POLICY OF THE GOVERNMENT The Government is committed to SMEs as vehicles for quality of life improvement, economic growth and

poverty alleviation of the common people. The primary role of the government shall, firstly, be that of a facilitator removing policy obstacles and neutralizing market failures and secondly, that of providing necessary promotional support. Government of Bangladesh formulated a comprehensive Industrial Policy – 2005 by putting special emphasis for developing Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) as a thrust sector for balanced and sustainable industrial development in the country to help deal with the challenges of free market economy and globalization. The SME Policy strategies have been formulated to assist in the achievement of the goals and target the MGDs set by the Government. The SME Policy of the Ministry of Industry, further included the following for development of enterprises in the country: 1. Setting Preferential Criteria for Deserving Enterprises 2. Revenue and Financial Incentives (stated in paragraph 4.7 of the Industrial Policy 2005) 3. Credit-distribution Package and venture capital-market 4. Quality assurance (QA) Certification 5. Multi-stage Sample Survey of SMEs 6. Tactical Plan of Action 7. Formulation of a capacity-building and training 8. Evolving of an SME Eco-system 9. Mitigating Impediments in clusters 10. Education and Generational Ethos OBJECTIVES OF THE SME POLICY The broad objectives of the policy shall be to: 1. Accept SMEs as an indispensable player in growth acceleration and poverty reduction, worthy of its great potential and commitment in the requisite overall policy formulation and execution; 2. The SME Policy Strategies shall be embedded, in a broad-based and integrated manner, in the Government's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) 3. Encourage and induce private sector development and promote the growth of FDI, develop a code of ethics and establish good governance, ICT based knowledge managements and customer supremacy in the markets; 4. Identify and establish an appropriate physical and ICT network of infrastructure and institutional delivery mechanism that facilitate the promotion of SMEs;

and electronic-governance in an effort to parlay regulatory services. all kinds of useful information and mentoring inputs. The SME Policy of the Government would also encourage other women into business and motivate them to turn into successful entrepreneurs contributing towards the family and also the society at large. FBCCI. Implementing Agency MOI. within the limitations of government's resources 11. mentoring and tutoring. Nurture and partner civil-society institution(s) having credible management teams in terms of the delivery of needed services. SME Foundation. NASCIB and City Corporations should take initiatives to build warehouses for stocking . 7. counseling. GENDER & SME POLICY These policies would enhance the working capacity of women entrepreneurs in the SME sector and would promote their activities further for increased success in their endeavors in business. Create innovative but meritocratic arrangements so that deserving and small enterprises with desired entrepreneurial track record and/or promise can be offered financial incentives within industries prescribed on some well-agreed bases 8.5. with an accent on increasing the viability of SMEs in all sectors of the economy. Take measures to create avenues of mobilizing debt without collaterals to match (either using debt-guarantee schemes or mapping intellectual-property capital into pseudoventure capital) in order to assist small enterprises in dealing with the pervasive lack of access to finance 10. initiation. BSCIC. if any 9. Lack of storage facility to store finished products. Help implement dispute settlement procedures that proactively shield small enterprises especially from high legal costs and insidious harassment. MATRIX ON GENDER EQUALITY AND IDENTIFIED GAPS RELATED TO WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS Gender Gaps 1. Solutions Creation of warehouses for stocking products of the women entrepreneurs in the city area. Systematically accord precedence to small versus medium enterprises. Internet Protocol (IP)-based infrastructure. etc. Harness information & communications technologies. Re-orient the existing fiscal and regulatory framework and government support institutions towards facilitating achievement of the goals of SME Policy 6. leadership. Chamber of Commerce Recommendations SMEF in collaboration with other Chambers.

