg/dl 3 . total (Duma modification of Hughes method) Creatinine phosphokinase isoenzymes MM fraction MB fraction BB fraction Creatinine Delta amino laevulinic acid Electrolytes (ISE Analyser) Potassium Sodium Chlorides Calcium (Delhi and Ellingboe) Phosphorus (Fiskee and Subbarow) Child Adult 5 .6 .0 mg/dl 1.5 mg/dl 1.9 ± 6.200 pg/ml 70 .3 .Alkaline phosphatase Child Adult Alpha .5 mg/dl 0.55 . total Caeruloplasmin Males Females Copper Creatinine phosphokinase.5 mEq/L 135 . fasting Iron 45 U/L 35 U/L 60 .1.6 mg/dl 40.4 Bodansky units/dl 200 .3.4.0 ± 5.1.0 mg/dl 18 ± 3. fasting (GOD-POD method) Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase G6-PD screen.8 mg/dl 75 .1 .3 mEq)/L 3-4.1 antitrypsin Ammonia 10-80 µg/dl Amylase Ascorbic acid Bilirubin Adult Newborn At 3 days Carbon dioxide.4 .0 mEq/L 36.300 mg/dl 0 .25 µU/ml 60 .1.2 mEq)/L Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (Rosalki's method) Male Female Gastrin Glucose.0 .5 .025 mg/dl 70 .250 mg/dl 30 .2.4.

5.0.42 circumferences per second Ejection fraction.3 .7 .34% 28 . total Albumin Globulin Protein electrophoresis Alpha .7 g/dl 8 .3.40 Karmen units/dl 0 .6 .2.41% 15 .0 mg/dl 1.6 mg/dl 278 .1.2 g/dl 0.7 .2s-1 (DP = diastolic pressure) Mean normalised systolic ejection rate (angiography) : 3.5 .67 20 .4s-1 (dp/dt)/DP at DP = 40 mmHg : 37.305 Osm/kg serum water 25% excreted within 15 min after injection of 1 ml dye 3 mg/dl 6.60 µg/dl 200 .2 .8 mg/dl 0.84 end-diastolic volumes per second Mean velocity of circumferential fibre shortening (angiography) : 1.350 mg/dl < 18 mg/dl Absent 60 .4 g/dl 0.3 g/dl 1.240 IU/L LDH isoenzymes (Colorimetric method of King) LDH1 LDH2 LDH3 LDH4 LDH5 Lipase Magnesium Osmolality Phenosulphonphthalein Phenylalanine Protein.32 ± 0. average : 0. stroke volume/end-diastolic volume (SV/EDV): Normal range : 0.5-3.5 mg/dl 15 .850 µg/dl .66 ± 0.0.2 Beta Gamma SGOT (AST) SGPT (ALT) Sulphate Urea Urea nitrogen Uric acid Viscosity (Serum compared to H2O) Vitamin A Vitamin B12 FUNCTION TESTS Circulation Arteriovenus oxygen difference: 30-50 ml/L Cardiac output (Fick) : 2.0.15 .40 Karmen units/dl 0.21 mg/dl 2.6 g/dl 0.78.9 g/dl 3.220 mg/dl 10 .24% 70 .7.1.75% 8 .25% 8-16% 6-15% 0-160 U/L 1.Iron binding capacity (Ramsay's method) Lactic acid Lipidogram Cholesterol Triglycerides Phospholipids Free fatty acids Chylomicrons Beta lipoprotein Pre-beta lipoprotein Alpha lipoprotein LDH 250 .6 ± 12.1 Alpha .5 .450 µg/dl 5-15 mg/dl 140 .20% 13 .8 .1.4 .5 .45 mg/dl 7 .160 mg/dl 150 .7.6 L/m2 body surface area per min Contractility indexes Maximum left ventricular dp/dt: 1650 ± 300 mmHg/s Maximum (dp/dt)/p : 44 + 8.9 g/dl 0.1.5 .55-0.

