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March 2008 Question 6: Giving reasons in EACH case, identify FOUR external agencies which may be involved in the investigation of workplace fire. Also appeared in (December 2008) Question 3 Also appeared in (December 2009) Question 8 1) Fire and Rescue Authority to determine possible causes of fire and to take enforcement actions if this thought to be necessary. 2) Police; if the cause of the fire is determined to be Arson and to proceed the criminal investigation against arsonists. 3) Enforcing Agency e.g. Health and safety Executive (HSE) for enforcement matters under RIDDOR in case if there was a fatality or fire involved an electrical or chemical gas explosions etc. 4) Environment Agency; to mitigate any pollution which may be caused by the fire and its consequences on broader environment. Question 11: State the power of inspectors under the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005. Also appeared in (March 2009) Question 4 Also appeared in (December 2009) Question 3 Powers of Inspectors Article 27 of Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 gives inspectors powers to; i) Enter any premises at any reasonable time to carry out this Order. ii) Inspect the whole or part of the premises or anything contained theirin where the entry and inspection may be achieved without the use of force iii) To make necessary enquires to ascertain whether there is compliance to the provisions of the Order and to identify the responsible person in relation to the premises. iv) Require the production and copies of any records or plans required to be kept by the virtue of a provision of the Order. v) Require any person with responsibilities to give facilities and assistance to the matter to which his responsibilities extend; vi) To take samples of articles and substances found in the premises and to serve alterations, improvement and prohibition notices. June 2008 Question 5: Outline reasons for maintaining good standards of fire safety within an organisation. Also appeared in Question 3 of September 2009 Moral Reasons: Fire incidents often result in injuries, fatalities, permanent disabilities to employees and other persons such as visitors, member of public. Fires can cause structural damages to other organizations, public properties and can cause a lot of nuisance to general public. The impacts of fire on humans are the most compelling reason for maintaining good fire safety culture in an organisation. Legal Reasons: There are many fire safety requirements stipulated by Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 which makes it mandatory for an organisation to have structured fire safety management in order to comply with its provisions. There is also common law’ implications such as ‘duty of care’ owed by employer to employees which the employer needs to satisfy to avoid any prosecution and any criminal liabilities such as enforcement notices from authorities. Financial reasons: Fires can be proven disastrous for businesses as there are huge financial losses associated to these. Cost of buildings’ repairs, loss of assets, property damages, loss of business orders, lost workdays, decline in market share, fines, penalties and increased insurance premiums are some of the consequences of a fire incident. To prevent such losses, an organisation would always strive to have a safe and secure workplace to control any fire risks. Question 6 (a) Identify TWO air pollutants that might be produced as a result of a fire occurring at a chemical manufacturing site. (2) (b) Outline THREE methods of containment that management might consider in order to control pollution from fire fighting water run-off (6) a) Air pollutants that might be produced as a result of a fire occurring at a chemical manufacturing site are;
• • • b) • • • •
smoke and carbon solids for example soot; gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide; and toxic fumes from the burning or release of chemicals. the creation of remote sacrificial areas in locations such as car parks or sports grounds where drains can be stopped and into which water might be pumped and held; the conversion of impermeable yards, roads and parking areas into temporary lagoons using sand bags or excavated soil and sealing all drain inlets; the use of portable tanks, overdrums and tankers which can be moved rapidly to a required location and into which water can be pumped for later cleaning; and where other methods have failed or are not available, the use of pits and trenches though considerable care has to be taken in the use of this method because of the risk of ground water contamination.
Question 7: Outline the reasons for investigating a major fire that has occurred in a workplace. Also appeared in Sep 2009 as Question 11 Fire investigation is very essential in order to; a) Determine the point of origin b) Identify the causes of the fire – what started it in first place c) The fire spread dynamics – how it spread from one place to other The results of fire investigation is very important for building owners, organization’s management, enforcement agencies such as HSE, fire and rescue services, safety professionals, police, banks and insurance companies alike. The information about immediate reasons of a fire can help organisation to identify the underlying causes and undertake subsequent corrective actions to improve their fire safety management in order to prevent the recurrence of similar incidents in their organisation. Enforcement agencies e.g. police, HSE, local authorities etc use the findings of the investigation to decide the enforcement actions such as criminal prosecutions, test the best practices for adequacy and to develop preventive fire safety measures for similar industries, processes and operations. September 2008 Question 6: Outline the procedure for investigating a fire that is suspected to have been started deliberately. The procedure would include; • Preserving the fire scene for examination by cordoning off the area to restrict access; • Locating and excavating seat of fire • Taking photographs and drawing diagrams for later references as visual aid to investigation. • Interviewing relevant peoples e.g. employees, witnesses, emergency caller etc. • Obtaining CCTV footages, records of attendances, records of entries of any visitors to the site • Liaising with other enforcement agencies e.g. police and HSE and insurance company • Obtaining information about any past vandalism on the site, site history, police activity etc. to establish the connection and motives for the current incident. • Analysis of all the collected evidences to determine the causes and reporting. Question 7: a) Identify two bodies for enforcement of Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005. b) State the documents fire inspector may require during his inspection a) 1. Fire & Rescue Authority. 2. Health & Safety Executive 3. Local Authorities. b) Fire inspector may require following documents during course of his inspection; • Fire Risk Assessments • Fire safety policies • Records of Fire Drills • Emergency floor plans • Emergency evacuation plans and procedures • Staff Fire/evacuation awareness trainings records • Inspection & servicing records for fire detectors, fire alarms and fire extinguishing equipments. • Copies of records of fire incident/near misses • Records of previous inspections and evidences of remedial actions takens Question 9 (a) Describe the active role that the Environment Agency may take during a tire incident. (2)
3. they might supply pollution control equipment and materials if necessary and available. 3. • the existing primary methods of containing materials such as tanks and building and the location of shut off valves. March 2009 Question 7 Outline the key elements of a fire safety management system. . • the location of interceptors and means of isolation if foam is to be used in fighting the fire. • the location of areas which would be suitable for use in containing fire fighting run-off water and the proximity of neighboring plants and the community. On a routine inspection of a business premises an enforcement officer has identified that the emergency evacuation procedure and the means of escape could pose a significant risk to persons in the event of fire. • water table levels on site. (8) 1. 2. Monitoring performance against agreed standards and 5. 4. organising. or may do so if either a change is made to 2. he may serve an alteration notice. streams and rivers and 4. 4. by the use of a secondary containment reservoir or lagoon and 5. the fire policy 2. by the provision of a sacrificial area and /or trenches. If the officer decides that the premises constitute a serious risk to persons. 3. • the location and quantities of chemicals and materials on site • the properties of the chemicals and materials and the availability of neutralizing agents. mats and sand bags. planning and implementing. 1. 3. (3) (b) Identify FIVE means that can be employed to contain fire fighting water run off produced at the site of a fire. reviewing and auditing the management system. They might give advice to the Service both on pollution at the site of the fire and on flooding and flood risk in the area.(b) Outline practical factors that should be taken into account when considering minimizing the potential environmental impact of a fire at a major chemical plant (6) Also appeared as Question 6 in March 2010 a) It will work in combination with the Fire and Rescue Service in an attempt to prevent pollution resulting from the fire. 1. December 2008 Question 10 (a) Identify THREE pathways by which pollutants from the site of a fire can enter the water ecosystem. by airborne contaminants deposited in precipitation. bunds. • the location of man-made or natural water sources and surface water drains. 2. by water run off to ground and into brooks. them or the use to which they are put. drain covers. he may decide that prosecution is the appropriate action in cases where there has been a failure to comply with an enforcement/prohibition notice or following a serious infringement of the requirements of the RRFSO. b) Control measures that could be used to contain fire fighting water run off produced at the site of a fire include. He has the further option of serving an enforcement notice if the responsible person or any other person mentioned in article 5(3) of the RRFSO has failed to comply with any provision of the Order He may further serve a prohibition notice if the use of the premises involves or will involve a risk to persons so serious that use of the premises should be prohibited or restricted. by the use of portable containers ortanks. b) Practical factors that should be taken into account when considering the potential environmental impact of a fire at a major chemical plant include. by diverting and directing the flow of water taking full advantage of the lie of the land. Question 11. (8) the key elements of a fire safety management system are. (5) Also appeared in Question 10 of December 2009 a) 1. 4. • the lie of the land and the expected flow pattern of run-off water. By means of the surface water drainage system on site. Describe the possible enforcement actions that the officer may take under the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005. through the foul drainage system contaminating the sewage works beds. Finally. interceptors. Additionally.
