Dhanyamla Bahiparimarjana

Prof. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad [1] , [1] H.O.D., Dept. of Kayachikitsa (PG), DGM Ayurvedic Medical College,Kalasapur Road,Gadag582103, Karnataka (cell: +91-9633552646), doctorksrprasad@gmail.com

Parimarjanais spectacular word from Ayurvedic literature defined from Shabdha Kalpa drumaas – “Parishodhana”1 – a search, colloquially used to clean i.e. Dhavana.Where in the “Marjana” is added with “Anganirmalyokaranam”2, whichmeans the body waste removal process. The “Parimarjana” with a prefix of “Bahi”becomes the “Bahiparimarjana” – a complete externally modulated waste materialremoval or cleansing treatment, one out of three main methods of treatmentclassifications. The other two are “Antahparimarjana” and “Shastrapranidhana”.The “Pranidhana”3 has a meaning of – “the visualization of the causeof the Sthambha – the obstruction. It other wise refer to the laparotomyexploration and Medinikosha explains it as “Praveshanam” – the entry - ofcourse in to abdomen. BahiparimarjanaChikitsa explained as – the treatment procedures that are depend upon theexternal touch such as Abhyanga, Sweda, Pradeha, Parisheka, Unmardana, etc4.A close look at the said examples makes a classification of the BahiparimarjanaChikitsa i.e. trans-dermal cleansing management. The former Abhyanga in termsof Bahya sneha is an external oil application where heat inducted throughrubbing. It is in the texts as not to apply any form of external (tropical)managements with out unctuous application, in terms that lubricates andfacilitates the absorption of the tropical management. The second applicationSweda is an external heat modulation or transportation through steam. The rest of the treatment applicationsinclude either of these two specific methods of heat transportations. Commonlythese Sneha and Sweda administered before to the chief cleansing methods viz. Panchakarma.However, the real utility of Bahiparimarjana as “Roga Prashamana” visualizedonly after the completion of the Dosha elimination. This verse observed fromthe Charaka at the context of Kusta relay is that the Lepa applied after theeliminative (Samshodhita Ashaya) procedures are effective5. Humanbody is not depends upon the Sun heat and very minimal heat is taken fromexternal and depends upon the internal system to generate the heat required forthe body maintenance. The Dosha in the body are always fluctuating in natureenhances or dislodges from its places to give rise physiological orpathological changes in the body. All these changes generally depend upon thetriad of mass, pressure and temperature. Out of these the mass and pressure inthe body are constant and the only temperature is the variant subjected for thepressure variances. Thus the managements of Dosha triad either for eliminationor for the maintenance requires the cleansing from internally and evenexternally, where the externally mediated procedures are not eventually

and the status of the skin. He affirms that each 100 of matra (32sec approximately) initiatedfrom 300 to 900 takes the oil based medicament for the Roma koopa – Twak –Rakta – Mamsa – Medo – Asthi – Majja. intact stratum corneum is an excellentbarrier. the behaviour of the vehicle. In the procedure ofBahiparimarjana. prevented by the constant use ofAbhyanga. isfreely permeable to many solutes. which relays the meaning of Bahiparimarjana as prevention andcurative but not eliminative method of management. Controlledrelease topicalpatches are recent innovations.cleansingin nature they may be curative. Three major variables accountfor differences in the rate of absorptionor flux of different topical drugs or of the same drug in different vehicles: . theseprocedures administered later to the cleansing are effective to disease relief.Sneha and Sweda are not included in the cleansing methods of Panchakarma. ParametersControlling Absorption in Bahiparimarjana Chikitsa Theabsorption of drug into the skin is a function of the nature ofthe drug. thataffect the blood to flow peripheral to visceral or vice versa. Bahiparimarjana is a Dosha shamana and the Antahparimarjana isDosha Shodhana or doshavasechana management. At the sameplace author. 1983). Inflammation andother conditions that increase cutaneous blood flow also enhance absorption.Increases in the molecular size of the drug will increase frictional resistanceand decrease the diffusion coefficient (Franz. Therefore. the absorption is minimal but heat conduction is massive. Dalhanawas the first person to comment over the absorption and pharmaco-dynamics ofthe externally mediated unctuous (fatty oil base) materials at the context ofAbhyanga. since the epidermis behaves as a lipid barrier. but in disease states the resistance to absorption is rapidly lost and absorption can be facilitated. Absorption through the skincan be enhanced by suspending the drug in an oily vehicle and rubbing theresulting preparation into the skin. The dermis. molecules over 1000daltons usually will not be absorbed easily into normal adult skin8.Because hydrated skin is morepermeable than dry skin.e.Absorption of those that do isproportional to the surface area over which they are applied and to their lipidsolubility.procedures are not possessing “Doshanirharana samardhya” i. refer the Grudhrasi a disease.In a nut shell. as the Abhyanga is Kapha Vata nirodhana 7. At the context he applies a note that theTridosha diseases of such region are implied to alter with the effect ofmedicine. Finally. thedosage form may be modified or an occlusive dressing may be used to facilitate absorption. The diffusion coefficient indicates theextent to which the matrix of the barrier restricts the mobility of the drug. however.This method of administration is known as inunction i. For thesame reason the externally mediated Bahiparimarjana Chikitsa methods viz.e. TheseSneha and Sweda along with the co. The skin acts as a two-way barrier to prevent absorption or loss of water and electrolytes. Fewdrugs readily penetrate the intact skin. Theunderstanding of contemporary philosophy tells us how our tradition meets the presentday science. Abhyanga. eliminative capacity6.