Bentiromide test (pancreatic function): 500 mg bentiromide (Chymex) orally.2778 0.2778 — — — — .s)/L (770-1500 dyn.004 mg/kg body weight and preceded by 50 mg promethazine or after betazole 1.6 ± 0. p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) measured in plasma and/or urine.6-1.4 ± 1.2778 0.6 (kg.6 or less Gastrin.4 ± 1.0 ml/kg in 80 min Bicarbonate concentration : 80 mmol/L (80 mEq/L) Bicarbonate output : 10 mmol in 30 min (10 mEq in 30 min) Haematology 0. intracardiac and intraarterial Pulmonary vascular resistance : 2-12 (kPa. Plasma : 3. Serum vitamin A levels should rise to twice fasting level in 3-5 h.8 Titratable acidity of fasting juice : 4.4 µmol/s (23 ± 5 mEq/h) Basal acid output/maximal acid output ratio : 0.m)/m2 Left ventricular minute work index : 1.8-6. 25 g xylose is given in aqueous solution by mouth.7 mg/kg body weight or pentagastrin 6 µg/kg body weight): Females (mean ± 1 SD) : 4.4 µmol/s (16 ± 5 mEq/h) Males (mean ± 1 SD) : 6.s)/cm2) Gastrointestinal Absorption tests D-xylose absorption test : After an overnight fast.5 µmol/s (2.End-diastolic volume : 75 ± 15 ml/m2 End-systolic volume : 25 ± 8 ml/m2 Left ventricular work Stroke work index : 30-110 (g. Serum xylose should be 1. Vitamin A absorption test : A fasting blood specimen is obtained and 200.s/cm2) Systemic vascular resistance : 77-150 (kPa.000 units of vitamin A in oil is given by mouth.6 (± 1.0 ± 1.8 mEq/h) Maximal (after subcutaneous histamine acid phosphate 0.9 µmol/s (15-35 mEq/h) Acid output Basal Females (mean ± 1 SD) : 0.s)/L (20-120 (dyn. intravenously Volume (pancreatic juice): 2. serum : 40-200 ng/L (40-200 pg/ml) Secretin test (pancreatic exocrine function ) : 1 unit per kg body weight. Urine collected for the following 5 h should contain 33-53 mmol (5-8 g) (or > 20 percent of ingested dose).m)/m2/min Oxygen consumption index : 110-150 ml Pressures.261 0.7 mmol/L l h after the oral dose (25-40 mg per 100 ml).7-2.1) mg/L at 90 min Urine : 50 percent recovered in 6 h Gastric juice Volume 24 h : 2-3 L Nocturnal : 600-700 ml Basal fasting : 30-70 ml/h Conversion factor for SI Reaction pH : 1.

30% 1.3. haemolysis incomplete in 0.8 min Control ± 1 sec 40 .0 (5.17.14.5 .5 g/dL 38 .11000/cmm 60 .5.240 min 10 µg/dl 200 .5 g/dL 12.2% of erythrocytes 0 .0) 2.0 .0 (7.1 .450.15.0 (0.7% 20 .Haemogram Total erythrocyte count Males Females Haemoglobin Males Females Packed cell volume Males Females Mean corpuscular volume Mean corpuscular haemoglobin Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration 30-35% Total leucocyte count Differential count Neutrophils Eosinophils Lymphocytes Monocytes Platelets Reticulocyte count Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergen) Male Female Blood volume Average plasma volume 4.5 .20 mm end of 1 h 45 ± 5 ml/kg body weight 1487 ± 112 ml/sq meter body surface Lysis of RBCs seen with over 0.0 .0) 12.0 .4.2.5 . 000 .35 sec 9 .3 .0 (1.2 (0.7 min 4 .21.65% 120 .0) 20.16.3% sodium chloride 1.400 mg/dl 24 .33 µg 4000 .10 sec (control + 3 sec) < 24 hours Erythrocyte osmotic fragility test Increased fragility Coagulation studies Bleeding time (Ivy’s method) Coagulation time (Lee and White) One-stage prothrombin time (Quick) Clot retraction Euglobulin lysis time Fibrin degradation products Fibrinogen Activated partial thromboplastin Time (PTT) Thrombin time Whole blood clot lysis time Bone marrow study Normal percentage (range) WBC reticulum cells Blasts Promyelocytes Myel-neutro Myel-eosino Myel-baso Metamyelocytes Stab forms PMN neutrophils 0.15 mm at end of 1 h 0 .15.70% 1 .0) 5.0) 1.0) 0.0 .0) .3 (0.0 (7.1 .0 .50% 34 .5 millions/cmm 4.5 .5.6% 150.5% of sodium chloride.0 .0 .94 cµ 24 .5) 11.0.000/cmm 0.0) 11.5 (0.8 millions/cmm 14.0 (6.43% 78 .8.

