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David Sirajuddin

NEEP 548 - Engineering Analysis II

University of Wisconsin - Madison, Professor Leslie Smith

April 7, 2011

First order multiple-scale analysis [1]

Multiple-scale analysis involves perturbation techniques that facilitates the elimination of artiﬁcial resonances that may

develop by consequence of solutions obtained using less careful approximation schemes (WKB, and boundary-layer

theory) to particular diﬀerential equations involving a small parameter ε. Given a general diﬀerential equation in the

function y = y(t) that depends on the variable t, a solution is furnished by seeking a perturbation expansion in the

solution as

y(t) = y

0

(t, τ) + εy

1

(t, τ) + . . . (1)

where τ = εt is identiﬁed as a characteristic long-time scale (τ = O(1) for t = O(ε

−1

), ε 1) that is manifest in a special

set of this class of diﬀerential equations that is applicable to the problems that follow. Given two distinct time scales, the

method pursues solutions in y(t, τ) by treating both the parameters t and τ as independent. Upon making this distinction

between time-scales, multiple-scale analysis proceeds similar to WKB and boundary-layer analysis. The expansion (1) is

inserted directly into a diﬀerential equation, and the corrections in y are extracted from balance statements assembled

for each order O(ε

n

) (n ∈ Q). The presumed independence of the two time variables allows the separation of t and τ

dependent terms in the solution y. Multiple-scale analysis proceeds by choosing the τ-dependent terms such that any

artiﬁcial resonances in higher orders vanish, allowing for a uniformly valid solution to the diﬀerential equation. It is

noted that positing the independence of the variables t and τ is but a contrivance used for convenience in removing

secularities, and ultimately the dependence τ = εt will be recognized. Further, it is emphasized that the supposition

τ = εt only allows solutions to a special set of these diﬀerential equations. For other equations (e.g. Mathieu equation),

diﬀerent dependences must be established for solutions to be obtained.

For the special case of τ = εt, successive derivatives may be calculated of the function y(t, τ). Beginning by translating

total diﬀerential operators:

d

dt

=

∂

∂t

+

∂τ

∂t

.¸¸.

=ε

∂

∂τ

=

∂

∂t

+ ε

∂

∂τ

d

2

dt

2

=

d

dt

_

d

dt

_

=

_

∂

∂t

+ ε

∂

∂τ

__

∂

∂t

+ ε

∂

∂τ

_

=

∂

2

∂t

2

+ 2ε

∂

2

∂t∂τ

+ ε

2

∂

2

∂τ

2

Applying these operators to the expansion y(t) = y

0

+ εy

1

+ . . . gives the ﬁrst and second derivatives:

dy

dt

=

d

dt

y

0

+ ε

d

dt

y

1

+ . . .

=

_

∂

∂t

+ ε

∂

∂τ

_

y

0

+ ε

_

∂

∂t

+ ε

∂

∂τ

_

y

1

+ . . .

⇒

dy

dt

=

∂y

0

∂t

+ ε

_

∂y

0

∂τ

+

∂y

1

∂t

_

+O(ε

2

) (2)

and,

1

Sirajuddin, David Homework 5 – NEEP 548, Spring 2011

d

2

y

dt

2

=

d

2

dt

2

y

0

+ ε

d

2

dt

2

y

1

+ . . .

=

_

∂

2

∂t

2

+ 2ε

∂

2

∂t∂τ

+ ε

2

∂

2

∂τ

2

_

y

0

+ ε

_

∂

2

∂t

2

+ 2ε

∂

2

∂t∂τ

+ ε

2

∂

2

∂τ

2

_

y

1

⇒

d

2

y

dt

2

=

∂

2

y

0

∂t

2

+ ε

_

2

∂

2

y

0

∂t∂τ

+

∂

2

y

1

∂t

2

_

+O(ε

2

) (3)

These derivatives will be used throughout the subsequent problem solutions.

Problems and solutions

1. (Bender and Orszag Problem 11.11)

The Van der Pol equation is given by d

2

y/dt

2

+y −ε(1−y

2

)dy/dt = 0. For arbitrary initial conditions the solution

to this equation approaches a limit cycle. Find the approach to this limit cycle using multiple-scale perturbation

theory.

The Van der Pol equation may be rewritten as:

0 =

d

2

y

dt

2

+ y −ε(1 −y

2

)

dy

dt

0 =

d

2

y

dt

2

+ y −ε

dy

dt

+ εy

2

dy

dt

Inserting the expansion y(t) = y

0

+ εy

1

+ . . . and the calculated derivatives (2) and (3) above provides

0 =

∂

2

y

0

∂t

2

+ ε

_

2

∂

2

y

0

∂t∂τ

+

∂

2

y

1

∂t

2

_

+ y

0

+ εy

1

−ε

_

∂y

0

∂t

+ ε

_

∂y

0

∂τ

+

∂y

1

∂t

__

+ ε (y

0

+ εy

1

)

2

. ¸¸ .

=(y

2

0

+2εy0y1+ε

2

y

2

1

)

_

∂y

0

∂t

+ ε

_

∂y

0

∂τ

+

∂y

1

∂t

__

0 =

∂

2

y

0

∂t

2

+ ε

_

2

∂

2

y

0

∂t∂τ

+

∂

2

y

1

∂t

2

_

+ y

0

+ εy

1

−ε

_

∂y

0

∂t

+ ε

_

∂y

0

∂τ

+

∂y

1

∂t

__

+ ε(y

2

0

+ 2εy

0

y

1

+ ε

2

y

2

1

)

_

∂y

0

∂t

+ ε

_

∂y

0

∂τ

+

∂y

1

∂t

__

Collecting terms in order O(ε

n

) , for n ∈ N

0

:

O(1) :

∂

2

y0

∂t

2

+ y

0

= 0 (4)

and

O(ε) : 2

∂

2

y0

∂t∂τ

+

∂

2

y1

∂t

2

+ y

1

−

∂y0

∂t

+ y

2

0

∂y0

∂t

= 0

⇒O(ε) :

∂

2

y1

∂t

2

+ y

1

=

∂y

0

∂t

−2

∂

2

y

0

∂t∂τ

−y

2

0

∂y

0

∂t

(5)

Solving the order O(1) balance, a solution is seeked of the form y

0

∼ e

λt

, where it is found that solutions exist for

λ = ±i, implying solutions of the form

y

0

(t, τ) = A(τ)e

it

+ B(τ)e

−it

The coeﬃcient functions A(τ) and B(τ) may be shown to be complex conjugates of each other by writing [2]:

