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IL300

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Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.7, 23-Sep-11
1
Document Number: 83622
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Linear Optocoupler, High Gain Stability, Wide Bandwidth
DESCRIPTION
The IL300 linear optocoupler consists of an AlGaAs IRLED
irradiating an isolated feedback and an output PIN
photodiode in a bifurcated arrangement. The feedback
photodiode captures a percentage of the LEDs flux and
generates a control signal (I
P1
) that can be used to servo the
LED drive current. This technique compensates for the
LEDs non-linear, time, and temperature characteristics.
The output PIN photodiode produces an output signal (I
P2
)
that is linearly related to the servo optical flux created by the
LED.
The time and temperature stability of the input-output
coupler gain (K3) is insured by using matched PIN
photodiodes that accurately track the output flux of the LED.
FEATURES
Couples AC and DC signals
0.01 % servo linearity
Wide bandwidth, > 200 kHz
High gain stability, 0.005 %/C typically
Low input-output capacitance
Low power consumption, < 15 mW
Isolation test voltage, 5300 V
RMS
, 1 s
Internal insulation distance, > 0.4 mm
Compliant to RoHS Directive 2002/95/EC and in
accordance to WEEE 2002/96/EC
APPLICATIONS
Power supply feedback voltage/current
Medical sensor isolation
Audio signal interfacing
Isolated process control transducers
Digital telephone isolation
AGENCY APPROVALS
UL file no. E52744, system code H
DIN EN 60747-5-2 (VDE 0884)
DIN EN 60747-5-5 (pending) available with option 1
BSI
FIMKO
Note
(1)
Also available in tubes, do not put T on the end.
A
C NC
NC
C
A A
C
1
2
3
4
8
7
6
5
K2 K1
i179026_2
V
D E
i179026
ORDERING INFORMATION
I L 3 0 0 - D E F G - X 0 # # T
PART NUMBER K3 BIN PACKAGE OPTION TAPE
AND
REEL
AGENCY
CERTIFIED/
PACKAGE
K3 BIN
UL, cUL, BSI,
FIMKO
0.557 to 1.618 0.765 to 1.181 0.851 to 1.181 0.765 to 0.955 0.851 to 1.061 0.945 to 1.181 0.851 to 0.955 0.945 to 1.061
DIP-8 IL300 IL300-DEFG - - IL300-EF - IL300-E IL300-F
DIP-8, 400 mil,
option 6
IL300-X006 IL300-DEFG-X006 - - IL300-EF-X006 IL300-FG-X006 IL300-E-X006 IL300-F-X006
SMD-8, option 7 IL300-X007T
(1)
IL300-DEFG-X007T
(1)
IL300-EFG-X007 IL300-DE-X007T IL300-EF-X007T
(1)
- IL300-E-X007T IL300-F-X007
SMD-8, option 9 IL300-X009T
(1)
IL300-DEFG-X009T
(1)
- - IL300-EF-X009T
(1)
- - IL300-F-X009T
(1)
VDE, UL 0.557 to 1.618 0.765 to 1.181 0.851 to 1.181 0.765 to 0.955 0.851 to 1.061 0.945 to 1.181 0.851 to 0.955 0.945 to 1.061
DIP-8 IL300-X001 IL300-DEFG-X001 - - IL300-EF-X001 - IL300-E-X001 IL300-F-X001
DIP-8, 400 mil,
option 6
IL300-X016 IL300-DEFG-X016 - - IL300-EF-X016 - - IL300-F-X016
SMD-8, option 7 IL300-X017 IL300-DEFG-X017T
(1)
- - IL300-EF-X017T
(1)
- IL300-E-X017T IL300-F-X017T
(1)
SMD-8, option 9 - - - - - - - IL300-F-X019T
(1)
> 0.1 mm
10.16 mm
> 0.7 mm
7.62 mm
DIP-8
Option 7
Option 6
Option 9