5% of total Hb Haemoglobin.5 .2.0) Normoblasts Basophilic 1.0) PMN basophils 0.300 mg/dl Haemochromogens.8.0.4 (0. serum 100 .8% Haptoglobin.3.2.5 : 1 Haemoglobin studies (normal and abnormal) Haemoglobin A1 0.0 .0) RBC : Pronormoblasts 4.0) Monocytes 2.0 (3.0) Plasma cells 0.0) Megakaryocytes 0.9) M : E ratio 3.70 pg/ml 48 ± 29 pg/dl .0 (0.3.5 .0.0.20 15 0.5 .2 (0.0 .Landsteiner) No haemolysis Erythrocyte life-span Normal 120 days 51 Cr .5.13 Note : Reticulocyte index = percent reticulocytes x correction factor haematocrit and early bone marrow release Schilling test : 7-40% of orally administered radiolabelled vitamin B12 excreted in urine after ‘flushing’ with intramuscular injection of B12 Hormones and metabolites Adrenocorticortropin (ACTH).71 35 0.0 . plasma 0-5% of total Hb Haemoglobin.3 (0. serum Aldosterone.0 (0.0 .4 (0.52 30 0.4. foetal 0-2% of total Hb Haemoglobin.4.0 (0.5 .32.45 . plasma 3-5 mg/dl Haemolysis test Acid haemolysis test (Ham) No haemolysis Cold haemolysis test (Donath .28 20 0.0 .30 NaCl Corrected rate Reticulocyte index = 2 Reticulocyte index correction factor Corrected Observed rate x patient’s haematocrit rate = Normal haematocrit (45) Haematocrit Correction factor 45 1.38 25 0.42 mg/24 h Osmotic fragility Haemolysis begins 0. serum 2-3 mg/dl Methaemoglobin < 1.0 .33 .38 NaCl Haemolysis completed 0.0 (7.03 .4) Polychromatophilic 18.PMN eosinophils 20.4 . serum 210 mEq/day sodium diet Supine 15 .labeled half-life 28 days Iron turnover rate (plasma) 29 .4 (0.17.6) Unclassified cells 0.0) Orthochromatic 2.7) Lymphocytes 10.5% of total Hb Haemoglobin A1C Up to 6% of total Hb Haemoglobin A2 1.0 (1.0.00 40 0.

