Substations - Program 37

Program Overview
Program Description
This program helps substation owners enhance safety, reliability, equipment life and performance, as well as maximize the return on asset investments despite shrinking resources. It offers a complete portfolio of tools and technologies such as decision support analytics and transformer monitoring. The program also includes resources such as failure databases and aging models to improve transformer and circuit breaker life management, and training materials for systems operators. Program results help operations and maintenance (O&M) engineers extend equipment life, optimize maintenance costs, reduce outages, and reduce switching errors.

Research Value
With the knowledge acquired through this research program, members will gain access to information that can help them:       Extend equipment life with maintenance guidelines Reduce maintenance costs via condition-based maintenance Reduce losses via improved sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) management Implement predictive maintenance practices for reduced outages Reduce failures of critical assets Reduce switching errors, increase worker safety and prevent outages.

Approach
EPRI substation research will yield a variety of beneficial data, knowledge, and training materials to program members. This information will be delivered in a number of forms and is expected to include:        Component aging models Equipment diagnostic and risk-assessment tools and software Maintenance best-practices guidelines Reference books, guidelines, videos and interactive "game-based" training materials, and field guides Development of solid-state devices Industry-wide failure databases Collaborative environments for sharing near misses and best practices.

Accomplishments
In the past, the Substations program has delivered valuable information that has helped its members and the industry. Some examples include:   SF6 Complete Library, Version 2.0: The SF6 Computer-Based Training Modules, Version 2.0, are a set of four CDs for computer-based training on SF6 safety, handling, and analysis that include the impact of SF6 on the environment. Industry-wide Substation Equipment Performance and Failure Database—Data, Model and Results—Electronic Media. Most utilities are interested in better understanding and projecting transformer service life to help manage risk; however, generic reliability data are inadequate for today's decision support needs. A single company's data may not be sufficiently extensive nor represent statistically diverse asset population subsets. Industry-wide equipment performance databases (IDBs) are a way to establish a broad-based repository of equipment performance data. With proper care and analysis, these data can provide information about the past performance of equipment groups and

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Electric Power Research Institute

2011 Research Portfolio

subgroups, and the factors that influence that performance. With enough data, projections can be made about future performance. Both past and future performance information can be useful for operations, maintenance, and asset management decisions. Therefore, this project's database efforts emphasize, but are not limited to, life analysis and better understanding of failure rates as a function of age and other parameters. To date, data include 11,679 in-service units and 1185 failure records. Guidelines for the Life Extension of Substation Equipment: As the electric power transmission system ages, the topics of life assessment and life extension have become predominant concerns. At the same time, cost pressures have increased the desire to minimize maintenance. The goals of minimum maintenance and extended life are often diametrically opposed. However, with knowledge of how condition, maintenance, and service life interact, a reasonable balance can be reached that minimizes yearly maintenance expenditures and maximizes the return on capital investment in the equipment over a full and reliable service life. This report (1017742) presents an updated section on the life-extension guidelines for power transformers and circuit breakers. This material was first developed in the 1990s and updated in 2002. It was felt that the standing collection of guidelines lacked the specific guidance and procedures needed to form a comprehensive maintenance and life-extension program. This report presents the results of an effort to establish evolving industry needs based on an assessment undertaken to document current substation equipment asset management and maintenance practices, in order to identify utility needs that could be better supported through updated LEG chapters. Annual Switching Safety and Reliability Conference: The conference is an opportunity for managers, supervisors, and operations personnel to exchange information about switching policies and procedures that contribute to improved safety and reliability. The conference addresses issues ranging from detailed switching procedures and associated software (through programs for training, audits, and incident investigation) to management strategies and policies for developing error-immune procedures and for dealing with errors and responsible individuals. Training Materials and Field Guide for the Smart Ground Multimeter: The Smart Ground Multimeter (SGM) was initially developed in the early 1980s, and has evolved into a sophisticated and powerful testing device. The third upgrade of the SGM was completed in 2006. The true value of the SGM is its capability to perform a ground audit of electric power installations while the installation remains fully energized. A field demonstration of the SGM for program members was held in 2007, and a Field Guide was published in 2009. The Field Guide is intended to serve as a handy reference for technicians in the field tasked with performing a ground grid audit. It is not meant as a substitute for the SGM Operating Manual, but rather serves as a supplement that includes basic “how-to” and practical considerations.

Current Year Activities
In the coming year, the Substations program expects to accomplish these objectives:            Industry-wide databases for substation equipment with new analysis results New versions of Substation Life Extension Guidelines with field guides and learning modules Transformer and circuit breaker aging models Transformer reference book (the Copper Book) Inspection and assessment strategies for Balance of Substation Circuit breaker life management and lubrication Development of fault current limiters to the 69-kV level Circuit breaker diagnostics using relay data Fault current management and substation grounding best practices Switching safety and reliability conference and practice sharing Management of legacy relays and integration of the next generation.

Estimated 2011 Program Funding
$6.5M

Substations - Program 37

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Electric Power Research Institute

2011 Research Portfolio

Program Manager
Andrew Phillips, 704-595-2728, aphillip@epri.com

Summary of Projects
PS37A Transformer Life Management (056064) Project Set Description
This project set remains the greatest single focus within the Substations program. It addresses management of the aging population of power transformers and load tap changers (LTCs) from the aspect of diagnostics, monitoring, and online condition assessment. Recently, the project set has been expanded to include the design aspects related to geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) within transformers. Even if GIC is not currently a key concern for a company, the focus on design provides invaluable insights that will help it with future transformer specifications.
Project Number Project Title Description

P37.001

Transformer End-of-Life and Condition Assessment Transformer Life Extension

Effective transformer life management via novel condition-monitoring techniques and new algorithms for turning that condition-monitoring data into actions. This project provides a mix of field tools and forensics analysis to extend transformer life and improve decision making on these critical substation devices.

P37.002

P37.001 Transformer End-of-Life and Condition Assessment (062154) Key Research Question
There is an increasing need for electricity companies to use assets to their fullest while maintaining system reliability. In this environment, management of the aging population of power transformers has become the most critical issue facing today's substation managers and engineers. Central to transformer management are effective transformer diagnostics, condition assessment, and knowledge retention and transfer. This project addresses these key issues through three focused themes and a multi-year plan of tasks to support those themes.

Approach
Each year, results are delivered through tasks performed to address three broad themes. The stability in the themes supports a clear multi-year plan approach. Members have two distinct areas of influence on the multiyear plan: in the selection of themes, and in the prioritization of the annual tasks that support these themes. The themes that steer this project are:  Copper Book (EPRI Power Transformer Guidebook) Development: In 2011, EPRI plans to add three chapters to the Copper Book. In each year of development, work-to-date is published to allow members to use the materials as they are produced. The ultimate goal is a comprehensive reference book that can be used by members responsible for all aspects of transformer operation, maintenance, procurement, and life-cycle management. It can be used as a training aid and a repository for all pertinent information on transformer ownership. The electronic version includes applets that perform some of the more common calculations necessary for transformer management.

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this project produces the first comprehensive collection of transformer knowledge designed specifically for utility owners and operators. Through the Copper Book. Impact    Enables effective transformer life management via condition-monitoring techniques and their application. monitoring and diagnostics techniques that are in pilot field trials at member utilities. maintenance. The research develops new transformer diagnostic tools and evaluates existing hardware and software for transformer and LTC condition assessment. acoustic emissions. 2011 Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type Novel Sensors for Transformer Diagnosis: This deliverable presents new transformer diagnostic tools and evaluates existing hardware and software for transformer and LTC condition assessment EPRI Copper Book Development . and dissolved gasses in oil in transformers and LTCs for better decision making. In 2011. The Copper Book will be a comprehensive reference book that can be used by utility personnel responsible for all aspects of transformer operation.Additional Chapters: In this deliverable EPRI plans to add three chapters to the Copper Book. EPRI uses the knowledge and experience of the world's leading transformer engineers to develop actionable information from data gathered through sensing.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio   Develop and Demonstrate New Condition-Monitoring Sensors and Techniques: Under this theme. How to Apply Results Substation engineers. and guidebooks. procurement. Results will take the form of hardware. 12/31/11 Technical Update Technical Update 12/31/11 12/31/11 Technical Update Substations . monitoring and diagnostics techniques. software. enabling them to make decisions on the disposition of transformers without additional consultation. It will be used as a training aid and as a repository for all pertinent information on transformer ownership. Advances detection and analytical techniques for evaluation of partial discharges. 4 . Converting transformer data into action . and life-cycle management. and analysis. testing.field-proved algorithm development: This deliverable will use the knowledge and experience of the world's leading transformer engineers to develop actionable information from data gathered through sensing. designers. Develop and Demonstrate Tools to Convert Transformer Data into Useful Information for Action: Under this theme. and operations and maintenance personnel can use this project's results to obtain complete information about the condition of a transformer. the work-to-date is published to allow members to use the materials as they are produced. The project develops specialized sensor hardware to provide insights into transformer health that are not obtainable using traditional techniques. The electronic version will include applets that will be used to perform some of the more common calculations necessary for transformer management. vibration.Program 37 p. EPRI conducts research on improved techniques for assessing transformer condition.

reliable. EPRI’s collaborative approach to this research will bring multiple members’ forensics to the study.Additional Chapters: In this deliverable EPRI plans to add two further chapters to the Copper Book. Presently these valuable lessons are often lost after a unit is retired. In 2011. EPRI is researching new markers in the oil that hold the potential for large improvements in the accuracy of paper life estimates. The resulting forensics library provides members with new insights into likely end-of-life scenarios for the increasing population of aging transformers. Forensics Library: EPRI research examines failed units that have aged to full maturity (i. EPRI’s research in this area will capture and share this vital knowledge. research will move to the first of the field pilots. The stability in the themes supports a clear.. materials. or workmanship flaws). allowing far more rapid development of typical failure and aging mechanisms. Substations . to improve estimates of remaining life: Improved estimates of a transformer's remaining life offer significant financial and reliability benefits.e. and cost-effective transformer use.002 Transformer Life Extension (058559) Key Research Question A structured life extension program can help energy companies make informed decisions on maintenance. and loading. Each forensic study includes both the physical evidence of the internal inspection and the life history of the unit. including historical test information. monitored data. 5 . multi-year plan approach. excluding design. replacement or refurbishment. Technical Update Technical Update P37.   Impact The impacts of this research include:  Improved estimates of the remaining life of transformers  Extended transformer life through application of novel filtration materials and techniques  New insights into likely end-of-life scenarios for the increasing population of aging transformers  Improved decision making on replacement or refurbishment of transformers. Approach This project has three broad themes in Transformer Life Extension that guide the research.Integration of new sensor data into utility infrastructures: This deliverable presents new transformer diagnostic tools and evaluates existing hardware and software for transformer and LTC condition assessment EPRI Copper Book Development . This multi-year effort will be paced by access to transformer failures and historical data. Each year will produce an updated library based on all prior investigations. The themes that steer this project are:  Research into new markers in the oil. In 2011. The research has progressed from paper studies through to laboratory trials. In 2012. EPRI research will take the successes gained in the laboratory into the field for further pilot trials on members' transformers.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio Future Year Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type Novel Sensors for Transformer Diagnosis .Program 37 p. as well as operating practices to ensure safe. Application of novel online filtration materials and techniques: New research has demonstrated the possibility for online filtration of oxygen and moisture without the need for cartridge replacements. the workto-date will be published to allow members to use the materials as they are produced.