2

Sirajuddin, David Homework 5 – NEEP 548, Spring 2011

A(τ) = a

R

+ ia

I

B(τ) = b

R

+ ib

I

Invoking Euler’s formula allows the solution y

0

to be stated as:

y

0

= (a

R

+ ia

I

)(cos t + i sin t) + (b

R

+ ib

I

)(cos t −i sin t)

Enforcing real solutions implies the imaginary part of the above must independently vanish:

Im[y

0

] = 0 = a

I

cos t + a

R

sin t + b

I

cos t −b

R

sin t

0 = (a

I

+ b

I

) cos t + (a

R

−b

R

) sin t

Given that the functions cos t and sin t are linearly independent, the above statement can only be true if their

coeﬃcients vanish. That is, if

a

R

= b

R

, a

I

= −b

I

, ⇒ B(τ) = A

∗

(τ)

where A

∗

(τ) is the complex conjugate of A. Thus, the most general form of the solution y may be expressed as

y

0

(t, τ) = A(τ)e

it

+ A

∗

(τ)e

−it

The coeﬃcient A(τ) is chosen such that no secularities are present in the order O(ε) equation. Computing terms

on the right-hand side of Eqn. (5):

y

0

= A(τ)e

it

+ A

∗

(τ)e

−it

(6)

∂y

0

∂t

= i

_

A(τ)e

it

−A

∗

e

−it

_

(7)

∂

2

y

0

∂t∂τ

=

∂

2

y

0

∂τ∂t

= i

_

∂A

∂τ

e

it

−

∂A

∗

∂τ

e

−it

_

(8)

So that the order O(ε) balance yields

3

Sirajuddin, David Homework 5 – NEEP 548, Spring 2011

O(ε) :

∂

2

y

1

∂t

2

+ y

1

=

∂y

0

∂t

−2

∂

2

y

0

∂t∂τ

−y

2

0

∂y

0

∂t

= i

_

A(τ)e

it

−A

∗

(τ)e

−it

_

−2i

_

∂A

∂τ

e

it

−

∂A

∗

∂τ

e

−it

_

−

_

A(τ)e

it

+ A

∗

(τ)e

−it

_

2

. ¸¸ .

=A

2

e

2it

+2AA

∗

+(A

∗

)

2

e

−2it

i

_

A(τ)e

it

−A

∗

e

−it

_

=

£

i

_

A(τ)e

it

−A

∗

(τ)e

−it

_

−2

£

i

_

∂A

∂τ

e

it

−

∂A

∗

∂τ

e

−it

_

−

£

i(A

2

e

2it

+ 2AA

∗

+ (A

∗

)

2

e

−2it

)

_

A(τ)e

it

−A

∗

e

−it

_

=

_

Ae

it

−A

∗

e

−it

_

−2

_

∂A

∂τ

e

it

−

∂A

∗

∂τ

e

−it

_

−(A

2

e

2it

+ 2AA

∗

+ (A

∗

)

2

e

−2it

)

_

Ae

it

−A

∗

e

−it

_

= Ae

it

−A

∗

e

−it

−2

∂A

∂τ

e

it

+ 2

∂A

∗

∂τ

e

−it

−A

3

e

3it

+ A

2

A

∗

e

it

−2A

2

A

∗

e

it

. ¸¸ .

=−A

2

A

∗

e

it

+2A(A

∗

)

2

e

−it

−A(A

∗

)

2

e

−it

. ¸¸ .

=A(A

∗

)

2

e

−it

+(A

∗

)

3

e

−3it

= Ae

it

−A

∗

e

−it

−2

∂A

∂τ

e

it

+ 2

∂A

∗

∂τ

e

−it

−A

3

e

3it

−A

2

A

∗

e

it

+ A(A

∗

)

2

e

−it

+ (A

∗

)

3

e

−3it

∂

2

y

1

∂t

2

+ y

1

= (A

∗

)

3

e

−3it

−A

3

e

3it

+

_

A−2

∂A

∂τ

−A

2

A

∗

_

e

it

+

_

−A

∗

+ 2

∂A

∗

∂τ

+ A(A

∗

)

2

_

e

−it

Noting that the homogeneous solution to this equation is y

1

∼ e

±it

, implies resonances are present in the above

diﬀerential equation. As per the procedure of multiple-scale analysis, the coeﬃcient A may be chosen such that

these secularities vanish. The two homogeneous solutions y ∼ e

±it

provide two constraints:

0 = A−2

∂A

∂τ

−A

2

A

∗

0 = −A

∗

+ 2

∂A

∗

∂τ

+ A(A

∗

)

2

However, these two equations are seen to redundant in that it may be shown upon multiplication of both equations

by the imaginary number i that the two equations are complex conjugates of each other. Thus, either equation

may be worked with to determine the coeﬃcient function A(τ). Using the ﬁrst equation, and expressing the

complex-valued function A(τ) = R(τ)e

iθ(τ)

,

4

Sirajuddin, David Homework 5 – NEEP 548, Spring 2011

0 = R(τ)e

iθ(τ)

−2

∂

∂τ

_

R(τ)e

iθ(τ)

_

−

_

R(τ)e

iθ(τ)

_

2

_

R(τ)e

iθ(τ)

_

∗

= Re

iθ

−2

_

dR

dτ

+ iR

dθ

dτ

_

e

iθ

−

_

R

2

e

2iθ

_ _

R

∗

e

−iθ

_

= Re

iθ

−2

_

dR

dτ

+ iR

dθ

dτ

_

e

iθ

−R

3

e

iθ

, (R

∗

= R, R ∈ R)

0 =

_

R −2

_

dR

dτ

+ iR

dθ

dτ

_

−R

3

_

e

iθ

⇒0 = R −2

_

dR

dτ

+ iR

dθ

dτ

_

−R

3

, (e

iθ

= 0)

⇒0 =

_

R −2

dR

dτ

−R

3

_

−2iR

dθ

dτ

Where in the second step, it is noted that the partial diﬀerential operators have been interchanged with ordinary

operators in recognition that the functions R and θ are solely a function of the independent variable τ. The real

and imaginary parts must vanish independently, giving two governing diﬀerential equations for the quantities R

and θ:

R −2

dR

dτ

−R

3

= 0 (9)

−2R

dθ

dτ

= 0 (10)

For the arbitrary initial condition θ(0) = θ

0

, Eqn. (10) is solved,

−2R

dθ

dτ

= 0

dθ

dτ

= 0, R = 0

⇒θ(τ) = θ

0

The diﬀerential equation for R implies:

R −2

dR

dτ

−R

3

= 0

2

dR

dτ

= R −R

3

= R(1 −R

2

)

dR

R(1 −R

2

)