IL300
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.7, 23-Sep-11
2
Document Number: 83622
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
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OPERATION DESCRIPTION
A typical application circuit (figure 1) uses an operational
amplifier at the circuit input to drive the LED. The feedback
photodiode sources current to R1 connected to the inverting
input of U1. The photocurrent, I
P1
, will be of a magnitude to
satisfy the relationship of (I
P1
= V
IN
/R1).
The magnitude of this current is directly proportional to the
feedback transfer gain (K1) times the LED drive current
(V
IN
/R1 = K1 x I
F
). The op-amp will supply LED current to
force sufficient photocurrent to keep the node voltage (Vb)
equal to Va.
The output photodiode is connected to a non-inverting
voltage follower amplifier. The photodiode load resistor, R2,
performs the current to voltage conversion. The output
amplifier voltage is the product of the output forward gain
(K2) times the LED current and photodiode load,
R2 (V
O
= I
F
x K2 x R2).
Therefore, the overall transfer gain (V
O
/V
IN
) becomes the
ratio of the product of the output forward gain (K2) times the
photodiode load resistor (R2) to the product of the feedback
transfer gain (K1) times the input resistor (R1). This reduces
to
V
O
/V
IN
= (K2 x R2)/(K1 x R1).
The overall transfer gain is completely independent of the
LED forward current. The IL300 transfer gain (K3) is
expressed as the ratio of the output gain (K2) to the
feedback gain (K1). This shows that the circuit gain
becomes the product of the IL300 transfer gain times the
ratio of the output to input resistors
V
O
/V
IN
= K3 (R2/R1).
K1-SERVO GAIN
The ratio of the input photodiode current (I
P1
) to the LED
current (I
F
) i.e., K1 = I
P1
/I
F
.
K2-FORWARD GAIN
The ratio of the output photodiode current (I
P2
) to the LED
current (I
F
), i.e., K2 = I
P2
/I
F
.
K3-TRANSFER GAIN
The transfer gain is the ratio of the forward gain to the servo
gain, i.e., K3 = K2/K1.
K3-TRANSFER FAIN LINEARITY
The percent deviation of the transfer gain, as a function of
LED or temperature from a specific transfer gain at a fixed
LED current and temperature.
PHOTODIODE
A silicon diode operating as a current source. The output
current is proportional to the incident optical flux supplied
by the LED emitter. The diode is operated in the photovoltaic
or photoconductive mode. In the photovoltaic mode the
diode functions as a current source in parallel with a forward
biased silicon diode.
The magnitude of the output current and voltage is
dependent upon the load resistor and the incident LED
optical flux. When operated in the photoconductive mode
the diode is connected to a bias supply which reverse
biases the silicon diode. The magnitude of the output
current is directly proportional to the LED incident optical
flux.
LED (LIGHT EMITTING DIODE)
An infrared emitter constructed of AlGaAs that emits at
890 nm operates efficiently with drive current from 500 A to
40 mA. Best linearity can be obtained at drive currents
between 5 mA to 20 mA. Its output flux typically changes by
- 0.5 %/C over the above operational current range.
APPLICATION CIRCUIT
Fig. 1 - Typical Application Circuit
iil300_01
8
7
6
5
K1
1
2
3
4
K2
R1
R2
IL300
Vb
Va
+
-
U1 Vin
lp1
-
U2
+
lp2
V
out
V
CC
V
CC
V
CC
V
CC
I
F
V
c
+

IL300
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.7, 23-Sep-11
3
Document Number: 83622
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Note
Stresses in excess of the absolute maximum ratings can cause permanent damage to the device. Functional operation of the device is not
implied at these or any other conditions in excess of those given in the operational sections of this document. Exposure to absolute
maximum ratings for extended periods of the time can adversely affect reliability.
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS (T
amb
= 25 C, unless otherwise specified)
PARAMETER TEST CONDITION SYMBOL VALUE UNIT
INPUT
Power dissipation P
diss
160 mW
Derate linearly from 25 C 2.13 mW/C
Forward current I
F
60 mA
Surge current (pulse width < 10 s) I
PK
250 mA
Reverse voltage V
R
5 V
Thermal resistance R
th
470 K/W
Junction temperature T
j
100 C
OUTPUT
Power dissipation P
diss
50 mW
Derate linearly from 25 C 0.65 mW/C
Reverse voltage V
R
50 V
Thermal resistance R
th
1500 K/W
Junction temperature T
j
100 C
COUPLER
Total package dissipation at 25 C P
tot
210 mW
Derate linearly from 25 C 2.8 mW/C
Storage temperature T
stg
- 55 to + 150 C
Operating temperature T
amb
- 55 to + 100 C
Isolation test voltage V
ISO
> 5300 V
RMS
Isolation resistance
V
IO
= 500 V, T
amb
= 25 C R
IO
> 10
12

