Developing a Vendor Base for Fusion Commercialization

Stan Milora, Director Fusion Energy Division Virtual Laboratory of Technology Martin Peng Fusion Energy Division

Relationship of Initiatives to Gaps (2007 FESAC Greenwald Panel)

--------- Plasma Control S&T ---------------- Fusion Nuclear S&T --------

Ed Synakowski, Associate Director Office of Fusion Energy Sciences February 28, 2012

US Industry is designing and building major ITER components, led by ORNL, PPPL and SRNL
Cooling, Diagnostics, Plasma Heating, Fueling and Exhaust Systems (Tritium), Electrical Network, S/C Magnets


Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy

Juergen Rapp, Presentation to DOE, December 8th 2011

Challenge: particle fluxes and fluence
JET ITER Fusion Reactor

50 x higher ion fluxes

5000 x higher ion fluence

up to 5 x higher ion fluence

106 x higher neutron fluence 100 x higher neutron fluence (~150 dpa) (~1dpa)

Plasma facing components encounter 20% of the fusion energy release as high surface heat and ion fluxes.
Plasma facing components in JET and NSTX: first wall (A), rf antenna (B), and divertor (C)

• High average and transient heat fluxes • Surface ablation and melting .

• Erosion and re-deposition, dust formation, and plasma contamination • Tritium implantation and retention strongly coupled to neutron damage


Tritium breeding and power extraction components volumetrically absorb 80 % of the fusion energy release via nuclear materials interactions.
ITER dual cooled lead lithium (DCLL) tritium breeding test blanket concept
Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic Steel(RAFM) structure • Hardening, loss of ductility and fracture toughness, thermal conductivity degradation Void swelling, helium embrittlement Activation • • • High temperature creep, thermo mechanical and magnetic stresses, corrosion Thermo fluid flow and conducting fluid flow across magnetic fields Tritium production, release, extraction and control

• •

Be first wall

He in He out

PbLi in PbLi out

Nuclear/materials interaction in RAFM

Power Density(W/cm3)

Depth in DCLL TBM(cm)



Fusion nuclear S&T in the ITER era
Example: Fusion Nuclear Sciences Facility Compact volume neutron source
HFIR: Fission  neutron spectrum  SNS: Spallation  neutron spectrum OLCF: Theory and  multiscale modeling

Nuclear effects Plasma effects
NSTX: Boundary  physics research High‐intensity plasma materials  test station International  collaboration


Develop experimental database for all fusion reactor internals and, in parallel with ITER, provide basis for DEMO

Engaging Office of Science facilities and programs, complemented by critical new fusion facilities and international collaboration

Developing a vendor base for fusion commercialization
• Fusion Energy Sciences Program Strategy: Plasma Control Science (ITER) and Integrated Fusion Nuclear Science • U.S. ITER Project engaging Industry, Universities and National Labs • Next critical R&D opportunities: materials and internals encountering fusion particle fluxes and fluences • Examples: “from lab science to industry to energy commercialization” • Fusion nuclear S&T in the ITER era: to engage Office of Science facilities and programs, and be complemented by critical new facilities and international collaboration

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