=

1

2

dτ

dR

_

C

R

+

DR + E

1 −R

2

_

=

1

2

dτ (11)

Where in the ﬁnal step, a partial fractions decomposition is seeked in the to be determined coeﬃcients C, D, and

E,

5

Sirajuddin, David Homework 5 – NEEP 548, Spring 2011

1

R(1 −R

2

)

=

C

R

+

DR + E

1 −R

2

1 = C(1 −R

2

) + (DR + E)R

1 = C −CR

2

+ DR

2

+ ER

1 = C + ER + (D −C)R

2

Constructing coeﬃcient equations:

O(1) : 1 = C

O(R) : 0 = E

O(R

2

) : 0 = D −C ⇒D = C = 1

So that

1

R(1 −R

2

)

=

1

R

+

R

1 −R

2

Then, Eqn. (11) admits

dR

_

C

R

+

DR + E

1 −R

2

_

=

1

2

dτ

dR

R

+

dRR

1 −R

2

=

1

2

dτ

d ln R −

1

2

ln(1 −R

2

) =

1

2

dτ

ln R −

1

2

ln(1 −R

2

) =

1

2

τ + F, F = constant

ln

R

√

1 −R

2

=

1

2

τ + F

R

√

1 −R

2

= Ge

τ/2

, G = e

F

= constant

Letting τ = 0 gives the value of G in terms of the function value R(0) = R

0

:

G =

R

0

_

1 −R

2

0

Further, the function R(τ) may be obtained

6

Sirajuddin, David Homework 5 – NEEP 548, Spring 2011

R

√

1 −R

2

= Ge

τ/2

R

2

1 −R

2

= G

2

e

τ

R

2

= G

2

e

τ

(1 −R

2

)

R

2

(1 + G

2

e

τ

) = G

2

e

τ

⇒R

2

=

G

2

e

τ

1 + G

2

e

τ

=

1

e

−τ

/G

2

+ 1

=

1

e

−τ

1−R

2

0

R

2

0

+ 1

,

1

G

2

=

1 −R

2

0

R

2

0

=

R

2

0

e

−τ

(1 −R

2

0

) + R

2

0

R

2

=

R

2

0

e

−τ

+ (1 −e

−τ

)R

2

0

⇒R(τ) =

R

0

_

e

−τ

+ (1 −e

−τ

)R

2

0

Where the positive sign of the square root has been chosen in recognition that in the complex representation

A = Re

iθ

, the radius R is strictly positive. Thus, the coeﬃcient function

A(τ) = Re

iθ

=

R

0

_

e

−τ

+ (1 −e

−τ

)R

2

0

e

iθ0

which allows the solution y(t) to be constructed:

y

0

(t, τ) = A(τ)e

it

+ A

∗

(τ)e

−it

=

R

0

_

e

−τ

+ (1 −e

−τ

)R

2

0

_

e

i(θ0+t)

+ e

−i(θ0+t)

_

. ¸¸ .

=2 cos(θ0+t)

y

0

(t, τ) =

2R

0

cos(θ

0

+ t)

_

e

−τ

+ (1 −e

−τ

)R

2

0

Recalling that τ = εt, and that y(t) = y

0

+ εy

1

+ . . ., the full solution may be written down

y(t) =

2R

0

cos(θ

0

+ t)

_

e

−εt

+ (1 −e

−εt

)R

2

0

+O(ε)

Where R

0

and θ

0

are constants which may be determined from initial conditions on the solution y(t) and its

derivative.

Noting that e

−εt

→0 as t →∞, while cos(θ

0

+t) is oscillates between ±1, it is seen that the solution y approaches

a limit cycle

7

Sirajuddin, David Homework 5 – NEEP 548, Spring 2011

y

0

(t →∞) = lim

t→∞

2R

0

cos(θ

0

+ t)

_

e

−εt

+ (1 −e

−εt

)R

2

0

=

2R

0

cos(θ

0

+ t)

_

R

2

0

=

2

&

& R

0

cos(θ

0

+ t)

&

& R

0

y

0

= 2 cos(θ

0

+ t)

So that the limit cycle approached is seen to be

y(t →∞) = 2 cos(θ

0

+ t) +O(ε)

The limit cycle may be visualized in the phase plane of y and y

.

2. (Bender and Orszag Problem 11.14)

Use multiple-scale perturbation theory to ﬁnd a leading-order approximation to ¨ y + y + ε ˙ yy

2

= 0 [y(0) = 1, ˙ y(0) =

0, ε > 0]

The leading-order behavior corresponds to the solution y

0

in the expansion y(t) = y

0

+ εy

1

+ . . .. Inserting this

expansion, as well as the general derivatives (2) and (3) into the diﬀerential equation gives

0 = ¨ y + y + ε ˙ yy

2

=

∂

2

y

0

∂t

2

+ ε

_

2

∂

2

y

0

∂τ∂t

+

∂

2

y

1

∂t

2

_

+ y

0

+ εy

1

+ ε

_

∂y

0

∂t

+ ε

_

∂y

0

∂τ

+

∂y

1

∂t

__

(y

0

+ εy

1

)

2

=

∂

2

y

0

∂t

2

+ ε

_

2

∂

2

y

0

∂τ∂t

+

∂

2

y

1

∂t

2

_

+ y

0

+ εy

1

+ ε

_

∂y

0

∂t

+ ε

_

∂y

0

∂τ

+

∂y

1

∂t

__

(y

2

0

+ 2εy

0

y

1

+ ε

2

y

2

1

)

Balancing terms in order O(ε

n

) for n = {0, 1}:

O(1) :

∂

2

y0

∂t

2

+ y

0

= 0 (12)

O(ε) : 2

∂

2

y0

∂τ∂t

+

∂

2

y1

∂t

2

+ y

1

+

∂y0

∂t

y

2

0

= 0

⇒O(ε) :

∂

2

y1

∂t

2

+ y

1

= −2

∂

2

y

0

∂τ∂t

−

∂y

0

∂t

y

2

0

(13)

Solving Eqn. (12) by seeking exponential solutions y

0

∼ e

λt

⇒λ = ±i admits the solutions

y

0

(t, τ) = A(τ)e

it

+ B(τ)e

−it

where, as before, the coeﬃcient functions A and B may be shown to be complex conjugates of each other, allowing

y

0

(t, τ) = A(τ)e

it

+ A

∗

(τ)e

−it

where A

∗

is the complex conjugate of the coeﬃcient A. The solution of y

0

is of the same general form as in problem

11.11, where the derivatives on the right-hand side of the order O(ε) balance were calculated as per Eqns. (6),