Integrated Substations . 2011 Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type New tracer compounds to estimate transformer life on-line: In this deliverable. New materials and technologies to extend transformer life: Pilot trials: Under this deliverable EPRI will present pilot field trial research results on online filtration of oxygen and moisture without the need for cartridge replacements. and maintenance and risk mitigation actions. equipment assessment. The results are shared with the broader membership.field trials: In this deliverable. 12/31/11 Technical Update Technical Update 12/31/11 12/31/11 Technical Update Future Year Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type New tracer compounds to estimate transformer life on-line . This in turn drives the required sensor. Forensics Library results will be made available in an easily searchable format that will enable members to rapidly focus on the forensic studies that directly relate to their particular situations. EPRI Forensics Library of aged transformers: In the deliverable EPRI will issue the latest library update providing members with new insights into likely end-of-life scenarios for the increasing population of aging transformers. EPRI will present the field trial results on new markers in the oil that hold the potential for large improvements in the accuracy of paper life estimates. The results will present both laboratory and field trial findings. Research develops methodologies and tools to address the need for an optimized maintenance strategy. In the case of the online filtration research. inspection. Risk Mitigation and Maintenance Strategies for Substation Equipment. It starts with asset performance and risk requirements. data collection. New materials and filtration technologies to extend transformer life: laboratory studies and early field experiences: Under this deliverable EPRI will present research to demonstrate the possibility for online filtration of oxygen and moisture without the need for cartridge replacements. It establishes best-of-breed practices and then applies those practices to specific equipment. EPRI will present the research on new markers in the oil that hold the potential for large improvements in the accuracy of paper life estimates.Program 37 p. 6 . EPRI is demonstrating the results through pilots in member substations. current practices. Extension of the Forensics Library of aged transformers: In the deliverable EPRI will issue the 2012 library update providing members with new insights into likely end-of-life scenarios for the increasing population of aging transformers. and techniques. equipment models.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio How to Apply Results Research results have been structured to allow for ready application by members. Efforts are organized in the following project areas: Life Extension. Technical Update Technical Update Technical Update PS37B Improve Overall Substation Maintenance Management (056065) Project Set Description This project set addresses substation maintenance from a holistic perspective. Maintenance and Condition Assessment Guidelines for Substation Equipment. and the feedback is being incorporated into refined approaches.

Industry Equipment Performance Database. or those reassigned to different job functions. In this environment.Program 37 p. and Balance of Substation— Inspection. an organization's success partly depends on the availability and usability of up-to-date knowledge. Substations . 7 .003 Maintenance. and best-of-breed or recommended practices for substation equipment maintenance. condition assessment. and equipment diagnostics  Organizing a self-learning repository for new hires and employees in transition  Ensuring that the material contains the most current practice and standards. procedures.005 P37. Cost-effectively developing a user-friendly. condition assessment. and lifeextension activities for substation equipment. Condition Assessment and Life Extension Guidelines for Substation Equipment (062155) Key Research Question Utility companies need to obtain maximum value from their assets—both current performance and future service life—while fully utilizing dwindling technical staff and limited financial resources. This project builds and maintains a unique. Time-constrained maintenance personnel and asset managers need to quickly locate and access the know-how and procedures stored in the industry's collective memory. Condition Assessment and Life Extension Guidelines for Substation Equipment Risk Mitigation and Maintenance Strategies for Substation Equipment Integrated Monitoring and Diagnostics Provide practical reference material for integrated and consistent best-practice actions for maintenance. allowing for confident decision making on potential substation applications. Project Number Project Title Description P37. Balance-of-substation inspection. This project provides immediate and comprehensive knowledge of substation sensors and fast tracks examination of new sensors from other industries in the EPRI Sensor Laboratory. New engineers. Assessment and Maintenance Strategies P37.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio Monitoring and Diagnostics.007 Balance of Substation – Inspection. The overall strategy seeks to develop an integrated set of tools that can operate on companywide near-real-time and historical data to support continuous risk and performance assessment. maintenance.003 Maintenance. easily updatable reference source requires addressing the following needs:  Capturing key knowledge that utilities would loose as a result of an aging workforce  Capturing the industry’s best practices in inspection. data. Much valuable information is subject to loss upon the retirement or departure of experienced personnel. independent repository and analysis tools to collect and analyze equipment performance data to provide information that supports maintenance and asset management decisions. monitoring. Assessment and Maintenance Strategies. and life extension. face a steep learning curve in developing and implementing a substation equipment maintenance and asset management program.004 P37. Analytics for Substations Asset Performance: Development of data models and analytics which combine condition information with fundamental understanding of the equipment to provide decision support for improved performance and risk management.006 Industry-wide Equipment Performance Database P37. P37. assessment and maintenance strategies.

The revised and updated versions of the lifeextension guidelines can be accessed as annually issued hard copy "color book" versions. or refine an existing one. and corrective maintenance. New sections on equipment and technologies will be added as appropriate. or life-extension program. field tests. How to Apply Results Asset managers. This guide helps members initiate a new maintenance. operations and maintenance supervisors and staff. The reference guide develops practical reference sources for:    Substation operations and maintenance personnel. 2011 tasks will develop a field guide for visual inspection of substation equipment. a utility user group facilitates ongoing content review. Another task in this project focuses on enhancing the usability and accessibility of technical content. including condition assessment. To ensure that the reference guide contains latest technical developments and addresses relevant needs. The technology will be transferred to funding members through a workshop or web seminars. Knowledge Retention/Training: Provide a centralized knowledge repository to serve as an on-the-job training tool for new recruits to help them accelerate their learning in the area of substation equipment maintenance. This is accomplished through technology transfer by developing field guides. and also as a series of field guides developed as a result of needs assessment. and electronic media. Based on priorities assigned by utility advisors. 8 . condition. In addition. maintenance. including task selection and resource allocation Engineers in transition. including equipment behavior and understanding techniques Provide inputs to utility job aid and training program development. EPRI will continue to offer technology transfer services to help utilities implement the practices identified in the technical reports. and experts on equipment technical subjects can use the results of this project to better understand and implement best practices in substation equipment life extension. 12/31/11 Technical Update 12/31/11 Technical Resource Substations . Knowledge Retention/Application: Offer a user-friendly and regularly updated reference support tool to help asset and maintenance personnel carry out their work in the most cost-effective and efficient manner. workshop seminars. Existing technical content is reviewed annually and updated to reflect advancements. updating. Impact Improve Reliability and Reduce Applied O&M: Provide a readily accessible source of information that can contribute to reduced life-cycle costs while enabling improvement in the reliability of critical equipment and help optimize a maintenance program. 2011 Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type New Versions of Guidelines for the Life Extension of Substation Equipment: This guide is specifically designed to assist substation owners with their responsibility to operate and maintain equipment. and condition assessment.Program 37 p.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio Approach This project develops an industry reference guide that will gather and distill information on practical aspects of equipment life extension. Learning Modules through Workshop or Webinars: Self-paced learning modules will be developed around either maintenance or condition-assessment methodologies or technologies. and expansion.

providing the ability to:  Ensure optimal allocation of limited resources and selection of the most appropriate O&M tasks. Approach This project conducts research with the goal of providing continually improved decision-support methodologies for substation equipment asset managers.004 Risk Mitigation and Maintenance Strategies for Substation Equipment (058560) Key Research Question Best practice maintenance decisions for minimizing equipment life-cycle costs are based upon risks associated with actual equipment condition and performance. 12/31/12 Technical Update 12/31/12 Technical Resource P37.  Forecast reliability. Collectively. The guides also serve as an important training aid. mitigation and performance improvement: Analytics for Substation Asset Performance. or refine an existing one. There are four key steps involved: understanding existing performance. Future Learning Modules through Workshop or Webinars: Learning modules will continue to be developed around either maintenance or conditionassessment methodologies or technologies. and understanding how to bridge gaps. projecting future performance. It is envisioned that the development will lead to an integrated framework for asset risk assessment.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type New Pictorial Guide: This field guide will present selected material from life extension guidelines in formats suitable for field personnel. maintenance. condition assessment. and life extension programs. The technology will be transferred to funders through a workshop or web seminars. manage the risk of deferring maintenance. Ongoing R&D efforts are focused on developing condition assessment algorithms to understand existing performance and project future performance for transformers and circuit breakers. 9 . This research will enhance decision making confidence and results. or replacement. Substations . New sections on equipment and technologies will be added.  Quantify the value of performance improvements resulting from investments made in equipment monitoring. condition.Program 37 p. Many members are distributing these guides to field personnel. This guide helps members initiate a new maintenance. 12/31/11 Technical Update Future Year Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type New Versions of Guidelines for the Life Extension of Substation Equipment: This guide is specifically designed to assist substation owners with their responsibility to operate and maintain equipment. the suite of algorithms serves as the framework for Analytics for Substation Asset Performance.  Evaluate risk moving forward (compared to “current state” evaluation) and determine the impact of incremental dollars added or subtracted from the “current state” maintenance and investment portfolio. and identify assets that deserve more attention in relation to others in a fleet. and they are becoming an integral component of their maintenance. understanding required performance. or life-extension program.