30 µU/dl 5 .1. free urinary 110 ug/24 h Cortisol. urine Males Females 2 .8 mg/24 h 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA).25 ug/dl Cosyntropin stimulation (30-90 min after 0. fasting Glucose load (100 g orally) 6 . serum Follicle-stimulating hormone.126 µU/ml < 5 µU/ml 0-2 mg/24 h 0-18 mg/24 h 8-18 mg/24 h . urine (increased during pregnancy. serum Males Females Follicular phase Peak midcycle Luteal phase Postmenopausal Free thyroxine index. urine Insulin. plasma Fasting Hypoglycaemia 17-ketogenic steroids. serum Adult. serum 8 AM 5 .25 µg/dl 8 PM 5 . urine Under 8 years Adolescent Adult males 2.65 µg/24 h 0 .70 µg/24 h 11-deoxycortisol.100 µg/24 h 0 . decreased after menopause) Males 4 .4 µg/dl Metyrapone stimulation (30 mg/dl orally 8 h prior) > 1.18 µU/dl 5 .2 µg/24 h Total Oestriol Oestradiol Oestrone Oestriocholanolone.15 µU/dl 50 µU/dl 5 ng/dl < 5 ng/dl Levodopa stimulation (500 mg orally in a fasting state) baseline within 2 h 17-hydroxycorticosteroids.5 µg/dl Oestrogens.6 µg/24 h 3 .8 µg/ 24 h Females 5 .19 µg/24 h Calcitonin.14 µg/24 h 4 . serum.12 mg/24 h 2 .Upright (2 h) 65 ± 23 pg/dl 110 mEq/day sodium diet Supine 107 ± 45 pg/dl Upright (2 h) 532 ± 228 pg/dl Urine 5 .11 µg/24 h 0 . serum None detectable Catecholamines.31 µg/24 h 1.25 mg cosyntropin intramuscularly or 10 µg/dL rise over intravenously) baseline Overnight suppression (8 AM) (serum cortisol after 1 mg 5 µg/dl dexamethasone orally at 11 pm) Urine 20 .9 mg/24 h 6 .20 µU/dl 12 .25 µg/24 h 1 . basal < 0 .

serum Radioactive iodine 131I uptake (RAIU) Renin activity. serum Thyroxine (T4).9 ± 1. free Tri-iodothyronine (T3).30 mg/dl Thyroid-stimulating hormone. serum Total Free Thyroxine-binding globulin capacity.observed HCO-3) Ucr x V Creatinine clearance Pcr = 130 ± 20 ml/min in males = 120 ± 15 ml/min in females where Ucr = Urine creatinine (mg/dl) Pcr = Plasma creatinine (mg/dl) V = Urine volume/(ml) 24 h Renal plasma flow RPF = Upah X V .5 µg/dl 0. urine Parathyroid hormone.7 mg/dl 2.2.45% 1-8 µg/24 h Anion gap Na+ .25 µg T4/dl 1-4 mg/dl 70-190 mg/dl 25 .8 mg/dl 1.1 ± 0.90mg/dl 3 .6 ± 2. plasma Normal diet Supine Upright Low-sodium diet Supine Upright Diuretics and lowsodium diet Testosterone Total plasma bound Adolescent males Adult males Females Unbound Adult males Females 0.0 ± 3.4 (desired HCO-3 .7 mg/dl 100 mg/dl 300 .females Metanephrine.24 mg/dl < 10 µU/ml 4.4 µ/dl 15 .11.8 mg/dl 6.5 .09 . serum Thyroxine index.100 mg/dl 25 . urine Renal function tests 5-15 mg/24 h 1.7 ± 1.3 mg/24 h 100 mg/24 h 150-300 pg/ml (varies with serum calcium) 5-25% at 24 h (varies with iodine intake) 1.8 .(HCO-3 + Cl-) 10± 2 mEq/dL Osmolality Osmolality (serum) = 2 Na+ (mEq/L) + BUN (mg/dl) Glucose (mg/dl) + 2.8 18 Bicarbonate deficit HCO-3 deficit = body weight (kg) x 0.5 mg/dl 10. serum T3 resin uptake Vanillyl mandelic acid (VMA). urine Norepinephrine.1.

