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: Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 48, No. 1 (Mar., 1989), pp. 6678 Published by: University of California Press on behalf of the Society of Architectural Historians Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/990407 . Accessed: 30/04/2012 17:28
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" Speculum. forCoiiasnon's der Formorerecentflightsof fancy. see alsothe annotated the Warminster. Much of the scholarship concerning the early history of the building has been based on the literary evidence. 1. C. 1977. H. with each phase including a complex of several buildings. attemptsa reconJerusalem.JerusalemPilgrimsbefore Crusades. It is perhaps because of the continued religious importance of the site that the architecturalhistory of the Holy Sepulchre remains poorly known. 4). chitecture. was One workshop apparentlyfrom and Constantinople. and its influence on the architectureof the Middle Ages has not been properly assessed. 3) suggests the level of distortion possible in a medieval description when compared with a restored plan of the early complex (Fig. also JSAH XLVIII:66-78. when one speaks of the medieval Church of the Holy Sepulchre. 617-705. 66 1965. of translations J. Byzantine abstracts. 1940. Armenian munitiesfor allowing me accessto portionsof the Holy Sepulchre normallyclosed to the public.II Santo di 1981. Abel.SantoSepolcro.. in 4.AmyCassens chaeology with the Reverend at of Ancestors this paperwere presented the 1983 with the drawings. fig. Locorum 2."L'hemisphairion l'omphalos Cahiers des LieuxSaints. Moreover. scholars have been led to no end of conjecture about the architecturalcharacterof the medieval building. The significance of the site has guaranteed the Holy Sepulchre a tumultuous history. It was the object of countless pilgrimages and the ultimate inspiration for the Crusades. II. The lattertwo have had reHarmondsworth.Franciscan.5 However. and the 1986 Interin national D. Giteborg. skrift58. affected by the religious zeal of both its and supporters opponents. archeologiques. 1956. pls. see D. 585-587. Kircheam Heiligen II. 1955 (reprint 1982)." I. MARCH 1989 . Entombment and Resurrection (Figs. bothwith published Congress Washington. see 3 5. Buildings the Holy Sepulcher XXXI. excavation in markable results-upcurrency. J. For texts. fig. H. marking the traditional sites of Christ's Crucifixion. 8. as the events it commemorated were central to Christian thought. Wistrand. one is actually referring to three distinct phases of construction. 1 and 2). Sepolcro Gerusalemme.Jrusalem Nouvelle. Early Christianand Byzantine Ar- in Research Jerusalem by duringthe summerof 1984 was supported of Board the University Illinoisat Urbana-Champaign. A. 1914. 16. 3.C. Its position was regarded as the center of the world. R. fig. Corbo. Paris. was out capital. sanctis. Baldi. has collatedthe plans Pilgrims.3 Lacking a clear understanding of the physical evidence. vols. Wilkinson. analysisof wall and vault An construction bearsout this conclusion. of An analysis of the survivingremainsof this phase of construction that the suggests theplanwasdetermined an architectfrom Byzantine by and the construction carried by two teamsof masons.7. spite struction the enigmatichemisphairon of by evidenceandthe inconsistencies of the completelackof archaeological of his solutionwith the plan of the basilica. The Churchof theHoly Sepulchre et Berlin. and monument. Coiiasnon. the church has been in almost continuous usage since the early 4th century. an architecturalhistory of the building remains to be written. SchweichLectures of reconstructions the 4th-century amusing18th. Wilkinson. Most notably.My studybenefittedfrom discussions with Denys PringleandJohn Wilkinsonat the BritishSchoolof Arassisted and VirgilioCorbo.This featurehas been in eliminated this article's 4.L. theotherwas trainedlocallyin or aroundJerusalem.C. 1945.2The late 7th-century plan of the Holy Sepulchre complex drawn by Arculf (Fig. but in these writings the literary or spiritualconcerns of the authors take precedence.-M. as well as by numerousdisputesamong Christian communities. K. 3.15. is the most authoritative.Even V. in described Eusebius. See for example C.seeE. for some Jerusalem. at "TheOriginal inJerusalem. spiteof well-publicized text-and the outdated editionsof Krautheimer's datedin successive in of haveappeared avariety architectural history surveys published plans in this countryduringthe last five years.Rebuilding the Constantine ROBERT Temple: and Monomachus OUSTERHOUT the Holy Sepulchre University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign The reconstruction the Churchof the Holy Sepulchre Jerusalem in of c.1974.' Numerous descriptions of the church survive from the Middle Ages.N. Konstantins Grabnachden iltestenliterarischen G6teborgs Hogskolas AarZeugnissen. also E. Dyggve.'" Berichtiber den VI Internationalen KongressfurArchdologie. Conant. THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE inJerusalem was one of the most important buildings of the Middle Ages.1952. London. Vincentand F. in ByzantineStudiesConference Durham. K. that in Arculfmanuscripts versions appear Bede's with fromthe various De locis thesedatefromthe 9th throughthe 11th centuries.and 19th-century fanciful reconstructions. 7-14. Krautheimer.17. fig.Jerusalem 193-196. The 1972. and the physical aspects of the building are presented selectively and often in a random manner. Jerusalem. Enchiridion Sanctorum. 1.... To compound matters."Die Frage 'basilica Anastasis. 3ff. 1042-1048 by the Byzantine EmperorConstantineIX Monomachus an marks important in turningpoint thehistory thebuilding. Corbo. of the Research comand to I am grateful the GreekOrthodox.4The recent archaeologicalinvestigations at the Holy Sepulchre have clarified much of the medieval history of the building and have invalidated much of the speculation. Piganiol.