adds new results. 4. Spares strategy. Spares strategy. Link risk assessments with decision support for mitigation. Impact    Reduces overall maintenance costs. Identify needs for condition monitoring. Funders can also use products to test and validate end-of-life models being pursued in other equipment-focused projects. refurbish. Substations . 6. The resulting development provides a holistic method which is documented in a reference guide. Substation equipment asset managers can use this method for improved decision support in several key areas . case studies and findings as the development progresses.repair. 12/31/11 Technical Update The 2011 technical update documents advances in methodology development.for example: 1. 2011 Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type Equipment Risk and Performance Assessment .repair. 9. forecasts O&M cash flow.for example. Data requirements and availability. 8. replace. Define data requirements and availability. Identify needs for condition monitoring. 4. Understand emergent issues in the equipment fleet. 2.evaluate risk moving forward (compared to "current state" assessment). 10 . 1. The following aspects of methodology development will be addressed: 5. Develop methods using readily available data to assess equipment performance based on current condition 3. key performance indicators (KPIs). and 5.Program 37 p. Develop tools to track and gauge the effectiveness of risk mitigation and maintenance strategy changes. 3. Improves reliability and availability via reduced reliance on time-based maintenance by using analytics based on asset health and condition analysis to determine maintenance actions. Maintenance strategy development . 7. and maximizes the benefit and value of planned work. How to Apply Results Project participants will work with a group of equipment and maintenance experts to collect pertinent data that helps define performance metrics and models for relevant equipment. minimizes unplanned expenses.2011 Update: This project will develop a reference guide for Substation Equipment Asset Managers.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio To realize the envisioned. The purpose of this guide is to provide a holistic approach that can be used by Substation Equipment Asset Managers in risk based decision support in several key areas . replace. research is executed through the following tasks. Maintenance strategy development . Understand emergent issues in the equipment fleet. 2. Funders can then use developed algorithms. refurbish. Enables more effective use of existing infrastructure and data as well as efficient use of maintenance personnel to manage operational risk. Develop tools for risk assessment . and ranking methodologies in close coordination with other equipment-focused projects.

through task force feedback and needs assessment. and identify gaps and issues with existing practices. Over time. maintenance strategies.evaluate risk moving forward (compared to "current state" assessment). It will also provide methodologies for evaluating risk-mitigation measures to help select appropriate actions to achieve a desired cost and reliability. Ongoing efforts focus on key substation equipment: transformers and circuit breakers. and Tracking and gauging the effectiveness of risk mitigation and maintenance strategy changes. and identify gaps and issues with existing practices. 9.2011 Update: This product will develop and conduct surveys to catalogue and assess current industry practices and procedures. this product relies heavily on analysis and case study results of supplemental efforts for the development and testing of the methodology. Linking risk assessments with decision support for mitigation. 12/31/12 Technical Update 12/31/12 Technical Update Substations . 12/31/11 Technical Update 12/31/11 Technical Resource Future Year Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type Equipment Risk and Performance Assessment: This product will provide methodologies to help project future performance based on current condition and required future performance. Using readily available data to assess equipment performance based on current condition Risk Assessment Tools . as well as other performance goals. application examples. Ongoing efforts focus on key substation equipment: transformers and circuit breakers. other substation equipment areas will be identified and added. including lessons learned by utility experts. including lessons learned by utility experts. this work will support intelligent fleet management. Collectively. Based on current funding levels. Collectively. through task force feedback and needs assessment. Risk Mitigation & Maintenance Strategies Workshop: The workshop transfers research results and provides training on their application. other substation equipment areas will be identified and added.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type 6. Topics include but are not limited to risk assessment methodologies. 7. Catalogue and Assessment of Industry Maintenance Best Practices for Substation Equipment . 11 .Program 37 p. and case studies. 8. Over time. this work will support intelligent fleet management. Catalogue and Assessment of Industry Maintenance Best Practices for Substation Equipment: This product will catalogue and assess current industry practices and procedures.

guiding themes:  Sensor awareness across multiple industries: Any utility attempting to effectively apply sensors in a substation is faced with the enormous hurdle of first accurately quantifying the entire range of sensors available and then determining how those sensors relate to the substation applications. Fast-track examination of new sensors from other industries in the EPRI Sensor Laboratory. How to Apply Results Members can apply the results through data-mining of the industry-wide sensor database. Cross-industry sensor research and testing: Substation diagnostics can benefit significantly from sensor developments in other industries (e. Diagnostics and sensors play a strong role. while collaborative research on the issues will allow for cost-effective and rapid decisions though laboratory simulations that closely mirror conditions in the field. EPRI expertise in both the sensor and substation realm have enabled the development of a unique database that allows members to rapidly comprehend the full spectrum of options available and make efficient implementation decisions.  Impact    Immediate and comprehensive knowledge of substation sensors. Results will enable the utility industry to effectively gain knowledge from other industries. allowing for confident decision making on potential substation applications. provides a unique test-bed to rapidly evaluate the potential benefits offered by these new sensors. 12 . EPRI's sensor laboratory. automotive. Approach Research in this project is built on two broad. Business case development for substation diagnostics. Results can support the development of effective business cases for substation diagnostics. partnered with its substation experts. 2011 Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type Evaluation of sensor developments from multiple industries 2011 Substation Sensor Database 12/31/11 12/31/11 Technical Update Software Substations . defense.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio P37. which is designed to closely simulate the field environment. space. currently available and under development.. This project provides the supporting industry data and research results to make these important decisions. Informed decision making on the array of sensors available—plus the true value they can provide in a substation—are difficult to quantify. medical). EPRI is publishing this database in 2010 and will then update it on a regular basis.g. based on the supporting facts and field experience provided though this project.Program 37 p. Members can further validate their business decisions through the laboratory research results in the EPRI Sensor laboratory.005 Integrated Monitoring and Diagnostics (058561) Key Research Question Utilities are continuously seeking to improve their cost-benefit ratios by reducing human intervention in equipment condition monitoring.

Tap changers and other substation equipment will be included in future years.006 Industry-wide Equipment Performance Database (060471) Key Research Question Power delivery companies can maximize their return on assets by ensuring that existing equipment is not replaced before it reaches the end of its useful life. 2. The circuit breaker database is under development. Through supplemental project participation. Provides members with aggregated data and information resources not currently available to individual companies. Enables the development of other meaningful asset management and equipment performance metrics. Companies can benefit from an easily accessible repository of industry-wide equipment performance and failure data to more accurately project future performance. Developing data models and software applications for analysis. participants can assess equipment risks and implement risk-informed maintenance and asset management decisions based on industry-wide equipment performance and failure data. How to Apply Results Using project results. this task can be difficult. Substations . Enable identification of “bad actors” early.  Associated supplemental projects may be launched to populate the Industry-wide Equipment Performance Database (IDB) with historical data and develop company-specific applications. while still maintaining reliable system operations. The transformer data collection analysis started in 2006. These are developed and presented to task force advisors for comment and further refinement. reducing unplanned outages. Approach This project addresses research needs by:  Collecting equipment performance and failure data from several utilities to develop an industry-wide database.000 transformers. 13 . However. members get customized deliverables that articulate their own fleet performance and provide individual utility failure rates and asset management metrics. Enables statistically valid analysis to determine equipment failure rates and identify "bad actors" early. 4. without historical performance data of assets with similar characteristics.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio P37. This database: 1. 3.Program 37 p. Provides members with information that is critical in developing repair/replace/refurbish strategies for aging substation equipment fleets. Achieve savings by using consistent data sharing and analyses based on industry standards. and now contains records on more than 15. Impact    Improve management of existing infrastructure using pooled performance and condition-related data from all participating utilities.

and application requirements. Lessons learned are captured as part of the annually updated and released product.000 transformers. and other substation equipment. diagnostic. suitability of analysis techniques. 12/31/11 Assembled Package 12/31/11 Assembled Package 12/31/11 Technical Update Future Year Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type New Versions: Equipment Performance and Failure Database – Analysis: This product compiles and analyzes the characteristics of the IDB data sets. and application requirements. In 2011. and other substation equipment are included in this product’s multi-year strategy. and failure data for use in industry and utility database applications and performance analysis. The results can also be used in combination with the Equipment Performance Database and Intelligent Fleet Management methodology to manage reliability and extend life. Ongoing research focuses on transformers. 2011 Update: Equipment Performance and Failure Database – Data Subsets: This product develops and tests data models for efficient and effective collection of test.000 transformers. and other substation equipment. circuit breakers. 14 . tap changers. circuit breakers. Data model developments are updated annually. and failure data for use in industry and utility database application and performance analysis. The circuit breaker database is under development. 2011 Update: Guidelines for failure investigation and root cause analysis: This technical update will provide guidance on performing failure mode and effect analysis. The circuit breaker database is under development. Tap changers and other substation equipment will be added in future years. Future years' research will develop and add information on data models for tap changers. New Versions: Equipment Performance and Failure Database – Data Subsets: This product will develop and test data models for efficient and effective collection of test. and now contains records on more than 12. suitability of analysis techniques. Future years' research will develop and add information on data models for tap changers. diagnostic.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio 2011 Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type 2011 Update: Equipment Performance and Failure Database – Analysis: This product compiles and analyzes the characteristics of the IDB data sets. circuit breakers. tap changers. Ongoing research focuses on transformers. The definition of these requirements evolves over time with experience accumulated by working with new data sets as they become available. which will eventually include performance and failure data for transformers. The transformer data collection and analysis started in 2006. and other substation equipment. data subsets will be released as a function of the characteristics of data collected. Lessons learned are captured as part of the annually updated and released product.Program 37 p. tap changers. The transformer data collection and analysis started in 2006 and now contains records on more 12. 12/31/12 Assembled Package 12/31/12 Assembled Package Substations . data subsets will be released as a function of the characteristics of data collected. performance. which will eventually include performance and failure data on transformers. Data model developments are updated annually. In future years. and other substation equipment. The definition of these requirements evolves over time with experience accumulated by working with new data sets as they become available. Tap changers and other substation equipment will be added in future years. circuit breakers. circuit breakers. Transformers. performance.