0 litres per second < 3.2 L/cm H2O per cm H2O > 90 cm H2O > 150 cm H3O .02 24 ± 2 mmol/L 0 ± 2 mmol/L 6-7 litres 2-3 litres 1-2 litres 4.13 cm H2O/s 0.40 ± 0.0 cm H2O/s per litre < 2.5 cm H2O/s per litre > 0.ppah = 700 ± 100 ml/min in males = 600 ± 100 ml/min in females where Upah = Urine para-aminohippuric acid V = Urine volume/24 h ppah = Plasma para-aminohippuric acid Summary of values useful in pulmonary physiology Pulmonary mechanics Spirometry : volume-time curves Forced vital capacity Forced expiratory volume 3.0 litres 75% 4.5 litres per second at 50% of expired vital capacity Maximal expiratory flow 3.2 litres 4-5 litres Normal values 4.25 ± 0.1 L/cm H2O and thorax Dynamic compliance of 0.0 litres per second at 75% of expired vital capacity Resistance to airflow Pulmonary resistance Airway resistance Specific conductance Pulmonary compliance Static recoil pressure 25 ± 5 cm H2O at total lung capacity Compliance of lungs (static) Compliance of lungs 0.0 litres per second 8.05 litres 20 breaths per minute Maximal static respiratory pressures Maximal inspiratory pressure Maximal expiratory pressure Lung volumes Total lung capacity Functional residual capacity Residual volume Inspiratory capacity Expiratory reserve volume Vital capacity Gas exchange (sea level) Arterial O2 tension Arterial CO2 tension Arterial O2 saturation Arterial blood pH Arterial bicarbonate Base excess Diffusing capacity for 25 ml co/min/mmHg 95 ± 5 mmHg 40 ± 2 mmHg 97 ± 2% 7.0 litres in 1 s FEV1/FVC Maximal midexpiratory flow Maximal expiratory flow rate Spirometry: flow-volume curves Maximal expiratory flow 5.5 litres 3.

05 .260 Somogyi unit/h None detected None detected 0.64 2.3.97 g/L 7.8.0 .280 mg/24 h Approximately 65% 200 cells/mm3 25% None None Same as serum 2. titrable Ammonia Amylase Bence-Jones protein Bilirubin Calcium : Normal diet Low-calcium diet Chloride 50 ± 25 ml £ 35% VT £ 20% VT £ 20 mmHg Complete in 15 min 60% normal forms 75% motile forms 7.0 10% 50 million/dl 2.2 g/24 h or 30% dry weight < 2.0.2 g/24 h 40 .5 g/dL 63% 7% 7% 9% 14% 300 Same as serum 20-40 mEq/24 h 20 .6 ml < 197 g/24 h < 66.2 .6.832 mg/24 h < 7.45 .31 mEq/kg body weight/24 h 150 mg/24 h 120 .carbon monoxide (single breath) Dead space volume Physiologic dead space : dead spacetidal volume ratio (rest) (exercise) Alveolar-arterial difference for O2 Semen Liquefaction Morphology Motility pH Spermatocrit Spermatocyte count Volume Stool Bulk Wet weight Dry weight Coproporphyrin Fat (on a diet containing 30 g fat/day) Nitrogen Urobilinogen Water Synovial fluid Cells Polymorphonuclear cells Crystals Fibrin clot Glucose Hyaluronic acid pH Protein Albumin a1-globulins a2-globulins b-globulins g-globulins Relative viscosity Uric acid Urine Acidity.32 .240 mEq/24 h (varies with dietary intake) .7.50 mEq/24 h 25 .4 g/24 h 12 .

003 .0 .0 g/24 h None detected 0-2.100 mEq/24 h Non detected 10 .700 mg/24 h 1.11 mg in 24 h 1. quantitative Phosphorus Porphobilinogen Qualitative Quantitative Porphyrin Coproporphyrin Uroporphyrin Potassium Protein Qualitative Quantitative Sodium Specific gravity Uric acid Urobilinogen .030 600 .6 g/24 h or 15-25 mg/kg body weight/24 h None detected 16-300 mg/24 h None detected None detected 40 .6 .8.8 .Copper Creatinine Adults Children Creatinine 0-32 µg/24 h 0 .200 mg in 24 h 7 .120 µg/24 h None detected 50 .250 µg/24 h 10 .140 µg/24 h 0 .150 mEq/24 h (varies with dietary sodium intake) 1.1.0 Enrich units/24 h Glucose Qualitative Quantitative Haemoglobin Homogentisic acid Iron Lead Myoglobin Osmolality pH Phenylpyruvic acid.30 µg/24 h 25 .4 mg/24 h 50 .1.0 None detected 0.2.150 mg/24 h 10 .1200 mOsm/L 4.

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