Crypt St.SantoSepolcro.s1 l lUI |11. Archaeology . Jerusalem. Patriarchate 2 Anastasis Rotunda 3. Review. Ambulatory of 9. 1979. a five-aisled basilica with its apse in the west. although archaeologically the least well known (Fig. 223-228. Jerusalem. 1. street to the east. Chapel St. JSAH. 4). _. ChurchMarkthe Burialof Jesus?" Bahat. 279-292. the first. Ousterhout. Crypt the Invention the Cross of Calvary 12-Entrance Planof presentcomplex(redrawn afterCorbo). Crusader of 5.[ of o. 3. Fig. Baptistery Wing 7. Holy Prison K ." Annuus. Mary 6. Corbo. Of the three major phases of construction from the Middle Ages. and numerous ancillary structuresincluding the residence of the patriarch. I. MorerecentlyCorbo'swork hasbeen 51-137. Holy Sepulchre. .OUSTERHOUT: CONSTANTINE MONOMACHUS AND THE HOLY SEPULCHRE 67 A View fromsoutheast. Fig. initiated by Constantine the Great in the 4th century. in Liber XXIX.6Following 6. Holy Sepulchre. remains the most famous. Tomb Aedicula Choir 4. and D. C. 1. . a porticoed courtyard containing the Rock of Calvary in the southeastcorner. 26-45. 8. XLIII. of the latterwas reviewed V. 1984. Helena of 10. 2."Does the Holy Sepulchre Biblical XII. The last word in this debateis that by Corbo.the greatRotundaof the Anastasis which housed the aedicula of the Tomb of Christ."Problemi SantoSepolcro sul by di Gerusalemme unarecentepubblicazione. of Church theHolySepulchre. 266-267. 1986. The vast complex of buildings included an atrium that connected the complex with the main the ofteninaccurate account Coiiasnon. summarized criticizedby R.
Plan c. The Christian the numerous the in of spaces no way reflects compartmentalizationthe major formof the medievalbuilding. Chapel of the Crown of Thorns 9. It was subsequently by IX between 1042 (?) and Constantine Monomachus Emperor and 1048 (Figs. Corbo.Although considerable form evidencesurvives. Reconstructedplan of 1 lth-century complex. only the rotunda the court were rebuilt.Nevertheless. Omphalos Fig. Chapel of the Flagellation 8. summarized . Jerusalem.much of it remainsunpubarchaeological was The ByzantineHoly Sepulchre short-lived. of HolySepulchre. 145-181. Tomb Aedicula 4. Of the three medievalphases.dividedbetween by hampered that communities occupythe site.7 lasting it at most 70 or 80 years. 218-242. Holy Sepulchre.Forthe modernvisitor. the in and significant damage repair the 7th and 10th centuries. Baptistery Wing Fig.a formof the buildingis also of clearunderstanding the medieval of the partitioning the interior. Sepokro. Santo I.double-ended in 1149. Calvary 12. Anastasis Rotunda 3. II. Dedicated replaced church had a curious. Jerusalem. Holy Sepulchre. Jerusalem. lished. ground level (redrawn after Corbo). At thattime. Holy Sepulchre. the courtyard its chapelswere and by a domedtransept pilgrimagechoir.and numerousannexedchapels porticoed were addedto the eastside of the courtandto the southflank of the rotunda. MARCH 1989 1. the formof the Crusaders' On a locallevel. Chapel of St. 5. 6. is of greatsignificance for to the historyof medievalarchitecture a varietyof reasons. Fig.following the successful and in the FirstCrusade 1099. Coiiasnon. 6. 3.the 11lth-century Byzantine has receivedthe least attention.68 JSAH. andthe restoration severely to the site has continued the present. Chapel of the Division of the Garments 10. was destroyed orderof the fanaticCalif al-Hakim by complex reconstructed the Byzantine in 1009. 4. and7).it helpedto establish and buildingand suggesteda numberof structural decorative Nousee 7. Courtyard 5. 229-231. Forthe published accounts. Reconstructed plan of 4th-century complex (redrawn after Corbo). 670 by Arculf (Vindobonensis 458). Mary 13. XLVIII:1. The buildingwas preserved work at by damaged a firein 1808. Holy Prison 7. completionof Finally. the Crusaders' form that is substantially today. Patriachate 2.5. velle. Crypt of the Invention of the Cross 11. VincentandAbel.Jerusalem Church the 54-57.
it is assumed that this restorationwas provisional and small in scale: the site is afterward referred to as 10. In 1004 he decreed that the Christianscould no longer celebrate Epiphany or Easter.idem.II. 131-358.the roofs of both the basilica and the Anastasis Rotunda were destroyed. The actions by al-Hakim were presaged by political developments in the 10th century. A 8. M."26. 1965. Seen by participantsof pilgrimages and the First Crusade. celebrated annually at the church during the Easter Vigil. and the destruction of churches as early as 1001.gallerylevel (redrawn details for the 12th-century additions. See R."Santo di lemme. Enchiridion. 7. de . 1985. England. who exhibited a clearly hostile attitude toward the Christians. effectively marking the transition from Early Christian to medieval in the form of the building. Finally. Vincent and Abel.311-321." Stefano GerusaXX.Masons and probably the head architect for the reconstruction were sent from Constantinople. it inspired the numerous memento Holy Sepulchres that were constructed in the 11th and 12th centuries. of courtesy the BritishAcademy)." Processions were prohibited. Stefano in Bologna and the Holy Sepulchre in Cambridge. 11. Above.Deputazione Storia per cumenti e studi. Byzantion. Treasury 7.rioters murdered the patriarch and set fire to the doors and woodwork of the Holy Sepulchre. Jerusalem Nouvelle.8 The building is also significant for the history of Byzantine architecture.12 As relations remained precarious. Holy Sepulchre. 12. 4. and the Easter Week ceremonies it specifies are closely paralleledby the 1 lthcentury form of the building. with further references. Vincent and Abel.Jerusalem Nouvelle. the Byzantine Holy Sepulchre corresponded with a period of considerablecontact between Palestine and the West. 9.9In the ensuing conflagration. 1981.NorthGallery and Chapel South Gallery 5. XVII. Finally. Something of a reconstruction was allowed at the Holy Sepulchre in 1012 by the Bedouin emir Mufarridjben alDjarrah. on 18 October 1009. Patriarchate ^jig2. The medieval Typikon of Jerusalem survives. complex(Coiiasnon.10 According to the chronicler Yahia.OUSTERHOUT: CONSTANTINE MONOMACHUS AND THE HOLY SEPULCHRE 69 ^^ 3 FJ n r mil r 6}| I J |_~~~ L_^^^^ 5__i rt 4 1." Stefaniana:Contributi la storiadel complesso S. In 966. such as S. For text. the building offersa special example of liturgical planning. It took 10 years to reconstruct the roof of the Anastasis Rotunda.executions. only those things that were too difficult to demolish were spared. destruction l'eglisede la Resurrection le "La de par de du CalifeHikimet l'histoire la descente feusacre. a better understanding of the Holy Sepulchre helps to clarify developments in Byzantine architecture in the mid-llth century. Domed Chapel Reconstructed of 11th-cenFig. The disastrousevents of the early 11th century brought to a close a chapterin the history of the Holy Sepulchre and signaled the beginning of another. also Canard. Holy Sepulchre. turycomplex. "The Churchof SantoStefano: 'Jerusalem' e in Bologna. 6. He ordered random arrests. 248-249." XXXV. Jerusalem. and the basilica was said to have remained uncovered for 20 years. 5L3 | r 7 E m Anastasis Rotunda Gallery 3.for a time the effective ruler in Palestine. Jerusalem.652-653.n. was a noted builder. Chapel of Melchisedech 6. "Destruction l'eglise. Gesta. 245-247. Canard. The patron. Stefanoin per Dodi Patria le Province Romagna. In relationship to western European architecture. Fig. see Baldi. II. di Bologna. 11. alHakim ordered the destruction of the Holy Sepulchre and dependent buildings. Ousterhout. apparently as a response to Byzantine military victories against the Arabs. 16-43. and a few years later all of the convents and churches in Palestine were said to have been destroyed or confiscated. Reconstructedview of 1 lth-century Matters went from bad to worse with the accession of Calif al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah (ruling 996-1021). plan afterCorbo). apparentlyoutraged by what he regarded as the fraud practiced by the monks in the "miraculous" Descent of the Holy Fire. Constantine Monomachus.