 Identify triggers and thresholds for initiating appropriate maintenance and condition assessment tasks. How to Apply Results Using project results. One example is the impact of contamination on insulator performance. and current industry inspection and assessment practices. Availability of new technology. In addition. minimizes unplanned expenses.  Develops a better understanding of associated fundamental issues such as design. this project will adapt this work so that it can be applied in Substations. and degradation modes. and life of substation equipment requires timely and effective maintenance based on accurate inspection and knowledge of equipment condition.  Assists with the development of fleet management methodologies. maintenance.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio P37. Substations . Assessment and Maintenance Strategies (065593) Key Research Question Increasing the reliability. Develops specific guidance for balance-of-substation equipment: disconnect switches (manual and motor operated). Results will facilitate knowledge retention and aid in training personnel. 15 .  Better understanding of failure modes and degradation mechanisms:  Provides ability to use such information to develop operation. safety. heightens the challenge facing substation owners.Program 37 p. and maximizes the benefit and value of planned work. and ground switches. participants can detect equipment risks early and implement risk-informed maintenance and asset management decisions based on industry-wide best practices and the most advanced techniques. In 2011. To address these issues.  Impact    Reduces overall maintenance costs. field personnel need field tools and training to ensure that correct and consistent decisions are made. Approach Balance of Substation includes all components and assets in the Substation other than Transformers and Circuit Breakers. For each of these equipment types. ongoing research.  Identify needs for additional condition monitoring and  Improve specification and procurement practices. personnel need to understand the balance of substation equipment. vintage and type issues. CTs. failure mechanisms. VTs. coupled with a loss of institutional knowledge. their degradation and failure modes. this project does the following:   Builds on 2010 research and maintains a "living" needs assessment and R&D roadmap to identify and address outstanding issues for balance-of-substation equipment. projects O&M cash flow. and diagnostic techniques for the associated equipment. Improves reliability and availability via reduced reliance on time-based maintenance by using asset health and condition analysis to determine maintenance actions. With a reasonable effort to enhance and fine-tune. capacitor banks. To achieve these objectives. Engineering and maintenance staffs need to remain abreast of the latest inspection developments and assessment techniques to be able to select the appropriate course for their particular circumstances. Enables more effective use of existing infrastructure and data and efficient use of maintenance personnel to manage operational risk.007 Balance of Substation – Inspection. applicable research in other equipment areas can be adapted and applied to ongoing R&D in the Balance of Substation project.

maintenance.  Develops a better understanding of associated fundamental issues such as design. failure mechanisms. and degradation mode. 12/31/11 Technical Update The 2011 research will continue 2010 efforts on disconnect switches.  Identifies triggers and thresholds for initiating appropriate maintenance and condition assessment tasks. This report explores the impact of contaminated environment on insulator performance and provides guidance on managing the performance of insulators in contaminated environment.  Better understanding of failure modes and degradation mechanisms:  Provides ability to use such information to develop operation. For each of these equipment types. the research task.  Assists with the development of fleet management methodologies. CTs. and diagnostic techniques for the associated equipment. 12/31/12 Technical Update Substations . 12/31/11 Technical Update Future Year Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type Balance of Substation – Equipment Specific Condition Assessment and Life Extension Techniques: This technical update will develop specific guidance for balance-of-substation equipment: disconnect switches (manual and motor operated). Information provided in this product will continue to build on the previous year's research. 16 . vintage and type issues. VTs.  For each of these equipment types.  Identifies needs for additional condition monitoring and  Improve specification and procurement practices. capacitor banks. VTs. Information provided in this product will continue to build on the previous year's research.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio 2011 Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type Balance of Substation – Equipment Specific Condition Assessment and Life Extension Techniques: This technical update will develop specific guidance for balance-of-substation equipment: disconnect switches (manual and motor operated). If funds permit. CTs. other equipment for balance-of-substation will be addressed using a similar approach. Members will also gain the ability to use this information to develop operation. vintage and type issues. The impact of contaminated environment on insulator performance: Insulators in substations are subject to a variety of harsh environmental conditions and often operate in contaminated environments. failure mechanisms. Specific equipment areas will be addressed through a prioritized list of equipment developed working with the Task Force. and degradation modes.Program 37 p. and diagnostic techniques for the associated equipment. maintenance. and ground switches. and ground switches. capacitor banks. participants will gain better understanding of associated fundamental issues such as design.

and guidelines. reduce maintenance and operating costs of SF6 equipment. P37. including practical demonstrations. guide members on the use of the other tools provided within this project and share all the latest research results and industry developments with the members. The up-to-date utility best practices.. tools. reduce environmental impacts. safety. and protect investments in SF6-insulated equipment. EPRI has unique collaborative access to multiple member practices and the Electronic Resource distills the best practices. including chairing working groups and developing guides that allow the results to enter daily utility practices. SF6 Handling and SF6 and the environment. this project’s research contributes important input to national and international standards bodies. Impact   Reduces costly SF6 emissions and the amount of labor needed to perform regular top-ups of leaking equipment. The Electronic Resource also provides structured Computer Based Training . Project Number Project Title Description P37.008 SF6 Environmental Management and Equipment Performance (052021) Key Research Question Sulfur hexafluoride is a powerful greenhouse gas with a 100-year global warming potential (GWP) of 23. energy companies need focused solutions to meet these challenges. destruction.Program 37 p. training. Utilities face increasing pressures in the areas of SF6 emissions. This resource provides member access to the following material:    The latest research results.to allow members to learn about SF6 and how to put the research results and Best practices into action. it is 23.008 SF6 Environmental Management and Equipment Performance This project helps members address SF6 issues by helping them improve equipment performance and safety. Approach Three broad themes guide this project's research:    Reducing the impact of SF6 on the environment Capturing and sharing SF6 knowledge Improving the performance of SF6-insulated equipment. It will provide tools to extend and estimate equipment life. Additionally. Mitigates risks of potential heath hazards via safe handling techniques. EPRI SF6 workshops rapidly transfer practical knowledge to participants. This project has a unique delivery mechanism in the form of an SF6 Electronic Resource. manage SF6 environmentally. SF6 analysis. In addition.900 times more powerful than carbon dioxide). Finally.900 (i. As pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions grows and cost pressures continue to escalate.e. and capture and share SF6 knowledge. Substations .Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio PS37C SF6 Environmental Management (056066) Project Set Description This project set focuses on significantly improving the performance of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)-insulated equipment. leak detection. and SF6 analysis. work will focus on accurately tracking the development of SF6 replacements and SF6 policy issues to provide appropriate and timely guidance on the future of SF6. 17 . Each year EPRI conducts research to address emerging issues presents the research results in the areas of SF6 safety.

How to Apply Results The results are designed for easy and rapid application.allowing members to access critical information while in the field SF6 Electronic Resource .A field companion for the computer-based materials: In this deliverable.plus an electronic version of the SF6 Field Guide and finally structured Computer Based Training Technical Update Software PS37E Switching Safety and Reliability (056068) Project Set Description This project set seeks to significantly improve overall safety in substations. sharing lessons learned. SF6 analysis. 12/31/11 Software Future Year Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type SF6 Field Guide .Research and Applications results: This electronic resource presents the research results (on SF6 safety. and keeping abreast of the latest accepted practices. Participating members have found EPRI annual conferences on power switching safety and reliability to be a very effective tool for exchanging experiences. Project Number Project Title Description P37. Members will have ready access to the CD-based SF6 training tools. enhance worker and public safety.011 Switching Safety and Reliability This project aims to develop controls and procedures that prevent errors in power switching. Enables members to stay abreast of evolving political and legislative developments. The field guide is designed as a laminated pocket guide. 2011 Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type SF6 Electronic Resource . and improve power delivery reliability.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio    Minimizes environmental emissions of SF6. SF6 Handling and SF6 and the environment) plus the utility best practices . enabling field staff to rapidly verify critical information onsite. Substations .plus an electronic version of the SF6 Field Guide and finally structured Computer Based Training.Program 37 p. with the only requirement being a PC and a printer. Explores alternatives to SF6. Workshop attendance enables personnel to receive hands-on training to facilitate streamlined application of the information in the field. SF6 analysis. 18 .Research and Applications results: This electronic resource presents the research results (on SF6 safety. SF6 Handling and SF6 and the environment) plus the utility best practices . EPRI will issue the 2012 update to the pocket laminated field guide to compliment the CD-based training .

 Developing recommendations for certification of switching personnel. improving worker safety. Impact      Increase reliability and safety while reducing errors through best practices and guidelines for transmission and distribution switching.  Monitoring new industry trends and developments—such as the use of high-temperature conductors. and help identify weaknesses and vulnerabilities within procedures being used. and personnel who perform switching operation must be safeguarded as they carry out their responsibilities. supervisors.Program 37 p. as well as developing guidelines and training materials to meet the associated challenges.  Discovering weak links in switching processes. and operations personnel to exchange information about switching policies and procedures that contribute to improved safety and reliability. which provides an opportunity for managers. Enable an open exchange of information on incidents and findings among participants via the Annual EPRI Switching Safety and Reliability Conference. Substations . The conference is open to all interested parties. It also sponsors a very successful and unique Annual EPRI Switching Safety and Reliability Conference to transfer research results to the utility industry. Using experts knowledgeable about the details of switching. Promote sharing of lessons learned among peers. The project also sponsors the Annual EPRI Switching Safety and Reliability Conference. Switching errors must be prevented because they can create unexpected power interruptions to customers and hazardous situations for utility personnel. Specific goals for 2011 include:  Providing an annual update on lessons learned from incidents. dynamic thermal circuit rating (DTCR). improving power quality. How to Apply Results Reports produced by this project serve as industry benchmarks that members can use to gauge their own performance. the project analyzes data and procedures to highlight areas that might be improved and to identify industry best practices. Although some utilities have achieved very low error rates.  Identifying safe switching work procedures in substations that improve system integrity and worker safety. others can benefit from further improvements. 19 . Approach This project conducts research with the goal of reducing switching errors. personnel who prepare switching orders must be properly trained to prevent switching errors and avoid errorlikely situations.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio P37.  Developing multimedia-based training materials. and defining remedial and preventive strategies  Sharing lessons learned. and increased use of work on energized lines—and assessing their impact on switching. To meet this challenge. Reduce worker productivity losses via implementation of appropriate switching procedures that include effective safety elements. Studies of industry best practices provide guidance for improvements and development of errorinsensitive procedures. Identify and develop best practices and new methods via comparisons of current practices.  Continuing the development of the SS&R Reference Book.011 Switching Safety and Reliability (052029) Key Research Question Safety and reliability of the power grid are at the top of every utility’s list of concerns. including near misses. reducing unscheduled outages. and enhancing operating efficiency and compliance with regulatory changes.

switching operations. supervisors. lessons learned. and operations personnel to exchange information about switching policies and procedures that contribute to improved safety and reliability. Database of incidents and near-misses in switching: This is an ongoing project that collects information and reports on incidents and near misses in power switching. Reports evaluate procedures for establishing error-preventing barriers. 12/31/11 Workshop. and training manual. A reporting template developed in 2008 and updated in 2009 is used to gather the essential information. The searchable database will be populated annually with new information. address situation awareness and human performance issues. The reporting template is available from the EPRI project manager upon request. switchmen and technicians. 20 . It will remain a continuing part of the project. and other developments—introduce new challenges that demand a detailed assessment of such factors on issues such as control room procedures. and will derive lessons learned with the goal of identifying situations and indicators of impending errors in power switching. qualification of operators. the annual conference has proven to be a great success and attracts more than 150 participants annually. which will include a procedures guide. The book will join the EPRI Color Book series. distributed and non-traditional power sources. provide examples of errors and near misses. derive lessons learned. audits. DTCR. Identifying error-likely situations in power switching: This project will continue to analyze known incidents and near misses. This information will be used to devise means of preventing the occurrence of such dangerous situations and in training personnel dealing with power switching. and training materials. This project will continue the consolidation of the various elements from previous reports into a comprehensive Switching Safety and Reliability Reference Book. Training. and will be reviewed every few years as new materials become available. increasing fault currents. or Conference 12/31/11 Technical Update 12/31/11 Technical Update 12/31/11 Technical Update 12/31/11 Technical Update 12/31/11 Technical Update Substations . and contain training materials. This product will identify the challenges and lay groundwork for future research to develop appropriate responses. Impact of changing grids on switching safety and reliability: Changing grid characteristics—including the use of high-temperature conductors. widespread use of sophisticated multifunctional electronic relays.Program 37 p. Switching Safety and Reliability Reference Book: The EPRI Power Switching Safety and Reliability project has produced more than 35 valuable reports on this subject matter over the past 15 tears. The conference addresses issues ranging from detailed switching procedures and associated software (through programs for training. Recommendations for Certification of Control Room Operators: This project will address the feasibility of industry-wide certification of switching personnel and develop effective ways of implementing such certification.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio 2011 Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type Annual conference on switching safety and reliability: The conference is an opportunity for managers. and for dealing with errors and responsible individuals. and incident investigation) to management strategies and policies for developing error-immune procedures. First offered in 1997.

Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio Future Year Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type Database of incidents and near-misses in switching: This is an ongoing project that collects information and reports on incidents and near misses in power switching. This product will identify the challenges and lay groundwork for future research to develop appropriate responses. and define training needs for operators and technicians. which is expected to take advantage of collaboration with other EPRI programs (for example. Human Operational Errors Involving Control. Program 39 Grid Operations). switching operations. switchmen and technicians. will seek feedback from control room operators regarding the proposed enhancements. reduced failures. Research under this project set provides utilities with better capabilities in managing these critical assets in the areas of investment decision making. and auxiliary equipment. reduced maintenance costs.Impact on switching: Implementation of Distribution Management Systems (DMS) is expected to have a significant impact on power switching safety and reliability. This product. safer operating practices. DTCR. and other developments—introduce new challenges that demand a detailed assessment of such factors on issues such as control room procedures. summarize results of the survey. Relay. circuit breakers represent the most critical substation investment for utilities. Impact of changing grids on switching safety and reliability: Changing grid characteristics—including the use of high-temperature conductors. distributed and non-traditional power sources. qualification of operators. Human-Machine Interface issues in power switching: This project will conduct a survey of utility experiences with human machine interface/digital control system devices. and will identify ways of introducing the changes that are compatible with operators' needs. increased reliability. an EPRI report (1013596) described the findings of research related to human operational errors involving new smart control. layout. That report identified error modes and training needs for technicians servicing such equipment. The searchable database will be populated annually with new information. This product will identify the challenges and lay groundwork for future research to develop appropriate responses. A reporting template developed in 2008 and updated in 2009 is used to gather the essential information. widespread use of sophisticated multifunctional electronic relays. 12/31/12 Technical Update 12/31/12 Technical Update 12/31/13 Technical Update 12/31/13 Technical Update 12/31/13 Technical Update 12/31/13 Technical Update PS37F Circuit Breaker Life Management (058485) Project Set Description Second only to transformers. Substations . identify issues and best practices. The reporting template is available from the EPRI project manager upon request. and Auxiliary Equipment: Several years ago. increasing fault currents. 21 . and by developing training materials. Situation Awareness in the control room: A recent review of control room design. and color schemes (EPRI report 1015990) suggested changes to improve visualization and facilitate greater situation awareness for operators. and training materials. DMS (Distribution Management System) . and extended component life. relay. and their use involves associated maintenance and operation responsibilities.Program 37 p. This new product will build on previous work by defining appropriate barriers to prevent errors.

Despite the importance of these issues.013 Using Relays and Metering Data for Circuit Breaker Diagnostics P37. When developed. Project Number Project Title Description P37. Microprocessor protective relays already installed for fault protection are connected to signals from circuit breakers. The second considers opportunities presented by advances in metering and protection equipment to provide additional circuit breaker monitoring and diagnostic functions. compressors. Substations .012 Circuit Breakers Condition Assessment and Life Extension This project assesses the life-cycle performance of power circuit breakers which is.. mechanisms and lubricants. The first focuses on circuit breaker condition assessment and life extension. control valves. O-rings. determined by the performance of constituent materials and components such as pumps.012 Circuit Breakers Condition Assessment and Life Extension (058562) Key Research Question The life-cycle performance of power circuit breakers is. Approach To address these needs. while the rate of deterioration of lubricants and seals is. abnormal mechanism wear.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio This project set contains two projects. these diagnostic tools will also support performance information gathering for breaker population asset management. to a large degree. relays and controls:  Collect and analyze field-aged samples of circuit breaker components to determine degradation and effective life  Catalogue examples or samples of utility lubrication-related problems or parts failures  Define and quantify HVCB lubrication technical issues  Characterize possible consequences on breaker performance of degraded components and lubricants (e. control valves. The relays include ac measurements and programmable logic that can be configured to detect operating or timing problems. and working with utility participants on the practical challenges of deployment across fleets of relays and breakers.g. linkages and interrupter) is not time dependent. Some deterioration (e. Together. P37. compressors. utilities have little quantifiable data or a complete understanding of breaker material and subsystem performance to enable cost-effective methods for instituting condition-based maintenance or selecting work practices and tasks. this project will undertake the following: Characterization of aging circuit breaker components such as pumps. and can monitor the operation of breakers in normal service. seals. seals. developing the breaker and system programming. gaskets.. relays and controls. gaskets. and flag breakers for maintenance attention before a breaker failure. these elements drive the requirements for maintenance and refurbishment. mechanisms and lubricants. to a large degree. 22 . The project also catalogues and develops maintenance practices to address aging circuit breaker components.g. O-rings. Project investigators are cataloging specific breaker problems and detection methods. slow trip.Program 37 p. determined by the performance of constituent materials and components. compressor/pump failures).

and examples of the application of the project’s results. pneumatic and hydraulic systems. Increase reliability through improved circuit breaker operations as a result of enhanced maintenance effectiveness and better condition assessment. 23 . and report test results  Catalogue examples or samples of utility lubrication-related problems or parts failures  Define and quantify HVCB lubrication technical issues  Characterize the possible consequences on breaker performance of degraded components and lubricants (e. control relays.. 12/31/11 Technical Update 12/31/11 Technical Update 12/31/11 Technical Resource Substations . O-rings. How to Apply Results Project funders can use project results to implement more effective circuit breaker maintenance programs. HVCB Life Management Workshop: An annual workshop that will include tutorials on the material contained in the project's products.Program 37 p. mechanisms and lubricants. slow trip. compressors. Combine knowledge gained about circuit breaker and disconnect-switch lubrication to develop:    A quantitative understanding of aging and deterioration rates Expected life of circuit breaker component materials and subsystems Enhanced cost-effective methods for implementing a condition-based maintenance approach.Power circuit breaker component degradation assessment: New versions of pictorial field guides will use results from ongoing studies to characterize the aging of circuit breaker components and provide application-specific guidance in a pocket guide format for utility field staff. gaskets. control valves.g. abnormal mechanism wear. relays and controls. seals. Existing versions of two field guides—HVCB Lubrication and HVCB Pumps. and switches. presentations on utility experiences.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio Assessment of industry best practices:  Gather information about current practices for maintaining and lubricating power circuit breaker mechanisms and equipment such as compressors. Impact   Avoid capital investment for replacement breakers via more effective maintenance of existing assets. Compressors and Control Valves—will be updated with new material. compressor/pump failures). It will:  Provide guidelines to collect and analyze field-aged samples of circuit breaker components to determine degradation and effective life  Summarize testing methods and approaches. 2011 Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type 2011 Update: Report on power circuit breaker components and subsystem degradation modes: This product builds on research done in 2010 and adds new information to summarize the results of ongoing research into characterizing aging circuit breaker components such as pumps. New Versions of Pictorial Field Guides .

either raw or processed by relay programming.  Practical challenges in deploying relay program templates for breaker diagnosis.  How to process communicated relay data into maintenance work orders and asset management extracts.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio Future Year Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type 2011 Update: Report on power circuit breaker components and subsystem degradation modes: This product builds on research done in 2010 and adds new information to summarize the results of ongoing research into characterizing aging circuit breaker components such as pumps. 12/31/12 Technical Update P37.013 Using Relays and Metering Data for Circuit Breaker Diagnostics (060478) Key Research Question The widespread use of microprocessor-based protective relays has led to interest in better understanding a number of issues related to their possible application for circuit breaker condition monitoring and maintenance. and malfunctions with an understanding of the analytic capabilities of microprocessor relays already connected for protection tasks to develop a seamless approach to breaker diagnostics and maintenance. such as:  Practical benefits and limitations of programming relays for diagnosis and reporting.  Collecting results of relay-based maintenance programs. slow trip. and report back on test results  Catalogue examples and samples of utility lubrication-related problems or parts failures  Define and quantify HVCB lubrication technical issues  Characterize the possible consequences on breaker performance of degraded components and lubricants (e.  Commissioning installations. characteristics. compressor/pump failures).  Ability to communicate useful diagnostic data. mechanisms and lubricants. Approach The focus of this project is to combine knowledge of circuit breaker diagnostics. 24 . as well as accessing and using collected data and results. The proposed research program includes:  Deploying logic templates and breaker condition reporting tools to the field in relay fleets of participating utilities.  Analyzing initial results from the circuit breaker fleet and adjusting settings to distinguish reportable timing or performance issues of breakers. abnormal mechanism wear. seals. including feedback from utility field engineering and maintenance staff. Substations .  Helpfulness of relay data for discovering breaker malfunctions requiring maintenance.g. and integrating alarms and report gathering.. O-rings. relays and controls. and for gathering breaker population performance information for asset management. The practical breaker diagnostic tools comprise a combination of programming in relays and data gathering by communications with relays. gaskets. compressors. It will:  Provide guidelines to collect and analyze field-aged samples of circuit breaker components to determine degradation and effective life  Summarize testing methods and approaches. or alarming of circuit breaker condition. from typical transmission and delivery substations.Program 37 p. control valves.