(7), and (8), and are repeated here for convenience:

8

Sirajuddin, David Homework 5 – NEEP 548, Spring 2011

y

0

= A(τ)e

it

+ A

∗

(τ)e

−it

∂y

0

∂t

= i

_

A(τ)e

it

−A

∗

(τ)e

−it

_

∂

2

y

0

∂t∂τ

=

∂

2

y

0

∂τ∂t

= i

_

∂A

∂τ

e

it

−

∂A

∗

∂τ

e

−it

_

Inputing these terms into Eqn. (13) then yields,

∂

2

y

1

∂t

2

+ y

1

= −2

∂

2

y

0

∂τ∂t

−

∂y

0

∂t

y

2

0

= −2i

_

∂A

∂τ

e

it

−

∂A

∗

∂τ

e

−it

_

−i

_

Ae

it

−A

∗

e

−it

_

(Ae

it

+ A

∗

e

−it

)

2

= −2

£

i

_

∂A

∂τ

e

it

−

∂A

∗

∂τ

e

−it

_

−

£

i

_

Ae

it

−A

∗

e

−it

_

(A

2

e

it

+ 2AA

∗

+ (A

∗

)

2

e

−2it

)

= −2

_

∂A

∂τ

e

it

−

∂A

∗

∂τ

e

−it

_

−

_

Ae

it

−A

∗

e

−it

_

(A

2

e

2it

+ 2AA

∗

+ (A

∗

)

2

e

−2it

)

= −2

∂A

∂τ

e

it

+ 2

∂A

∗

∂τ

e

−it

−A

3

e

3it

−2A

2

A

∗

e

it

−A(A

∗

)

2

e

−it

+ A

2

A

∗

e

it

+ 2A(A

∗

)

2

e

−it

+ (A

∗

)

3

e

−3it

= (A

∗

)

3

e

−3it

−A

3

e

3it

+

_

−2

∂A

∂τ

−2A

2

A

∗

+ A

2

A

∗

_

e

it

+

_

2

∂A

∗

∂τ

+ 2A(A

∗

)

2

−A(A

∗

)

2

_

e

−it

= (A

∗

)

3

e

−3it

−A

3

e

3it

+

_

−2

∂A

∂τ

−A

2

A

∗

_

e

it

+

_

2

∂A

∗

∂τ

+ A(A

∗

)

2

_

e

−it

∂

2

y

1

∂t

2

+ y

1

= (A

∗

)

3

e

−3it

−A

3

e

3it

−

_

2

∂A

∂τ

+ A

2

A

∗

_

e

it

+

_

2

∂A

∗

∂τ

+ A(A

∗

)

2

_

e

−it

Noting that the homogeneous solution to this equation y

1

∼ e

±it

, the corresponding terms on the right-hand side

of the above diﬀerential equation present artiﬁcial resonances (secularities). The coeﬃcient A may be chosen to

make these terms vanish by enforcing that the coeﬃcients of these two solutions must vanish independently,

0 = 2

∂A

∂τ

+ A

2

A

∗

0 = 2

∂A

∗

∂τ

+ A(A

∗

)

2

The two equations are seen to be redundant in that they are complex conjugates of each other. This may be seen

more transparently by multiplying both equations by the imaginary number i followed by multiplying one of the

equations by (−1). Thus, either equation may be used to ﬁnd the function A. Representing A as A = R(τ)e

iθ(τ)

,

the ﬁrst equation becomes

9

Sirajuddin, David Homework 5 – NEEP 548, Spring 2011

0 = 2

∂A

∂τ

+ A

2

A

∗

= 2

∂

∂τ

_

R(τ)e

iθ(τ)

_

+

_

R(τ)e

iθ(τ)

_

2

_

R(τ)e

iθ(τ)

_

∗

= 2

_

dR

dτ

+ iR

dθ

dτ

_

e

iθ

+ (R

2

e

2iθ

)R

∗

e

−iθ

= 2

_

dR

dτ

+ iR

dθ

dτ

_

e

iθ

+ R

3

e

iθ

, R

∗

= R

=

_

2

_

dR

dτ

+ iR

dθ

dτ

_

+ R

3

_

e

iθ

= 2

_

dR

dτ

+ iR

dθ

dτ

_

+ R

3

, e

iθ

= 0

0 =

_

2

dR

dτ

+ R

3

_

+ 2iR

dθ

dτ

The above statement is only true if both the real and imaginary parts vanish independently. These conditions give

two equations that may be used to determine the parameters R and θ:

0 = 2

dR

dτ

+ R

3

0 = 2iR

dθ

dτ

The second equation gives:

2iR

dθ

dτ

= 0

dθ

dτ

= 0, R = 0

⇒θ(τ) = θ

0

= constant

The remaining equation admits the solution for the radius R:

2

dR

dτ

+ R

3

= 0

dR

R

3

= −

1

2

dτ

⇒−

1

2R

2

= −

1

2

τ + H, H = constant

1

R

2

= τ + I, I = −2H

The constant I may be determined in terms of an arbitrary initial function value R(τ = 0) = R

0

. Letting τ = 0

above implies

I = R

−2

0

⇒

1

R

2

= τ +

1

R

2

0

=

R

2

0

τ + 1

R

2

0

⇒ R

2

=

R

2

0

R

2

0

τ + 1

⇒ R(τ) =

R

0

_

1 + R

2

0

τ

10

Sirajuddin, David Homework 5 – NEEP 548, Spring 2011

Where the positive sign of the square root has been chosen as the radius R in the representation A(τ) = R(τe

iθ(τ)

must be strictly positive. The coeﬃcient function A may be then written as:

A(τ) = R(τ)e

iθ(τ)

=

R

0

_

1 + R

2

0

τ

e

iθ0

And, the solution y

0

(t, τ) is found to be

y

0

(t, τ) = A(τ)e

it

+ A∗

(

τ)e

−it

=

R

0

_

1 + R

2

0

τ

_

e

i(θ0+t)

+ e

−i(θ0+t)

_

. ¸¸ .

=2 cos(θ0+t)

y

0

(t, τ) =

2R

0

cos(θ

0

+ t)

_

1 + R

2

0

τ

Recalling τ = εt, it is noted that t = 0 ⇒ τ = εt = 0. The solution obtained corresponds to the leading-order

y

0

(t, τ). The initial conditions are applied in full to the leading order approximation y

0

while homogeneous initial

conditions are enforced for higher order corrections. The initial conditions may be translated from y(t) to y

0

(t, τ)

by truncating at order O(ε). Beginning with the initial condition on the time derivative:

˙ y(0) ≡

dy

dt

¸

¸

¸

¸

(t,τ)=(0,0)

= 0 =

∂y

0

∂t

(0, 0) +

∂τ

∂t

.¸¸.

