THE HUMAN EYE: Structure: 1. Pupil: Pupil is the round black spot in front of eye.

It regulates the amount of light entering the eyes. Pupil works like aperture of a camera. In case of dim light pupil dilate to allow more light to enter the eyes. In case of strong light pupil constrict allowing less light to enter. 2. Irish: Irish is made of muscles. They control the size of opening if pupil. 3. Lens: Lens lies just behind the pupil. Lens becomes thin to increase its focal length. This enables us to see distant objects clearly. To focus on nearer objects lens becomes thick to decrease its focal length. But there is a limit. The minimum distance of clear vision is 25 cm. Below this distance we cannot see things clearly. 4. Retina: Retina works like a screen or camera film. Retina is full of light and colour sensitive cells. These cells, upon receiving image send electrical signals to the brain, which processes these information to make a mental image of what we see. Benefits of two eyes: One eye is having a field of vision of about 150 degrees. Both the eyes enable us to see upto a field of 180 degrees. Moreover, as two different images get juxtaposed in the brain, so we are able to see a three dimensional view of the world.

Malfunctions of Eyes: 1. Cataract: In old age the cornea becomes cloudy. This reduces the vision in old age. In early stages of the disease cataract can be cured by eye surgery. Sometimes artificial lens is also transplanted during cataract surgery. This is called Intra Ocular Lens Transplantation. 2. Myopia: Myopia is also known as near-sightedness. A person with myopia can see nearby objects clearly but cannot see distant objects distinctly. In a myopiceye, the image of a distant object is formed in front of the retina and not at the retina itself. This defect may arise due to (i) excessive curvature of the eye lens, or (ii) elongation of the eyeball. This defect can be corrected by using a concave lens of suitable power. A concave lens of suitable power will bring the image back on to the retina and thus the defect is corrected.

The phenomenon of scattering of light by the colloidal particles gives rise to Tyndall effect. the near point gradually recedes away. we mean the actual crossing of the horizon by the Sun. suspended particles of dust and molecules of air. a person may suffer from both myopia and hypermetropia. or (ii) the eyeball has become too small. This defect is called Presbyopia. This phenomenon is seen when a fine beam of sunlight enters a smoke-filled room through a small . after being reflected diffusely by these particles. undergoes refraction continuously before it reaches the earth. The near point. on entering the earth’s atmosphere. which is the twinkling effect. As the path of rays of light coming from the star goes on varying slightly. for the person. By actual sunrise. The atmospheric refraction occurs in a medium of gradually changing refractive index. since the physical conditions of the earth’s atmosphere are not stationary. The star appears slightly higher (above) than its actual position when viewed near the horizon . and about 2 minutes after the actual sunset because of atmospheric refraction. is farther away from the normal near point (25 cm). Further. This is because the light rays from a closeby object are focussed at a point behind the retina. The time difference between actual sunset and the apparent sunset is about 2 minutes. Since the stars are very distant. The starlight. The apparent flattening of the Sun’s disc at sunrise and sunset is also due to the same phenomenon. Since the atmosphere bends starlight towards the normal. A common type of bi-focal lenses consists of both concave and convex lenses. tiny water droplets. Such a person has to keep a reading material much beyond 25 cm from the eye for comfortable reading. They find it difficult to see nearby objects comfortably and distinctly without corrective eye-glasses. This defect can be corrected by using a convex lens of appropriate power. For most people. The lower part is a convex lens. Sometimes. The upper portion consists of a concave lens. the apparent position of the star is slightly different from its actual position. the apparent position of the star fluctuates and the amount of starlight entering the eye flickers – the star sometimes appears brighter. 4. they approximate point-sized sources of light.3. SCATTERING OF LIGHT Tyndall Effect The earth’s atmosphere is a heterogeneous mixture of minute particles. Presbyopia: The power of accommodation of the eye usually decreases with ageing. and at some other time. the path of the beam becomes visible. A person with hypermetropia can see distant objects clearly but cannot see nearby objects distinctly. this apparent position of the star is not stationary. It facilitates near vision. The light reaches us. When a beam of light strikes such fine particles. It arises due to the gradual weakening of the ciliary muscles and diminishing flexibility of the eye lens. fainter. This defect arises either because (i) the focal length of the eye lens is too long. Advance sunrise and delayed sunset The Sun is visible to us about 2 minutes before the actual sunrise. Such people often require bifocal lenses. Eye-glasses with converging lenses provide the additional focussing power required for forming the image on the retina. Hypermetropia: Hypermetropia is also known as far-sightedness. It facilitates distant vision. but keeps on changing slightly. as was the case in the previous paragraph. These particles include smoke. ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION Twinkling of stars The twinkling of a star is due to atmospheric refraction of starlight.

For a healthy human eye. This amount of light is controlled by the pupil. when sunlight passes through the atmosphere. Thus. The minimum distance at which an object placed can be seen clearly without strain is called near point or least distance of distinct vision. The far point for a healthy human eye is at infinity. Why is the colour of the clear Sky Blue? The molecules of air and other fine particles in the atmosphere have size smaller than the wavelength of visible light. Thus.hole. The ability of an eye to focus the distant objects as well as nearby objects on the retina clearly by changing the focal length of lens is called power of accommodation. near point is 25 cm. Retina converts the light rays into electrical signals which are sent by optic nerves to the brain. Near point or least distance of distinct vision. An eye lens is composed of fibrous jelly like material. Cause of formation of cataract Cataract develops when the eye lens of a person becomes cloudy due to the formation of a membrane of proteins over it. Then. Two eyes give a wider field of view. The colour of the scattered light depends on the size of the scattering particles. Therefore. Reason of having two eyes for vision. as scattering is not prominent at such heights. The red light has a wavelength about 1. tiny water droplets in the mist scatter light. Very fine particles scatter mainly blue light while particles of larger size scatter light of longer wavelengths. If the size of the scattering particles is large enough. The focal length of the lens is controlled by the ciliary muscles. there would not have been any scattering. the scattered light may even appear white. the fine particles in air scatter the blue colour (shorter wavelengths) more strongly than red. The scattered blue light enters our eyes. it can be seen in the same colour at a distance. . Far point The farthest point up to which the eye can see the object clearly is called the far point of the eye. Power of accommodation. You might have observed that ‘danger’ signal lights are red in colour. These are more effective in scattering light of shorter wavelengths at the blue end than light of longer wavelengths at the red end. The red is least scattered by fog or smoke. Eye lens. then.8 times greater than blue light. the sky would have looked dark. Working of eye The light falling on the eye gets refracted through the cornea. scattering of light makes the particles visible. 1. Here. The eye lens converges the light rays and forms an image on the retina. Its focal length can be changed by ciliary muscles by pressing or stretching it. To increase the focal length. the ciliary muscles are in the relaxed position and the lens is thin. Tyndall effect can also be observed when sunlight passes through a canopy of a dense forest. A normal eye has a power of accommodation which enables the objects as far as infinity and as close as 25 cm to be focused on retina. If the earth had no atmosphere. The brain interprets these signals and we see the objects as it is. Cataract The condition in which the lens of the eye of a person becomes cloudy and milky resulting in blurred vision is called cataract. The sky appears dark to passengers flying at very high altitudes.

Two eyes enable us to judge the distance more accurately. .2. Defects of vision Myopia or near sightedness short sightedness The defect of vision in which a person can see the nearby objects clearly but is unable to see the distant objects clearly is called short sightedness or myopia. In the myopic eye the image of the distant object is formed in front of the retina.

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