V
IO
= 500 V, T
amb
= 100 C R
IO
> 10
11

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T
amb
= 25 C, unless otherwise specified)
PARAMETER TEST CONDITION SYMBOL MIN. TYP. MAX. UNIT
INPUT (LED EMITTER)
Forward voltage I
F
= 10 mA V
F
1.25 1.50 V
V
F
temperature coefficient V
F
/C - 2.2 mV/C
Reverse current V
R
= 5 V I
R
1 A
Junction capacitance V
F
= 0 V, f = 1 MHz C
j
15 pF
Dynamic resistance I
F
= 10 mA V
F
/I
F
6
OUTPUT
Dark current V
det
= - 15 V, I
F
= 0 A I
D
1 25 nA
Open circuit voltage I
F
= 10 mA V
D
500 mV
Short circuit current I
F
= 10 mA I
SC
70 A
Junction capacitance V
F
= 0 V, f = 1 MHz C
j
12 pF
Noise equivalent power V
det
= 15 V NEP 4 x 10
-14
W/Hz
COUPLER
Input-output capacitance V
F
= 0 V, f = 1 MHz 1 pF
K1, servo gain (I
P1
/I
F
) I
F
= 10 mA, V
det
= - 15 V K1 0.0050 0.007 0.011
Servo current
(1)(2)
I
F
= 10 mA, V
det
= - 15 V I
P1
70 A
K2, forward gain (I
P2
/I
F
) I
F
= 10 mA, V
det
= - 15 V K2 0.0036 0.007 0.011
Forward current I
F
= 10 mA, V
det
= - 15 V I
P2
70 A
K3, transfer gain (K2/K1)
(1)(2)
I
F
= 10 mA, V
det
= - 15 V K3 0.56 1 1.65 K2/K1

IL300
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.7, 23-Sep-11
4
Document Number: 83622
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Notes
Minimum and maximum values were tested requierements. Typical values are characteristics of the device and are the result of engineering
evaluation. Typical values are for information only and are not part of the testing requirements.
(1)
Bin sorting:
K3 (transfer gain) is sorted into bins that are 6 % , as follows:
Bin A = 0.557 to 0.626
Bin B = 0.620 to 0.696
Bin C = 0.690 to 0.773
Bin D = 0.765 to 0.859
Bin E = 0.851 to 0.955
Bin F = 0.945 to 1.061
Bin G = 1.051 to 1.181
Bin H = 1.169 to 1.311
Bin I = 1.297 to 1.456
Bin J = 1.442 to 1.618
K3 = K2/K1. K3 is tested at I
F
= 10 mA, V
det
= - 15 V.
(2)
Bin categories: All IL300s are sorted into a K3 bin, indicated by an alpha character that is marked on the part. The bins range from A
through J.
The IL300 is shipped in tubes of 50 each. Each tube contains only one category of K3. The category of the parts in the tube is marked on
the tube label as well as on each individual part.
(3)
Category options: standard IL300 orders will be shipped from the categories that are available at the time of the order. Any of the ten
categories may be shipped. For customers requiring a narrower selection of bins, the bins can be grouped together as follows:
IL300-DEFG: order this part number to receive categories D, E, F, G only.
IL300-EF: order this part number to receive categories E, F only.
IL300-E: order this part number to receive category E only.
COUPLER
Transfer gain stability I
F
= 10 mA, V
det
= - 15 V K3/T
A
0.005 0.05 %/C
Transfer gain linearity
I
F
= 1 mA to 10 mA K3 0.25 %
I
F
= 1 mA to 10 mA,
T
amb
= 0 C to 75 C
0.5 %
PHOTOCONDUCTIVE OPERATION
Frequency response
I
Fq
= 10 mA, MOD = 4 mA,
R
L
= 50
BW (- 3 db) 200 kHz
Phase response at 200 kHz V
det
= - 15 V - 45 Deg.
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS
PARAMETER TEST CONDITION SYMBOL MIN. TYP. MAX. UNIT
Switching time I
F
= 2 mA, I
Fq
= 10 mA
t
r
1 s
t
f
1 s
Rise time t
r
1.75 s
Fall time t
f
1.75 s
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T
amb
= 25 C, unless otherwise specified)
PARAMETER TEST CONDITION SYMBOL MIN. TYP. MAX. UNIT
COMMON MODE TRANSIENT IMMUNITY
PARAMETER TEST CONDITION SYMBOL MIN. TYP. MAX. UNIT
Common mode capacitance V
F
= 0 V, f = 1 MHz C
CM
0.5 pF
Common mode rejection ratio f = 60 Hz, R
L
= 2.2 k CMRR 130 dB