=ε

∂y

0

∂t

(0, 0) =

∂y

0

∂t

(0, 0) +

¨

¨

¨

¨

¨

ε

∂y

0

∂t

(0, 0)

=0, truncate at order O(ε)

=

∂y

0

∂t

(0, 0) +O(ε)

Where the notation above means evaluating the derivatives at (t, τ) = (0, 0). The initial condition on the leading

order y

0

(t, τ) function directly translates by the prescription above. The two initial conditions may be summarized

as

y

0

(0, 0) = 1

∂y

0

∂t

(0, 0) = 0

The ﬁrst condition yields

y

0

(0, 0) = 1 = 2R

0

cos θ

0

⇒ R

0

cos θ

0

=

1

2

While the second condition gives

∂y

0

∂t

= 0 =

∂

∂t

2R

0

cos(θ

0

+ t)

_

1 + R

2

0

τ

∂y

0

∂t

= −

2R

0

sin(θ

0

+ t)

_

1 + R

2

0

τ

⇒

∂y

0

∂t

(0, 0) = −

2R

0

sin θ

0

√

1

0 = −2R

0

sin θ

0

⇒R

0

sin θ

0

= 0

Thus, the parameters R

0

and θ

0

are determined by solving the set of simultaneous equations

11

Sirajuddin, David Homework 5 – NEEP 548, Spring 2011

R

0

cos θ

0

=

1

2

R

0

sin θ

0

= 0

Diving the second equation by the ﬁrst admits

R

0

sin θ

0

R

0

cos θ

0

=

0

1/2

= 0

tan θ

0

= 0

⇒θ

0

= nπ, n ∈ Z

Inputting this value of θ

0

into the ﬁrst equation yields the value of R

0

R

0

cos θ

0

=

1

2

=

1

2 cos θ

0

=

1

2 cos nπ

= (−1)

n

1

2

⇒R

0

=

1

2

where in the ﬁnal step, the positivity of the radius R

0

gives a further restriction: θ

0

= nπ, n ∈ 2Z, the value of

n must be an even integer. Given that the angle θ

0

is present only in the argument of the complex exponential

in the solution y(t), and that its value must be an even multiple of π, the presence of the value θ

0

= 2nπ in the

solution produces no eﬀective phase shift. Thus, no consequence is admitted by choosing θ

0

= 0. With the values

for R

0

= 1/2 and θ

0

= 0, the full solution y(t) may be expressed

y

0

(t, τ) =

2R

0

cos(θ

0

+ t)

_

1 + R

2

0

τ

=

2

_

1

2

_

cos t

_

1 +

_

1

2

_

2

τ

=

cos t

_

1 + τ/4

⇒y

0

(t, τ) =

2 cos t

√

4 + τ

Recalling the time τ = εt gives

y(t) =

2 cos t

√

4 + εt

+O(ε)

12

Sirajuddin, David Homework 5 – NEEP 548, Spring 2011

References

[1] Bender, Carl M., and Orszag Advanced Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers: Asymptotic Methods

and Perturbation Theory (v.1). New York: Springer 1999. Print.

[2] Smith, Leslie. Multiple-scale Analysis. Lecture. NEEP 548: Engineering Analysis II. University of Wisconsin, Madi-

son. 29 Mar. 2011 and 31 Mar. 2011.

13

and the calculated derivatives (2) and (3) above provides ∂ 2 y0 ∂ 2 y0 ∂ 2 y1 +ε 2 + 2 ∂t ∂t∂τ ∂t2 ∂ y0 ∂ y0 ∂ y1 +ε 2 + ∂t2 ∂t∂τ ∂t2 2 2 2 0 = + y0 + εy1 − ε ∂y0 +ε ∂t ∂y0 +ε ∂t ∂y0 ∂y1 + ∂τ ∂t ∂y0 ∂y1 + ∂τ ∂t +ε (y0 + εy1 )2 2 2 = (y0 +2εy0 y1 +ε2 y1 ) ∂y0 +ε ∂t ∂y0 ∂y1 + ∂τ ∂t ∂y0 ∂y1 + ∂τ ∂t 0 = + y0 + εy1 − ε 2 2 + ε(y0 + 2εy0 y1 + ε2 y1 ) ∂y0 +ε ∂t Collecting terms in order O(εn ) . Spring 2011 d2 y dt2 = = d2 d2 y + ε 2 y1 + . τ ) = A(τ )eit + B(τ )e−it The coeﬃcient functions A(τ ) and B(τ ) may be shown to be complex conjugates of each other by writing [2]: 2 .Sirajuddin.11 ) The Van der Pol equation is given by d2 y/dt2 + y − ε(1 − y 2 )dy/dt = 0. The Van der Pol equation may be rewritten as: dy d2 y + y − ε(1 − y 2 ) dt2 dt d2 y dy dy + εy 2 +y−ε 2 dt dt dt 0 0 = = Inserting the expansion y(t) = y0 + εy1 + . For arbitrary initial conditions the solution to this equation approaches a limit cycle. David Homework 5 – NEEP 548. 2 0 dt dt ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + 2ε + ε2 2 ∂t2 ∂t∂τ ∂τ ∂ 2 y0 ∂ 2 y0 ∂ 2 y1 +ε 2 + ∂t2 ∂t∂τ ∂t2 y0 + ε ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + 2ε + ε2 2 ∂t2 ∂t∂τ ∂τ y1 (3) ⇒ d2 y dt2 = + O(ε2 ) These derivatives will be used throughout the subsequent problem solutions. . for n ∈ N0 : ∂ 2 y0 ∂t2 O(1) : + y0 =0 (4) and O(ε) ⇒ O(ε) : : ∂ y0 2 ∂t∂τ + 2 ∂ 2 y1 ∂t2 + y1 − 2 ∂y0 ∂t 2 + y0 ∂y0 ∂t =0 = ∂y0 ∂ 2 y0 2 ∂y0 −2 − y0 ∂t ∂t∂τ ∂t (5) ∂ y1 ∂t2 + y1 Solving the order O(1) balance. . implying solutions of the form y0 (t. Problems and solutions 1. . a solution is seeked of the form y0 ∼ eλt . where it is found that solutions exist for λ = ±i. (Bender and Orszag Problem 11. Find the approach to this limit cycle using multiple-scale perturbation theory. .

if aR = bR . David Homework 5 – NEEP 548. (5): y0 ∂y0 ∂t ∂ 2 y0 ∂ 2 y0 = ∂t∂τ ∂τ ∂t So that the order O(ε) balance yields = A(τ )eit + A∗ (τ )e−it = i A(τ )eit − A∗ e−it = i ∂A it ∂A∗ −it e − e ∂τ ∂τ (6) (7) (8) 3 . That is. the most general form of the solution y may be expressed as y0 (t. Thus. Computing terms on the right-hand side of Eqn.Sirajuddin. τ ) = A(τ )eit + A∗ (τ )e−it The coeﬃcient A(τ ) is chosen such that no secularities are present in the order O(ε) equation. ⇒ B(τ ) = A∗ (τ ) where A∗ (τ ) is the complex conjugate of A. the above statement can only be true if their coeﬃcients vanish. Spring 2011 A(τ ) B(τ ) = = aR + iaI bR + ibI Invoking Euler’s formula allows the solution y0 to be stated as: y0 = (aR + iaI )(cos t + i sin t) + (bR + ibI )(cos t − i sin t) Enforcing real solutions implies the imaginary part of the above must independently vanish: Im [y0 ] = 0 0 = aI cos t + aR sin t + bI cos t − bR sin t = (aI + bI ) cos t + (aR − bR ) sin t Given that the functions cos t and sin t are linearly independent. aI = −bI .

and expressing the complex-valued function A(τ ) = R(τ )eiθ(τ ) . Spring 2011 O(ε) : ∂ 2 y1 + y1 ∂t2 = ∂y0 ∂ 2 y0 2 ∂y0 −2 − y0 ∂t ∂t∂τ ∂t ∂A it ∂A∗ −it e − e ∂τ ∂τ = i A(τ )eit − A∗ (τ )e−it − 2i − A(τ )eit + A∗ (τ )e−it 2 i A(τ )eit − A∗ e−it ∂A it ∂A∗ −it e − e ∂τ ∂τ = A2 e2it +2AA∗ +(A∗ )2 e−2it = i A(τ )eit − A∗ (τ )e−it − 2i £ £ −i(A2 e2it + 2AA∗ + (A∗ )2 e−2it ) A(τ )eit − A∗ e−it £ = Aeit − A∗ e−it − 2 ∂A it ∂A∗ −it e − e ∂τ ∂τ −(A2 e2it + 2AA∗ + (A∗ )2 e−2it ) Aeit − A∗ e−it = Aeit − A∗ e−it − 2 ∂A∗ −it ∂A it e +2 e ∂τ ∂τ −A3 e3it + A2 A∗ eit − 2A2 A∗ eit + 2A(A∗ )2 e−it − A(A∗ )2 e−it +(A∗ )3 e−3it = −A2 A∗ eit = A(A∗ )2 e−it = Aeit − A∗ e−it − 2 ∂ 2 y1 + y1 ∂t2 ∂A it ∂A∗ −it e +2 e − A3 e3it − A2 A∗ eit + A(A∗ )2 e−it + (A∗ )3 e−3it ∂τ ∂τ ∂A ∂A∗ − A2 A∗ eit + −A∗ + 2 + A(A∗ )2 e−it ∂τ ∂τ = (A∗ )3 e−3it − A3 e3it + A − 2 Noting that the homogeneous solution to this equation is y1 ∼ e±it . implies resonances are present in the above diﬀerential equation. these two equations are seen to redundant in that it may be shown upon multiplication of both equations by the imaginary number i that the two equations are complex conjugates of each other. Using the ﬁrst equation.Sirajuddin. Thus. the coeﬃcient A may be chosen such that these secularities vanish. The two homogeneous solutions y ∼ e±it provide two constraints: 0 0 = A−2 ∂A − A2 A∗ ∂τ ∂A∗ = −A∗ + 2 + A(A∗ )2 ∂τ However. either equation may be worked with to determine the coeﬃcient function A(τ ). As per the procedure of multiple-scale analysis. David Homework 5 – NEEP 548. 4 .

5 . D. and E. David Homework 5 – NEEP 548. it is noted that the partial diﬀerential operators have been interchanged with ordinary operators in recognition that the functions R and θ are solely a function of the independent variable τ . giving two governing diﬀerential equations for the quantities R and θ: R−2 dR − R3 dτ dθ −2R dτ = = 0 0 (9) (10) For the arbitrary initial condition θ(0) = θ0 . dθ = 0 dτ dθ = 0. dτ ⇒ θ(τ ) = θ0 −2R R=0 The diﬀerential equation for R implies: dR dR − R3 dτ dR 2 dτ dR R(1 − R2 ) C DR + E + R 1 − R2 R−2 = = = = 0 R − R3 = R(1 − R2 ) 1 dτ 2 1 dτ 2 (11) Where in the ﬁnal step. Spring 2011 0 = = = R(τ )eiθ(τ ) − 2 Reiθ − 2 Reiθ − 2 R−2 R−2 R−2 ∂ R(τ )eiθ(τ ) − R(τ )eiθ(τ ) ∂τ eiθ − R2 e2iθ eiθ − R3 eiθ . R ∈ R) 0 ⇒0 ⇒0 = = = dθ dR + iR dτ dτ dR − R3 dτ − 2iR Where in the second step. − R3 eiθ − R3 . (10) is solved. Eqn. a partial fractions decomposition is seeked in the to be determined coeﬃcients C. The real and imaginary parts must vanish independently. dθ dτ (eiθ = 0) 2 R(τ )eiθ(τ ) ∗ dR dθ + iR dτ dτ dR dθ + iR dτ dτ dR dθ + iR dτ dτ R∗ e−iθ (R∗ = R.Sirajuddin.

F = constant G = eF = constant Letting τ = 0 gives the value of G in terms of the function value R(0) = R0 : G= Further. Eqn. 2 1 τ +F 2 Geτ /2 . (11) admits = 1 R + R 1 − R2 C DR + E + R 1 − R2 dR dR R + R 1 − R2 1 d ln R − ln(1 − R2 ) 2 1 ln R − ln(1 − R2 ) 2 R ln √ 1 − R2 R √ 1 − R2 dR = = = = = = 1 dτ 2 1 dτ 2 1 dτ 2 1 τ + F. Spring 2011 1 R(1 − R2 ) 1 1 1 Constructing coeﬃcient equations: = C DR + E + R 1 − R2 = C(1 − R2 ) + (DR + E)R = C − CR2 + DR2 + ER = C + ER + (D − C)R2 O(1) O(R) O(R2 ) So that : : : 1 0 0 = C = E = D−C ⇒D =C =1 1 R(1 − R2 ) Then.Sirajuddin. the function R(τ ) may be obtained R0 2 1 − R0 6 . David Homework 5 – NEEP 548.