SMEF. GO. Women’s trade bodies and various international and local training institutions. ICT related trade bodies should provide relevant information to support women entrepreneurs in marketing their products through media partners. Women Trade SMEF in association with FBCCI. Various Chambers of commerce. 2. GOB. FBCCI. NGO. Mass Media Communication. MOICT. organize various trade fairs nationally and internationally and establish more stalls. Lack of enabling investment environment for SMEF. FBCCI. 4. rules and regulations should be formulated for SME Foundation.products of women entrepreneurs. Information gap between suppliers and customers on demand supply and prices. An ICT Desk may be created for increased coordination with retailers to provide women entrepreneurs with market information through media partners. and various mass media communication. ICT related trade bodies MOICT. 3 Lack of Marketing facilities. display centers and show rooms at the important market places and SMEF premises for building a strong marketing network on sustainable basis. Women Trade Bodies and . SMEF. EPB. Pro-women laws. EPB. The relevant organizations should arrange collaborative / foreign and local training and skill development courses on marketing as well as on other business development / product development for women entrepreneurs and employees on regular basis. Banks. Chamber of Commerce. Chamber of Commerce. SMEF in cooperation with various women’s business organizations and various national and regional Chambers may organize training courses for raising marketing skill of women entrepreneurs.

should take necessary steps for creating a business friendly environment for women entrepreneurs by reviewing existing laws. SMEF. SMEF MOWCA. SMEF. Take initiative for strengthening women’s organizational strength into power MOWCA. NASCIB FBCCI. BABPW. WISE. WEA. District Chambers of Commerce and Industry should take steps encouraging the establishment of district based Women’s Chambers of Commerce & Industry and organize programs for women to promote entrepreneurship and business development. Chambers. District Chambers.women entrepreneurs. . NASCIB. creating a business friendly environment for women entrepreneurs. Organizations and Chambers. SMEF. regulations and issuing directions as and where necessary for promoting business. WEA. MOH. BABPW. NASCIB. 5. BWCCI. District-based Chamber of Commerce and Industry. SMEF. MO WCA. SMEF in consultation with the GOB should prepare a comprehensive plan in order to strengthen the Organizational capability of women into power and thereby activate women’s entrepreneurial skill. WISE. MOWCA. Absence of region-based or district-based women’s forum like Women Chamber of Commerce and Industry to enhance communication for Entrepreneurship Development.B. MOI MOC. MOH. BWCCI. EPB. WEA. NASCIB.B. Women forum of every district can take steps towards establishing District-based Women’s Chambers of Commerce & Industry and also organize programs for women to increase women interest and communication towards Entrepreneurship Development. SMEF. Absence of a common platform to organize prospective women entrepreneurs. rules. 6. MOI IMOC. District Chamber. EPB. WEA. FBCCI.

BWCCI. The Second Five Year Plan emphasized creating a congenial atmosphere for women’s increased participation in development by expanding opportunities for skill development. SMEF. Create appropriate institutional arrangement with necessary financial and human resources and authorities at all levels to mainstream women’s concern in all aspects and sectors of development . Women entrepreneurship development related policies and objectives adopted in the Fifth Five Year Plan are as follows:       Ensure women’s legal rights in property inheritance. have also been identified in this section Women entrepreneurship related policies and objectives in various Five Year Plans of Bangladesh The importance of women entrepreneurship in Bangladesh was first at acknowledged in the Second Five year Plan (1980-85). WEA. in consultation with GOB should prepare an innovative. BABPW. This section attempts at identifying women entrepreneurship related policies and objectives adopted in various national documents of Bangladesh. WISE. trendsetting and uncommon products and prepare a location map for their marketing. information resources and opportunities. which the GoB ratifies.7. The same policies and programs were adopted in the Third Five Year Plan (1985-1990). women were brought under various credit programs mainly for developing micro entrepreneurship among the poor and disadvantaged women. BWCCI. Women entrepreneurship related policies and objectives adopted in various international documents. The Fourth Five Year Plan (1990-95) placed women within the context of macro framework with multi-sectoral thrust. Ensure women’s access to managerial training. Identify list of innovative. WEA. BABPW. FBCCI.B. MOWCA. During this plan period. Ensure women’s access to credit facilities. SMEF. Promote women’s economic self reliance. FBCCI. POLICIES AND PROGRAMS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN BANGLADESH The development of women entrepreneurship in Bangladesh is perceived as a low priority agendum. WEA. No mechanism to identify innovative and trend-setting business and trade line and make use of interested business women to activate those businesses.B. it is evident that policies and programs for encouraging and supporting women entrepreneurship are few. WISE. Ensure women’s equal right to skill. credit and entrepreneurship development. SMEF. The gender policies and objectives adopted in the Fifth Five Year Plan (1997-2002) were also supportive of developing entrepreneurships among women of Bangladesh. NASCIB. SMEF MOWCA. NASCIB. Therefore. trend-setting and uncommon products list and prepare a location map for marketing such products. WEA.