Jrusalem Nouvelle. the fundswere not expense. These were heart-shapedin plan and were topped by reused Byzantine capitals.I of lookInterior Anastasis Rotunda.but not discussed of II. alternating pattern of piers and columns. and more recently. He ruledfor 12 yearsuntil his deathin 1055. 17. Ioannes Karianitis. believing that the change occurredin the 1 lth-century rebuilding.and concludedin 1030. 182-194. perhaps re- thechurch and (Resurrection) itsruins.16 wasprovided fromConstantinople. W. The columns that separatedthe central space from the ambulatory were reerected on high bases. 4. XLVIII:1. The allowedfor the reconstruction the Holy Sepulchre. the Byzantine Holy Sepulchre was much more modest than the 4th-century ensemble. See CharalambosBouras. has recently discussedthe patronage of Constantine IX. Enchiridion. 250. New Brunswick. Above. Santo Sepolcro. Kazhdan and A. a Byzanand Funding 13. Nea Moni on Chios:Historyand Architecture. cut in half for the original rotunda.standardfeaturesin Byzantine sanctuarydesign. Fig. 15. but the walls still stood to gallery level. The gallery of the rotunda was rebuilt with an odd. of but treaty thatthe basileus shouldrebuild churchat his own the stipulated and However. a peace Followingthe mysterious was betweenthe Byzantine Romanus treaty negotiated Emperor III and Daher. Baldi. correcting the reversed orientation of the original.14 immediately forthcoming.asit appears ofal-Qiyama in the edict of protectionissuedin 1020. 69-71.19 were added flanking the arched opening to the new apse (Fig. 1681. . P. Ibid. Holy Sepulchre.I. ing northwest. it was removed by the Crusaders in the following century. IX of Constantine Monomachus becameemperor Byzantium in 1042 by marrying reigningEmpress the Zoe. there is no evidence for flanking pastophoria. Cormack.15But there is no indication of action until the reign of Constantine Monomachus.13 in deathof al-Hakim 1021.II. Berkeley and Los Angeles. concluding that the purpose of his numerous donations to religious foundations was "to guarantee his salvation at all costs" (p. For a general discussion of the period. A notedpatronof architecture and religiousestablishments. A. Church of the Holy Sepulchre.9. History of the Byzantine State. Coiiasnon. n. The Rotunda of the Anastasishad been damaged. R. 16. Epstein. 8. Jerusalem. This interpretation is criticized-probably correctly-by Corbo. with further references. reconstruction the Holy the of to appears havebeenamonghis firstbuilding Sepulchre projects. Holy Sepulchre. 24. lookof Interior Anastasis Rotunda. 8).To compoundmatters. Santo Sepolcro. Ostrogorsky.70 JSAH. probably Thinner.suchan of Although accorded with Constantine's desireto beundertaking apparent come the ecumenical protectorof the faith in the mannerof his illustrious the Constantine GreatandJustinipredecessors. 1985. The reconstruction appearsto have adhered closely to the form of the 4th-century rotunda. MARCH 1989 I -. locatedbeyondthe boundaries the empire.17 As rebuilt. Writingin Gold: Byzantine Societyand Its Icons. an. 51 years before the Crusaders'liberation of the city. Lebrun. the shafts being spoliafrom the earlier Roman temple on the site. London. It assumed the role of the main church for the worship service. 193). The remains the apseareillustrated plan.18Curiously. 14.delaysoccurred. 1985. The large. see G. acted as the intermediaryto obtain the necessarysubsidies from the imperial fisc. coupled columns repeating the original proportions. Fig. by Corbo. Ibid. by tine nobleman. This information is provided by William of Tyre. 11. in 18. five-aisled basilica constructedby Constantine the Great was never rebuilt.son of al-Hakim. 19. Athens. 1969. Jerusalem. who records the rededication of the building in 1048. envisions the original columns as twice as tall as the present rather stubby supports. 1982. pl. ing southeast. who insists that the short columns on high bases are part of the 4th-century endeavor.27-32.in 1034 an the was churches earthquake saidto have destroyed remaining of the city. The apse is known only from partial excavations.653. also Vincent and Abel. 316-341. and a projecting bema and apse were added to the eastern facade. Changein ByzantineCulturein theEleventh Twelfth and Centuries.who had retiredin Jerusalem.