τ ) = 2R0 cos(θ0 + t) 2 e−τ + (1 − e−τ )R0 Recalling that τ = εt. . and that y(t) = y0 + εy1 + . while cos(θ0 + t) is oscillates between ±1. 2 −τ 1−R0 + 1 e R2 0 R2 (1 + G2 eτ ) ⇒ R2 2 1 − R0 1 = 2 G2 R0 = R2 ⇒ R(τ ) = = e−τ (1 e−τ 2 R0 2 2 − R0 ) + R0 2 R0 2 + (1 − e−τ )R0 R0 2 e−τ + (1 − e−τ )R0 Where the positive sign of the square root has been chosen in recognition that in the complex representation A = Reiθ . the full solution may be written down y(t) = 2R0 cos(θ0 + t) e−εt 2 + (1 − e−εt )R0 + O(ε) Where R0 and θ0 are constants which may be determined from initial conditions on the solution y(t) and its derivative. David Homework 5 – NEEP 548. it is seen that the solution y approaches a limit cycle 7 . Noting that e−εt → 0 as t → ∞. . the radius R is strictly positive..Sirajuddin. Thus. Spring 2011 √ R 1 − R2 R2 1 − R2 R2 = Geτ /2 = G2 eτ = G2 eτ (1 − R2 ) = G2 eτ G2 eτ = 1 + G2 eτ 1 = e−τ /G2 + 1 1 = . τ ) = = A(τ )eit + A∗ (τ )e−it R0 2 e−τ + (1 − e−τ )R0 ei(θ0 +t) + e−i(θ0 +t) = 2 cos(θ0 +t) y0 (t. the coeﬃcient function A(τ ) = Reiθ = which allows the solution y(t) to be constructed: R0 e−τ 2 + (1 − e−τ )R0 eiθ0 y0 (t.

and are repeated here for convenience: 8 . . ε > 0] The leading-order behavior corresponds to the solution y0 in the expansion y(t) = y0 + εy1 + . (Bender and Orszag Problem 11. The solution of y0 is of the same general form as in problem 11.11. τ ) = A(τ )eit + A∗ (τ )e−it where A∗ is the complex conjugate of the coeﬃcient A. (6). 1}: ∂ 2 y0 ∂t2 ∂ 2 y1 ∂t2 ∂ y1 ∂t2 2 O(1) O(ε) ⇒ O(ε) : : : ∂ 2 ∂τ y0 + ∂t 2 + y0 + y1 + + y1 ∂y0 2 ∂t y0 =0 =0 = −2 ∂ 2 y0 ∂y0 2 − y ∂τ ∂t ∂t 0 (12) (13) Solving Eqn. Inserting this expansion. as well as the general derivatives (2) and (3) into the diﬀerential equation gives 0 = y + y + εyy 2 ¨ ˙ ∂ 2 y0 ∂ 2 y1 ∂ 2 y0 +ε 2 + = ∂t2 ∂τ ∂t ∂t2 2 2 ∂ y0 ∂ 2 y1 ∂ y0 +ε 2 + = ∂t2 ∂τ ∂t ∂t2 ∂y0 +ε ∂t ∂y0 + y0 + εy1 + ε +ε ∂t + y0 + εy1 + ε ∂y0 ∂y1 + ∂τ ∂t ∂y0 ∂y1 + ∂τ ∂t (y0 + εy1 )2 2 2 (y0 + 2εy0 y1 + ε2 y1 ) Balancing terms in order O(εn ) for n = {0. . and (8).14 ) Use multiple-scale perturbation theory to ﬁnd a leading-order approximation to y + y + εyy 2 = 0 [y(0) = 1. τ ) = A(τ )eit + B(τ )e−it where. as before. the coeﬃcient functions A and B may be shown to be complex conjugates of each other. where the derivatives on the right-hand side of the order O(ε) balance were calculated as per Eqns. y(0) = ¨ ˙ ˙ 0. allowing y0 (t.Sirajuddin. (12) by seeking exponential solutions y0 ∼ eλt ⇒ λ = ±i admits the solutions y0 (t.. (7). 2. David Homework 5 – NEEP 548. Spring 2011 y0 (t → ∞) = = = t→∞ 2 e−εt + (1 − e−εt )R0 2R0 cos(θ0 + t) lim 2R0 cos(θ0 + t) y0 = 2 R0 & 2&0 cos(θ0 + t) R & R &0 2 cos(θ0 + t) So that the limit cycle approached is seen to be y(t → ∞) = 2 cos(θ0 + t) + O(ε) The limit cycle may be visualized in the phase plane of y and y .

0 0 = = 2 ∂A + A2 A∗ ∂τ ∂A∗ 2 + A(A∗ )2 ∂τ The two equations are seen to be redundant in that they are complex conjugates of each other. the ﬁrst equation becomes 9 . Thus. (13) then yields. This may be seen more transparently by multiplying both equations by the imaginary number i followed by multiplying one of the equations by (−1). Spring 2011 y0 ∂y0 ∂t ∂ 2 y0 ∂ 2 y0 = ∂t∂τ ∂τ ∂t Inputing these terms into Eqn. Representing A as A = R(τ )eiθ(τ ) . David Homework 5 – NEEP 548. either equation may be used to ﬁnd the function A. The coeﬃcient A may be chosen to make these terms vanish by enforcing that the coeﬃcients of these two solutions must vanish independently.Sirajuddin. the corresponding terms on the right-hand side of the above diﬀerential equation present artiﬁcial resonances (secularities). ∂ 2 y1 + y1 ∂t2 = = = A(τ )eit + A∗ (τ )e−it i A(τ )eit − A∗ (τ )e−it i ∂A it ∂A∗ −it e − e ∂τ ∂τ = = = = = = = ∂ 2 y1 + y1 ∂t2 = ∂ 2 y0 ∂y0 2 − y ∂τ ∂t ∂t 0 ∂A it ∂A∗ −it e − e − i Aeit − A∗ e−it (Aeit + A∗ e−it )2 −2i ∂τ ∂τ ∂A it ∂A∗ −it −2i e − e − i Aeit − A∗ e−it (A2 eit + 2AA∗ + (A∗ )2 e−2it ) £ £ ∂τ ∂τ ∂A it ∂A∗ −it −2 e − e − Aeit − A∗ e−it (A2 e2it + 2AA∗ + (A∗ )2 e−2it ) ∂τ ∂τ ∂A∗ −it ∂A it e +2 e − A3 e3it − 2A2 A∗ eit − A(A∗ )2 e−it + A2 A∗ eit + 2A(A∗ )2 e−it + (A∗ )3 e−3it −2 ∂τ ∂τ ∂A ∂A∗ (A∗ )3 e−3it − A3 e3it + −2 − 2A2 A∗ + A2 A∗ eit + 2 + 2A(A∗ )2 − A(A∗ )2 e−it ∂τ ∂τ ∂A∗ ∂A − A2 A∗ eit + 2 + A(A∗ )2 e−it (A∗ )3 e−3it − A3 e3it + −2 ∂τ ∂τ ∂A ∂A∗ (A∗ )3 e−3it − A3 e3it − 2 + A2 A∗ eit + 2 + A(A∗ )2 e−it ∂τ ∂τ −2 Noting that the homogeneous solution to this equation y1 ∼ e±it .