contractors and visitors. they may do so by way of “complaint for an order” at a Magistrate’s Court within 21 days from the date that the notice was served. (8) A fire safety inspection checklist should refer to items such as. and fire marshals/wardens.As far as the content of each element was concerned. • assembly points unobstructed and clearly identified. that an Enforcement Officer may serve on the responsible person who has failed to comply with the duties under the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005. • the exit routes and gangways clear and the necessary signage in place and visible. The monitoring element is concerned with checking performance against agreed policy and procedures and will refer to the various proactive and reactive monitoring methods that are to be used. • call points accessible. 2. both alteration and enforcement notices are suspended until hearing whereas the prohibition notice remains in force while the appeal is considered. 3) Prohibition Notice: Prohibition notice is served if the use of the premises involves or will involve a risk to persons so serious that the use of the premises should be prohibited or restricted. Organising includes. . the responsible person has a duty to maintain tire safety within the workplace. • electrical equipment used safely. • fire extinguishers located in their correct place and fully charged. When the appeal process is started. o arranging for effective cooperation and communication between the appointees. o the preparation of procedures for fighting fire together with arrangements for controlling dangerous materials or substances. o arranging for sufficient consultation to take place with employees on fire safety matters o and providing means for implementing fire safety arrangements such as the allocation of responsibilities. o the preparation of written fire instructions. June 2009 Question 2 (a) Identify the three types of notice. 5. (6) (b) Outline the process of appealing against a notice that has been issued by an Enforcement Officer (2) a) 1) Alteration Notice: Alteration notice may be served by enforcement officer on responsible person under RRO2005 if he considers that the premises constitute a serious risk to relevant persons or may do so if either change is made to them or to the use to which they are put. 4. instruction and information to employees. Planning and implementing element should include. o an evaluation of current prevention and protection measures with the preparation of an action plan for introducing additional controls where they are deemed to be necessary. 1. • fire safety training provided for staff • and evidence of regular testing and maintenance of fire safety provision. Question 11. Identify the items that should be included on a fire safety inspection checklist. b) If a person wishes to appeal against a notice. o the appointment of competent persons to undertake specific fire safety roles such as fire assessors. The cases may be referred to Crown Court if the appellant is not content with the decision of the Magistrate’s court. • hot work permits used where required. 2) Enforcement Notice: Enforcement notice is served when the officer believes that the responsible person or any other person mentioned in article 5(3) of the RRFSO has failed to comply with any provision of the Order. 3. Reviews will be necessary at periodic intervals and after incidents to assess whether changes need to be made to the existing arrangements while the purpose of a regular audit by a competent internal or external auditor is to examine each part of the fire safety management system and assess its effectiveness and its compliance not only with the organisations fire safety standards but also with industry best practice. the fire policy should set out the commitment of senior management to fire prevention and clearly identify who has responsibility for fire safety management. o the identification of hazards and the assessment of the associated risks. th an example in EACH case. • goods appropriately stored so as not to impede fire fighting. Under the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005. • fire doors working correctly and neither damaged or blocked. the provision of protection systems and the preparation of written procedures. o and the provision of training.
• Provide. . (8) An important initial issue that would need to be considered would be to preserve the fire scene and secure it by restricting access to unauthorised persons. for example. March 2010 Question 3: Give the possible actions that an Enforcement Officer may serve on the responsible person under the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 AND. September 2009 Question 8 (a) Describe the circumstances that would require an employer to report a fire-related incident under the Reporting of Injuries Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995. Arrangements should be made for communicating with the public and the media and for liaising with other interested bodies such as the police. • • • • Serve an alteration notice on responsible person if he considers that the premises constitute a serious risk to relevant persons or may do so if either change is made to them or to the use to which they are put. the condition of walls. guidance and direction either verbally or via written letter. b) In case of a fatality or major injury or hospitalization more than 24 hours.g. (b)Outline the process the employer should follow when reporting a fire-related incident AND to whom the employer should make the report. floors and ceilings and the possible presence of chemicals. fracture. an Enforcement officer may. a) An employer would be required to report under RIDDOR if the fire has resulted in. Question 8. loss of sight etc. Serve Prohibition Notice if the use of the premises involves or will involve a risk to persons so serious that the use of the premises should be prohibited or restricted. the current measures for prevention and protection and an action plan for introducing additional control measures found to be required. the Environment Agency and the Local Authority. 2) An injury or ill health due to which an employee is away from work or unable to resume his normal work duties for more than 3 days. Witnesses would have to be identified and interviewed and a study made of available CCTV footage. HSE. 1) Notify the incident immediately to Health and Safety Executive (HSE) or local authorities through Incident Contacts Centre by telephone or other quickest mean. A decision would have to be taken both as to who should form part of the investigation team dependent on the particular skills that would be needed and the equipment that would be required such as excavation tools and cameras. 2) Follow up by completing a form F2508 within 10 days In case of an over 3 days injury or dangerous occurrence the employer must report the same at Health and Safety Executive (HSE) or local authorities by completing F2508 within 10 days. Outline the typical content of an arrangements section of a fire safety policy. Depending on the degree of the risk involved.Question 6 Outline the issues that should be considered by the Fire and Rescue Service before starting an investigation following a serious fire at a workplace. Serve enforcement notice if the responsible person or any other person mentioned in article 5(3) of the RRFSO has failed to comply with any provision of the Order. in first instance. outline the reasons for the action. advice. in EACH case. ensuring the isolating of electricity and gas supplies and taking into consideration. Then it would be necessary to make the site safe. 3) Dangerous occurrence such as explosion etc which has suspended the operations for more than 24 hours. 1) Fatality or major injuries e. the employer must. amputation. • • procedures for the identification of hazards and assessment of risks. Prosecute the organisation if there has been a failure to comply with a enforcement/prohibition notice or following a serious infringement of the requirement of RRFSO2005. (8) The content of the arrangements section of a fire safety policy might typically include.
g. or if this is not the case.g. air movement and weak convection movement. procedures for keeping a fire safety log and for reporting incidents. • to ensure there are adequate emergency escape routes and that training and information on their use is given to the employees. Class D: Fire Involving metals e. (2) (ii) lower explosive limit. c) Decay: In this stage the combustion is coming to end. (2) (b) outline the main duties of the responsible person under the Order.g. reviewing it when necessary to keep it up to date. Minute gas particles are generated and transported away from source due to diffusion. b) • to appoint competent persons to assist in complying with the requirements of the Order. methane. and in a multi-occupancy building. give an example of the associated fuel source. sunflower oil etc. that it is equipped with appropriate fire fighting equipment and that training in fire fighting is provided to the employees where required. wood. Lesson 2: Principles of Fire and Explosions March 2008 Question 2 Describe the THREE main stages of combustion. arrangements for cooperation and coordination between the various occupiers.• • • • • • • • the information to be provided to employees and others. details of evacuation procedures should a fire occur.g. Invisible aerosols and smoke particles are generated and transported away from the source by modern convection patterns and background air movement. Electrical Fire: Fires involving electrical equipments e. (2) . propane etc. a description of the roles of those with specific duties such as responsible persons and fire marshals. Class B: Fires involving flammable liquids or liquefied solids e. textile etc. and to cooperate with other responsible persons where premises are shared. computers etc. petrol. • to make a suitable and sufficient fire risk assessment. June 2010 Question 8 With respect to the Regulatory Reform Fire Safety Order 2005: (a) give the meaning of the term ‘responsible person’. (a) Induction. b) Growth (smoulder and flame): The smoldering stage is a region of fully developed pyrolysis that begins with ignition and includes the initial stage of combustion. Question 8 (a) Define the following terms: (i)upper explosive limit. arrangements for the provision of fire safety training and for carrying out fire drills. lithium. Also appeared in June 2009 Question 11.g. paper. Heat transfer from the fire occurs predominately from radiation and convection from the flame. grease and paint etc. LPG. Class A: Fire usually involves solid of organic nature e. a) Induction: Induction is the precursor to ignition where the preheating. (6) a) The responsible person is the person who has to ensure compliance with the requirements of the Order and may be the employer if the workplace is under their control. (b) Growth. in EACH case. the fire is reducing in heat in constant manner. procedures for fighting fire. magnesium etc Class F: Fires involving cooking oils and fats e. arrangements for controlling dangerous substances. monitoring and review of the preventative and protective measures and make a record of the arrangements. • to make arrangements for the planning.g. the person who has control of the premises whether the occupier or owner. olive oil. Question 3 Identify FOUR classes of fire AND. control. The flaming stage is a region of rapid reaction that covers the period of initial occurrence of flame to fully developed fire. the fire is burning itself out. (c) Decay. organisation. . distillation and slow pyrolysis are in progress. The decay stage eventually occurs naturally to every fire but fire fighting is about getting the decay as quickly as possible. Class C: Fire involving gases or liquefied gases e. • to ensure that suitable detection and alarm systems are installed in the premises. photocopier.
grinding etc. 4) Direct Burning: This is the most common reason of fire spread in the building and occur when a substance/material come in contact with a flame of a nearby burning material. identify: (I) in what form a metal is likely to ignite: (1) (ii) the classification associated with a metal fire. overloaded circuits. (2) a) Answered in June 2008 Question 9 b) .) (iv) THREE combustible metals. while the lower explosive limit is the lowest amount of flammable vapour in air that will have the same effect. steam pipelines etc. heat generated from fire can be transferred from one location to another where it can act as source of ignition. • Gas equipments /Generators/Boilers/Engines etc.g.g.g. The four methods of heat transfer during fire are. • Frictions e. from jammed bearing or drive belts etc. (3) (C) In relation to basic chemical reactivity. The upper explosive limit is the highest amount of flammable vapour in air that will just support an explosion ii. September 2008 Question 2 Identify FOUR methods by which heat may be transferred during a fire AND explain how EACH can cause the fire to spread. • Electric faults e. December 2008 Question 1 (a) Outline EIGHT common causes of fire in the workplace. Also appeared in (December 2008) Question 1 a Also appeared in March 2010 Question 7 • Smoking material e. burning match. (3. When liquids/gases are heated they expand and become less dense and therefore rise to top and the cooler liquid or gas is drawn in to replace it creating a current. if heated at one location can convey this heat to other location in the building and can spread the fire there. • Machinery • Chemical reactions • Static Electricity • Lighting equipments e.g. 3) the atmosphere containing sufficient oxygen to support combustion and 4) an ignition source present of sufficient heat energy to ignite the gas. Conduction is intermolecular heat transfer in solid materials in which heat is transferred from hot place to cold place. Convection current can convey hot gasses produced in a fire upward in stairwells. 1) Conduction: This normally occurs in solids. welding. Oil or Electric Heaters • Hot surfaces e. a) A flammable mixture will only explode in air if the mixture lies between certain limits. arcing. When fire breaks out. (8) (b) In relation to the ignition of metals.g. (1) ‘iii) THREE appropriate extinguishing agents for metal fires. it emits high and intense radiated heat which travels inform of waves and could ignite any nearby combustible material to spread fire. 3) Radiation: Radiation is the mode of heat transfer where heat does not require intervening medium and it travels in form of rays or waves. overheated cables etc • Hot processes e. 2) the concentration of the gas in air falling between its upper and lower explosive limits. Also appeared in September 2009 Question 4. open lifts and service shafts and thus can spread fire to upper parts of the building. b) 1) the presence of a combustible gas which must be capable of becoming airborne and mixing with air. (2) (ii) exothermic reaction.g. As a result of conduction. outline what is meant by an: (I) endothermic reaction. For example steel grider in buildings. un-extinguished cigarette butts etc. June 2008 Question 9 Identify possible ignition sources in the workplace that could cause accidental fires. i. halogen lamps • Gas. cutting.(b) Describe the conditions required for a gas explosion to occur. 2) Convection: Convection usually occurs in liquids and gases.