Developing a knowledge base or field guide for circuit breaker diagnostics using relay data. Discussion of feedback and experience from utility field engineering and maintenance staff. With these tools. as developed for use at participating utilities. This effort's timing depends on the level of project support. Substations . which is not widely used today. 2011 Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type Field Experiences of using Relay Data for Circuit Breaker Diagnostics: The technical report will contain the following:       An overview of the relay logic development and deployment program. may offer:  Improved breaker reliability via repairs carried out before breaker failures. leading to easier and better field implementations at utilities. programmable microprocessor relays.  Advances in design features of relays for breaker diagnostics. and available results.Program 37 p. Analysis of field results from pilot installations on circuit breaker fleets. How to Apply Results Project members can directly use or adapt tools and logic templates documented in project results to create practical implementations of breaker problem diagnosis and reporting with their own microprocessor relays. Experiences with commissioning installations and report gathering. Relay logic templates and settings. 12/31/11 Technical Update Depending on support level and available results. for example. and recommends further steps with utilities and vendors.  Improved utilization of installed assets. and breaker condition reporting tools.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio   Creating a project report that documents available field experience and results.  Appropriate population maintenance program development. and integrating this capability with maintenance programs as proposed in this ongoing project. they can more efficiently and effectively maintain breaker fleets. Recommendations for further steps. including adjustment of logic and settings to distinguish reportable performance issues of breakers.  Support of a business case for replacing aging electromechanical relay populations with modern. implementation progress. 25 . with technical explanations and documentation. modern protective relays have an innate monitoring capability. Impact Using the programmability and breaker diagnostics in relays. future years' research products will include a knowledge base or field guide for circuit breaker diagnostics using relay data. utilizing the value of capital investment in relays already installed nearby. focusing field crew efforts on real problems and reducing unneeded maintenance.

Experiences with commissioning installations and report gathering. This project set provides resources and develops tools and technologies to address these issues. when commercially available. The Fault Current Management Guidebook (the Maroon Book) is updated annually to provide utility engineers with a central resource to address pertinent issues and to raise awareness of the most recent approaches and techniques. and there is a growing need to increase power flow through existing assets. will provide additional tools to manage increasing fault currents. 12/31/12 Technical Update Depending on support level and available results. with technical explanations and documentation. This project conducts research and develops guidelines and tools for designing and evaluating the performance of substation grounding grids. This project addresses fault current management in a systematic way by investigating issues such as the impacts of fault currents on substation equipment as well as identifying new techniques to mitigate fault currents. Finally. Relay logic templates. future years' research products will include a knowledge base or field guide for circuit breaker diagnostics using relay data. PS37I Fault Current Management and Substation Equipment Rating (069264) Project Set Description Fault current levels are increasing in substations. and refurbishing substation ground grids—which play an increasingly important role in protecting workers within the substation and the public outside the substation fence—and proper operation of substation equipment. and settings and breaker condition reporting tools. Discussion of feedback and experience from utility field engineering and maintenance staff. Maintenance.010 Solid-State Fault Current Limiter Development This research project focuses on developing solid-state fault current limiters for transmission and distribution applications. Analysis of field results from pilot installations on circuit breaker fleets. including adjustment of logic and settings to distinguish reportable performance issues of breakers. Guides and tools will also be developed to help utility engineers address both static and dynamic ratings of substation components. and Refurbishment Substations . The Ground Grid Evaluation project assists members in designing. evaluating.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio Future Year Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type Field Experiences of using Relay Data for Circuit Breaker Diagnostics: The technical report will contain the following:       An overview of the relay logic development and deployment program. Project Number Project Title Description P37.014 Fault Current Management Issues P37. Solid-state current limiters are being developed and. as developed for use at participating utilities. 26 . It will start with prototype developments and then move into field demonstrations by deploying the fault current limiters at utility sites.015 Ground Grid Evaluation. P37. This situation exerts greater stresses on substation equipment and poses new challenges for utilities.Program 37 p. Recommendations for further steps. the operating experience of the fault current limiters will be documented.

EPRI is collaborating with the U. custom power devices focus on distribution systems. multiple developmental projects—especially in the area of fault current limiters—were initiated in 2010 and will continue into 2011 and beyond. The 2008– 2010 work included an implementation plan for deploying advanced power electronics controllers in substations.018 Increased Power Flow Guidebook and Ratings of Substation Equipment Provide state-of-the-science reference and training materials for optimizing and increasing power flow through transmission circuits. EPRI is already collaborating with DOE to develop a 15-kilovolt (kV) distribution-class. 27 . and they must be limited to protect the existing infrastructure. The lessons learned from these collaborative projects will support fault current limiter development in 2011 and beyond.and distribution-class solid-state fault current limiters (SSFCLs). fault current levels are increasing. based on previous research and on detailed consultations with utility and vendor industry experts. Increasingly. Depending on the cost-benefit study. and in a scientifically justified manner. multi-megawatt solid-state power control systems are being implemented in critical industrial electrical installations.Program 37 p. In 2006. Additional efforts are underway to develop a three-phase 15-kV distribution-class solidstate current limiter in collaboration with DOE and California Energy Commission (CEC). single-phase. It will develop a technical roadmap for the widespread adoption of solid-state power electronic switching technology as an opportunity to meet the challenges of future power delivery systems. A preliminary cost-benefit study estimates the economic and financial benefits of the implementation plan. As more renewable generation such as wind and solar are added to the existing transmission and distribution systems. Navy and DOE to develop fault current limiters using "super-gate turn off" devices (S-GTOs) with advanced materials such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN). Provide software tools to optimize the power transfer capabilities of transmission cables safely. pilot field demonstration projects operating flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS) and custom power have established their effectiveness in improving the power delivery infrastructure. government agencies. research will be continued to develop a 69-kV transmission-class solid-state current limiter. This need can be met only by conducting research and building prototypes. solid-state current limiter prototype. a technical update was delivered on the status of power electronics controllers and their application in solving the most significant issues facing substations of the future. a technical report was prepared on the application of an advanced power electronic controller for solving a selected substation issue. After successful implementation of a 15-kV distribution-class solid-state current limiter in the field.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio Project Number Project Title Description P37. Approach This project is investigating opportunities for improving functionality within power substations through the implementation of power electronics. although their deployments have been modest. In the electric utility sector.010 Solid-State Fault Current Limiter Development (102105) Key Research Question Continuing developments in solid-state power electronic switching devices are enabling enormous efficiency improvements in the electrical energy utilization sector. In 2007.S. EPRI will continue to seek further collaborations with utilities. Substations . the status of technology advancement and participant commitment. reliably. with a focus on future challenges and solutions. followed by production-grade fault current limiters. Deploying power-electronics-based solid-state current limiters at strategic transmission and distribution (T&D) locations is one way of limiting these fault currents to acceptable levels. In the near future. P37. there will be a need for transmission. and vendors to enhance and develop cost-effective solidstate fault current limiters. In addition. While FACTS devices are devoted to the improvement of the transmission system.

12/31/11 12/31/11 Technical Update Hardware Future Year Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type SSFCL Field Demonstration: Demonstration of solid-state fault current limiter at utility sites. and mitigating events such as momentary outages. reducing maintenance of reactive power support devices.Program 37 p. Relieve system congestion via better use of existing resources. SSFCL Field Demonstration: Demonstration of solid-state fault current limiters at utility sites. Improve reliability and power quality through the use of various power electronics technologies at substations. improving distributed generation interfaces. extending the life of existing facilities. SSFCL Prototype Development: Develop solid-state fault current limiter prototypes. Improve physical and cyber security. and handling fault current. Reduce energy losses at transmission. and harmonics. voltage sags/surges. How to Apply Results Members use project findings and deliverables in their system planning efforts to evaluate potential applications of advanced power electronics controllers in substations for a variety of issues such as managing load growth. Reduce fault currents using fault current limiters. SSFCL Field Demonstration: Demonstration of solid-state fault current limiters at utility sites. and distribution levels via improved controllability. 12/31/12 12/31/12 12/31/13 12/31/13 12/31/14 Technical Update Hardware Technical Report Hardware Technical Update Substations . 28 . SSFCL Field Demonstration: Demonstration of solid-state fault current limiters at utility sites. SSFCL Operating Experience: Document the operating experience of the solid-state fault current limiters at utility sites. substation. 2011 Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type SSFCL Design and Test Document: Design specifications and testing results of solid-state fault current limiter will be documented. mitigating voltage fluctuation produced by nonlinear loads and varying generation sources. saving millions of dollars by avoiding equipment failures due to high fault currents.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio Impact       Reduce environmental impacts by better utilization of existing power delivery infrastructure and by enabling easier integration of environmentally benign distributed generation.

It also investigates the impact of mechanical forces on equipment failure. Substations . composite. documented case studies. This task will address calculation of mechanical forces in the substation equipment (bus work. and develops mathematical models based on those results. the project develops simulation models based on the testing results and uses these models to study the impacts at sufficiently large (abnormal) fault current levels. It will include lab and field testing with varying levels of fault currents.014 Fault Current Management Issues (065594) Key Research Question Utilities worldwide are experiencing increased fault current levels due to increased distributed energy sources as well as systems being operated at higher power levels than previously. Approach This project addresses fault current management in a systematic way by investigating issues such as the impacts of fault currents on substation equipment. Under increased power flow conditions. insulators. A course will be developed to directly support the guidebook. as well as identifying new techniques to mitigate fault currents.Program 37 p. and a combination thereof. Additional weight on substation structures due to increased bus work to limit fault currents may also increase mechanical forces in the equipment. limiting fault currents is important to avoid equipment malfunction and damage. and provides recommendations regarding the level of mechanical forces that may cause equipment failures and their corresponding fault current levels. as well as monitoring of protection and metering equipment performance. Impact of Fault Currents on Protection and Metering: Existing protection systems (such as relays and breakers) and metering systems (such as current transformers [CTs] and potential transformers [PTs]) may not function properly at increased fault current levels. Third Edition was published in 2009 and will be updated with the latest information in the future years. 29 . This task conducts lab and field tests to explore mechanical force levels at different levels of increased fault currents.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio P37. energy companies are increasing power flows on existing transmission assets. and provides recommendations regarding the impacts and the percentage of increased fault current levels at which abnormal functions occur. and associated engineering and safety guidelines. and documents economic comparisons of each technology. Investigation will determine whether the existing IEEE formulas for calculating mechanical forces are acceptable under increased fault current scenarios by reviewing the IEEE standards that were developed a few years ago and performing laboratory tests to validate and modify (if needed) the formulas for calculating mechanical forces. The project documents all field test and simulation results. This project is divided into several segments: Fault Current Management Guidebook (the Maroon Book): Due to increased load demands and reduced incentives to build new transmission. In addition. as well as on metering equipment. which in turn increases fault current levels throughout the power system. cables. Study of Mechanical Forces in Primary Equipment at Increased Fault Currents: Increased fault currents may develop higher mechanical forces in primary equipment such as transformers. and other substation modules. This comprehensive guidebook documents the state of the science for limiting fault currents in transmission and distribution assets. industry experts. EPRI's Fault Current Management Guidebook. unplanned generation sources on the transmission and distribution network increase power flows and fault current levels in the system. This project studies the impact of different fault current levels on protection coordination. It describes possible schemes for limiting fault currents. reports on studies conducted at selected member sites to examine the impact of these schemes. In addition. The issues related to increased fault currents include equipment failures and system outages. The guidebook draws from a combination of information on other EPRI technologies. transformers) with initial focus on bus work with porcelain.

Development of Substation Design. Application of Advanced Technologies to Manage Fault Currents: EPRI has been developing solid-state and superconducting current limiters to address the issue of limiting fault currents. 2011 Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type 10. By implementing one or more of the options. best maintenance and operation practices under increased fault current levels will be identified. 12. Impact        Avoid equipment replacement costs by reducing or eliminating equipment damage due to high fault currents. develops prototypes. Develop and R&D plan. Maintenance. In addition. Reduce overall costs of transmitting power over the grid. Identif y gaps. Contribute to improved grid reliability by avoiding equipment damage and subsequent outages. How to Apply Results Members can use project results to make informed decisions when choosing options for limiting fault currents. and Operation Practices at Increased Fault Current Levels: Existing IEEE standards for substation design will be reviewed and additional guidelines will be developed to address the design aspects of increased fault current levels. and then conducts field demonstrations. and identifying the levels of increased fault current levels that may cause equipment failures. Calculation of Mechanical Forces in Substation Equipment: Document methods for calculating mechanical forces in substation equipment. The project develops concepts of new technologies for fault current limitation. 11. This requires performing system studies with various generation and load scenarios to assess fault current levels in the existing utility power networks.Program 37 p. Improve customer satisfaction with reduced interruptions and energy rates. Realize more revenue by increasing power flows using existing assets. Increase safety in substations and on transmission corridors by avoiding equipment explosions. Updated Fault Current Management Guidebook (Maroon Book): The Fault Current Management Guidebook will be updated with the latest information. 30 . This project investigates other possible technologies to limit fault currents. Avoid costs due to system outages.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio Assessment of Fault Currents in the Existing Systems: This project involves calculating fault current levels in the existing systems due to increased loading and increased generation sources (both conventional and renewable type generation). 12/31/11 Technical Update Technical Update 12/31/11 Future Year Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type Fault Current Estimation in the Existing Systems 12/31/12 Technical Update Substations . participants can obtain increased power flows without damaging equipment due to high fault currents. Case studies in terms of best practices for fault current limiting will be developed. Project members will also be able to understand whether their existing protection and metering systems are adequate at increased fault currents or whether their protection equipment needs replacement.

Project products include essential data and guides on the design and construction of new ground grids with increased current ratings.015 Ground Grid Evaluation. EPRI developed software for the design of substation grounding grids. substation grounding designs. minimize hazards to the public. Today. such as step and touch voltages near the substation. This activity includes full-scale tests to verify the studies and their recommendations. In 2006. concrete). In the early 1990s. and minimizing hazards within and outside the substation. over the years additional generation and introduction of increased power flow measures (such as high-temperature conductors) have resulted in increased fault current levels. EPRI developed the Smart Ground Multimeter (SGM). asphalt. there are sites at which enough corrosion of the grid.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type Calculation of Mechanical Forces in Substation Equipment Updated Fault Current Management Guidebook (Maroon Book) Best Substation Design. substation ground grids are receiving more attention because of increasing fault current levels.Program 37 p. and how Substations . Approach In the early 1980s. especially control room electronics. Operation. Facilities that were designed and installed 50 or more years ago were often based on a calculated fault current from the generation sources and interconnections of that time. ground grids to which an incremental area is being added. The ground grid must be carefully designed to ensure that even the worst available faults will not harm the staff or the public. Operation. and Refurbishment (058564) Key Research Question A substation ground grid is an essential component of the substation. EPRI completed enhancements to the third-generation Smart Ground Multimeter. & Maintenance Practices Updated Fault Current Management Guidebook (Maroon Book) Best Substation Design. and substation ground surface conditions. Maintenance. 31 . and will not damage substation equipment. a sophisticated electronic instrument for measuring substation ground grid impedance and other parameters without requiring an outage. It must: serve as a safety feature for any personnel who may be in the substation during a fault. refurbishing deteriorated grids. Building on these accomplishments. At the same time. this project conducts a study of ground grids. ground grids that must be augmented to increase their fault current rating. The research will provide advice on when to consider the possibility of corrosion of the ground grid. damage (perhaps not immediately noticeable) due to construction and other factors. and copper theft have occurred over the decades to measurably decrease the effectiveness of the ground grid. and must provide adequate ground for substation equipment. with a focus on enhancing fault current ratings of ground grids. & Maintenance Practices Updated Fault Current Management Guidebook (Maroon Book) Impact of Fault Currents on Protection & Metering Advanced Technologies for Fault Current Limiting Updated Fault Current Management Guidebook (Maroon Book) 12/31/12 12/31/12 12/31/13 12/31/13 12/31/14 12/31/14 12/31/15 12/31/15 12/31/15 Technical Report Technical Report Technical Update Technical Update Technical Report Technical Update Technical Update Technical Update Technical Report P37. and the characteristics of substation ground surface finish (gravel. Research needs to be conducted to develop ways to refurbish grids that may have deteriorated over the years. what choices can minimize the degradation of corrosion. Although the common practice then was to base the design on a conservative calculation of available fault levels.

This product will concentrate on the performance requirements and design criteria of substation ground grids in buildings that provide proper reference grounding for substation electronic equipment. 12/31/11 Technical Update 12/31/11 Technical Update 12/31/11 Technical Update Substations . 2011 Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type Designing ground grids for modern electronic substation equipment: Substation ground grids must be carefully designed to ensure that even the worst available faults will not harm staff or damage equipment within the substation. and related factors that could be responsible for grid deterioration. bolster grids that have deteriorated. then exposed to various ground current conditions. Results will be analyzed in future years to correlate grid deterioration with exposure parameters and develop general guidelines. or improve grids that need upgrading because of higher fault current levels. such as soil types.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio deteriorated grids can be detected. concrete). Grid corrosion assessment: This project will conduct a survey to identify substations that are known to have grid corrosion issues. and may also abut or connect to building grounds and neutral. evaluating the condition and degree of deterioration of existing grids to ensure worker and public safety and proper operation of substation electronic equipment. Impact      Improve the ease and accuracy of evaluating the adequacy of installed grounding systems. and developing grid repair decisions based on economics and enhancement of industry standards. Based on this information. samples of grid elements will be installed in controlled test setups containing various soil types. avoid misoperation and damage to equipment. Information will be sought on local substation conditions and external influences. Grid effectiveness/design criteria for substations in buildings: In congested and urban areas. substations are often located in buildings to contain real estate costs and to enhance public acceptance and environmental friendliness. aluminum smelters). 32 . Increase substation worker safety as well as public safety in areas adjacent to the substation via design of high-quality substation ground grids. nor create hazards for the general public outside the substation fence. Such substations may not have effective connections to good reference ground. How to Apply Results Members can use ground grid design. Quantify the properties of various ground surface materials (gravel. Results can also be used to enhance industry standards such as IEEE 80 and 81. maintenance. This product will concentrate on the performance requirements for ground grids that provide proper reference grounding for substation electronic equipment and avoid misoperation and damage to the equipment. ground water levels. assessed and refurbished in the most economical manner. and minimize the substation grid's impact on the public. external sources of ground currents (for example. Provide effective methods to design and install new grids.Program 37 p. asphalt. and refurbishment guides developed by this project for planning new grids and enhancements to existing grids. Increase the quality of reference ground for substation electronic equipment to minimize misoperations and failures.

Develop cost-effective approaches to augmenting or repairing grounding grids: Substation ground grids may not meet performance requirements because of increasing fault currents.three audits (“as is”. and then exposed to various ground current conditions. Information will be sought on local substation conditions and external influences. or Conference 12/31/13 Technical Update 12/31/13 Technical Update 12/31/14 Technical Update 12/13/15 Technical Update Substations . external sources of ground currents (for example.Program 37 p. The results will be analyzed to correlate grid deterioration with exposure parameters and to develop general guidelines. damage (perhaps not immediately noticeable) due to construction and other factors. copper theft. this product will utilize feedback from members who use the guide to develop video-based training materials to help technicians who perform grid assessment interpret measurements and resolve difficulties that can occur in the field. “damaged”. Building on field experience and the field guide. pigtails: Copper theft and deterioration (corrosion) of substation ground grids are major concerns to utilities. and related factors that could be responsible for grid deterioration. and other issues. This product will help fill this knowledge gap. New materials (replacement for copper) – grid. Based on this information. such as soil types. This product will provide an overview of alternate materials that could be used in place of copper for substation grids. 12/31/12 Technical Report 12/31/12 Workshop. without informing the researchers of the details of the repairs Training materials for Smart Ground Multimeter (DVD): In 2009. aluminum smelters). Training. samples of grid elements will be installed in controlled test setups containing various soil types. and will evaluate their performance characteristics. effect of soil properties: This project will conduct a survey to identify substations that are known to have grid corrosion issues. without informing the researchers of the details of the modifications  Assess the condition of the grid in the same substation after repairs are performed by the utility. Corrosion rates. deterioration over time due to corrosion. EPRI published Field Guide: Smart Ground Meter (1020400). Ground grids for HVDC substations: Many utilities are considering converting ac lines to dc. 33 . “repaired”): Conduct a three-stage “blind” study using the Smart Ground Multimeter:  Assess the “as-is” condition of an aging (possibly damaged) ground grid  Assess the condition of the grid in the same substation after unknown modifications (additional damages) are performed by the utility. ground water levels.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio Future Year Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type "Blind study" . The product will include essential data and guides for augmenting or repairing grids to increase their fault current rating and grounding effectiveness. which will require installation of dc substations. Much essential data are lacking regarding grid design for dc substations.