Jerusalem Nouvelle. Constantinople. and along the eastern perimeter a series of chapels commemorated the events of Christ's Passion. 9). . 10 and 5). I -10m Fig. The 11th-century grottowas not the sameas the chapelof St.20As early as the 9th century. 256. as Helena. Illumination was provided by the oculus in the conical roof and perhapsby a window in the apse. 23. Further to the east lay the ruins of the 4th-century basilica.Jerusalem Santo Sepolcro. 168-174. the Crown of Thorns. Vincent and Abel. although their original purpose and dedications are uncertain. it was replaced with the addition of the Crusaders'pilgrimage choir which included radiating chapels of the same dedications. At the center of the courtyard was the omphalosmarking the center of the earth. Stairsled down to a rock-cut chapel. 255-256. A small section of the colonnade survives in the north transept of the Crusader church. .21 The chapels between the Prison and Calvary were dedicated to the Flagellation. 12th-century supports (Figs. identified as the site of the Invention of the Cross. The clerestory zone was apparentlyeliminated or blocked in the process of construction. assumed Vincentand by Nouvelle.23The courtyard also included elevated chapels on the north and south sides. This portion of the Constantine Monomachus building project was not substantiallyaltered by the Crusaders. Mosaics decorated the niches of this zone and can still be detected in the 1681 view of the interior by LeBrun (Fig. c. Plan at ground and gallerylevels (Curcic).' U \\ I . . Jerusalem. and the Division of the Garments. forming a sort of Via Dolorosa 20.II. 10. 21. Helena in the following century. IIE . -I B M o.22 This portion of the complex is known only from medieval descriptions. Three chapels survive in the southeast corner above Calvary.norwas it the cryptof the basilica.and survived relatively intact until the fire of 1808. .OUSTERHOUT: CONSTANTINE MONOMACHUS AND THE HOLY SEPULCHRE 71 rr--i r-i *i-*---: : :' . 255. triporticus. in miniature. corresponding to the gallery level of the rotunda. looking west. .II. sulting from a dearth of the latter.Jerusalem Nouvelle.see Corbo. for clarification. 256 and fig. The porticoed courtyard also followed the plan of the 4thcentury triporticus. 11. the room in the northeast corner had been identified as the Prison of Christ.. Abel. hidden behind the larger. Vincent and Abel. 123.Jerusalem Nouvelle.. Vincent and Abel. incorporating relics brought from elsewhere in the city. Theotokos of Lips. . . . II.II. Holy Sepulchre. = A = I i North colonnade 11th-century of Fig. This was expanded into the chapel of St. 907. . I.iN. One of these 22.
Demangel and E. XLVIII:1. Fig. 278-298. raphy. Borchhardt et al. formalincorporation 1136)in Constantinople. The chapels. 1977. "The Original Oaks Form of the Theotokos Church of Constantine Lips. For questions of function and iconogFonction annexesdes eglisesbyzantines. 1964. Babic. James. the apse of this chapel still appearsbelow the Crusaders'belfry. with the Theotokosof Lips.72 JSAH. Paris. Reconstructed Fig. Peschlow.II.26The alignment apses Constantinople also evidentat the reflectsa commonpractice. Berlin. 25. Ichnographiae 1962. part of a small Greek monastery. 34. Nicholas at Myra (9th century and later) and St. Les chapelles et Paris. George. across. Theotokos Lips. Two additional chapels were added to this: a large baptisteryand a chapel dedicated to St. 1939. 92-94 and fig. the Theotokos of Lips (c. see G. Megaw. its use as an organizational focus for a complex of buildings is similar to St. For St.Although covered by a wooden roof. of mal incorporation annexedchapelsinto the overalldesign The satellitearreflectsa commonmiddleByzantinepractice. a chapel dedicated to St. Jerusalem. sandwiched between the 4th-century walls of the Anastasistransept and the patriarchate. of fromnorthwest Oaks).25 Sanctae(1724-1744). see U. span of the rotunda probably caused some consternationfor the Byzantine builders who were used to working on a much smaller scale. 1118of the Similarly.Substantial courses in bricktechnique.24 a treasury and is inaccessible. which alternating recessed so-called behindwhat and of brickaresetbackfromthe surface concealed IstanbulerForschungen 30. The forGeorge of Mangana (1042-1055) in Constantinople. Myra.c. (Megaw. 94-110. Terrae Monumentorum 24. Jerusalem. with further references. 1969. for example. Nicholas. centurymasonry. iconographiques. the east faSade Theotokosof Lips and the Pantokrator Monastery(c. Mary was added. elevatedchapels were reached a walkwayon an upperlevel. To the north of the rotunda. the abandonment of the Early Christianbasilicais not surprising:churches generally decreased in size in the Byzantine period. 1975. XXXVI." Dumbarton Papers. MARCH 1989 of view. 907. 13. 12. The baptistery. E.similarly portionsof the buildingareexecutedin the tinople. alsobe compared elevated may chapels. 26. Still. Santo Sepokro. H. If we make allowances for the unique nature of the site and the reuse of the 4th-century elements. and is thus slightly larger than the contemporaneous naos of Nea Moni on Chios. also Corbo.. are each comparable in size to a normal Byzantine church of the period. of rangement chapelsflankingthe main churchmay be comwith the churchat YilancaBayir(9th century?) outjust pared or side Constantinople. measures about 9 m. John the Evangelist. dedicated to St.11 and12). and the third is covered by an exposed dome. Several elements of the plan of the Holy Sepulchre may be compared to middle Byzantine architecture. Holy Sepulchre. 907) in with of (Figs. see S.A symmetrical counterpartwas constructed to the south. 19-37. see A. pl. Although the courtyardwas taken over from the Early Christian building.XVIII. Constantinople. in J. this of An analysis the construction techniquesupports sugwith Constana directconnection indicating gestion. the 21 m. The three chapels were connected by a western narthex. The numerous by or suggestthat an architectfrom Constantinople comparisons of with the architecture thatcitywasresponsible atleastfamiliar for the plan. was identified by Horn as the chapel of Melchisedech and AbraAnother now serves as ham. Horn. 303-359. Le quartier Manganeset la premiere regionde Constantinople. Curcic. For a more detailed discussionof the Theotokos of Lips.courtesy Dumbarton detailof 1ltheast Rotunda facade. For these and other examples of the formal incorporation of subsidiarychapels in the period. In this respect. for St. S."JSAH. see des R. dwarfed by the rotunda. the restoration of the Holy Sepulchre fits well into our picture of middle Byzantine architecture. "Architectural Significance of SubsidiaryChapels in Middle Byzantine Architecture. 13. the Holy Sepulchre was huge by Byzantine standards. Mamboury. likethoseaboveCalvary. liturgique programmes . where domed.