- The concentration of drug in thevehicle. AlteredBarrier Function: Inmany dermatological diseases. Abhyanga. irritation. 1987). Thus not through rub is indicated. RegionalAnatomic Variation: Permeabilityis generally inversely proportional to the thickness of the stratum corneum i. However. Apartfrom the above the points to be considered are Large Surface area enhance absorption Increase cutaneous blood flow alsoenhance absorption Body temperature and blood flow enhanceabsorption of tropical medicines Transdermal replacement therapy is nota new invention.Consequently.depending on an individual drug's lipophilicity (Having an affinity for lipids)or hydrophilicity (Having an affinity for water).. The permeability of children'sskin is increased in preterminfants (Barker et al. and a given amount oftopical drug results in a greater systemic dose. The partition coefficient of drugbetween the stratum corneum and the vehicle. in inter-triginous areas. and The diffusion coefficient of drug inthe stratum corneum. the stratum corneum is abnormal. Thus these areas are minimal exposed to Bahiparimarjana Chikitsa. exists since the birth of Ayurveda Factorinfluencing Bahiparimarjana Chikitsa (Topical Therapy) Dosage: Anamount of topical medication sufficient to cover affected body surfaces inrepeated applications must be dispensed or applied to the patient. . differences in lipid concentration mayaffect percutaneous absorption.Avabhasini. Age: Childrenhave a greater ratio of surface area to mass than adults. in certain areas. and barrierfunction is lost. Parisheka and Avagaha are done oncein a day. In Ayurvedamuch of applications viz. sensitization. Sweda.e. Drugpenetration is higher on the face. and atrophy from Bio-steroids are morelikely to develop in these regions. more over manyBahiparimarjana Chikitsa are light in touch. and especially inthe perineum.