IL300
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.7, 23-Sep-11
5
Document Number: 83622
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS (T
amb
= 25 C, unless otherwise specified)
Fig. 2 - LED Forward Current vs. Forward Voltage
Fig. 3 - Servo Photocurrent vs. LED Current and Temperature
Fig. 4 - Normalized Servo Photocurrent vs.
LED Current and Temperature
Fig. 5 - Servo Gain vs. LED Current and Temperature
Fig. 6 - Normalized Transfer Gain vs.
LED Current and Temperature
Fig. 7 - Amplitude Response vs. Frequency
iil300_02
1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
V
F
- LED Forward Voltage (V)
I
F

-

L
E
D

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
m
A
)
1.0
iil300_04
0 C
25 C
50 C
75 C
0.1 1 10 100
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
I
F
- LED Current (mA)
I
P
1

-

S
e
r
v
o

P
h
o
t
o
c
u
r
r
e
n
t

(

A
) V
D
= - 15 V
iil300_06
0 10 15 20 25
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
I
F
- LED Current (mA)
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

P
h
o
t
o
c
u
r
r
e
n
t
Normalized to: I
P1
at I
F
= 10 mA
T
A
= 25 C
V
D
= - 15 V
0 C
25 C
50 C
75 C
5
I
F
- LED Current (mA)
0.1 1 10 100
0
K
1
-
S
e
r
v
o
G
a
i
n
-
I
P
1
/
I
F
0.010
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0
25
50
75
100
17754
iil300_11
0 10 15 20 25
1.010
1.005
1.000
0.995
0.990
I
F
- LED Current (mA)
K
3

-

T
r
a
n
s
f
e
r

G
a
i
n

-

(
K
2
/
K
1
)
0 C
25 C
50 C
75 C
Normalized to:
I
F
= 10 mA
T
A
= 25 C
5
iil300_12
10
4
10
5
10
6
5
0
- 5
- 10
- 15
- 20
F - Frequency (Hz)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