Fig. Schafer. 50-59. chapels. V. decorative brick patternsappearin the spandrelsbetween the round-headedwindows (Fig.north facade. 1980. see T. see Demangel and Mamboury. der and Further Examples a Few Remarks."Architekturhistorische ziehungenzwischenByzanzund der KieverRus im 10 and 11 JahrIstanbuler XXIII-XXIV.ir? -cL !*? Elevated Holy Sepulchre. 105-117. the arches include setbacks. and it appears in numerous buildings in the capital and related centers. pls. George of Mangana. is thick.28Moreover. The literature the so-called "The ConcealedCourse sive. At the Holy Sepulchre. are the 1974. C. 21 and 22. see N. as well as the Kosmosoteira Monastery at Pherrai (c. to in a prepared study of incisedmortarbeds Byzantineconstruction on this subject. F. . both the position and patterns correspond with numerous 1 lth. to 12 cm.229-246 andfig. Jerusalem. 289. 146-147 fortheincised Santo Note alsoCorbo. Verbal sinceat leastRoman beenproduced a limitedbasisin Palestine on times. both presumably constructed under Constantinopolitan influence. 1152). 14). For illustrations.KiIhf i uEF.27 struction often alternates with bands of stone. and all of it appearsto have been produced locally. Sinos. des 30. 62-64 (Pantepoptes). fromthe excavator. In addition to the construction technique. see Schafer. Zuliani. George. well as a discussion the transmission Bethis techniqueto Russia. Mathews. in Isa und also Bonn. brick is used only in the 1 lth-century portions of the Holy Sepulchre. 202-204 (Philanthropos). hundert. 255: Jerusalem.30 On the north faSade of the rotunda transept. see the Nea Churchbuiltby Justinian. 14. 1975.fromsoutheast. In addition."JahrbuchOsterTechnique: reichischen XXVIII. Y. triangularand semicircularpilaster strips are combined at the angles (Fig. For St. the Kilise Camii (c. 207 andfig. These features are also common in the Constantinopolitan architecture of the same period. "Considerazioni sul Arte Veneta. cut stone construction was far more common. 197-224. such as the Pantepoptes. 15. DiscoveringJerusalem. brick constructionis extremely rarein the Holy Land. and there is an attempt to align the radiating brick voussoirs through the setbacks. for Chernigov.OUSTERHOUT: CONSTANTINE MONOMACHUS AND THE HOLY SEPULCHRE 'o ." pl. The same combination of forms appears articulatingthe atrium walls of St. bricks 4. On the drum of the dome of one of the elevated chapels. 1036). 13). 1100?) and the substructureof the Philanthropos Monastery (12th century).I 1 )^ 73 I ~~u.Brickhad information 29. windows. 1973-1974." XXIX. 91.figs. 1976. 1979. Marco.31 The brick conappear to be exceedingly wide mortarbeds. In the windows at the Holy Sepulchre. S. 90 (Kilise Camii). built by masons from the capital. ences.I am grateful to her for discussions appearin RoleveveRestorasyon at of analysis the brickconstruction the Holy Althougha moredetailed evidencewas lost was Sepulchre impossible-and much construction in the recentrestoration-the brickmay represent spoliafrom other Jerusalem churches in ruins in the 11th century. The Byzantine Churchesof A Istanbul: Photographic Survey. Although somewhat clumsily executed. Die Klosterkirche Kosin mosoteira Bera (Vira). thick. Schifer. Corbo. "Architekturhistorische Beziehungen. 1985. 6. Sepolcro. see F. 15). liii4L~ >r.the mortar greyish.while thejoints are9 cm. III.5 cm. Marco in Venice (1064) and on the apse of the cathedral of Chernigov (c. Avigad. brick. see most recentlyP. Holy Sepulchre. both the Tenth Legionmanufactured roofingtiles andbricksbearing of Brickwas also employedin the construction identification stamps. The recessedbrick technique was a hallmark of Constantinopolitan construction in the 11th and 12th centuries. for S..29 is bricktechnique extenon recessed 27. Avigad. According to Corbo.beforerepointing. "Architekturhistorische der Beziehungen.Although bricks had been produced in Palestine since Roman times. KapiMescidi MedresesiIstanbul. with furtherreferByzantinistik. Similar details also appearon the faSade of S. Incisedjoints were also common. lessico architettonicodella San Marco Contariniana. Pa. Jerusalem. coupled vertical incisions appearin the mortar. but includessomecrushed of of as 28. Sophia in Nicaea (additions after 1065).perhaps imitating the joints between bricks. Dergisi. a number of decorative details also compare favorably with Constantinopolitan architecture.. George of Manganaand Christos ho Pantepoptes (before 1087) in Constantinople and H. 247-260. Quartier Manganes. as at St. Byzantinisches Archiv 16.see H. fig. Munich. photographs Otiikenhas on mortarbeds the elevated chapeldome.University Park. L. Vocotopoulos.gallery Fig. 31.Rotunda." pl. Otiiken." Mitteilungen.and 12th-century buildings from Constantinople. For illustrations. to 5 cm. and the broad mortarbeds are incised along the brick courses (Fig. S.