However. lotions. Many of the Ayurvedic preparations used inBahiparimarjana Chikitsa are water based or water soluble medicines transformedlipophilic agents. DHANYAMLA9 Before going into the details ofDhanyamla Kayaseka it is necessary to understand the term Dhanyamla. progressing in that order from least to mosthydrating. once-dailyapplication of a larger dose may be as effective as more frequent applicationof smaller doses. and soaking dry skin before occlusion. Narisimha has in this context veryrightly stated that these synonyms to Dhanyamla are complementary to each otherand as such there is no difference between „Dhanyamla‟ and „Kanjhika‟. Charaka further mentioned the drugs usedfor Dhanyamla in Nadi sweda and Upanaha.Santhana kalpana or in Madya vargha. The stratum corneum may act as a reservoir and allow gradualpenetration of a drug into the viable skinlayers over a prolonged period of time. and ointments. Gadag for want of multi centricstudy in 2001 – 2003. for certain drugs. most frequently soaks. Taila or Dhanyamla.solutions. application of lipophilicocclusive vehicles such as Taila.Maharshi Charaka. a . Methods ofhydration include occlusion with an impermeable film. singularly or along with other drugs. The literature and the procedure followed tostandardize the Dhanyamla are narrated here under. Susruta and Vagbhata have included this either in Amlavarga. viz „Dhanya‟ and „Amla‟ which in conjugation means „fermented cereal‟ ina broad sense. Synonyms of Dhanyamla A perusal of the ancient text of the medicine reveals that anumber of synonyms have been attributed to Dhanyamla which in most cases referto a specific attribute and when taken collectively gives a clear idea aboutthe character and properties of Dhanyamla. All the three major classics of Ayurveda at some instance orother have referred to its use at times. A cursoryglance itself reveals that the term “Dhanyamla “ is conjugate of two differentwords. defined as an increase in the water content of the stratum corneumthat is produced by inhibiting trans-epidermal loss of water. It facilitated few single case studies and an extendedstudy over Amavata as Kayaseka. InAyurveda it is with many vehicles as Kashaya. Vehicle: Topicaltherapy is delivered by various vehicles. „Gunadeepika‟. creams. An experimental modal of Dhanyamlaprepared in DGM Ayurvedic Medical College. The choice of vehicle may be as important as the active drug. Hydration: Drugabsorption is increased withhydration.ApplicationFrequency: Topicalagents are often applied twice daily.

e having acrid fast spreading odour. Abhishuta. amla or sour in taste serves as an aid in delvinginto other properties of the Ama in the sense that since it is Amla in Rasa theassociated qualities of Amla Rasa as stated in the classics. Same procedure is indicated to relieve pain in Arshas11 even.celebrated lexicon on medical plants gives the followingcompilations of synonyms as attributed to Dhanyamla. Vatanulomana etc. Dhanyamla cumulatively possessthe following properties. In short while going through thereferences of the use of Dhanyamla in different context as found in classics. Arshohara. Laghu. KunJala. Since Amla is Sheetasparsa and acts so in external wage. Deepana. in Urusthambha also.Deepana.Kunjala: Indicative of fermented water. can be safely attributed to it. Seka etc. Bhedi. Grahanihara. At this juncture the Nadi swedawith Kanji (Dhanyamla) has been advocated12. In brief. and Bastisulahara. Charaka has specified itsuse in Daha jwara where in Avagaha of the patients in Kanji has beenrecommended10. Kulmasha etc are indicative of the process of fermentation.Snigdha. Balya and Vatahara are alsosupplemented. he mentioned the use of thedrug Dhanyamla 13.Sowveeraka: Found in Sowveera desha. Hrudrogahara.Panduhara. Among other indications for its use.e made of half cooked cereals.Aranala speaks of its acidic odour. Klamahara.Dhanyamla.Kulmasha: „Kula samsthyana‟ i. Angasada hara. Charaka has felt safe to vouch for its useexternally as Lepa. It can be usedeven for Astapana. Sheeta sparsa Amla Ushna General properties of Dhanyamla Manyproperties are attributed to Dhanyamla are . Ushna. Theproperties of Dhanya like Brimhana. Properties of Dhanyamla Theknown fact that Dhanyamla. Hrudya.Avanthisoma: prepared out of „soma‟ found in Avanti Desha.Among these. viz. Tarpana. · · · · Rasa Guna Vipaka Veerya Amla Laghu. Dahajwarahara.Abhishuta: „shunj abhishave‟ i. Teekshna.e having half cooked „masha‟ or black grain. renders the ailment complicated.Snigdha. Pachana. Sowveerka‟ and „Avantisoma‟ are synonymspertaining to geographical preponderance or indicative of place.Vibhandhahrasa. Krimighna. Further in Rajayakshma when Prathishyaya and Peenasa aresuper imposed. Rochana.it is able to conclude that the drugs which are used for the preparation of . Aranala: „Aranalasya rigathownala gandha„ i.