(
d
B
)
R
L
= 1 k
I
F
= 10 mA, Mod = 2.0 Ma (peak)
R
L
= 10 k

IL300
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.7, 23-Sep-11
6
Document Number: 83622
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 8 - Amplitude and Phase Response vs. Frequency
Fig. 9 - Common-Mode Rejection
Fig. 10 - Photodiode Junction Capacitance vs.
Reverse Voltage
APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS
In applications such as monitoring the output voltage from a
line powered switch mode power supply, measuring
bioelectric signals, interfacing to industrial transducers, or
making floating current measurements, a galvanically
isolated, DC coupled interface is often essential. The IL300
can be used to construct an amplifier that will meet these
needs.
The IL300 eliminates the problems of gain nonlinearity and
drift induced by time and temperature, by monitoring LED
output flux.
A pin photodiode on the input side is optically coupled to the
LED and produces a current directly proportional to flux
falling on it. This photocurrent, when coupled to an amplifier,
provides the servo signal that controls the LED drive current.
The LED flux is also coupled to an output PIN photodiode.
The output photodiode current can be directly or amplified
to satisfy the needs of succeeding circuits.
ISOLATED FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER
The IL300 was designed to be the central element of DC
coupled isolation amplifiers. Designing the IL300 into an
amplifier that provides a feedback control signal for a line
powered switch mode power is quite simple, as the
following example will illustrate.
See figure 12 for the basic structure of the switch mode
supply using the Infineon TDA4918 push-pull switched
power supply control cChip. Line isolation are provided by
the high frequency transformer. The voltage monitor
isolation will be provided by the IL300.
The isolated amplifier provides the PWM control signal
which is derived from the output supply voltage. Figure 13
more closely shows the basic function of the amplifier.
The control amplifier consists of a voltage divider and a
non-inverting unity gain stage. The TDA4918 data sheet
indicates that an input to the control amplifier is a high
quality operational amplifier that typically requires a + 3 V
signal. Given this information, the amplifier circuit topology
shown in figure 14 is selected.
The power supply voltage is scaled by R1 and R2 so that
there is + 3 V at the non-inverting input (V
a
) of U1. This
voltage is offset by the voltage developed by photocurrent
flowing through R3. This photocurrent is developed by the
optical flux created by current flowing through the LED.
Thus as the scaled monitor voltage (V
a
) varies it will cause a
change in the LED current necessary to satisfy the
differential voltage needed across R3 at the inverting input.
The first step in the design procedure is to select the value
of R3 given the LED quiescent current (I
Fq
) and the servo
gain (K1). For this design, I
Fq
= 12 mA. Figure 4 shows the
servo photocurrent at I
Fq
is found to be 100 mA. With this
data R3 can be calculated.
iil300_13
dB
Phase


-

P
h
a
s
e

R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

(

)
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
5
0
- 5
- 10
- 15
- 20
45
0
- 45
- 90
- 135
- 180
F - Frequency (Hz)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

(
d
B
)
I
Fq
= 10 mA
Mod = 4.0 mA
T
A
= 25 C
R
L
= 50
iil300_14
- 130
- 120
- 110
- 100
- 90
- 80
- 70
- 60
F - Frequency (Hz)
C
M
R
R

-

R
e
j
e
c
t
i
o
n

R
a
t
i
o

(
d
B
)
10
6
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
iil300_15
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Voltage (V
det
)
C
a
p
a
c
i
t
a
n
c
e

(
p
F
)
0 4 8 2 6 10
R3
V
b
I
PI
------
3 V
100 A
------------------ 30 k = = =

IL300
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.7, 23-Sep-11
7
Document Number: 83622
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 11 - Isolated Control Amplifier
For best input offset compensation at U1, R2 will equal R3.
The value of R1 can easily be calculated from the following.
The value of R5 depends upon the IL300 Transfer Gain (K3).
K3 is targeted to be a unit gain device, however to minimize
the part to part Transfer Gain variation, Infineon offers K3
graded into 5 % bins. R5 can determined using the
following equation,
or if a unity gain amplifier is being designed
(V
MONITOR
= V
OUT
, R1 = 0), the equation simplifies to:
Fig. 12 - Switching Mode Power Supply
Fig. 13 - DC Coupled Power Supply Feedback Amplifier
iil300_16
+
-
Voltage
monitor
R1
R2
To control
input
ISO
AMP
+1
R1 R2 x
V
MONITOR
V
a
------------------------- - 1


=
R5
V
OUT
V
MONI TOR
--------------------------- x
R3 x R1 R2 + ( )
R2 x K3
----------------------------------------- =
R5
R3
K3
------- =
iil300_17
Switch Xformer
Switch
mode
regulator
TDA4918
Isolated
feedback
Control
110/
220
main
DC output
AC/DC
rectifier
AC/DC
rectifier
iil300_18
8
7
6
5
100 pF
4
3
1
2
8
6
7
K1
V
CC
V
CC
1
2
3
4
K2
V
CC
V
monitor
R1
20 k
R2
30 k
R3
30 k
R4
100
V
out
To
control
input
R5
30 k
IL300
Vb
Va
+
-
U1
LM201