Fourth World Conference on Women. are important. . It also emphasizes the need for inter sectoral linkages. In this context. NAP assigned a definitive set of responsibilities to the Ministry of Industry to finance. departments and agencies of the GoB. making provision for linkage with bankers and establishing contact with the Ministry of Finance to allocate credit quota for women in the financing operation of commercial banks. train and provide other support to develop women’s capability to undertake production enterprise. it is a long felt demand of the women groups of Bangladesh because of the fact that lack of ownership of property is the root cause of all forms gender inequality. Convention for the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against women (CEDAW) and Platform for Action (PFA). Increase the number of women entrepreneurs Develop women’s entrepreneurial skill Ensure women’s easy access to market Provide infrastructural facilities for women entrepreneurs and Upgrade the technical know-how of women and develop technology suitable for women In addition to these objectives. In fact. The main objectives of NAP in relation to women entrepreneurship development are as follows:       Adopt a comprehensive and sustainable industrial policy that will promote equity for men and women. Among these. Beijing 1995. Women entrepreneurship related objectives in International Treaties Bangladesh is also a signatory of several international treaties regarding women’s development. This report extensively discusses the gender dimension of poverty and has adopted a right-based approach to eliminate gender gap from all spheres of life. The NAP emphasizes the strategy of mainstreaming women’s development into the policies and programs undertaken by various ministries. PRSP has emphasized the development of women entrepreneurship as one of the means to women’s advancement. It has also envisaged undertaking studies to identify business opportunities for women. In this context. The same approach has been adopted for the advancement of women. This plan puts emphasis on responsibilities of all stakeholders to bring women in all spheres of life. co-ordination and collaboration for women’s development. It is very encouraging to notice that one suggested intervention is regarding the amendment of the family and inheritance laws to ensure women’s equal access to the right to own and inherit property. NAP declares an objective to develop women entrepreneurship and micro enterprise and to undertake action to identify potential women entrepreneurs. It is also one of the root causes of low level entrepreneurship development among the women of Bangladesh. networking.Women entrepreneurship related objectives in NAP The GoB developed a National Action Plan for Women’s Advancement (NAP) in 1997. Women entrepreneurship related policies and objectives in the PRSP Bangladesh has prepared a poverty reduction strategy paper (PRSP) to achieve efficiency in reducing poverty and to attain sustainable socio-economic development.

as an integral and important element in the cause of economic growth and poverty alleviation in Bangladesh. A SME Cell shall also be set up in MOI to help implement the SME policies. B. C. A. which is a basic pre-condition for the development of women entrepreneurship. especially small enterprises. Article 12 of this plan emphasize equal economic right and opportunities for development of women and mentions the right of the women to credit. Long-term is defined as something that takes more than 4 years to fructify. By short term. we mean actions whose impact may be felt between now and 18 months away. Framing and carrying out policies for SME development Policy statement: The Government shall make an unambiguous policy statement declaring that the Government consider SMEs.and long-term. which the GoB has ratified. The Panel will report to the Minister of Industries. The current Taskforce will continue to monitor the implementation in future of its recommendations.Platform for Action (PFA) The Fourth World Conference of United Nations on Women Development in Beijing adopted a plan called Platform for Action (PFA). although with four reservations. The first task of the AP would be to author a tactical plan of action about what it will take to move SMEs forward the way they should. The Government of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh has adopted the Platform for Action and thus commits to implement the resolution of the PFA. whose fruition could well take between 18 month and 4 years. POLICY RECOMMENDATION The Taskforce has organized its recommendations in three groups in order of their underlying time-horizons: short-. we mean actions whose initiation could take up to 18 months. Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is another international document. medium. A) SHORT-TERM POLICIES 1. . By medium term. The Ministry of Women and Children Affairs has set up an inter-ministerial Task Force to follow-up the implementation of the resolution of the PFA. SME Advisory Panel: An SME Advisory Panel (AP) shall be constituted to perform the services of a specialist brains-trust for the Ministry of Industries (MOI).