35 see Diakosmouste ByzantineArchitektonike. 12-13. Perhaps Denys Pringle has recently indicated that Christian architecturewas being constructed in and around most significantly. C. esp. StrzyZeitschrif.7 and 1. in Chios show bandedvoussoirs the archesof the naos. vaulting of in- Fig. 4th 32. 5-46. locatedjust outside Jerusalem. looking southeast. Another feature. A. 83. however. 1896." Byzantinische ViArchitektur M.Hermeneia Exoterikou temporaneouswith this phase of the Holy Sepulchre (Fig. Vogiatzes." ed. Holy Sepulchre. Jerusalem. for example the Monastery of the Cross.1986. A.74 JSAH. Chapel of Golgotha. Pringle. banded squaredstone construction in the walls.34 and Cappadocia in buildings of an 11th-century date. 1. Nesebar. In the chapel of Golgotha vocabulary. 16. Creswell. C. 16 and 17). fig. British Archaeological Reports International Series 152. V. from the late 8th century. II. Archaiologias Technes. Restle.442. furthercommentson the construction arches tou in the recessed bricktechnique.lookingnorthwest.8. Oxford. XLVIII:1. alarchitectureof the region. John of 'Ain . it appears that supplies of brick were extremely limited in the construction of the Holy Sepulchre-quite possibly the brick represents spolia taken from other ruined churches of the city. 1. fig. gia tes istoriatou katholikou Neas MonesChiou. the Holy Sepulchre and also built by Constantinopolitan masons better comparisons may be made with the local Christian arunder the patronage of Constantine Monomachus. In this case the use of such banding may indicate an attempt at the conservation of building materials.12.33 Could surviving Roman masonry similar to this have provided the inspiration for the banded arches at the Holy Sepulchre? On the other hand. Holy Sepulchre. Oxford. G. "Nea Moni auf Chios. 20). 33. 35. "Church-Building in Palestine before the Crusades. 1988. 33. 33-34. Early Muslim Architecture. banded voussoirs were also employed in the 3d-century Roman construction of the Qasr ash-Sham at Cairo (Fig. Fig. as well as at St. pls. Elevated chapel. 1982. enna. 1952. These featurescorrespondmore closely to the Islamic voussoirs are somewhat unusual in the mid 11th century. although part of the Byzantine decorative Not all of the 1 th-century Holy Sepulchre was built in the is somewhat enigmatic. The church is dated 1038-1056 and is conof For 70-88 (Pherrai). MARCH 1989 terior.32It should chitecture. Early Christianand Byzantine Architecture. recessed brick technique. pls. 161-164. D. R. a building contemporaneous with Jerusalemduring the 11th century by a local workshop strongly influenced by the Muslim architecture of the region. Krautheimer. 23. revised edition. 65ff. Creswell. gowski. 19).with further examples further see Kilise in the Peristrema For the Karagedik valley of Cappadocia. TheMuslimArchitectureofEgypt. 147. aland in the elevated chapel."Ogdoo ByzanSymposio kai tineskai Metabyzantines Athens. Intriguingly. though similarly banded voussoirs appearat Backovo. banded baptistery wing illustrates (Fig. bandedvoussoirswere employed in the katholikon of Nea Moni on Chios. as for example at the cistern at Ramla.see J. Oxford. 17. Common in late Byzantine architecture. fig. I. as well as slightly pointed arches. Studienzur friihbyzantinischen Kappadokiens. pl. 18). Older photographs of Nea Moni on S. morerecently. K. as an examination of the voussoirs are employed. "Ne6tera stoicheia tenoikodomike 2-4. 1984. be noted that this detail was ultimately part of the architectural heritage of ancient Rome. II. K. in CrusaderArt theTwelfthCentury. Velenis. Thus. Folda. 1979. and references. 34. Here one finds roughly ternatingbrick and stone elements in the archconstruction (Figs. Pringle suggests that the cross-in-squareplan of the church at Monastery of the Cross. Thessaloniki. 1969. Jerusalem. byJ.
105ff. Late Roman wall (Creswell)."Jahrbuch Byzantinistik. use in seriesis not. 498-502. -~~ ~~. Karim. No of andat the laterMasshad HusaynatAleppo. SeeG... in the technique materials with which it was mostfamiliar. and to numerous In fromthe sameperiod. (Fig. 38. d'angle.. forms. Eventhe chevronpattern the squinches of betrays construction Constantinopolitan practices. While groinvaults arecommonin Byzantine their architecture. builtby Byzantine brought sentto Palestine byzantinon tesKonstantinoupoleos. of of Palestine..andratherthantrumpet squinches..But the intermediate survives. eastfacade. Holy Sepulchre. archesareslightlypointed. was apparently builtby the masons fromConstantinople.fig. the conchesare conof from a central. otherIslamic examples the corner conches alternate eitherwindowsor smallniches with of above the cornice.The construction the small niches also indicatesthe Islamicheritage. 554.creatinga sortof sunrisepattern. ofEgypt. Millet.The most commonform is a groin of vaultusedin series. - ~ wing. of Two of the 11th-centurychapelswere topped by domed for one octagons.the 11th-centuryHoly Sepulchre emergesas the productof two teamsof masonsunderthe dithat fromConstantinople.r r? ? i f*g=' Aw.In these. X L~? r?.618.An elevatedchapelaboveCalvaryis partially in the recessed structed bricktechniqueand employstrumpet for to squinches the transition.fora theoretical fig. the "eglise trompes Architecture.In contrastto the elevatedchapel. The assumption a local workshopwas involvedin the that of reconstruction the Holy Sepulchreis reinforced an exby amination the vaulting..for the of the numerous also "Sardis E-A PrelimChurch following treaty 1036..semicirthat radiate structed stonevoussoirs This form is uncularstone.=S?? ) t _r"* s z -t ~ > ~ ..5451916.hencethe two different was or kterion architects Athens. 109. H.. Creswell. as-Sarakh. and In addition. dans Paris. 290-291.as maybe seenin the galleryof the rotunda andin the northportico(Figs.it would seem that eachworkshopwas left to determinethe ultimateformof vaulting.21 and 10). 23). otherby the local the conworkshop. These are in at semicircular plan with setbacks the cornice..fig. the transitionto is Construction of stone.. grecque I'architecture byzantine. Muslim for a For and I. 18. 100.fig.Whilethe planmaybe imported. keramoplastikos ..38 doubtcloser will be found.OUSTERHOUT: CONSTANTINE MONOMACHUS AND THE HOLY SEPULCHRE 75 ''f''g' 8-~i ? .." thechevron Early Ho W-chevron see diakosmos ton 577. Jerusalem. 1977. octagonfollows Islamicprototypes. 22).37 thebaptistery.II. both fromthe early8th century. A. Baptistery Fig. examples.. the two workshops operated independently built eachgroupof masons Oncethe planhadbeendetermined. Buchwald. 24.. domeis now missing. 11-14. Qasr ash-Sham.anda lowerroof zone still level was addedat a laterdate...pls. expandedcornerconches are employed(Fig.. 17). Creswell.. 19..L'ecole Muslim Architecture 63-106. examples From our examination. Hammam as-Sarakh 24). 36. of the thronenicheat Kirbat or in the calidarium the al-Mafjar... ' ''I 4~ e 1 w *_t_ c"?Z.. and forms certainly to construction are der Osterreichischen XXVI..36 the At the baptistery. with discussion theorigin suchforms.. in usual. as in but appears severalearlierIslamicmonuments. Cairo. -'r ' '' h _ :-@>ALi' Fig. 1973. comparable thoseat HosiosLoukas(Fig.. Pasadaios.The form is almostidenticalto the slightly earlierdome abovethe mihrab of the al-HakimMosquein Cairo(Fig...Z*?lr \ 7 .. --eXdX... appears It rectionof a headarchitect for the most part. compare theHammam 37.Conveniently our discussion. Both this aspectandthe rubble construction closely correspond with the Monastery the Cross. inary indigenous technique vaulting Report.