IL300
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Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.7, 23-Sep-11
8
Document Number: 83622
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Table 1. Gives the value of R5 given the production K3 bin.
The last step in the design is selecting the LED current
limiting resistor (R4). The output of the operational amplifier
is targeted to be 50 % of the V
CC
, or 2.5 V. With an LED
quiescent current of 12 mA the typical LED (V
F
) is 1.3 V.
Given this and the operational output voltage, R4 can be
calculated.
The circuit was constructed with an LM201 differential
operational amplifier using the resistors selected. The
amplifier was compensated with a 100 pF capacitor
connected between pins 1 and 8.
The DC transfer characteristics are shown in figure 17. The
amplifier was designed to have a gain of 0.6 and was
measured to be 0.6036. Greater accuracy can be achieved
by adding a balancing circuit, and potentiometer in the input
divider, or at R5. The circuit shows exceptionally good gain
linearity with an RMS error of only 0.0133 % over the input
voltage range of 4 V to 6 V in a servo mode; see figure 15.
Fig. 14 - Transfer Gain
Fig. 15 - Linearity Error vs. Input Voltage
The AC characteristics are also quite impressive offering a
- 3 dB bandwidth of 100 kHz, with a - 45 phase shift at
80 kHz as shown in figure 16.
TABLE 1 - R5 SELECTION
BIN
K3 R5 RESISTOR
MIN. MAX. TYP. 1 % k
A 0.560 0.623 0.59 51.1
B 0.623 0.693 0.66 45.3
C 0.693 0.769 0.73 41.2
D 0.769 0.855 0.81 37.4
E 0.855 0.950 0.93 32.4
F 0.950 1.056 1 30
G 1.056 1.175 1.11 27
H 1.175 1.304 1.24 24
I 1.304 1.449 1.37 22
J 1.449 1.610 1.53 19.4
R4
V
opamp
- V
F
I
Fq
-------------------------------- -
2.5 V - 1.3 V
12 mA
--------------------------------- 100 = = =
iil300_19
6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0
2.25
2.50
2.75
3.00
3.25
3.50
3.75
V
o
u
t

-

O
u
t
p
u
t

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)
V
out
= 14.4 mV + 0.6036 x V
in
LM 201 T
a
= 25 C
iil300_20
6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0
- 0.015
- 0.010
- 0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
0.020
0.025
V
in
- Input Voltage (V)
L
i
n
e
a
r
i
t
y

E
r
r
o
r

(
%
)
LM201

IL300
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Fig. 16 - Amplitude and Phase Power Supply Control
The same procedure can be used to design isolation
amplifiers that accept bipolar signals referenced to ground.
These amplifiers circuit configurations are shown in
figure 17. In order for the amplifier to respond to a signal that
swings above and below ground, the LED must be pre
biased from a separate source by using a voltage reference
source (V
ref1
). In these designs, R3 can be determined by the
following equation.
Fig. 17 - Non-inverting and Inverting Amplifiers
iil300_21
dB
Phase
P
h
a
s
e

R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

(

)
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
2
0
- 2
- 4
- 6
- 8
45
0
- 45
- 90
- 135
- 180
F - Frequency (Hz)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

(
d
B
)
R3
V
ref1
I
P1
-----------
V
ref1
K1I
Fq
--------------- = =
TABLE 2 - OPTOLINEAR AMPLIEFIERS
AMPLIFIER INPUT OUTPUT GAIN OFFSET
Non-inverting
Inverting Inverting
Non-inverting Non-inverting
Inverting
Inverting Non-inverting
Non-inverting Inverting
iil300_22
Vcc
20 pF
4
1
2
3
4
8
7
6
5
+ V
ref2
R5
R6
7 2
4
3
Vo
R4
R3
- V
ref1
V
in
R1
R2
3
7
6
+
+V
cc
100
6
IL 300
2 - V
cc
- V
cc
Vcc
- V
cc +
V
cc
20 pF
4
1
2
3
4
8
7
6
5
+ V
ref2
7
2
4
3
V
out
R4
R3
+ V
ref1
V
in
R1
R2
3
7
6
+
+ V
cc
100
6
2 V
cc
V
cc
- V
cc
+
Vcc