in today’s market prices. Medium enterprise: an enterprise would be treated as medium if. for example). a. For non-manufacturing activities (such as trading or other services). in fulltime equivalents. the replacement cost of plant. the Advisory Panel and the SME Cell will eventually morph into what we call a SME Foundation. support utility.The Panel may comprise a few of the members of this Taskforce. the Taskforce defines: Small enterprise: an enterprise should be treated as small if it has less than 25 workers. industry association(s) associated with SMEs. fixtures. etc. the Taskforce recommends that: Small enterprise: an enterprise should be treated as small if. . were to be up to Tk. were to be up to Tk. Medium enterprise: an enterprise would be treated as medium if it has between 25 and 100 employees. and associated technical services by way of capitalized costs (of turn-key consultancy services. It is the SME Foundation which will become the bedrock for all major dimensions of SME development (this is further detailed under the rubric of mediumterm recommendations of the Taskforce). and other parts/components. the replacement cost of plant. excluding land and building. fixtures. Tactical Plan of Action: A roadmap and a tactical plan of action. the outreach of SME policy for poverty alleviation and employment generation has been augmented versus all past statements of industrial policies. b. 100 million. machinery. SME Foundation: In the medium term. in today’s market prices. machinery and other parts/components. Definition/Identification of SMEs Defining enterprises for targeting purposes in terms of either fixed investment or head-count is a well-established policy practice. 15 million. support utility. 2. Any definition. etc. may be conceived and then detailed by SME Advisory Panel and the SME Cell. and associated technical services (such as turn-key consultancy). no matter how well-thought-through is bound to involve some degree of arbitrariness. role models with a track record for generating mass interest in technopreneurial careers. for instance in South Asia region. excluding land and building. appropriate civil-society institution(s). subject-matter specialists. A one-attribute definition typically reduces the proportion of indeterminate cases compared with a two-attribute one. For manufacturing industries. By making the definition especially of small enterprises more inclusive with a lower threshold for assistance eligibility.

for example). or other rounds such as Tobacco. an above-average insiders’ equity participation. 3 million and less than Tk. The Taskforce recognizes that there will remain a need for National Board of Revenue (NBR) and other implementation arms of the government to incorporate the definitions in the declared SME policy within their own operating environment. Sectors that should be discouraged based on health. Both recommendations (a) and (b) will. Setting preferential criteria for deserving enterprises Enterprises which. for enterprises in the cities of Dhaka/Chittagong and all other areas/locations respectively. g. Exceptions: The above facilities will not be given to: 1. High management commitment to innovation. Women entrepreneurs will be accorded preference. 3 million in fixed assets not counting land and building) should be given a tax holiday for 7 (seven) and 10 (ten) years from their initiation. excluding land and buildings. 2. Joint Venture industries with foreign partners. not just the boosters. e. liquor and narcotics related industries. proven credentials as an entrepreneur (for example. as well as meeting the size requirement proposed by the Taskforce. membership in well-recognized social occupational groupings. smaller enterprises shall be given preference in terms of benefits from interventions by the government and civil society initiatives.5% (two and a half percent). 3 million (three million) excluding land and buildings. c.Proposed definition sets the threshold smallness at a much lower level compared with the treatment in the Industrial Policy of Bangladesh (1999). f. shall be completely exempt from any obligation to pay VAT. certifiable professional specialization of top-management in relevant production skills. we propose. b. Tax Holiday: We recommend that such very small enterprises (with up to Tk. . shall have a. 15 million. Other things being equal. 4. successful track record) with requisite presence and facilities on the ground. shall pay turnover tax at the rate of 2. d. 3. the stamp of approval from globally-recognized quality-assurance bodies (ISO 9001:2000. environment. be applied in all industries. Manufacturing enterprises with fixed investment greater than Tk. wherever appropriate. Rationalization of VAT and other budgetary measures Exemption to Pay VAT: We recommend that very small manufacturing enterprises with fixed investment of up to Tk.

