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Good food needs good bread and to make a good bread, it is important to know the components and their functions. The different methods of bread making are as given below: Bulk Fermented Dough – This is a process that most bakers use to make bread. Flour and salt are blended with water and yeast and mixed to clear, smooth dough. The dough is then covered to prevent drying out and a skin forming. This period of bulk fermentation means, all the ingredients are mixed at once and fermented. The dough is knocked back (degassed) after about 2/3rd of the fermentation time and kneaded to encourage continued yeast activity and to equalize the dough temperature. When the fermentation is complete, the dough is weighed off into rolls. The total fermentation time can vary from one to twelve hours, depending on the recipe. The different variations of this basic method are as explained below: 1. Straight Dough Method: With this method, all the ingredients are mixed together in one operation. It is simple and this accounts for its popularity. A straight dough can be fermented for 30 minutes to 14-16 hours, according to the type of flour, temperature, the amount of yeast, water and salt used and the room where it is stored. The quickest of all straight dough methods is the ‘No time Dough Method,’ when after mixing the bread dough, it is weighed and put into tins. This method is useful in an emergency but the scaling is rapid. Due to the fat, that ripeness is not fully attained in the process. There is a pronounced aroma of yeast and the characteristic aroma of bread is absent. The short processes are from 1-5 hours and the longer ones upto 16 hours. 2. Ferment and Dough Method: Bread and buns can be made in a two stage method known as ferment and dough method. The ‘ferment’ is a mixture containing a proportion of water, yeast and sufficient flour to make a thin batter. This yeast begins to ferment and multiply and soon is active and vigorous. Ferment is generally allowed to stand till it collapses, although this is not necessary. 3. Sponge and Dough Method: A sponge can be described as a stiff ferment or slack dough. It is made by mixing a proportion of flour, yeast, some of all the salt and a little water. The size of the sponge in proportion to the finished dough gives it its name. If a quarter of the total weight of the flour was used, it would be called quarter sponge.
4. Ferment Sponge and Dough Method: The bread making process can be split into 3 stages by just making a preliminary ferment which when ready is made into a sponge by the addition of more water and flour. After a sufficient fermentation time of the dough, the final stage is completed by the incorporation of flour and the rest of the materials.
Color A. If a loaf with a natural bloom is placed alongside it. If the dough is correctly ripened and the proving and baking conditions are correct. there are modifications.Aroma S. Bloom. Dough is made in the ordinary way. A volume that is right is of importance and must be obtained. heavy loaf has no appeal. moulding and final proof. Delayed Salt and Dough Method: A method of bread making where the salt is omitted at dough making stage and added at the knock back stage. some craftsmen insist that salt should be added in the dry state to flour from the dough. the difference in the crust colour is clearly seen.Elasticity . then the bread is even and attractive. This is because the gluten is in such a condition that it is resistant enough to the expanding gases and yet stable enough to retain them. As usual. for a loaf may have every other desirable attribute including a good brown crust color and yet without bloom. with bread making processes.Moistness E. resulting in a bad shape. 3. strong gluten being used in the grist. Expansion within the loaf is not equal. Internal Features: CASTME C. being introduced due to the use of a large proportion of Canadian type wheat which has tenacious.Symmetry of shape is brought about by correct dough fermentation. Natural bloom is of expansion within the loaf during the initial baking period.5.This is important from the selling point of view because a small. Symmetry. 2. it is short of perfection. using flour to adjust the consistency of the dough.Structure T. A baking tin too small for the weight of dough is a common cause for an imperfect shape. the lower part of the loaf is controlled by the tin whereas the upper part is forced out and the expansion is greater and uncontrolled. Characteristics of a Good Loaf:The desirable features of a good loaf are broadly divided as External and Internal. This method has become exceedingly popular during the last decade. Other bakers add some salt at the initial stage and the rest at the knock back stage. leaving out the salt which is later added at the knock back stage.Texture M. and others add salt as brine.Bloom is not easy to define. Volume. Some suggest that the portion of the flour should be sieved with the salt. External Features: 1.
.e. producing large holes and therefore lowering the color or brightness. The size of the gas holes in a wholemeal loaf must be small firstly because of the low gluten content. The crumb brightness depends to a large extent on the shape of the gas cell. Moistness – This is not determined by the water content alone. A well made loaf from a long processed dough will generally be moist for a longer period than a loaf made by a shorter process. Bread made from these over fermented doughs will have a sour taste and smell from the development of excessive acid fermentation. 5. Aroma and Flavor . The vesiculation (crumb structure) of a tin loaf should be round. but by fermentation. to the high characteristic brown color of wholemeal bread. secondly because of the bran coating present in the dough which will break down the gluten.However much care is put into the manufacture of bread. If salt and any other flavors used are added. controlled fermentation and correct manipulation. Structure must vary according to the type of bread. flavor and aroma are the result of fermentation. The deeper cells will absorb light. for too much water in the dough for ordinary bread will open the structure. Structure – This refers to the built in the loaf and the size and shape of the cells. Color – Color must depend to a certain extent on – (a) Grade of the flour used. it has to finally be eaten. Given good quality materials. Therefore. fairly small.Color in the bread can vary from the fine creamy white of high quality low extraction flours. Baking and storage conditions are also important. quality materials. both will differ according to the process used. More pungency maybe expected from the longer fermentation process. the action of salt and by the addition of fat. The water content of the dough is important. The thickness of the cell wall is important because on it depends the maximum reflection of light from the cells immediately below the crust surface of the loaf. 2. (b) Correct Fermentation – This will produce in the crumb a sparkling brightness that is absent from the under fermented loaf or from a dough that has been incorrectly handled. This is called sheen and it is the result of the same three points i. Texture and Sheen (Reflection from cells) – If the cut surface from a good loaf is held level to the eyes in good light.. 3. flavor and aroma are important factors if the bread is to be enjoyed. Correct fermentation and manipulation however will produce qualities of color within each grade. Moistness in relation to keeping quality is important if we are to be completely satisfied with the product. regular and evenly distributed. 4.1. it would be observed that the surface will reflect back what looks like a lot of tiny sparkling lights.
The crumb should be clear from such cores and seams. Divide into portions using a scale to allow for even products. This elasticity is the measure of the strength of the crumb and is important because cutting and buttering depends on this quality. The weight loss is approximately 10-13% so an additional bit of weight can be allowed during scaling. Make a well in the center. Crumb clarity comes from the proper mixing of dough in the dough mixing stage and attention should be taken during these subsequent stages. Cores are hard spots in the crumb texture. seams and streaks. it should return when the pressure is released. Punching is not hitting but knocking back the dough and then gently knead in salt and shortening as required Scaling. If a thin slice of loaf is held to a bright light. If the crumb is pressed. failure to do this step can result in over fermented doughs. If a slight dent remains when pressed it shows that the fermentation is complete. Leave to prove under a damp muslin cloth on a flour dusted surface for about an hour. Gluten gets smoother and elastic during fermentation. Steps involved in Bread making: • • • • • Sift flour into a metal bowl or marble top. Fermentation is complete when the dough is double in volume. they can be seen.6. Elasticity and Crumb Clarity – Clarity implies being free from cores. Doughs with weak gluten are usually under-fermented and shaped early. Dissolve yeast in warm water and add sugar. Knead till you get a smooth pliable dough. Punching or knocking. Or ina container large enough to allow for first expansion of the dough. When it has fermented. Fermentation. If the dough is fermented too long it gets sticky and tough to work with. • • • • • • • . add the yeast to the flour and mix well. During scaling allowance should be made for weight loss that occurs in the oven. They maybe made out by light pressure of the thumb on the crust. especially in preventing the incorporation of dough scraps.
• Rounding. This is done in the case of hard crusted breads to prevent the crust from drying too quickly Oven spring. when nearly proven. here the shaped dough is relaxed for ten to fifteen minutes. this is the rapid rising of the dough in the oven caused by the expansion of trapped gases and active yeast which is then killed when the dough reaches a temperature of 60 C At this stage the coagulation of the proteins begins to take place and the product begins to firm up and take shape The final stage is the formation of the crust and browning • • • Cooling and Storage of Bread • • Bread on being removed from the oven. • • • • • Precautions for Baking Bread • • Bake in an oven that has been pre-heated to 225 C Spray a bit of water into the oven at the early stages to create a bit of steam if required. Under proofing results in poor volume and over –proofing results in loss of flavor and a coarse texture Washes. Water is primarily used for hard crusted products. has a crust temperature of about C. In this stage the dough is allowed to ferment at a higher temperature than the previous fermentation process. brush on egg was and spray a bit of water on top. this is a continuous process of fermentation. Benching. Proofing. and leave to prove a second time on a greased tray or tin. Shape into rounds. The center of the bread is never more than 90 – 95 C 200 . this relaxes the dough and allows fermentation to resume. A properly proofed product will spring back slowly when touched. or for loaves. Proper moulding is essential to a finished product and all the gas must be expelled during baking. rolls.
the loaf does not collapse since the starch structure remains permeable to the gases Bread stales faster at lower temperatures and six times faster.• • • During the cooling process moisture diffuses outwards and heat moves both outwards and inwards. thus bread should not be cut while hot. the starch begins to solidify. The trapped gases decrease in volume to a level lower than the air surrounding the loaf. During this time. However. .
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