Non-inverting input Non-inverting output


Inverting input
Inverting output
IL 300

- V
cc
V
cc
V
OUT
V
IN
-------------
K3 x R4 x R2
R3 x R1 x R2 ( )
------------------------------------------ =
V
ref2
V
ref1
x R4 x K3
R3
------------------------------------------ =
V
OUT
V
I N
-------------
K3 x R4 x R2 x R5 + R6 ( )
R3 x R5 x R1 x R2 ( )
------------------------------------------------------------------------- = V
ref2
- V
ref1
x R4 x R5 + R6 ( ) x K3
R3 x R6
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- =
V
OUT
V
I N
-------------
- K3 x R4 x R2 x R5 + R6 ( )
R3 x R1 x R2 ( )
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ = V
ref2
V
ref1
x R4 x R5 + R6 ( ) x K3
R3 x R6
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ =
V
OUT
V
IN
-------------
- K3 x R4 x R2
R3 x R1 x R2 ( )
------------------------------------------ =
V
ref2
- V
ref1
x R4 x K3
R3
---------------------------------------------- =

IL300
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These amplifiers provide either an inverting or non-inverting
transfer gain based upon the type of input and output
amplifier. Table 2 shows the various configurations along
with the specific transfer gain equations. The offset column
refers to the calculation of the output offset or V
ref2
necessary to provide a zero voltage output for a zero voltage
input. The non-inverting input amplifier requires the use of a
bipolar supply, while the inverting input stage can be
implemented with single supply operational amplifiers that
permit operation close to ground.
For best results, place a buffer transistor between the LED
and output of the operational amplifier when a CMOS
opamp is used or the LED I
Fq
drive is targeted to operate
beyond 15 mA. Finally the bandwidth is influenced by the
magnitude of the closed loop gain of the input and output
amplifiers. Best bandwidths result when the amplifier gain is
designed for unity.
PACKAGE DIMENSIONS in millimeters
PACKAGE MARKING (this is an example of the IL300-E-X001)
i178010
ISO method A
Pin one ID
3
4
10
1
2
4
3
9
6
5
8
7
0.527
0.889
3.302
3.810
0.406
0.508
7.112
8.382
1.016
1.270
9.652
10.16
0.203
0.305
2.794
3.302
6.096
6.604
0.508 ref.
0.254 ref.
0.254 ref.
2.540
1.270
7.62 typ.
8 min.
0.51
1.02
7.62 ref.
9.53
10.03
0.25 typ.
0.102
0.249
15 max.
Option 9
0.35
0.25
10.16
10.92
7.8
7.4
10.36
9.96
Option 6
8 min.
7.62 typ.
4.6
4.1
8.4 min.
10.3 max.
0.7
Option 7
18450
IL300-E
V YWW H 68
X001

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Optocoupler

Optical Isolators Certified for Canada - Component

Double protection optical isolated switches, providing 4420 Vac isolation. Systems H, J.
Optical isolator, Double protection, providing 5300 V ac isolation, System M.
Optical isolator, System O, providing 2500 Vac isolation.
Single protection optical isolator, provides 3125 Vac isolation, System U, Models SFH690, SFH691, SFH692, SFH1690, VOM45, VOM618, and
VO160 may be followed by additional numbers and/or letters.
Optical isolators, single protection type, providing 3333 Vac isolation, System Y: Models IL12, IL20, IL21, IL22, IL256, ILD12, ILD20, ILD21,
ILD22, ILD256, ILD28, SFH63, SFH672, SFH674, SFH675, VO06, VO20, VO21, VO22, VOD20, VOD22 may be followed by additional numbers
and/or letters.
Single protection optical isolator, providing 4420 Vac isolation, System H, Models VO2223, VO3526; Model VO31x0, where x may be any
number. All models may be followed by additional letter(s).
Double protection optical isolator, providing 4420 Vac isolation, System H, Model SFH61, may be followed by additional letters and numbers.
Double protection optical isolators, providing 5000 Vac isolation Models 4N, CNY17, CNY75, CQY80, K233, TCDT110, TCDT111, TCDT112,
HS817, K817P, TCET110, TCET111, TCET120, VO610A, VO615A.
Single protection optical isolators, providing 4420 Vac isolation, System H, Models 4N3 and K30. All models may be followed by additional
alphanumeric characters.
Double protection optical isolators having an isolation voltage of 5300Vrms, Models SFH617A, SFH1617A, SFH615A, VO617A, VO618A,
VO615C, VO617C, VO618C.
Double protection optical isolators having an isolation voltage of 5000Vrms, Model 6N137A.
Models 4N25, 4N26, 4N27, 4N28, 4N35, 4N36, 4N37, 4N38, CNY17 [+], CNY117, CNY17F, CNY117F.
Double protection optical isolators having an isolation voltage of 3750 Vrms, Models VOM617A, VOM618A.
Double protection optical isolators, providing 5300 Vac isolation, Models LH1262, VO1263 and VO15665. All models may be followed by
additional alphanumeric characters.
[+] - may be followed by M, S, F, FM, FS, then followed by 1, 2, 3 or 4.