VAT on imported products shall not be less than that on like domestic products. negative pecuniary externalities in certain among the booster industries prescribed here. 80%. An innovative scheme---rather like a two-stage screening mechanism---that can really probe for the bone fide of the applicants as entrepreneur material will be deployed. 6. then the taxes on the raw materials and spares of that product will automatically stand adjusted following the above principle. projects to be funded from the venture-capital fund will be evaluated by a team of experts which will be constituted as a part of the implementation of SME Policy. In the short run. 3. Regulatory Duty. This recommendation is rationalized in terms of the private underinvestment based on extensive.Protect local industries: We recommend two blanket clauses to protect local industries from irrational tax policies: 1. etc. Of the total resources available.) 4. will determine modalities of how to implement both the credit-fund and the venture-capital fund. If such taxes for a finished commodity are reduced at any time. The remainder will be allocated to a credit fund. as the case may be. even potentially crippling. will be earmarked for small enterprises.) on the raw materials and spares of locally produced commodities cannot exceed that on corresponding finished imported commodities. The Ministry of Industry and the SME Advisory Panel/Foundation. A credit-distribution package will need to be worked out by the Ministry of Industries. Within each division. Within the oversee of the Advisory Panel. 5. this responsibility will devolve to the SME Foundation. 2. VAT. the resources will be divided up into a public-sector venture-capital fund (10%). The total incidence of all taxes at import (Import duty. . which is here being recommended as the lead bank. It will also give a stimulus to the morale of entrepreneurs who commit inhouse capital to projects with novel and potentially innovative processes and technologies with demonstrable potential for commercial success. it being borne in mind that BASIC Bank will closely work with the Advisory Panel. Such projects have a-typically high risk and high returns. with regard to the leaching of shareholder’s value outward from the enterprise. Supplementary Duty. 5. no more than 20% may be earmarked for medium enterprises. 2. while the remainder. the distribution of the credit fund and venture-capital fund will be the task of the BASIC Bank. (Over the medium term. Development surcharge. Credit-distribution Package and venture capital – market 1. (This does not have anything to do with debt-equity ratio relevant in discussions of enterprise financing. Any reduction in existing VAT on imported products shall be automatically matched by an equal reduction on VAT on like domestic products. approximately on the lines of the currently-implemented EEF at the Bangladesh Bank. Donor financial resources made available specifically to help with implementation of SME policy being enunciated here would only be allocated to competitively-selected enterprises within the booster industries here being prescribed. A publicly-mandated venture-capital scheme be created in deference to the rationale cited in the main text.

Ideally. out-right co-financing grants may be available for registration with globally branded QA registrars (say with ISO 9001: 2001 or equivalent). In consonance with this imperative. 1. might become the focal point for offering assistance with regards to securing quality-assurance (QA) certification from registrars of QA. Such association(s) would be eligible to grants from Government towards the cost of setting up required testing laboratories and other facilities. SMEs need for quality-assurance (QA) stamp-of-approval Bangladesh Standards and Testing Institute (BSTI) with its accountability to SMEs fundamentally enhanced through appropriate SME representation in its governance. Small. Suitable SME-related industry association(s) should be empowered to issue non-mandatory certification. the Taskforce puts forward a package of medium-term recommendations. would implement a transparent and meritocratic arrangement for steering public equity and debt resources into a genuinely deserving selection of enterprises. and the SME Foundation in the medium.and long-term. Multi-stage Sample Survey of SMEs There is an urgent need for a major overhaul of the availability of reliable and current data about the characteristics of SMEs. the Government must remove all remaining obstacles impeding the formation of an SME Foundation as a pivotal platform for the delivery of all . B) MEDIUM-TERM POLICIES The OECD have recently opined that one of the major challenges of transitional and developing countries in this age of sweeping globalization is to ensure rapid development of the SME sector by harnessing scarce human and institutional capacities in availing of trading and investment opportunities. the data from which should be of use in drawing up a survey methodology for a systematic stratified random sampling. albeit with high professional integrity. with regard to quality assurance. and with appropriate representation from civil society institution(s). 7. The Taskforce recommends that the Ministry of Industries immediately take up the conception and implementation of a multi-stage sample survey of SMEs in the metros and the district headquarters. there should be a complete enumeration of all SMEs. 8.7. Formation of a Small and Medium Enterprises Foundation Over the medium term and beyond. The Advisory Panel working together with the Lead Bank in the short-term. The development of human resources in both the BASIC Bank and the SME Foundation with regard to effective targeting of resources made available under public equity funding would remain imperative. 6.