Substations . will also continue to be developed in parallel with the research and development work. operators.004). engineering. Feedback from EPRI member engineers. Improve transmission circuit reliability and safety. and will develop tools related to the design. Ride out emergency situations safely and reliably. designers. thermal models. operators.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio P37.013) and underground cables (P3. Information on improvements in applications. designers. These issues result in an increasing number of bottlenecks or other congestion and reliability problems. and power companies are realizing that they need to identify methods and obtain tools for pushing more power through their existing assets. enabling EPRI members to make informed decisions when choosing IPF options for their specific applications. such as tutorials. Impact This project is intended to help provide power companies with the information and tools required to identify and implement increased power flow strategies for their specific needs. The IPF Transmission Circuit Rating Wizard software will also help utility engineers decide on options. demonstrations. EPRI will investigate and document information and methodologies on increasing power flow through existing assets. Increase and optimize power flow through entire transmission circuits. and conferences. and case studies will be identified and developed. much of the grid has already aged beyond its original design specifications. The EPRI Increased Power Flow workshop covering all topics related to increasing power flow in transmission circuits will be provided. and learning and training materials for the next generation of power industry technical leaders. system planning. In addition. Reports and references will address the economic benefits of IPF technologies. Defer capital expenditures. Products will be made more acceptable to a conservative utility culture. telemetry. along with its IPF Wizard and training materials. can guide engineers. The associated tutorial can be used internally for training purposes. The project will provide guidance to experienced technical staff. and is executed in coordination with corresponding projects for overhead transmission lines(Project P35. Avoid unnecessary system outages or load shedding. and planners in applying increased power flow strategies for transmission circuits. and hands-on software exercises. This trend has pushed the capacity of many existing transmission circuits to their design limits. guides. Training and tech transfer activities and tools. and planners will be sought during advisory meetings and workshops to identify their needs. workshops. This project focuses on substation equipment.           The Increased Power Flow Guidebook (the Platinum Book). How to Apply Results Members can use the IPF Guidebook and other reports as reference sources for implementing IPF strategies and training their engineers on IPF technologies. instrumentation. It will focus on EPRI products and R&D results. Approach In order to meet the research needs.Program 37 p. and operations of substation equipment as well as other transmission circuit components. The workshop will include presentations of concepts. Optimize energy transactions through rating forecasts. Optimize power transfer planning. 34 .018 Increased Power Flow Guidebook and Ratings of Substation Equipment (069265) Key Research Question The demand for electric power over transmission circuits is increasing at a faster rate than new transmission assets can be constructed.

Performance of Substation Connectors Operating at Elevated Temperatures: Substation connectors are designed to operate at temperatures below that of the conductors being connected. Increased Power Flow Wizard 3.1: The DTCR software will be updated and improved. and inspection of connectors for substations and other electrical installations. A user is presented with a series of questions about their situation. and the Wizard provides guidance. an updated version of the IPF Guidebook will be planned for release in 2012. The product's visual interfaces and user friendliness will be improved.0 (Integrated DTCR/DAP): Updated versions of the DTCR and DAP software will be combined into an integrated computational environment. performing probabilistic rating studies.0 will have capabilities for real-time rating. and a version 6.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio Transmission engineers. conferences. operators. These topics are listed and described in the 2010 version of the guidebook.1 will be released.0: The IPF Wizard is a software product that is a spreadsheet expert system for helping guide users through increased power flow options for specific applications. 35 . and the methodologies on how best to apply all results can be obtained through EPRI reports. and the product will be made more acceptable to a conservative utility culture. DTCR 6. and workshops. there is a need to assess the impact on connectors. Increased Power Flow Guidebook . and new topics will be added.Program 37 p. which is part of the EPRI color book series (the Platinum Book). The Wizard is designed to be used in conjunction with the guidebook. and IT personnel can use the computer programs and methodologies developed through this program to optimize the ratings of their circuits. and are continually updated based on the needs of the industry and advisor feedback. The report will be directed for engineers and technicians engaged in the design. Increased Power Flow Guidebook . and the introduction of high temperature low sag (HTLS) conductors. providing predictive rating assessments. and providing other useful functions. 2011 Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type DTCR 6. These connectors are qualified under ANSI/NEMA CC1 Standard “Electric Power Connection for Substations”. Software products can be applied for the various reasons described above. installation. 12/31/11 Software 12/31/11 Technical Update 12/31/11 Software 12/31/11 Technical Update Future Year Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type DTCR 6. Existing material will be improved and updated.2011 (Platinum Book): The IPF Guidebook. With the move by the industry to higher conductor operating temperatures. training materials. 12/31/12 12/31/12 Software Technical Report Substations . performing contingency evaluations. The state-of-the-science of the short and long term effects of high temperature operation on connectors will be evaluated and documented in a report. will be updated and delivered as a technical update in 2011. It will serve as a useful aid to help improve specification and procurement practices.4th Edition: Following four years of application and new developments. researchers. but the standard does not address their thermal performance when operating beyond the original design temperatures. planners.

IPF Applications for Substations: A technical update documenting case studies of IPF for substation equipment will be released. spare parts policies. This project will develop functional requirements for future protection devices including wide-area communications. and management network.Program 37 p. training. misoperation indices. providing many protection functions and disturbance recording. The second project supports deployment of numeric relays to enable an intelligent grid. The first supports intelligent transition to numeric relays. This project set consists of two projects. and will include technologies added to the IPF Guidebook. and new topics will be added.0: The DTCR software will be significantly improved and updated. Substations . This project set helps utility engineers make a seamless transition to numeric relays and help extract the most value from their investment. DTRC 7. and electronic advisories for urgent fixes.017 P37. plug and play). They support intelligent evaluation techniques and filters that allow improved selectively.016 Managing Protective Relay Emerging Issues (067440) Key Research Question The project is designed to give utility engineers and technicians the means to resolve some of the most pressing issues associated with the use of protective relays. Microprocessor relays have become common in the protection arena and are replacing electromechanical relays as well as some early electronic relays at different but increasing rates across the world. It will develop feature requirements for a next-generation protective device and its associated wide-area communications.1: The IPF Wizard will be updated and improved. and maintenance. the technology is accompanied by a number of issues. and audit trails. Project Number Project Title Description P37.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type IPF Wizard 3. This project will include best-in-class practices for reliability. and a version 7. Increased Power Flow Guidebook . issues with design (enclosures.016 Managing Protective Relay Emerging Issues Next Generation Protection This project addresses new issues in using digital protection devices including relay fleet management. security. 12/31/12 12/31/12 12/31/13 12/31/13 Software Technical Update Software Technical Update PS37H Protection and Control (067420) Project Set Description Numeric relays have many advantages over electromechanical (EM) relays. and allow higher accuracy and shorter tripping times.0 will be released. However. design.2013: The IPF Guidebook will be further refined and updated. Numeric relays provide discrete signal processing. including standardization. control. and event interpretation. even during some complex faults. Utilities are struggling as they replace electromechanical and first-generation semiconductor relays. relay failure root cause analysis. cyber security. 36 . cyber security challenges. than their EM counterparts. event analysis. parameter management. They are multifunctional. P37.

and influence designs and enhancements for protective relays and controls.Program 37 p. enhance system reliability. Share best practices among members in the areas of protection and control. in which a technician visits a substation and then connects to each device via a laptop. connection to NASPInet. communication issues. is too time consuming. if a significant flaw in a particular Substations . As utilities begin to deal with large deployments of smart devices or microprocessorbased products. configuration. Implementation issues include both standalone and relay-based units. inefficient.017 Next Generation Protection (067441) Key Research Question As the electric power industry moves forward with development of a smart grid. How to Apply Results Utility engineers can use the knowledge in the project findings and products to deal with critical issues related to new numeric relays. significant issues arise with management. Also. evaluate available technologies. 37 . and costly.Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio Approach This project provides a vehicle for participants to resolve some of the most important emerging issues associated with protective relays. with increased attention toward IEC 61850 as a key smart grid standard. Synchrophasor Issues: This project will address a variety of issues related to enabling synchrophasors in the utility environment. Devices deployed today were essentially developed as replacements for electromechanical devices. 12/31/11 Technical Update 12/31/11 Technical Update P37. and change management. In particular. increase sharing of best practices with other utilities. 2011 Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type Emerging Protective Relay Issues: Technical resource covering a variety of protective relay issues of interest to relay system designers. streamline and improve maintenance practices. A technical workshop will address emerging protective relay issues in the industry. Additionally. this project will cover the following areas:        Standardization issues Relay misoperations Event analysis Design issues Root cause analysis Security issues Maintenance issues. The current method employed by many utilities. increase system security. Impact    Demonstrate commitment to a more reliable supply of power through better approaches to dealing with protective relay issues. security. field technicians. the project will investigate migration and implementation issues related to protective relays enabled with IEC 61850. and other related topics. and other interested parties involved in the testing and management of these systems. a number of issues emerge with existing protective relay devices. Reach higher levels of cyber security by making protective relaying more secure and hack-resistant.

2011 Products Product Title & Description Planned Completion Date Product Type Demonstrate the feature requirements for the next generation protective devices – Phase III: This project will demonstrate the features and functions of next-generation protective devices to provide the industry with the necessary guidance for building the devices and the software support tools needed. New computer-based tools and product enhancements are necessary to effectively manage these large deployments. This project will conduct the following activities:    Assess the current state of utility technology and practices to identify key relay issues facing utilities Facilitate cross-industry learning through idea exchange with the information technology and telecommunications industries. and what the current firmware and software versions are. Among the most prominent are information technology. They will also benefit from the cross-industry workshop through acquired knowledge of tools and techniques employed in related industries such as information technology. control. Other industries today have the responsibility and have developed tools to remotely manage millions of devices. and information systems engineers will be able to use this project's results to better understand the current state of the technology associated with managing microprocessor-based protective relays. how they are configured. Improve access control and audit trail of changes made to devices (who did what and when). Impact    Improve management of field-deployed smart devices by knowing what devices are deployed. The product will contain detailed requirements suitable for suppliers and industry standards groups to act on. One of this project's most critical aspects is to learn how to manage massive deployments of thousands. and management network similar to SNMP agents. thereby enabling more efficient implementation and management of these devices. if not millions. Improve substation designs to better accommodate these concepts. How to Apply Results Protection engineers. Approach This multi-year project will address a number of research areas. of smart devices. cellular networks. Tools and designs need to be adopted so that similar techniques can be implemented in the electric utility sector. and set top boxes. 38 .Electric Power Research Institute 2011 Research Portfolio brand or model of relay were to be discovered and need rapid replacement. it would be difficult to deliver a rapid response using the current method.Program 37 p. and telecommunications. Lastly. This document will facilitate smoother transition to these devices at participating utilities. to understand best practices Develop feature requirements of the next-generation protective device and its associated wide-area communications. 12/31/11 Technical Update Substations . with millions of mobile phones. where millions of desktop and laptop computers are managed with Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) agents. the roadmap for next-generation protective devices will enable engineers to participate in developing requirements specifications. Phase III will further identify the enhanced set of features that provide capabilities beyond those identified in Phase II. network operations staff.

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