Place a large deep earthenware pot on an oven and pour 200 Prasthas of boiled water and put the powdered drugs 1-9 separately made into loose bundles in clean cloth bags. Many drugs in this yoga are easilyget fermented.Absolute cleanness should be maintained and Moderate fire should be kept throughout the preparation The details identification and proprties of the Dhanyamla ingredients are as follows - . the necessary drugs and Paraphernalia for the preparation of the Dhanyamla are to be collected. The paddy husks are to be put under and around the vessel and fired taking every precaution that the temperature of the water in the vessel does not rise above the boiling point. for a period of 7 days. On the 8th day the required quantity of the liquid is taken out and added same quantity of hot water. After putting these drugs into the vessel along with water. Traditional physicians of Kerala generally follow present Yoga combinationand proportion is obtained from Sahasrayoga is as follows: On an auspicious day at a time whenthe astral combinations are favourable. preferably of paddy husks. it has to be loosely covered with a lid and heated gently and continuously in moderate fire. The important factors to be recommended during the preparation of Dhanyamla is that. Method of preparation ofDhanyamla 14 Dhanyamlacan be prepared out of different methods.theDhanyamla and Dhanyamla as such are preferred in Vatarogas and Vatakapha samsarghajanya diseases.

NAGARA: Already described inAlambushadi Yoga. Umbelliferae. By Guna itis Laghu. By Guna it is Guru. It alleviates PittaDosha and provokes Kapha Dosha. Katu Vipaka and UshnaVeerya.N.L. Katu Vipaka and Ushna Veerya. Katu in Vipaka and Sheeta in Veerya. Test for Alkaloids a. L.N. Ruksha.O. Setaria italica): Kangubija possesses Kashaya and MadhuraRasa. L.O.N.03 . This process is known to induce Laghu Guna. Graminae. It has got Shoola Prashamana. L. Italleviates Kapha and Pitta Dosha and provokes Vata Dosha. It acts as Kapha Vatahara. Hager‟s Test Positive Positive =1.E. KODRAVA(N. It possesses Sandhaneeya and Vrushyaproperties.01 =3. 2.O. It has got Agnideepana.O.1. NIMBUKA (N. Graminae. L.Gadag.N. Katu Vipaka and Ushna Veerya.O. Mayer‟s Test b.) 01. Leguminoceae. L.Oryza sativa): It is made out of Tandula. PHYSIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS REPORT (Analyzed at K. By Guna it is Laghu and Ruksha. Oryza sativa): It is made out of Tandula. 9. By Guna it isLaghu. It acts asKaphaPitta shamaka and Vata vardhaka. PRUTHUKA(N. 3.O. TANDULA(N. 5. Pachana andTrishnanigraha properties. 7. KANGUBIJA(N. Madhura Vipaka as Sheeta Veerya. L. society‟s Pharmacy college. DIPYAKA (N. N. KULATHA(N. 4. Dolichos biflorus): Kulatha possesses Kashaya Rasa.N. LAJA (N. O. Specific gravity 03. Graminae. Paspalum scrobiculatum): Kodrava is of MadhuraKashaya inRasa. Rochana. By Guna it is Guru and Ruksha. Carumroxburgianum): Dipyaka possesses Katu and Tikta Rasa. It provokes Pitta Doshaalso. Graminae. Citrusacida): Nimbuka is of Amla Rasa.O. Prepared bylittle heating and wet pounding of Tandula. L. Vidahi and Sara.N. Amla Vipaka and Ushna Veerya. PH 02.N. Rochana and Krimighna properties. 6. 8. Rutaceae. Graminae. Prepared by dry frying in asmall-mouthed vessel. It pacifies kapha Dosha. L. Oryza sativa) : Tandula possesses Madhura and KashayaRasa. By Guna it is Laghu. It acts as Samaka for Kapha and VataDosha.

The patient initially with Dakshina Pakshaghat are covered in 14 days management. The results obtained with objective and subjective parameters are as follows. Molish Test b. without any drawbacks or setbacks. Benedict‟s Test c. Test for Carbohydrates a. Pakshaghata was tried with internally for pana andexternally with kayaseka. Amavata: 15 Ninepatients of Amavata were treated with Dhanyamla Kayaseka for 21 days. Sandhivata: Eight patients of Sandhivata areundertaken for observational study with Dhanyamla Dhara over the Sandhi.04. . whichmade the patient to have symptomatic relief with in seven days of course. Barfoedt‟s Test Positive (Carbohydrate present) = Positive (Reducing sugarpresent) = Positive(Monosaccherides present) Case studies withDhanyamla Pakashaghata: As the Dhanyamla indication isfor all Vata Vyadhi.