76 JSAH. perhaps after the departureof the former. in a manner more closely akin to Islamicworkmanship. In the gallery of the rotunda. In both areas of the gallery level. figs. lookingsoutheast. are of rather sloppy workmanship. 22. II. In addition. but the uppermost stages are decidedly un-Byzantine: the transition from octagon to circle is made by means of corbels. such as the triportico.. Jerusalem. Jerusalem.39In any case. '- of of looking Monastery the Cross. Fig. the transition to octagon and the construction technique are clearly Constantinopolitan. 1038-1056 (Pringle). 139-140. however. Vincent and Abel.: . and the gallery was covered with groin vaults in series-features that may be associatedwith the local workshop (Fig. Baptistery. we are left with the question of how much interaction and interchange occurred between the two workshops. Some partsare extremely fine in design and detail. types of domed octagons within the same complex. Fig. southwest. In fact. Y . In general the construction of each team can be isolated on technical grounds. Vincent and Abel recorded some brick detail in a niche of the baptistery wing. MARCH 1989 Rotunda gallery. c. it may be that construction was begun by the Constantinopolitan team but completed by the local team. Jerusalem. It should be noted that the quality of the reconstruction is quite uneven. 21). the reconstruction was begun in Byzantine recessed brickwork.Interior church. Fig. such as the dome of the elevated chapel. . as at the al-Hakim mosque. XLVIII:1. There are a few places in the building. for example. an area that would otherwise appearto be the product of the local workshop. In the elevated chapel above Calvary. In most in39. where both teams apparently worked.lookingwest. this may represent a later reconstruction.20. Holy Sepulchre. 21.Je'rusalem Nouvelle. Unfortunately from the drawing it is impossible to determine if this representsrecessed brick construction or alternating brick and stone. 93 and 94. But it was completed in squaredstone. other areas. Holy Sepulchre.
(4th rev. and to Hosios Loukas-the latter occasionally and probably incorrectly attributed to Constantine IX. D. ed. Unfortunately these details from the Crusaders'additions to the Holy Sepulchre remain unpublished. Yonne. with columns and capitals poorly matchedoccasionally with bases used as capitals. 68-70. Corbo. "and other things of that sort that one finds in churches"-certainly outshine the rather miserable building materials available in Jerusalem. 74-76. It is generally agreed that the design of the katholikon Hosios Loukas originated in Constantinople. 24. stances. and the latter's gifts-gold. 1983. see R." Levant. This indicates that supplies were limited. 43. 55-56.44 Moreover. attributes the construction to Constantine IX. liturgical objects. Mosque of al-Hakim. Santo Sepolcro. E. Ousterhout. Chatzidakis. Connor. Rubble groin vaults in series also appear at a number of other Crusader sites. sader rebuilding of the Holy Sepulchre begin to make sense if we assume some local continuity between the mid-1 lth-century building and the early 12th-century reconstruction. . 173-199.41 As suggested by Pringle. While the evidence is equivocal. This contradicts the suggestion I made prior to my visit in 1984 that the brick used in this phase of the building may have been imported: R. forcing the masons to make do with what they could find among the ruined churches of Jerusalem. 1986. Nea Moni on Chios.XII. see Krautheimer. For exFig. There are also Arabic Conference: of records of gifts from the Byzantine court in this period. All of the marble in the building appears to be reused. for more recent comments on patronage. Cairo. "Apropos de la date et du fondateur de Saint-Luc. while funding and workmen were sent from Constantinople. My thanks to Oleg Grabar for this reference and to Mohammad Al-Asad for the translation. vestments. the awkwardness of the forms seems to be the result of working with marble spolia.8th century. 127-150.La nuit de temps XXI." 5-46. like those in the baptistery. based on the account of the 15th-century traveler. The situation of Constantinopolitan masons working in the provinces alongside a local workshop. certain features in the Cruample.IX. All were ostentatious.. ed. 508 n. 1964. for example. 41. pls. the semicircular niches in the Crusaders' dome were constructed with radial stone conches. all under the direction of a master from the capital. "The Byzantine Holy Sepulchre. as well as gifts sent by Michael VII to the Holy Sepulchre. Hammam as-Sarakh. chandeliers. Deschamps. at 44. Krak des Chevaliers.. most scholars prefer the earlier date of 1011 or 1022 proposed by M. 42. photographs 153-157. New marbles were apparently not available for the reconstruction.43 This analysis of the Holy Sepulchre also helps to broaden our understanding of Byzantine architecture in the 11th century. Transept dome (Creswell). the Crusaders' ambulatory and gallery are covered by groin vaults in series. . 45. 13ff. A study of the masons'marksfrom Crusaderchurch buildings suggests a heterogeneous workforce. 28-29. 1970. "Church-Building in Palestine. Pringle. To oikotes domikonchronikon HosiouLoukaPhokidos. for gifts from Constantine IX to al-Mustansiras a part of the renewal of a truce. Early Christian and ByzantineArchitecture. Anne in Jerusalem. and by Michael VI to al-Mustansir." Cahiersarcheologiques. who claimed to have read in a "very old book" kept in the church that it was built by the emperor Monomachus. 61-62. by Muhammad Hamid Allah. Kitab al-Dhakha'irWa al-Tuhaf. Pringle.40 The same reuse of materials may be seen in the surviving "cosmatesque" floor mosaics which still preserve many Early Christian fragments. In addition. is similar to Constantine Monomachus's other surviving provincial foundation." Byzantine Studies Abstracts Papers. constructed of rubble. see P. the crypt of Abou Gosh. 35. TerreSainte romane. 1959. 23. StudiesConference: of .). -~ _ ~ Fig. 1969. and St. Kuwait. see al Qadi alRashid ibn al-Zubayr.' . 990-1013. XIX. Niche in calidarium (Creswell). the identification of a local workshop of masons in Jerusalem has important implications in the study of Crusader architecture. III. at "A Monastic Group Portrait: Therapeia Hosios Loukas. evidently building materials were not imported. 1981." Byzantine Abstracts Papers.OUSTERHOUT: CONSTANTINE MONOMACHUS AND THE HOLY SEPULCHRE 77 r~~~~~~~~--i V:I . jewels. Only by context can these be distinguished from the 11th-century vaults.XIII.t f ?a. In any event. Cyriacus of Ancona. C. Stikas. the exposure of Byzantine masons to Islamic architectural forms at the Holy Sepulchre may have some implications in our under- 40.42 Indeed. "Some Approaches to the Study of Crusader Masonry Marks in Palestine.Athens. 27.