including some resources needed for capacity-building in appropriate industry association(s). with adequate budget to match. Mirpur. strive to provision one-window delivery of all legal. for technopreneurial problem-solving session(s). product and market trends. to be hosted on a SME Web portal in the SME Cell/SME Foundation.and the like). with all interactions between the user and the system stored on databases in the interest of providing institutional memory. it is recommended. paying careful attention to the requirements of the production clusters in the inner cities (such as Dholai Khal. FAQs. A Tactical Plan of Action Strategic skills upgrading: The tactical plan is needed to move from gap analyses to skills upgrading based on the product(s) in the booster-sectors. developmental. counseling. for career-counseling to benefit science/technology graduates. technology and the means to market. Supply chain for technopreneurship: A serious effort is recommended for fostering a supply chain for technopreneurship.planning. for the divining of technology. Towards a virtual SME front-office: A Web-based virtual front-office providing all start-up assistance to SME entrepreneurs (application forms. horror stories. availing of relevant information and communication technologies. by human touch. financing. administrative and regulatory facilities. It is recommended that the SME Panel/Cell and the SME Foundation conceive programs in popular media. Exports-friendly content on the SME portal: Information regarding standards of labor and output pertaining to overseas markets to benefit export-oriented SMEs should be put on the Web portal. at least for a time. mentoring. Enabling environment: An enabling environment in which both extant and aspiring entrepreneurs find within an easy reach most of what they direly need---information. modeled after some widely-accepted success stories. SME Web Portal: An online-community. evaluation and advocacy services in the name of all SME development as a crucially-important element of poverty alleviation. limited directory-assistance. awareness-raising. This is based on the . access to finance. The Foundation would. for SMEs in Bangladesh. Electronic-governance with a human touch: Such structures of electronic-governance should be supplemented. (The Taskforce is fully aware that pulling off such innovation would require careful planning and nearly flawless execution). for mentoring using guru-disciple symbiosis. etc): an one-stop-service. and anchor(s) for them to match. to physically attend to the needs of small entrepreneurs who take recourse to them. Bangladesh needs role models that can get intelligent and diligent people excited about creating value through successful entrepreneurship. 2. of both extant and aspiring SME entrepreneurs. success stories.