One patient presented withGrade III (11%). . Sparsa asahishnuta:. 4.In this Group fourpatients (44%) presented with Grade III and five patients (56%) with Grade IISandhigraha.One patient presentedwith Grade III (11%) five patients with Grade II (56%) and three patients withGrade I (33%). Number of patients in Grade II wasreduced from five to one (11%) 5. Sandhisotha:.After the treatment there was no patients with Grade III and GradeII was reduced from five to three(33%). Sandhigraha :. four patients with Grade II (44%).2. After the treatment six patients got complete relief (67%)and there were no patients with Grade II and Grade III.3. Sandhiruk:. After the treatment three patients got complete relief (33%) andthere were no patients with Grade III.One patientpresented with Grade III (11%) five patients with Grade II (56%) and three patientswith Grade I (33%). and four patients withGrade I(44%). After the treatment Grade II was reduced from four to one (11%)and four patients (44%) got complete relief.

1984. Paka andSrotomukha Vishodhana. After the treatment six patients(67%) got complete relief and there were no patients with Grade II and GradeIII.). Chowkhamba orientalia. Health Professions Division. Dhanyamla is such potent externally mediated.McGraw-Hill. well before to the Dosha Shodhana procedure. Allepy. 7/53. Goodman& Gilman's THE PHARMACOLOGICAL BASIS OF THERAPEUTICS. part 3. 9th ed. pH regulated (3 approx. Thusthe Dhanyamla Chikitsa becomes ultimate treatment Antahparimarjana (internally)and Bahiparimarjana (externally) Chikitsa.Published by Vidyarabham Publishers. pp 25 7) VaidyaJadavji Trikamji Acharya et. Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office. PBNo 8.al. pp 62 2) 3) Ibid.al. 8thed. Pp.Two patients presented withGrade II and seven patients with Grade I. Varanasi. Susruta Samhita Chikitsa 24/30 . 23rd edition April2000. PB No 1032.. 1996. pp 453 Ibid.Dalhana. concentration -partition and diffusion coefficient of drug is maintained along with specificVata Dosha pacified properties. Conclusion: Atthe virtue of understanding the fundamentals of the Bahiparimarjana Chikitsa tropicalappliance management.. lipophilicity. Gourava :.6. pp 709 medina 4) Vaidya Jadavji Trikamji Acharya ed. it is very clear that the required cleansing properties suchas “Anupravana bhava Utpadakata” is not available with and they are said asonly Dosha transport facilitators with the capabilities of Vishyanda.Charaka Samhita sutra 11/55. pp 78 5) 6) Ibid. References 1) Raja Radha Kanta Deva.Hardman et. Dermalapplications which are hydrophobic in nature (organic solvents – Dhanyamla)utilized for sustaining prolonged and slow delivery acts on systemic diseases. temperatureregulated. 1967. Krishnan Vaidyan et.122 . pp 488 Joel G. 2/15 – Chakrapani. Nirnaya Sagar Press (1941) reprint. PB No 139. Shabda Kalpadruma.Chowkhamba Sanskrit sansthan. 2005.al.Varanasi. 3rd ed. Sutra. NewYork 9) Sahasra yoga Edited by – Shri K. Chikitsa. pp 709 Ibid. moistened. When DoshaShodhana is done the same Bahiparimarjana Chikitsa becomes potent to pacifyDosha and said as Dosha shamaka. Varanasi -1. V.

V. Department of Kayachikitsa(PG). D. AYURVEDIC MEDICALCOLLEGE. 8/74. Varanasi. M. 615 14) Sahasra yoga Edited by – Shri K. Krishnan Vaidyan et.Published by Vidyarabham Publishers. pp 463 13) Ibid. Allepy. 1984.al. Charaka Samhita Chikitsa 3/259.G. 14/44-47. Post graduate studies and research centre. 2004. 27/50-55.10) Vaidya Jadavji Trikamji Acharya ed. 23rd edition April2000. K. Shiva RamaPrasad.Nirnaya Sagar Press (1941) reprint.582 103 . Chowkhamba Sanskrit sansthan. pp 508 12) Ibid. Gadag . PB No139. pp 422 11) Ibid. Pp.122 15) Shyju Ollakkod under the guidance of Dr. Evaluation of comparative efficacy of Alambushadi yoga and DhanyamlaKayaseka in Amavata (Rheumatoid Arthritis).

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