Preventing the overloading of circuits. graphite powder. Examples of exothermic reactions include air-fuel mixture ignition in internal combustion engines which releases energy and a simple example of striking a match which gives light flame during the process. there would need to have been a concentration of flour dust in air which fell within the explosive range and a source of sufficient heat energy to ignite the dust. b) Auto-ignition temperature: The lowest temperature at which a substance or material will ignite and burn spontaneously without the presence of a pilot source of ignition. frayed or naked VII. b) 1) Sealing joints on flour handling systems to prevent escape of dust 2) The provision of exhaust ventilation on dust filters and enclosing open bag dust collecting filter units. iv) Sodium. light or sound. Question 8 (a) Outline FIVE measures that can be taken to minimise the risk of fire from electrical equipment. II. (4) (b) Outline measures to be taken to minimize the risk of a recurrent dust explosion. Cables and extension leads are not damaged. (5) (b) Identify TWO suitable extinguishing agents that should be used on fires involving electricity AND explain why water should not be used in such circumstances. by lagging pipes 6) Ensuring the surface temperature of electrical equipment is kept below that required to cause ignition. Ensuring that systems and equipment are suitable for the tasks to be performed and III. dry sand or earth. Endothermic Reactions: These are chemical reactions which require energy for substances to react and constant absorption of energy to sustain the reaction. (3) Also appeared in December 2009 as Question 6 a) I. 3) Regular maintenance of plant 4) High standard of housekeeping including the use of vacuum cleaner to reduce the accumulation of dust on floors and high ledges to bare minimum. Ensuring installations comply with relevant standards. d) Lower flammable Limit (UFL): LFL of a substance is the lowest concentration of vapours in air which will support a flame (below this the mixture is too lean to burn). c) Upper flammable Limit (UFL): UFL of a substance is the highest concentration of vapours in air which will just support a self propagating flame (above this the mixture is too rich to burn). Is not stored. (2) (c) (i) upper flammable limit (UFL). Explosion is also a exothermic reaction which instantly releases huge amount of energy during combustion process. IV. lithium. (a) Explain why the bakery may have suffered two explosions in close succession. 5) Insulation of hot surfaces e. potassium. Ensuring that the correct rating of fuses and thermal cut outs are fitted. VIII. The secondary explosion is generally more destructive in nature. aluminum c) Exothermic Reaction: Chemical reaction between two substances which gives out energy in form of heat. Question 5 Give the meaning of the following tetms: (a) flashpoint. Air turbulence from the initial explosion would have discharged dust from all horizontal surfaces causing an airborne suspension of combustible dust throughout the building which was ignited by either by initial ignition source or by the combustion by-products of the primary explosion. When CO2 is sprayed in liquid form it absorbs heat from surrounding often from burning material to evaporate into gas. (2) a) Flashpoint: The lowest temperatures at which a substance produces sufficient vapours to flash across its surface.g. Inspected and maintained by competent person. A good example of this type of reaction during fire is use of CO2 fire extinguisher. . (2) (b) auto-ignition temperature. V. momentarily. Ensuring equipments are regularly tested. (2) (ii) lower flammable limit (LFL). sodium carbonate and salt and/or talc. magnesium. VI. when a flame is applied. 7) Using intrinsically safe electrical equipment and bonding all metal work to earth. (4) a) For primary explosion. Switching off when is not in use. March 2009 Question 3 A dust explosions occurred at a bakery and was rapidly followed by a larger explosion causing extensive structural damage to an external wall.i) Powder and/or swarf ii) Class D iii) Dry Special powders such as M28 or L2. switched on in proximity of flammable/combustible materials.
b) Dry Powder. Water should not be used for such fires as water is a very good conductor of electricity and the use of water for extinguisher can cause electrocution of the fire fighting person. June 2009 Question 9 Describe the conditions in which a flashover may occur. (a) Oulilne the types of fires that EACH of the extinguishers can safely extinguish and give their mode of action. Its limitations are that it disperses quickly. open window or ventilation system. give an example of the associated fuel source. is noisy and might alarm the untrained operator. Its mode of action is to smother the fire and inhibit oxygen from reaching it. smothers and cools it and inhibits oxygen from reaching it. in EACH case. (4) a) A foam spray extinguisher can be used on Class A fires. A flashover can occur when a fire is free burning in a room. has a freezing effect on the discharge horn and has to be discharged in close proximity to the fire. magnesium and many metal powders. (2) . Question 10 (a) Other than an ignition source outline TWO conditions needed for a dust explosion to occur. As the item that was initially ignited burns and the fire grows the radiated heat heats up all the other materials in the room until they reach their spontaneous ignition temperature. The spray from the extinguisher is directed onto the fire. Items in the room will then instantly ignite. A carbon dioxide extinguisher can also be used on Class B fires involving flammable liquids and on live electrical equipment. Answered in Question 3 March 2008 September 2009 Answered in Question 2 September 2008 Question 5 Foam spray and carbon dioxide extinguishers have been fitted within new multi-storey office premises. has an asphyxiating effect in small confined spaces. creating the impression that the fire has flashed from one side of the room to other Question 11. is gaseous and can thus penetrate inside equipment and causes little damage. For this to happen there must be a good supply of air wither from the large dimensions of the room. an open door. such as those involving wood and paper for example and on Class B fires where flammable liquids are involved. (b) The advantage of a foam spray extinguisher is that it is a multi-purpose extinguisher but its limitation is that it is water based and as such cannot be used on electrical equipment or on fires involving metals such as sodium. The advantages of a carbon dioxide extinguisher are that it is non-conducting. Identify FOUR classes of fire AND. CO2 and Eclectically Approved Foam Extinguishers can be used to extinguish electric fires. (4) (b) Ourline advantages AND limitations of EACH of the extinguishers. has a negligible cooling effect and thus may offer the chance of re-ignition.
(d) decay. The level of burning and growth is determined by the level of oxygen and fuel present. 4) A confined environment (such as building or ceiling) 5) Ignition Source e. the combustion products of the primary explosion or any other ignition source with sufficient heat energy. This may often be a slow process such as in a smouldering fire where the chemical decomposition of a material and the heat build up to ignition point may take a considerable time. (3) (b) Explain the conditions required for the combustion process to be maintained. The primary explosion dislodges accumulated dust from all horizontal surfaces within the affected parts of the building and causes an airborne suspension of combustible dust. The heat output decreases and the fire dies down. whether from an external source. Finally there must be a supply of oxygen whether from surrounding air or from oxidising agents or oxygen cylinders to react chemically with the fuel. forming an explosive cloud. (C) steady state. Combustible fuel must be present and its amount. The growth rate and temperature will ultimately reach a plateau. heat and oxygen. . resulting in a secondary explosion of high energy. (5 a) Fuel. March 2010 Question 4 Describe the following main stages of combustion. equipment and work surfaces and the ignition of the contact dust with combustion rapidly occurring through the contact layer leading to and causing the primary explosion. fuel. This dust may then be ignited either by the initial ignition source. Growth The growth stage involves the rapid development of the fire as burning materials act as a further source of ignition. Its continuation is controlled by the amount of oxygen available. the fire enters its steady state and continues to burn consuming oxygen and fuel as a number of chemical reactions take place. spark or flame b) The mechanism of a dust explosion could be described in terms of: the quantity of dust accumulated on machinery. (a) induction. 2) Oxygen (air) 3) Dispersion of dust into the air. 1) Combustible dust (which must be of sufficiently small particle size to be a fuel). In this stage the fire is characterised by massive flames and high temperatures. the exothermic nature of the combustion process or radiated from combustion products enables un-burnt fuel to be heated and ultimately ignited. chemical composition and physical state determines the susceptibility for the fire to continue. Decay The final stage of combustion is decay where the room becomes starved of oxygen and the available fuel is consumed. Induction The induction stage represents the early stages of a fire when there is evidence that the combustion process is starting. heat or energy – that must be present for combustion to occur. Steady State Following the growth stage. oxygen and a source of ignition. The presence of heat. December 2009 Question 5 (a) Identify the components of the fire triangle. must continue for the combustion process to be maintained. Large volumes of smoke and heat may be produced and there may be spontaneous combustion of the room contents.(b) Describe the mechanism of a dust explosion (6) a) A dust explosion is reliant upon five simultaneous conditions. (‘b) growth. b) The existence of three elements.g.