Marking: Company name or "E52744" or trademark and system, model or catalog designation, and Recognized Component Mark for
Canada on the device or smallest shipping carton. System designation may be preceded by an maximum 4 digit date code, and may
be followed by the factory identification code, with or without spaces due to space constraints.
FPQU8.E52744
Optical Isolators Certified for Canada - Component
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extracted material. In addition, the reprinted material must include a copyright notice in the following format: " 2012 UL LLC".

VDE Certificate 104817
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Optocoupler

Optical Isolators - Component

Optical isolated switch insulation System A, provides 1500 Vac isolation.
Optical isolated switch insulation System B, provides 4200 Vac isolation.
Optical isolated switch insulation System C, provides 1500 Vac isolation.
Optical isolated switch insulation System D, provides 1500 Vac isolation.
Optical isolated switch insulation System E, provides 3748 Vac isolation.
Optical isolated switch insulation System F, provides 1980 Vac isolation.
Optical isolated switch insulation System G, provides 3536 Vac isolation.
Optical isolated switch insulation, System T, providing 3750 Vac isolation.
Double protection optical isolated switches, providing 4420 Vac isolation. Systems H, J.
Optical isolator, System I, provides 1473 Vac isolation.
Optical isolator, System L, provides 1250 Vac isolation.
Optical isolator, Double protection, providing 5300 V ac isolation, System M.
Optical isolator, System O, providing 2500 Vac isolation.
Optical isolators, System S, provides 2500 Vac isolation.
Single protection Optical isolator, insulation, provides 3125 Vac isolation, System U, Models SFH690, SFH691, SFH692, SFH1690, VOM45,
VOM618, and VO160 may be followed by additional numbers and/or letters.
Optical isolator, System V, provides 1473 Vac Isolation.
Optical isolators, single protection type, providing 3333 Vac isolation, System Y: Models IL12, IL20, IL21, IL22, IL256, ILD12, ILD20, ILD21,
ILD22, ILD256, ILD28, SFH63, SFH672, SFH674, SFH675, VO06, VO20, VO21, VO22, VOD20, VOD22 may be followed by additional numbers
and/or letters.
Optical isolators, Models LH1502, LH1512, LH1521, LH1523, LH1501, LH1511 may be followed by additional suffixes. Provides 3750 Vac
isolation.
Double protection optical isolators having an isolation voltage of 5000Vrms, Models 4N25, 4N26, 4N27, 4N28, 4N35, 4N36, 4N37, 4N38,
CNY17 [+], CNY117, CNY17F, CNY117F.
Single protection optical isolator, providing 4420 Vac isolation, System H, Models VO2223, VO3526; Model VO31x0, where x may be any
number. All models may be followed by additional letter(s).
Double protection optical isolator, providing 4420 Vac isolation, System H, Model SFH61, may be followed by additional letters and numbers.
FPQU2.E52744
Optical Isolators - Component
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UL Online Certifications Directory E52744
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Double protection optical isolators, providing 5000 Vac isolation Models 4N, CNY17, CNY75, CQY80, K233, TCDT110, TCDT111, TCDT112,
HS817, K817P, TCET110, TCET111, TCET120, VO610A, VO615A.
Single protection optical isolators, providing 4420 Vac isolation, System H, Models 4N3 and K30. All models may be followed by additional
alphanumeric charactors.
Double protection optical isolators having an isolation voltage of 5300Vrms, Models SFH617A, SFH1617A, SFH615A, VO617A, VO618A,
VO615C, VO617C, VO618C.
Double protection optical isolators having an isolation voltage of 5000Vrms, