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Devin Crawford Ansoft Corporation Ansoft 2003 / Global Seminars: Delivering Performance
Link the Power of Circuit and Finite Element Analysis
Many problems can be broken down into constituent parts:
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Waveguide and Cavity Filters Large Circuits: package – board - component Any components connected by transmisison lines or waveguides!
The “divide and conquer” strategy leads to very efficient and accurate solutions.
Solve the constituent problems parametrically.Strategy for combining full-wave three-dimensional solutions w Determine how best to subdivide large problems. Construct models from constituent parts. The existence of parametric 3-D models enables fast design and optimization of very large structures! w w .
What is the Transfinite Element Method? w The Finite Element method is used to solve Maxwell’s equations in the volume of arbitrary three-dimensional structures. y )e −γz …and characteristic impedance (specifies a relationship between E and H) z . A single port solution (mode) yields a propagation constant γ n = jβ n + α n βn αn propagation constant attenuation ˆ E n = yE ( x. w The transfinite element method is used to determine the two-dimensional field solution at the port.
Let’s look at some examples… .Transfinite Element Method in a Nutshell w w w Generalized s-parameters fully characterize the “black-box” behavior of a three-dimensional structure. Structures that have identical port solutions. The use of generalized s-parameters that were determined using the transfinite element method insures that the fields are matched at the port boundary. but different internal geometries may often be analyzed separately and joined at the ports.
4. 3. Define the parameter space: what range of values should the parameters cover? Synthesize and optimize the desired three-dimensional structure using parametric models generated from HFSS. Verify the design using the full-wave solution of the entire structure. Verify the technique on a simple. easily verifiable model. 5. . 2.The basic approach 1. Select the building blocks (parametric models) for the desired structure.
d . ω ) 21 22 S-parameters depend on frequency and aperture width. ω ) S12 (d . ω ) S ( d . S11 (d .Example 1: Waveguide Filter w The waveguide filter is comprised of e-plane irises that have been characterized parametrically in HFSS. 1 2 3 4 5 Parametric model based on full-wave analysis. ω ) S (d .
Define parameterized model by generating a grid of coarsely spaced solutions in the parameter space. .Realization of a Waveguide Filter 1.
Create the entire filter from individual components.Realization of a Waveguide Filter 2. The model is fully parameterized! .
z10.Parameterized Port Impedance w An important aspect of the circuit model is the frequency dependent port impedance: if(k>kc10.0) Z10 is the frequency dependent characteristic impedance. .
” le accessib is is e analys -wav the full ns! of ccuracy existing solutio The a ing terpolat by in . Optimize the filter response by “interpolating existing solutions.Realization of a waveguide filter 3.
Optimization continued: the goal response for the optimization can be generated using the filter synthesis tool.Realization of a Waveguide Filter 3. al n go tio miza Opti Optimized response using interpolation of coarsely spaced HFSS solutions .
Realization of a Waveguide Filter 0 -10 -20 dB -30 -40 -50 9.9 10.1 10. accuracy can be improved by “Simulating missing solutions” .3 10.5 Frequency (GHz) After optimization using interpolated HFSS solutions.7 9.5 9.
1 10.5 9.7 9.6 9.4 Frequency (GHz) Frequency (GHz) .Comparison between HFSS and Ansoft Designer 4. |S21| 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 9.3 10.2 10.8 10 10. Improve the solution accuracy by generating exact full-wave solutions for the optimized parameter values.9 10.5 Designer 0 -10 -20 -30 |S11| HFSS -40 -50 -60 9.
. How do we approach structures that are not easily described by single mode behavior? w w Use the example of a mixed resonator filter to investigate the approach.Example 2: dielectric/coaxial resonator cavity filter w Waveguide components are generally simple because the behavior is accurately described by single mode interaction between components.
. take advantage of the symmetry when possible for full-wave analysis.Single Dielectric Resonator E-field H-field Perfect Esymmetry plane w As usual.
and various methods can be used to obtain the same information. Create a parametric model in HFSS and analyze this model by matching port modes in Ansoft Designer (the transfinite element method). 1.Solve the driven problem with port excitations (also gives resonant frequency and Q) 3. 2.Resonant frequency and Q determined from the Eigenmode solver in HFSS. .Analysis of a Single Dielectric Resonator w A single resonator cavity is perfect for investigating the proposed approach because solutions can be obtained very fast.
driven solution. = 3-dimensional Eigenmode solution + Port solution . and transfinite element analysis were used to verify the equivalence of the three analysis methods.Subdivision of Dielectric Resonators w Eigenmode solver.
Defining Parameter Space w The equivalent circuit can be equated to physical dimensions by equating resonant frequencies of the two simulations. Short circuit = perfect electric conductor Open circuit = perfect magnetic conductor .
.Design and Analysis of a 5 pole filter w 3 parametric models are required to create this filter.
Optimization goal is inserted in the same schematic as the HFSS subcircuits U4 Ideal5pole1 Goal Response Generated in HFSS 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 2 3 4 1 Each connection represents a mode (port solution) 5 Pole Filter .5 Pole Cavity Filter w Only 3 Modes are needed to represent the TE01δ Dielectric resonator mode.
85 1. “Simulate missing solutions” 0 0 -20 S21 (dB) -1 -2 -40 Solution in Designer when HFSS models are interpolated 1.90 1.95 2.05 2.96 Freq (GHz) 1.98 2.00 Freq (GHz) 2.5 Pole Filter w Filter synthesis is carried out in Designer.10 .92 -60 1. using parameterized models that were generated in HFSS.94 1.00 -3 1.
Optimized 5-pole filter in HFSS and Designer Response in HFSS after optimization in Designer |S21| dB |H| Field magnitude from HFSS at 1.96 GHz |S11| dB .
The speed of circuit analysis along with the accuracy and flexibility of the finite element method will bring filter design and synthesis to the next level. w .Conclusion w A new approach to filter design and synthesis has been demonstrated.