• an increase in the amount of materials such as paints. • minimizing the use of flammable products on site and using local exhaust ventilation where practicable to control and reduce dust emissions. • temporary electrical installations with exposed electric cabling and control panels and damage to existing services. an increase in pressure within the vessel leading to the expulsion of vapour through a relief valve and its ignition resulting in a sudden drop in pressure inside the vessel. (8) The presence of an appropriate liquid such as LPG in a vessel and an external heat source. b) These would include. June 2008 Also appeared in June 2009 Q 7 Question 4. (10) (b) Outline measures that should be taken to minimize the risk of a fire occurring in the multi.storey office building while the work is being carried out (10) a) There are a number of reasons why carrying out construction and maintenance work in an existing building may increase the risk of fire such as • the stockpiling of combustible materials. (a) Give reasons why this work can increase the risk of fire. • ensuring that electrical equipment in use is regularly inspected and tested. • ensuring the pre-selection. • the possibility that the work could interfere with the integrity of compartmentation in the building • and the use of transient contractors who would not be fully aware of the fire hazards in the building. • arranging for the installation of temporary compartmentation when the integrity of the original installation had been affected. • work processes which may produce ignitable dusts or which require volatile materials such as LPG or acetylene coupled with poor storage facilities for the materials. • keeping the storage of combustibles on site to a minimum. red for oxyacetylene and blue for oxygen Fitting the torch unit with non-return valves Fitting flashback arrestors to the outlet of the regulators • • .g. • a reduction in security leading to an increased risk of arson. • • • • Completing user checks on the system before starting the operation The use of regulator (gas cylinder heads) to the appropriate standard Using hoses that are as short as possible Using colour coded hoses e. Question 9 June 2010 Question 3 Outline the mechanism of a boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE). Lesson 3: Causes & Prevention of Fires March 2008 Question 1 Construction and maintenance work is to be undertaken within an existing multi-storey office building. The development of overpressure causes the vessel to rupture with the emission of ignited boiling liquid and vapour resulting in a fireball producing substantial thermal radiation with the potential for debris from the vessel to become missiles. This causes the liquid to boil leading to a rise in temperature of the vapour space and vessel walls above the liquid surface. • introducing procedures and permits for hot work. Outline precautions that should be taken to minimise the risk of fire and explosion when undertaking oxyacetylene welding in a workplace. • arranging for the regular removal of waste and for the management of skips.Answered in June 2008. solvents and adhesives that may be present in the building. • the accumulation of combustible rubbish exacerbated by the overfilling of skips. training and briefing of contractors and arranging for the regular inspection and monitoring of the work in progress.
• fire detection systems are defeated. . • and they are started in unprotected areas which gives little time for their discovery. • managing the issue of access keys. forced ventilations Door sill and perimeter bunding for containment with the volume of upto 110% of the capacity of the largest container or 25% of the total storage capacity.• • • • • • Using crimped hose connections instead of jubilee clamps. build-up detection and fire extinguishing should be provided March 2009 Part b also appeared in June 2010 Question 7 and March 2008 Question 7 Question 6 (a) Give TWO reasons why fires started deliberately normally cause more damage than those started accidentally. • ensuring the security alarm and fire detection system is regularly monitored and acted upon. • fitting secure metal letter boxes to buildings to ensure containment of burning materials. Ensuring the cylinders were not heated by the flame or by stray arcs from adjacent electrical equipment Minimising the amount of combustion material in area of the welding operation Closing cylinders at the valve when not in use Using trained and competent staff Storing acetylene and oxygen cylinders upright in well ventilated area away from sources of heat and sparks. (8) • • • • • • • • • Single Storey building with lightweight roof for explosion relief. • Keeping the containers in a bin or cabinet made of fire resisting material with separate storage for incompatible substances and protecting the cabinet from external damage such as from impact from a fork lift truck. for example to a maximum of 50 litres. • Quantities in excess of 50 litres would need to be kept in a secure. • and encouraging staff to report incidents of people acting in a suspicious manner. • removing automatic entry rights from staff who have been dismissed. • securing the perimeter of the premises and all entry points to buildings. September 2008 Question 8. (6) a) Fires started deliberately normally cause more damage than those started accidentally because. (2) (b) Outline the precautions that should be in place to reduce the risk of arson. • restricting and monitoring entrance to isolated and secure storage areas. • using suitable metal containers with non spill caps for the liquids. well ventilated and clearly marked storage area outside the workplace and sited at a safe distance away from other buildings. constructed with non-combustible materials. • windows and doors are left open to fuel the fire. (8) Practical measures to reduce the risk from storage of flammable liquids would include • limiting the quantity actually stored inside the working area. if possible away from buildings. • arranging for the regular removal of all combustible rubbish. • prohibiting the parking of vehicles or storage of goods or materials next to windows or doors. vents. Use of electrical equipments designed for use in flammable atmospheres Space storage of stocks from eachother within storage compound Ullage (air gap above stores liquid) control Appropriate mean of fire detection. • securing rubbish bins and skips in a separate compound and ensuring they are not placed adjacent to buildings. • securing flammable liquids in a separate compound. Adequate separation distance from other buildings and the site boundary If fire separation is not possible then construction of fire wall Sufficient ventilation of enclosed store by airbricks. b) Ways of reducing the risk of arson include. • providing external security lighting and CCTV systems. June 2009 Question 3 Outline practical measures that should be considered to reduce the risk from storage of flammable liquids in the workplace. • Accelerants are used to maximize the spread of fire. Outline the appropriate design features of a separate outdoor building used to store more than 50 litres of a flammable liquid in drums.
poor housekeeping including a failure to clean extraction units and the lack of competence or training of the staff. Appropriate fire fighting equipment should be provided both in the workplace and for the storage area And procedures to be followed in the event of an emergency would have to be drawn up and brought to the attention of all employees. the lowest temperature at which there is sufficient vaporisation of a substance capable of producing a flash momentarily when a heat source is applied. poor maintenance of gas heated equipment resulting in the escape of gas. varnishes and adhesives are being used. (6) a) “flashpoint”. September 2009 Question 9 (a) Identify the circumstances in which a hot work permit would be required in the workplace AND give an example of the type of work where it might be needed (2) (b) Outline the fire precautions that may be included in a hot work permit (6) Also appeared in Dec 2008 Question 2 a) A hot work permit would be required when activities that produce. combustible materials such as cloths and towels left in close proximity to ignition sources. equipment overheating because of faults or improper use. heat. b) Precautions that may be included in a hot work permit include. overloaded electrical circuits. • • • • • Naked flames on gas hobs. • providing a fire watch during the hot work and carrying out a check of the work area at a reasonable period after the work has been completed December 2009 Question 9 Identify possible causes of accidental fires in a restaurant kitchen. a working fire alarm system and fire evacuation procedures • the use of competent persons • and the provision of fire resistant personal protective equipment. “auto-ignition temperature” is the lowest temperature at which a substance or material will ignite spontaneously and burn without the presence of a source of ignition.• • • • Arrangements should be made for storing empty containers separately from full ones. flames or sparks are to be undertaken in an area that is not designed for such work. hot surfaces on ovens and hot plates. • ensunng that floor andior wall openings are covered and air ducts closed. • ensuring that gas cylinders that are to be used are fitted with regulators and flashback arrestors. No likely sources of ignition should be allowed in the storage area with only intrinsically safe electrical equipment being used. (a) Give the meaning of the term ‘flashpoint’. The types of work that would necessitate the issue of a permit include welding. • the removal of loose combustible material and covering up the material that cannot be moved. food and/or cooking equipment left unattended. (10) (d) Identify the ways in which the occupants of the school could be at risk of harm from fire. (2) (c) Outline the practical measures that should be considered to reduce the risk from the storage of the flammable liquids. spillage of cooking fats or oils near ignition sources. • • • • • • • March 2010 Question 1 A fire risk assessment in a school textiles classroom identifies that small quantities of flammable liquids such as paints. sparks from faulty electrical equipment. • ensuring the availability of fire fighting equipment. (2) (b) Give the meaning of the term ‘auto ignition temperature’. flame cutting. grinding. restricting access to unauthorised persons. burning and the use of hot air paint strippers or blow torches. . spillage of water or other liquids into electrical equipment or fittings. (b). • screening the work area to contain sparks.
this can increase resistance to radiated heat. (8) • • • • • • • • excavating near to underground services such as gas or electricity. • poisoning through inhalation of toxic gases. d) Ways in which occupants of the school could be at risk of harm from fire include’ • being burned by heat or flames. The critical distance is 1 m and if space separation is less than 1 m the building code requires specific type and nature of materials to be used in the building. using fire resistant foams blocks etc. • Lesson 4: Fire Protections in Buildings March 2008 Question 4: a) Identify two ways in which fire can spread externally between buildings b) When planning the construction of the building. which offer fire protection to increase their resistance to radiated heat and burning embers. using elevated equipment near to overhead lines. June 2010 Question 9 Outline types of activities that are typically carried out on construction sites that could increase the risk of fire and/or explosion. sited at a safe distance away from other buildings. smoke inhalation which could cause respiratory difficulties and even suffocation. paint stripping using blow torches. • using suitable metal containers with non spill caps for the liquids. • slipping. • Appropriate firefighting equipment should be provided both in the classroom and for the storage area and • procedures to be followed in the event of an emergency would have to be drawn up and brought to the attention of all occupants of the school. • and ensuring containment of any spillage. they would need to be kept in a secure. • No likely sources of ignition should be allowed in the storage area with only intrinsically safe electrical equipment being used. • limiting the quantity actually stored inside the working area. using and storing LPG and acetylene.c) Practical measures to reduce the risk from the safe storage of flammable liquids would include. outline the issues which should be addressed to minimize the external fire spread between buildings and Explain how Each can help to reduce the fire spread. • being injured by broken and flying glass • and in the longer term from the effects of mental trauma. demolition activities using explosives. 7) Roof Coverings. filling and decanting operations resulting in the spillage of fuel. • If the flammable liquids are stored outside. welding and grinding work causing sparks. 6) External walls being constructed with the material that prevents or reduce the risk of ignition from an external source and limit the spread of fire over their surfaces. well ventilated and clearly marked storage area. the careless disposal of smoking materials and inadequate procedures for managing and controlling waste resulting in the inevitable bonfires for burning rubbish. using bitumen boilers when fixing felt to flat roofs. a) • Flame Spread • Radiated heat • Burning brands and embers • Effects of wind b) 5) The distance between the buildings. • being struck and injured by parts of a collapsing structure. tripping and falling because of poor visibility caused by smoke or by crushing in the inevitable panic. . • Arrangements should be made for storing empty containers separately from full ones. • keeping the containers in a bin or cabinet made of fire resisting material with separate storage for incompatible substances.
The fitting of intumescent strips and smoke seals to prevent the passage of the products of combustion. When a beam is less visible to the eye of the sensor because of smoke its sends an alarm signal to the fire alarm control panel. 9) The provision of external drenchers to protect nearby buildings against radiated heat. When smoke enters the chamber. one charged negatively and the other positively. • • • • • • Fire resistance and integrity of the door set with the door providing a good fit for the frame and closing correctly. it detects when the predetermined temperature is reached. (a) State the properties of surface lining materials that may increase the risk of fire spread and its growth. June 2008 Question 2: Automatic fire detection systems are designed to detect fire without human intervention. ionizing Optical Smoke Detector: There is a constant beam of light in a detector head with a light sensitive cell off set from the light beam. c) • • • Exposed brickwork Exposed blockwork Mineral fiber board . Rate of Rise Heat Detector: A rate of rise heat detector is set to detect a fixed rise in temperature over a given period. By means of a thermocouple or similar arrangement. When smoke enters the optical chamber into the path of the light beam. The door fitted with three hinges to maintain integrity The door fitted with a positive self closing device and fitted with mandatory sign at eye level indicating that it should be kept closed. Also appeared in Question 4 of June 2010 a) Optical. the light passes in front of the detector head in a straight line. The provision of a color coded identification device such as a rawl plug or label. reducing the ionization and the interrupting the current and setting off the alarm b) Fixed Temperature Heat Detector: It has a sensing element fixed at a particular temperature.8) The limitations of number of unprotected openings in adjacent buildings to reduce the amount of thermal radiation that can pass through the wall and affect the adjacent buildings. b) Give Two types of heat detectors and in Each case outline how they detect product of combustions. some light is scattered by the smoke particles and this is detected by the diode sensor initiating the alarm. Ionizing Detector: The chamber of an ionizing detector has two plates set apart. A tiny mass of americium 241. Beam Detector: The beam detector operates on a transmitter/receiver system. If the door contains a window it should be made of Georgian wire or insulated glass. It will respond to rapid rises in temperature usually by means of electronic or thermistors Question 3 The type of material used for wall and ceiling surface linings can affect the spread of fire and its rate of growth. (2) Also appeared in December 2009 as Question 4 a) • Ignitability • Their rates of surface flame spread and heat relase. a source of alpha radiation. In the absence of smoke. beam. a) Give Two types of smoke detectors and in Each case outline how they detect product of combustions. • The amount of smoke produced when ignited • Their tendency to produce flaming droplets. the production of smoke and the rate of fire growth and would maximize the time available for escape routes to be used safely. b) Surface lining material with resistance to ignition and with low rates of surface flame spread and heat release would help to limit the spread of fire. Question 5: Outline the features of fire resisting door set. it absorbs the alpha particles. A unit on a wall sends out a beam which is either received by a receiver or reflected back via a mirror. (4) (c) Give TWO examples of surface lining materials that could be used to reduce the risk of fire spread and its growth. ionized the chamber. (2) (b) Outline the significance of surface lining materials in minimizing risk from fire.
Alarm Zones: Division of the complex into different zones in order to enable quicker location of the position of the fire and allow staged evacuation. either heat or smoke b) Manual Call Points: It allows manual operation if a fire alarm by breaking the glass of the point. beam and heat detectors may be used in the complex.• • • • • Wood wool slabs Plasterboards and skim Intumescent linings Fire resistant glass and concrete Stone or ceramic tiles Question 8: Describe the effects of fire on the following building materials used in construction. control room or monitoring centre with would result in a speedy response to the outbreak of fire. c) Enabling sufficient access for fire appliances Keeping roadways clear by the use of marshals Having someone to give access to the building for firefighting personnel including a key holder available for out of work hours and person with knowledge of the site The provision of wet/dry risers. shops and offices Beam Detector: Large open spaces or atriums Heat Detector: Kitchens and the areas where there was a steamy environment or where little smoke was generated. the concrete would lose its structural integrity. conduction of heat. fire mains and fire fighting lifts The provision of adequate water supply The availability of plans of the building The provision of mimic panel and The provision of venting for heat and/or smoke for basement fires The size of the area to be covered The potential risk of false alarm The appropriateness of the environment for the detector The characteristics of the heat generated from the fire and its rate of rise rating Whether the area is populated or not . stores. (a) Smoke. Steel: The effects of fire on steel would cause expansion. (I) identify the types of area where each detector would be used. loss of strength as the temperature increases. Alarm Sounders: It provides audible warning of activation of the fire alarm either by siren or pre-recorded message. (b) Identify the main features of a fire alarm system that would be appropriate for the complex AND outline the function of EACH of them. (c) Outline factors that should be considered to provide suitable access and facilities for the Fire and Rescue Service in the event of a fire. ii) The product to be detected. crumble and collapse. and deformation though the material would regain its strength on cooling but its properties may have changed. Fire Panel: It provides information to the fire service of the location of the alarm activation and an automatic link to a call centre. In cooling. A large multi-storey shopping complex is being planned in an out-of-town location. Flashing Beacons: It provides visual warning of activation of the fire alarm. Its perquisite is the presence of a person to detect the fire and activate the alarm by using it. (ii) outline the factors that determine whether areas are appropriate for a detector. a) i) General Smoke Detector: Corridors. a) Concrete b) Steel Concrete: The effects of fire on concrete would be to cause it to dehydrate. Its surface will spall at temperatures exceeding 300 degrees Celsius and this effect would be increased in the presence of steel reinforcement. Automatic Fire Detection System: It detects fire automatically and activates the alarm. September 2008 Question 1.
fire alarm call points.stopped. dependent upon the type of extinguisher. Accessible and unobstructed but should not obstruct the flow of people Away from elements and extreme temperatures such as hot processes etc. the potential for fire to spread easily between the fire compartments and The potential for heat and combustion products to inhibit the employees’ escape. . • To prevent panic • Also required in large open plan areas or where it is necessary to shut down hazardous processes or plant. (b) escape route signs. b) There are a number of ways in which compartmentation in a building might be compromised including: poorly maintained or badly fitting fire doors. • Operates to provide illumination in escape routes when main lighting circuits may have been shut down. b) Escape route signs • • • • • The provision is required by law. either inside or outside walls. Where the persons don’t have to travel more than 30 meters to reach an extinguisher. • This may include internal and external inspection. (3) (b) Outline other means by which the protection offered by compartmentation in the building may be compromised. the passage of heat and combustion products through the holes. • Should be provided so the fire exit signs and escape routes are visible • To allow clear indication of fire safety equipments e. hoses and seals. • All extinguishers should have a discharge test after 5 years except CO2 which is discharged after 10 years Question 10 Outline reasons why the following should be provided within workplaces: (a) emergency lighting. Also appeared as Question 2 in September 2009 a) Emergency Lightings: • The provision is required by RRFSO and WHSW Regulations. or floor or final exit In conspicuous and identical position on each floor. To help to identify the location of exits from any place within a building To indicate the safe direction of travel if the location of an exit is hidden or not obvious.Question 3 (a) Outline suitable locations where portable fire extinguishers should be sited on a fire escape route. or escape route have no natural or borrowed lights or to be used outside normal daylight hours. fire extinguishers etc. a) the reduction in the level of fire resistance of the wall to below its designed level. • Correct pressure. (a) Outline the adverse effects this may have on the fire protection within the building. • • b) Weekly or Monthly inspection • Located in correct position. a) • • • • Close to an exit from a room. and its components such as cartridges. • No obvious damage.g. Placed on dedicated floor stand or hung on a wall at a height no more than 1 meter from the floor for ease of handling. To denote the route with the shortest travel distance when there is a choice of escape routes To identify the location of assembly points and refuge areas. December 2008 Question 6: Following refurbishment work in a multi-storey factory it has been discovered that holes drilled into fireresisting walls to allow cables through have not been fire. • To illuminate changes in direction or floor level. (b) Outline the requirements necessary to ensure the adequate maintenance of portable fire extinguishers. • Not discharged or tempered with. Annual Inspection • A thorough inspection of extinguishers should be carried out by a competent person on an annual basis.
b) employees with impaired hearing. such as smoke detector operates. 2. 4. c) There are number of reasons why a sprinkler system may be ineffective e. • by supplementing audible alarms • by alerting workers engrossed in their work activities. leading water to the sprinkler heads • Pressure Gauges. Question 7 (a) Outline the benefits of a zoned fire alarm system. • when they are clearly discernable from other audible alarms. the water supply feeding water into the system • Control Valve. Visual Warnings: Visual alarms may assist in giving early warning.g. b) • Sprinkler Head. fire doors which have been wedged open. the absence of or poorly maintained shutters in ducting. where the water pressure in insufficient. one to indicate the water pressure in mains and a second to record the pressure in installations or in the case of a dry system the air pressure • Booster Pump. • when they are sufficiently loud to alert personnel for example at a minimum level of 65 dB or 5 dB above the background noise. • for alerting those with impaired hearing or deafness. (2) a) A zoned fire alarm system provides a quick means of identifying where a fire has started enables a swift location of the fire by the Fire Authority and assists in the structured staged evacuation of the building. (2) (b) Identify TWO types of employee who would benefit from trembler alarms. the absence of or damage to fire resistant glazing and the absence of or damage to cavity barriers. 3. those working remotely on a large site Individuals who might be sleeping. (4) (d) Identify TWO alternative fixed fire fighting systems that could be installed in a building (2) Also appeared in March 2010 as Question 2 a) 1. • when they are discernable from other visual alarms. . Dry Pipe System: Pipes are filled with air under pressure while water is held back by a control valve which opens and allow water into the pipe work when a sprinkler head opens causing a drop in air pressure. • by alerting those wearing hearing protection. poorly fitting or damaged ceiling tiles in fire resisting false ceilings. those working in a high noise environment who might be wearing hearing protection. Wet Pipe System: Commonly used in buildings where there is no risk of freezing. (6) (C) Give reasons why a sprinkler system may be ineffective. Alternate wet/dry System: In which pipes are full of water in summer but are drained down and filled with air under pressure for the winter. (8) (b) Outline the key features of a sprinkler system. March 2009 Question 1. Pre-Action System: Pipes are filled with air but water is let into the them when a detector. c) Audible Warnings: It can assist in the early warning of a fire in a noisy work environment • when the alarm sounders produce the same sound throughout the building to avoid confusion. (2) (c) Outline how the following devices assist in the early warning of fire in a noisy work environment: (i) audible warnings. normally kept in open position but shut once the fire is extinguished • Distribution Pipes. Fixed fire fighting systems play an important role in minimising the spread of fire and subsequent damage caused (a) Outline FOUR types of sprinkler systems used in buildings. They are fast to react because there is always water in the supply pipes to the sprinklers. (2) (ii) visual warnings. the absence of or damage to smoke or intumescent seals.
. 3. the door hinges have failed through incorrect installation. the glazing has become damaged and replaced with glass that does not provide the required degree of fire resistance. June 2009 Question 10 Fire resisting doors play a vital role in preventing the spread of fire and smoke. in determining adequacy of the means of escape arrangements. unobstructed and adequately illuminated Whether the type and size of exits are suitable and sufficient for the number and type of persons who will use them taking into account the presence of disabled personnel The availability of protected alternative routes for all locations The designation of a safe assembly point The provision of instructions to employees on the means of escape The use of fire drills to train staff in using the means of escape The adequacy of the arrangement for persons with disabilities The inclusion of the means of escape arrangement in the emergency plan. may have been painted repeatedly with solvent based paints. over time. preferably having a good knowledge of the site appointed to let them into the building or having a key holder for the building during out of work hours. providing fire fighting lifts and shafts. for example with someone. the door. Incorrect system has been installed There is no supply of water The mains water pressure is insufficient The sprinkler valves are turned off because maintenance work is being carried out Freezing of a wet pipe system The sprinkler heads are obscured or damaged The fire load is beyond the capacity of the system A failure in the power supply resulting in the pumps not working General lack of maintenance to the system Hose reels Dry powder installation CO2 Flooding Fixed Foam Installations Inert Gas systems such as argon Question 10: Outline those points that you would expect an assessor to consider. the original specification for the door was incorrect or it was badly fitted resulting in a gap round the door and frame. access to an external mimic panel. Identify reasons why a fire resisting door may not provide adequate protection in the event of a fire. the fire integrity of the door has been reduced following unauthorised and poor alteration work such as the fitting of key pads.• • • • • • • • • d) 1. September 2009 Question 7 Explain the requirements for ensuring that access to premises and facilities for the fire service are provided and maintained. 2. 4. perhaps with an extinguisher. poor workmanship and lack of maintenance. • • • • • • • • • • • The number of persons to be evacuated The length of time it will take for all occupants to escape to a place of safety and whether this time is reasonable Whether there are enough exits in the right place Whether all escape routes are easily identifiable. 5. (8) • • • • • • keeping roadways and vehicle access for appliances clear. arranging access for fire fighting personnel. providing venting for heat and smoke from basements or other areas. (8) • • • • • • • • the door being wedged open. providing adequate space and turning circles around the perimeter of the premises. having plans of the building available and ensuring the provision of adequate water supplies. the smoke seals have been damaged or the intumescent strips removed or damaged. the door has become warped or does not close properly because of an obstruction or a damaged closure. providing a fire main and wet riser in tall buildings.
the adequacy of the arrangements for persons with disabilities. • Question 7 Outline the factors to be considered when determining the adequacy of an escape route. using fire resisting elements such as brick walls for the structure. IV. sealing voids and enclosing lifts by compartment walls. the rate of temperature rise Over-pressurisation. kitchens and boiler rooms. III. gases (for example carbon monoxide or sulphur dioxide). (4) a) • • • • • • b) • • • the detection of a fire at an early stage together with an indication of the location of its source. smoke. whether the type and size of exits are suitable and sufficient for the number and type of persons who will use them taking into account the presence of disabled personnel. efficient working order and in good repair. II. 2) near internal or external stairs so each tread receives direct light and near to any other level change. (8) the number of occupants to be evacuated. fitting fire resisting doors and fire resistant glazing. I. heat. (4) (b) Identify practical ways of achieving an adequate level of compartmentation within a building. (4) a) Compartmentation in buildings serves a number of purposes such as. December 2009 Question 2 (a) Identify FOUR products of combustion that may activate automatic fire detection systems. b) dividing it into discrete fire resisting zones. providing a physical barrier for fire and confining it to its zone of origin for a specified time. (4) (b) Outline reasons for installing an automatic fire detection system. the protection of the escape routes including staircases. arranging for the compartmentation of roof voids for example by the use of fabric cavity-barriers. March 2010 Question 5 (a) Outline the functions of compartmentation in buildings. its ability to obtain a rapid response from the fire service which might consequently result in damage limitation.• Requirements for access and facilities contained in the Building Regulations and to the duty placed on the responsible person by Article 38 of the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order to ensure that the access and facilities provided are maintained in an efficient state. whether all escape routes are easily identifiable. flame. providing fire protection for floors for example by the use of low density concrete. heat and toxic gases and minimising the risk of them entering protected escape routes. reducing the extent of the spread of smoke. and whether fire doors open in the direction of travel. protecting structural materials such as concrete and steel. unobstructed and adequately illuminated. (8) 1) at each exit door intended to be used in an emergency. enabling phased evacuations and offering the possibility of providing safe havens for vulnerable persons. reducing the number of employees immediately at risk and the travel distance of those who need to escape to a place of relative safety. Question 11 Outline where emergency lighting should be fitted in a workplace. . the length of time it will take for all occupants to escape to a place of safety and whether this time is reasonable. and fitting fire dampers in duct work and fire stopping where services pass through compartments. its operation without human intervention providing early warning to the occupants of a building of the existence of a fire and thus enabling a controlled evacuation at an early stage. the protection it provides for specific areas such as sleeping areas. the number of fire escape routes.
9) in large or disabled toilet facilities. a desire to finish a task and collect belongings would cause some people to delay their response to a fire while in other cases. 5) along corridors and at intersections of corridors. (3) (b) Outline the parts of a fire door that should be examined when making a visual check to ensure that they are adequate. would seek to gain a view of the fire rather than take the necessary evasive action. and the smoke and intumescent seals fitted to the door or frame are in good condition. of course. b) the way it fits into its frame to ensure there are no gaps. if any. the door handles and latches are in good condition. . gases such as propane or butane (Class C). Additionally. fire and smoke throughout a building and particularly on to an escape route. 10) in fire refuges. cardboard or paper (Class A). (8) Also Appeared in Dec 2008 Question 8 Outline the factors that make people slow to respond in a fire. fright and panic can be of such a magnitude that people tend to freeze. three in number. there would be a tendency to ignore them while others. some might be unaware of the significance of and even misinterpret alarms while if there had been a number of false alarms. (14) a) wood. Lesson 5: Safety of Peoples in Event of Fire March 2008 Question 10 Human behaviour plays a significant role in how people react in a fire. the hinges. lithium batteries causing metal tires (Class D) Cooking fats and oils (Class F). provide a means of escape. Outline the factors that make people slow to respond in a fire. are not damaged and are securely fixed with all screws in place. to provide a minimum of thirty minutes resistance to fire. are working correctly and are adequately maintained and lubricated. 8) at moving stairways and walkways. for example a lack of understanding of the hazards from smoke or how the fire might spread: the fact that people do not generally respond to a single stimulus and often wait for others to respond. control and plant rooms and at exit routes from covered car parks June 2010 Question 10 (a) Outline the purpose of a ‘fire door’. when closed. When open. to hinder the spread of heat. they do. particularly if their vision was obscured by smoke and they were unfamiliar with the exit routes and actions to be taken. for fire resistance and possible damage. 7) near fire fighting equipment and fire alarm call points. (8) a poor perception of the danger involved. from curiosity. are of steel. 11) in generator. 6) outside and near to each final exit. (5) a) The purpose of a fire door is. varnishes and thinners (Class B).3) where no natural light occurs or the workplace is used in hours of darkness. June 2008 Question1 A large do-it-yourseff (DIY) store with cafeteria facilities is to revise its fire safety procedures. (a) Give examples of the type of fuel sources that may be present in the store AND state the class of fire with which EACH source is generally associated (6) (b)Outline the issues that should be addressed in the stores emergency procedures to help ensure the safe evacuation of employees and customers in the event of a fire. paints. smoke and heat to a compartmentalized safe area and twenty minutes resistance to an enclosed corridor and to provide or increase the protection to storage areas containing data or combustible materials and flammable substances. 4) at each change of direction. the glazing.
the clarity of their signing. for example staged. 6. appointing trained fire marshals and ensuring that in the event of a fire. • the number of persons to be evacuated including employees and customers and the type of evacuation to be carried out. while customers were either queuing or eating their meals. 4. • the provision and siting of fire extinguishers on escape routes and near to hazardous areas. delay evacuation to collect their belongings or panic and attempt to leave the cafeteria by the way they had entered neglecting to use the designated escape routes b) • • • • ensuring that exit routes were clearly signed. • the location and suitability of assembly points. 5. and the need for it to be distinctive as compared with other alarms used in the store. dependent on the size and layout of the store and cafeteria. upholstered furniture. (4) Also appeared in March 2010 as Question 9 a) There are a number of ways in which customers might react to a fire alarm in the scenario described. September 2008 Question 5 A fire alarm was activated by an automatic detector in the kitchen area of a cafeteria during a busy lunchtime period. • the location and type of a fire detection system corresponding to the different types of risk in the store. • the adequacy and regular maintenance of emergency lighting. 7. • regular maintenance and testing of fire alarms and holding periodic fire drills and liaising with the emergency services to advise them of special risks including the storage in the building of highly flammable materials. (a) Outline ways in which customers may react to the fire alarm in this situation. portable heaters. • the installation of sprinkler systems especially in vulnerable areas where for example paints and gases might be displayed or stored. 8. (4) b) Outline the issues to be addressed to assist in the safe evacuation of the customers from the cafeteria.b) • type of alarm system to be installed. • the appointment of trained wardens and marshals and the use of door marshals to prevent entry or re-entry in the event of a fire. unprotected notice boards and display materials 9. (8) Items that should not be located on a protected route or in a corridor or stairwell that serves as the sole means of escape from a workplace in the event of fire include: 1. coat racks. lighting using naked flames. electrical equipment such as photocopiers or gaming machines. Question 11 Identify EIGHT items that should not be located on a protected route or in a corridor or stairwell that serves as a sole means of escape from a workplace in the event of a fire. gas boilers. believed it to be a false alarm. 2. and their location particularly to avoid obstruction to the access of emergency services. heaters with unprotected naked flames and heaters using a gas supply. • the number of fire escapes/exits. await instructions. cooking appliances. 3. the travel distances involved and the procedures to be adopted to ensure they were always clear and free from obstructions. if possible over the loudspeaker system December 2008 . the catering areas were closed and clear instructions were given for evacuation. decided either to finish their meal or maintain their place in the queue or out of curiosity attempted to investigate what was happening. • the action to be taken on discovering a fire and the selection of persons to activate the alarm and call the emergency services. and combustible items such as documents on open shelving. whether audible or visual. provided with a good standard of lighting and kept free from obstruction. Others who recognized the purpose of the alarm might either comply with procedures and use the designated fire escape routes. allocating particular responsibilities to individual members of staff for escorting and directing customers and particularly the disabled. pipes or meters with some exceptions as contained in the Building Regulations and Gas Safety Regulations. Some might ignore the alarm either because they did not recognise it as such. • the allocation of responsibility to members of staff for escorting and directing customers including the disabled.
(2) (b) Identify the information that may be contained in a fire log book. (6) a) The purpose of a fire log book is to record the testing and maintenance of fire safety features and the programme of fire safety training carried out in the organisation. a record of the visits made by the fire service and details of fire risk assessments that have been completed. o to enable fire marshals and wardens to practice their roles. information on the inspection of and checks made on sprinkler systems. b) The information contained in a fire log book might include. b) The benefits of the system are that it uses people who are trained and familiar with the premises to evacuate other people who may or may not be familiar with the premises and in so doing takes into account of any adverse human behaviour. The fire risk assessment was reviewed and identified an absence of fire drills. Also appeared in December 2009 as Question 11 • • • • • • • • • The number of peoples to be evacuated The sufficiency of means of escape such as the number of available exits and the distance to be travelled the location of the assembly points and the arrangements for the accounting of personnel. . o and to enable comparisons to be made for example in response and evacuation times which may point to the need to introduce more effective procedures. It provides an opportunity to demonstrate that employers are using all due diligence and following good practice in the prevention of fire and the provision of measures to be taken if one was to occur. fire instructions and information on employee training. c) Explain how a fire marshal system operates. o to comply with the requirements of RRFSO. the number of fire wardens to be appointed. Question 9: Outline the factors to be considered when developing an evacuation procedure for a shared occupancy office building. a building is split into small areas of responsibility and each area is allocated to a particular fire marshal. the possibility of arranging a phased evacuation. Question 9 During a shop fire the evacuation of personnel was delayed. the identification of facilities for the disabled such as lifts and refuges and the use of evacuation equipment. Outline the purpose of conducting fire drills. the arrangements for contacting the emergency services. a record of fire drills held. information on false alarms and other occasions when alarms were activated. The marshal is finally expected to report that their area has been checked and is clear. a record of the frequency of fire alarm tests and of the location of call points. o to ensure that evacuation procedures are effective particularly for visitors and the disabled. a) With a Fire Marshal System.Question 4 (a) State the purpose of a fire log book. d) Outline the benefits with respect to human behavior. in the event of a fire. a list of competent persons and fire wardens. search and check their allocated area and ensure that all people have left the building. records of the testing of emergency lighting and inspection of fire fighting equipment. March 2009 Question 5: An organisation uses the fire marshal system for the safe evacuation of the premises. Those who have not left the building are directed to an appropriate fire exit and on to a safe assembly point. o to enable the identification of mechanical or electrical deficiencies in the fire alarm system. The marshals are designated people who. o to ensure that employees are familiar with escape procedures to enable them to react calmly in the event of an emergency and secure a rapid evacuation if a fire were to occur. (8) The purpose of conducting fire drills which is. the procedures for visitors and contractors and the liaison necessary with other occupiers. the action to be taken on the discovery of a fire. emergency phone numbers. o to test the physical adequacy of fire escape routes.
helps reduce congestion and the panic that might be caused during the evacuation and Ensures that those who are nearest to the fire and therefore most at risk can be the first to be evacuated. The routes should be adequately lit and unobstructed and the travel distances sufficiently short to allow escape in a reasonable time. the use of “evac” chairs to evacuate those with impaired mobility and the provision of refuges as temporary safe havens while awaiting rescue. fire and rescue service. by flashing lights . the use of tactile way-finding and exit signs for the visually impaired. instructions would have to be provided to the occupants of the building about the means of escape. the use of trembler or aural and visual alarms. The first actions to be taken by a person discovering a fire in a building would be to sound the alarm and call the 2. Question 4 (a) Outline the actions that should be taken by a person upon discovering a fire in a building. Finally.• • the clarity of the signage in all areas. Escape routes are easily identifiable and clearly marked and be of sufficient width for the number and type of occupants. The training to be given to employees and the arrangements for testing fire alarms and practicing fire drills. (b) Identify different ways in which an alarm may be raised in the event of a fire in a building. to be alerted first and then evacuated while occupants on other floors would be alerted and kept on stand by and evacuated later dependant on how the fire developed and spread. (a) Give reasons why it may be appropriate to develop a phased evacuation system for the building. Final exit doors should open outwards. b) • • • • • by voice. the use of buddy systems for those with impaired hearing or vision and the appointment of staff trained to supervise at refuges and to evacuate those with impaired mobility. (5) a) • b) • • • • • c) • • • • • • d) • • • • • • allows a controlled evacuation of a large number of people. The success of the system would also depend very much on the provision of regular training and fire drills for the occupants and fire marshals and on the design of each floor of the building as a separate fire compartment. Escape routes would need to be suitably protected with compartmentation and/or fire resisting walls and ceilings. whistles or rotary gongs. either with persons shouting or by a tannoy system. by the use of hand bells. proceed to the designated assembly point. a) 1. they might tackle the fire before closing doors and windows and leaving the building to 3. Then if trained to do so. by alarm bells and sirens activated through a manual call point. by alarm bells and sirens activated through automatic fire detection systems or sprinkler systems. The system would be dependant on the use of different alarm systems to indicate evacuation or stand by and on the use of fire marshals to communicate the evacuation status to a senior marshal. the provision of dedicated evacuation lifts. Sufficiency both of the number of exits provided and that of alternative escape routes. (8) (d) Outline additional provisions the business may consider in order to assist persons with sensory impairment and/or physical disabilities to be evacuated safely in the event of fire. the need for occupants on the first floor and the floor immediately above. be able to be opened without the use of keys and give easy access to a designated assembly point. (2) (b) Outline how a phased evacuation system might operate. In the meantime checks should have been carried out by responsible persons to ensure that all employees had left the building. June 2009 Question 1 A recently developed multi-storey commercial building is to be occupied by a large business employing approximately 500 employees. (5) (c) Explain the issues to be addressed when determining the adequacy of the means of escape within the building.
• the level of lighting on the escape route or the presence of smoke obscuration or other obstacles. • inadequate signage and a poor standard of emergency lighting and panic causing people to freeze and making them incapable of taking any action. • portable or fixed heaters and discarded smoking materials. off-cuts and fabrics. Some may sound the alarm. June 2010 Question 5 Outline the issues that could affect an employee’s exit choice during an evacuation of the workplace in the event of a fire. Fire and smoke damage has occurred in a building situated on large manufacturing premises. call the fire and rescue service and either fight the fire or investigate its causes or evacuate the building in accordance with instructions. • electrical faults or overloaded electrical circuits. previous bad experiences or lack of information and guidance 3. (10) a) Possible fuels include. • the training given and familiarity with the emergency plan and the escape routes. • the desire to finish a work activity. • heat and/or sparks from equipment in use. 2. (a) Identify possible fuel sources and sources of ignition that may have been present when the fire started in the workshop. • overheating equipment. • the alarm was mistaken for a different alarm system. Others might freeze and do nothing because of fear. There will be those. September 2009 Question 1. • the alarm was ignored by the employees for a variety of reasons such as the belief that it was a false alarm or a fire drill. 1. • inadequate fire procedures including a lack of fire wardens and a failure to provide sufficient information and training. direct and help others particularly the disabled while others will remain where they are either awaiting further instructions or simply to watch the outcome of the fire. (10) (b) Outline possible reasons why the occupants on the first floor were slow to evacuate the building. • a blocked or restricted access on the chosen escape route. complacency. b) There are a number of reasons why occupants of the first floor were slow to evacuate the building such as. • Other reasons for the delay include a decision to stay and investigate or fight the fire. Question 5 Outline the possible ways in which people may react when alerted to a potential fire situation. A subsequent investigation revealed that the fire was started accidentally. . and the belief that this was yet another fire drill.• and by trembler or vibration devices. • the timber in stock. It was also found that despite the fire alarm being activated promptly many occupants on the first floor took up to 15 minutes to evacuate the building. • The anticipation that further instructions would be given. too. while others will take no action because of indifference. • naked flames. • plastics such as packaging materials and foam. 4. who will instruct. or simply ignorance of the action to take when the alarm sounded. • combustible materials in bins such as discarded paper. • flammable liquids such as oils and varnish. (8) People react in many different ways when alerted to a potential fire situation. • the alarm being inaudible on the first floor or some occupants suffering from audible impairment with no back-up visual alarm to give them warning. consisting of a timber workshop and storage areas on the ground floor and office facilities on the first floor. • assisting the disabled to evacuate. Possible sources of ignition include. • internal wall linings and furniture and curtains. • wood shavings and saw dust. (8) These included among others. • being affected by heat or smoke inhalation.
quality. outline the circumstances that would require a fire risk assessment to be reviewed. The initial step in undertaking a fire risk assessment is to identify the hazards present in the workplace such as the fuel or combustible materials. (b). out of hours cleaning staff and vulnerable persons. following changes in the quantities of stock held and additionally in the storage of hazardous substances which could increase the risk of fire. (8) Consideration should be given to the review of a fire risk assessment carried out in premises. the likelihood of a fire occurring and its potential consequences for the safety of persons such as death. clarity and prominence of fire exit signs and directions given by persons in authority. (8) Also appeared in June 2009 Question 8 1. after a fire. • burning by heat.• • • • • • the fact that a particular exit might be blocked by a flame front. injury or ill health. Recording the significant findings of the assessment including the actions that need to be taken 5. after a change in the number or type of employees such as the engagement of disabled persons or those with special needs. 3. explosion or near miss or the failure of fire precautions such as detection or alarm systems. (6) Also appeared in June 2010 as Question 2 (a). the ignition sources and the amount of oxygen available. following changes to work processes such as the introduction of new substances. • falls from a height or on the same level often caused by panicking and crushing. as a result of inspections or monitoring which identify fire hazards. • injury from falling or collapsing structures. the location. the location of employment and its proximity to a particular exit and individual characteristics such as age. (8) . Arranging for the assessment to be reviewed and revised where necessary within a given period of time. June 2008 Question 10 (a) Define the term ‘risk’ in relation to the occurrence of fire in a workplace. when there have been alterations to the building involving extensions or a change in internal layout. Question 11 Idenlify EIGHT sources of information that might usefully be consulted when carrying out a fire risk assessment in the workplace. • poisoning from inhalation of toxic gases and other products of combustion. September 2008 Question 4 Giving an example in EACH case. following substantial changes to fixtures and fittings such as the introduction of new machinery or furniture. (2) (b) Outline the types of physical harm that could be caused to persons by a workplace fire. Evaluating the risk to persons of a fire occurring taking into account the likelihood and possible severity of the harm that might be caused and the adequacy of current control measures detailing further controls that are considered necessary. The ease of opening and using an exit door. 4. • Mental or physical trauma and in some cases death. contractors. infirmity or a disability. Other issues which might play a part are the behaviour of others such as panicking. • injury from broken and flying glass. • suffocation or respiratory difficulties through the depletion of oxygen. Following enforcement action by the relevant authority and finally after the passage of time. This will be followed by identifying the persons at risk including employees. visitors. after changes in legislation and official guidance. the types of physical harm that could be caused to persons by a workplace fire include: • smoke inhalation since hot smoke can burn the linings of lungs and trigger existing conditions such as asthma. 2. flames or explosion. Lesson 6: Fire Risk Assessment March 2008 Question 9 Outline the steps to be completed when undertaking a fire risk assessment.
(b) • • • • • • the name of the person carrying out the assessment. information on significant fire hazards. 9. 7. • record the significant findings of the assessment • and be reviewed on a regular basis. • identify all significant hazards and evaluate the risks from those hazards. 13. (4) a) In order that a fire risk assessment may be deemed to be suitable and sufficient. In relation to fire risk assessments: (a) state the legal requirements for the recording of significant findings. enforcement authorities and competent colleagues. 11. European and other international standards. Trade Union materials. (5) (c) describe the steps of a fire risk assessment process. 1. results of inspections. 3. 4. it must. manufacturers’ and suppliers’ data. (3) (b) outline the main objectives of undertaking a fire risk assessment. advice and documentation from insurance companies. 8. In relation to fire risk assessment: (a) give the meaning of the terms: ‘hazard’ AND ‘risk’. major inquiry reports. the persons who may be at risk and particularly those who are especially so because of special needs or disabilities. measures taken to reduce the risk to persons such as the provision of detection and warning systems and emergency escape routes. the date it was carried out and the date set for its review. 5. • involve staff and/or their representatives in the process. industry standards and codes of practice including those issued by the Fire Protection Association. • identify and prioritise action plans. 12. legislation such as the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005. 6. (4) (b) Outline the circumstances that may require a fire risk assessment to be reviewed.Also appeared in June 2010 as Question 11 Sources of information that might usefully be consulted when carrying out a fire risk assessment in a workplace include. • be completed by a competent person. plans and drawings. • evaluate the existing and the need for further controls. British. 2. (2) (b) outline the type of information that should be included in the records of the significant finding& (6) Also appeared in June 2010 as Question 6 a) Significant findings of a fire risk assessment should be recorded where there are five or more employees. • identify a responsible person. instruction and training. (10) (d) identify when the significant findings should be recorded. measures that have or should be taken to reduce the likelihood of a fire occurring such as removing or reducing sources of ignition and fuel. • identify people at risk. March 2009 Question 2. Information on the actions people need to take in the event of fire and the requirements for the provision of information. b) Answered in Q4 Sep 2008 December 2009 Question 1 The responsible person has a duty to carry out suitable and sufficient fire risk assessments under The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005. fire safety reference documents such as fire logbooks and maintenance records. • September 2009 Question 6 (a) Outline the criteria that must be met for a fire risk assessment to be deemed ‘suitable’ and ‘sufficient’. guidance notes and HSE publications. fire and safety periodicals. 10. (2) . and information available from Fire Authorities. findings of previous risk assessments. where an alterations notice requiring it is in force and where a licence under an enactment is in force in relation to the premises. details of responsible persons.
(4) (c) Outline measures that could be considered to ensure that disabled persons can be evacuated safely from the building. it has been identified that employee fire safety training has not been carried out. (8) Factors that should be considered in completing a revised fire risk assessment for a building where refurbishment work is being carried out include. and that no arrangements are in place for evacuating disabled persons from the building in the event of an emergency. (6) a) The fire safety training session might well begin with an introduction outlining the reasons for preventing fires in the workplace and maintaining a good standard of fire safety. the possible obstruction or loss of fire exits. Outline the factors that should be considered in a revised fire risk assessment. and then a brief description of the chemistry of and conditions for the maintenance of combustion and the various categories or classes of fire. (10) (b) Identify circumstances that would require further fire safety training to be given to employees. overloading of existing electrical circuits and the possibility that access for the fire service may be blocked. • the facilitation of the planning. the possibility of fire doors being wedged or propped open. b) It will of course be necessary from time to time to hold further fire safety training sessions when for example. an increase in ignition sources together with an increase in and accumulation of flammable waste. implementation and monitoring of fire protection measures. • the introduction of measures to minimise the risk of fire occurring and to reduce the harm that it might cause to a level as low as practicable. the fire prevention measures appropriate to the site and the various duties of both the employer and the employees. particularly the vulnerable and finally to satisfy legal requirements. . the possibility that fire resistant structures may be compromised perhaps by making holes for services. property and the environment either during or as a result of a fire and its possible consequences. • the need for periodic fire drills to ensure employees are well versed in the evacuation procedures. • there has been a change in legislation or when new equipment or processes are introduced or • when there has been a change in working practices which may increase the level of risk. • the various types of extinguisher and their appropriate use for each category of fire. • the action to be taken on discovering a fire including the method of raising the alarm • the arrangements for contacting the emergency services • the action to be taken when the alarm is sounded. This could be followed by an explanation of the company fire policy. b) The main objectives of undertaking a fire risk assessment are initially concerned with fire prevention but involve also. the fact that detection systems could be disabled or covered and fixed fire fighting systems disconnected.a) A “hazard” is something with the potential to cause harm and “risk” is the likelihood of potential harm being realised and its probable severity. the introduction and use of flammable building materials. The more practical aspects of fire safety would have to be covered such as. • • • • • • • • the induction training to be given to contractors including reference to means of access and egress bearing in mind that they will have little knowledge of the fire hazards present. (a) Outline the typical content of a fire safety training session for the employees. • and the location and purpose of the assembly points. • the identification of the harm that will be caused to people. c & d are answered above March 2010 Question 10 Refurbishment work is being carried out on an existing building. • to identify those at risk. June 2010 Question 1 Following a fire safety audit of an office building. • the means of escape from the building together with the arrangements for evacuating the disabled and the role of fire marshals.
• an increase in the number of persons employed or in those with special needs. c) • • • • the provision of trembler alarms and visual warning signals as well as aural alarms. • changes to the layout of the premises. • . the provision of signage and tactile surfaces. • changes to fire precautions or the emergency plan. • when deficiencies in the existing arrangements have come to light • when incidents have occurred or during the periodic fire drills. • and following advice from the enforcement authority. providing dedicated safe refuges and setting up buddy systems and/or personal emergency evacuation plans. the provision of dedicated emergency lifts or the use of emergency evacuation chairs on stairways. ensuring doorways are of sufficient width and that steps are replaced by ramps.Additional circumstances include.
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