Dhaka. Sylhet and Barisal) so that the launch of some serious ICT-centric applications to High-performance communications backbone: A high-performance fiber-optics communications backbone be put in place in six of the country’s largest metro-markets (namely. the Textile colleges. in the interest of rapid technology transfer. Dhaka. achieving this will require a great deal of institutional coordination among various Ministries of the government. Capacity for coordination among multiple institutions: Several public institutions (such as Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). the public universities. BIM. . Formulation of a package of capacity-building and training Specialized professional expertise: Specialized professional expertise in carefully-chosen niches that the Panel of Advisors recommends has potential for a broad-based replication. and with a similar maturity of the infrastructural development for SME development. High-performance communications backbone: A high-performance fiber-optics communications backbone be put in place in six of the country’s largest metro-markets (namely.recognition that a totally hands-off delivery of all requisite services to SMEs is an ideal whose achievement was likely to only happen in stages. Such training can be so packaged to such high standards that the recipients feel motivated to pay up user charges. Sylhet and Barisal) so that the launch of some serious ICTcentric applications to benefit e-governance to the profit of SME development is not unduly handicapped by woefully inadequate bandwidth.and process-innovation of real value for SME development. however minimal. Bangladesh Council of Scientific Investigation & Research (BCSIR). Khulna. Leather Training Institute (LTI). the skills and competencies needed to enable SME hold their own in the booster-industries in the changed global business environment should be re-emphasized in the ensuing revamping of these institutions. 3. with a view to provide periodic technology grounding in efficacious skills among workers in SMEs. The case for harnessing all that productive capacity in a coherent and harmonious manner can be over-emphasized. However. Institutional capacity for training: BSCIC/SCITI. and BITAC---where a lot of equipment. etc) have significant capacity for both product. infrastructure and other resources are in place---should undergo a significant strategic reorientation of their own core competencies under the watchful eye of the Advisory Panel/SME Cell. the Ceramics Research Institute. In particular. International technology-exchange programmes: Technology-exchange programmes between countries with similar stages of development. Chittagong. Khulna. Rajshahi. Rajshahi. Re-skilling boot camps: Re-skilling boot camps would need to be organized for each of the booster industries by rotation. Chittagong.

R & D with potentially high-impact profiles: R & D that lead to prototypes with a scope for replication in potentially high-impact product niches (eg in the field of mobile games. Private-public collaboration: The selection of such training courses and then the delivery of such training is an important instance of public-private collaboration. and to then quickly disseminate them among young self-starters. preferably for adoption by civil society role models/ catalysts. Evolving of an SME Eco-system Two kinds of institutions are recommended. 5. 3-D animation. 3. 1. where small enterprises abound.Technical assistance and investment: Towards this end (as stated above). including in the university/polytechnic/colleges’ stream. or bio-optics. The mission of the first kind is in trying to render stakeholders out of indigenous young science and technology graduates by bringing to their agenda for poverty alleviation the currently-missing fulcrum of technological innovations to improve the quality of life of the poor in Bangladesh. 4. Mitigating Impediments in clusters One should make an effort to identify three or four promising lines of production in a handful of clusters in the metros of Dhaka and Chittagong. Efforts to accelerate the retention and promotion of women entrepreneurs should be strengthened. technical assistance and investment are both urgently needed to appropriately accent the training and motivational in these institutions so that they can become durable fixtures of technical and managerial skills can be nurtured. Gap analyses that lead to the diagnoses of weaknesses that stymie their productivity should then be launched. bearing in mind that these institutions will not be in the employ of the government. Several technical assistance studies should then be aimed at these problems. . through a regime of online and “brick-andmortar” interactions. etc). The mission of the second is to achieve mastery over a rapidly-changing slate of IT skills. or spurring the use of resin in new production applications. 2. Curriculum development for vocational training: Curriculum of vocational training institutes be revised and reviewed to make it SME development friendly. in a format of public-private partnership. 4. or the manufacture of computer-controlled industrial and medical appliances. Greater stakeholder involvement in the entire gamut of activities by way of SME development while maximizing the extent of ownership to be promoted.

with requisite resources and mandate to match. Similarly. science and technology fare should be made stronger in the educational curricula of schools and colleges in Bangladesh. the attractiveness of entrepreneurial careers should be pressed into service.C) LONG-TERM POLICIES Education and Generational Ethos Bangladesh should increase the number. A survey of SMEs should be launched in order to identify these insidious legal irritants. early on in the global-view of the children. A small-claims court needs to be instituted. The legal and contractual framework prevailing in Bangladesh often increases especially small enterprises’ handicaps. Content of a kind that seed. the country’s polytechnic institutes in the interest of increasing the number of entrepreneurs. . This is likely to require a very large investment. and enhance the quality of technical education in. the accent on mathematics. A census of all small and medium enterprises in Bangladesh should be conducted. These should then be systematically weaned from the world of Bangladeshi SMEs.

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