2 = τ + I. These conditions give two equations that may be used to determine the parameters R and θ: 0 0 The second equation gives: = = dR + R3 dτ dθ 2iR dτ 2 dθ = 0 dτ dθ = 0. R∗ = R dτ dτ dR dθ = 2 + iR + R3 eiθ dτ dτ dR dθ = 2 + iR + R3 . Letting τ = 0 above implies −2 I = R0 ⇒ 1 1 R2 τ + 1 =τ+ 2 = 0 2 R2 R0 R0 10 ⇒ R2 = 2 R0 τ 2 R0 +1 ⇒ R(τ ) = R0 2 1 + R0 τ .Sirajuddin. H = constant I = −2H The constant I may be determined in terms of an arbitrary initial function value R(τ = 0) = R0 . David Homework 5 – NEEP 548. eiθ = 0 dτ dτ dR dθ = 2 + R3 + 2iR dτ dτ = 2 ∗ The above statement is only true if both the real and imaginary parts vanish independently. R=0 dτ ⇒ θ(τ ) = θ0 = constant 2iR The remaining equation admits the solution for the radius R: 2 dR + R3 dτ dR R3 1 ⇒− 2 2R 1 R2 = 0 1 = − dτ 2 1 = − τ + H. Spring 2011 0 0 ∂A + A2 A∗ ∂τ 2 ∂ R(τ )eiθ(τ ) + R(τ )eiθ(τ ) R(τ )eiθ(τ ) = 2 ∂τ dR dθ = 2 + iR eiθ + (R2 e2iθ )R∗ e−iθ dτ dτ dR dθ = 2 + iR eiθ + R3 eiθ .

τ ) = (0. The initial conditions may be translated from y(t) to y0 (t. The two initial conditions may be summarized as y0 (0. 0). 0) = 1 ∂y0 (0. The initial condition on the leading order y0 (t. τ ) by truncating at order O(ε). 0) = 0 ∂t The ﬁrst condition yields y0 (0. τ ) is found to be A(τ )eit + A ∗( τ )e−it R0 ei(θ0 +t) + e−i(θ0 +t) 2 1 + R0 τ = 2 cos(θ0 +t) R0 2 1 + R0 τ eiθ0 y0 (t. 0) = ∂t 0 = = ⇒ R0 sin θ0 0 Thus. The solution obtained corresponds to the leading-order y0 (t. ¨∂t = ∂y0 (0.τ )=(0. 0) = 1 = 2R0 cos θ0 While the second condition gives ∂y0 =0 ∂t ∂y0 ∂t ⇒ ∂ 2R0 cos(θ0 + t) 2 ∂t 1 + R0 τ 2 1 + R0 τ 2R0 sin θ0 √ − 1 −2R0 sin θ0 ⇒ R0 cos θ0 = 1 2 = = − 2R0 sin(θ0 + t) ∂y0 (0. Beginning with the initial condition on the time derivative: y(0) ≡ ˙ dy dt =0= (t. the parameters R0 and θ0 are determined by solving the set of simultaneous equations 11 .0) ∂τ ∂y0 ∂y0 ∂y0 (0.Sirajuddin. τ ) = = y0 (t. 0) + ∂t ∂t ∂t ∂t =ε = 0. it is noted that t = 0 ⇒ τ = εt = 0. τ ) = 2R0 cos(θ0 + t) 2 1 + R0 τ Recalling τ = εt. The coeﬃcient function A may be then written as: A(τ ) = R(τ )eiθ(τ ) = And. 0) + O(ε) ∂t Where the notation above means evaluating the derivatives at (t. the solution y0 (t. truncate at order O(ε) ¨ ∂y0 ¨ ε ¨¨ 0) (0. τ ). 0) = (0. τ ) function directly translates by the prescription above. 0) + (0. The initial conditions are applied in full to the leading order approximation y0 while homogeneous initial conditions are enforced for higher order corrections. Spring 2011 Where the positive sign of the square root has been chosen as the radius R in the representation A(τ ) = R(τ eiθ(τ ) must be strictly positive. David Homework 5 – NEEP 548.

Thus. David Homework 5 – NEEP 548. τ ) Recalling the time τ = εt gives = cos t τ 1 + τ /4 2 cos t √ 4+τ 2 cos t y(t) = √ + O(ε) 4 + εt 12 . and that its value must be an even multiple of π. the positivity of the radius R0 gives a further restriction: θ0 = nπ.Sirajuddin. Given that the angle θ0 is present only in the argument of the complex exponential in the solution y(t). Spring 2011 R0 cos θ0 R0 sin θ0 Diving the second equation by the ﬁrst admits = = 1 2 0 R0 sin θ0 R0 cos θ0 tan θ0 ⇒ θ0 = = 0 =0 1/2 0 n∈Z = nπ. τ ) = = 2 1 2 cos t 1 2 2 1+ = ⇒ y0 (t. the full solution y(t) may be expressed 2R0 cos(θ0 + t) 2 1 + R0 τ y0 (t. the value of n must be an even integer. the presence of the value θ0 = 2nπ in the solution produces no eﬀective phase shift. no consequence is admitted by choosing θ0 = 0. With the values for R0 = 1/2 and θ0 = 0. Inputting this value of θ0 into the ﬁrst equation yields the value of R0 1 2 1 2 cos θ0 1 2 cos nπ 1 (−1)n 2 1 2 R0 cos θ0 = = = = ⇒ R0 = where in the ﬁnal step. n ∈ 2Z.

Carl M. New York: Springer 1999.. Spring 2011 References [1] Bender. Print. Multiple-scale Analysis. [2] Smith. David Homework 5 – NEEP 548. 29 Mar. NEEP 548: Engineering Analysis II. Lecture.Sirajuddin. Leslie. 2011. Madison.1). 2011 and 31 Mar. 13 . and Orszag Advanced Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers: Asymptotic Methods and Perturbation Theory (v. University of Wisconsin.

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