48 Set against this backdrop. forthe text of the Typikon. Wilkinson. For example. A. The "sites" of the Prison.." The VanishingPast: Studiesin Medieval Art. 1981.II. 0. the great work of the prototypal builder of the Old Testament. Ibid. it affected the shape of the ceremonies as well. The ring of Solomon was one of the relics seen by medieval pilgrims at the Holy Sepulchre. 1979. supports Armenian Georgian and domeplan. MARCH 1989 standingof the sourcesand development of the Byzantine domedoctagon plan in the 11th century. A Kartzonis. Demus. LiturgyandMetrology Presented Christopher to Hohler. Fourteen Rulers. 51.Harmondsworth. thus.78 JSAH. Architecture.51Like his imperial predecessors. and the symbolic content of both was enhanced by this relationship. In a like manner. London. II. 1981. to du de 45. "The Lost Apse Mosaic of the Holy Sepulchre.47In the version of the Typikonof Jerusalem employed during the 11th century. Christian ByzanEarly "Domeson corner . 216. XLVIII:1.by Pseudo-Codinus. Papadopoulos-Kerame6s. In the mosaics of Nea Moni on Chios. the medieval Holy Sepulchre could also be interpreted as the New Temple of Jerusalem.1948. Sewter. it was a common motif to compare a prolific builder to Solomon. Perhaps no more eloquent testimony survives to the patronage of Constantine Monomachus.whilemorerecently Krautheimer. I have outdone Thee!" at the dedication of H. 15. Kerame6s. ByzantineMosaicDecoration: Aspects Monumental of see 48. Jerusalem. he could also be hailed as a New Solomon.J. See J. with sites and relics from throughout the city incorporated into the complex. R.. Sophia in Constantinople." in Byzantium. as his biographer.Bonn. 54. and their inclusion allowed them to be assigned a liturgical role in the services of the complex."Lesmonuments l'architecture XIe siecle et et et sociale. historique or sourcefor the octagonan 351-365. 347-360. magically identified with-the places sanctified by Christ's earthly life.255-256.1976. Constantine the Great and Justinian. Borg. Influences the EarlyChristian on Rite 165-166. As noted by Vincent and Abel. the Crown of Thorns.. 255. the figure of Solomon in the Anastasisis given the facial characteristicsof its founder.59. 49.52As the rebuilder of the New Temple ofJerusalem. The Byzantine Holy Sepulchre thus representsa remarkable interaction of a special liturgy and a special setting.54We cannot know if and how Monomachus was represented at the Holy Sepulchre-one wonders if the mosaic of Constantine the Great in the drum of the rotunda may have carriedhis features as well. trans. that is. comments. testified. the Byzantine church "became"Jerusalem. Wilkinson. 1985. regardedbuilding as the Byzantine worst example of "the emperor's foolish excesses. Borg and A. and the Division of the Garments were apparently transferredinto the Holy Sepulchre because of the difficulties encountered with Christian worship elsewhere in the city.Princeton. the contemporaneous work of Constantine Monomachus. M.XCII. At Nea Moni the mosaic portrait-included in the scene most strongly associated with the Holy Sepulchre-could be interpreted as a visual lauding of the emperor as the New Solomon. through its Byzantine reconstruction the Holy Sepulchre was transformed into a Christian microcosm. and the proximity of the chapels and relics to the worshippers would have heightened the sense of the real presence of the commemorated events. the Flagellation. II. and by means of a cord around his neck he was led to his imprisonment and subsequently to Calvary. Psellus. St. 1986. squinches could as from Islamiccountries into havepenetrated Byzantineconstruction well as fromArmenia. 1843. Bonn Corpus. 1966. The situation of Constantinopolitan masons working in the Holy Land alongside and interacting with a locally trained workshop provides a possible source of influence from Arab architecture at the highest level of patronage.British Archaeological Reports International Series 111. by A. see Wilkinson. The present author first associated the portrait of Constantine IX at Nea Moni with the reconstruction of the Holy Sepulchre in a paper given at the Byzantine Studies Conference in 1983. C. 1894. Martindale. Constantine Monomachus also had grand architectural ambitions. 143. While the architectureof the Caucasus is normally cited as the inspiration for this building form. at one point the patriarchassumed the role of Christ.46Decorated with frescoes or mosaics representing the miracles and Passion of Christ. and the subject was repeatedin the Crusaders'choir.49 It appearsthat the architectural setting did not just house the liturgical celebration. D.146-147." Le Museon. In another vein. Papadopoulosesp. . AnalektaIerosolymitikes Stachyologias. "Solomon. The Mosaicsof Nea Moni on Chios.53 Texts indicate that the same scene was represented in the apse of the 11th-century Anastasis Rotunda.50In Byzantine literature.45 It has often been suggested that through its decorative program a Byzantine church could be interpreted topographically.JerusalemPilgrims. andNew Rochelle. The famous quote comes from the Narratiode aedificatione templi SanctaeSophiae. But the Byzantine texts are curiously silent about this part of his building program. Anastasis:The Makingof an Image. A. 52.ed. conceived as an image of-and. Art 46. 1976. Chronographia. offers the same interpretation."Jewish of Jerusalem. Athens. carrying the timionstavron-either a relic of the True Cross or a jeweled cross-on his shoulder. Legend attributes to Justinian the boast. replacing the Temple of Solomon. by E. A. 144-147. tine 340. 6-7. 47. verses read in the courtyard during the Good Friday service refer specifically to each event. the service occasionally introduced a dramaticrecreation of the events of the Passion. Egeria'sTravels theHoly Land. 137-138. discusses the problems with the identification of the figure as the donor.London. the distilled essence of the Jerusalem experienced by Christ. Mango. Michael Psellos. 7-12. 50.JerusalemNouvelle. a possible Arabcontribution to the development must also be considered. Petersburg. leur signification VI. Mouriki." 53. 250."Travaux Mimoires.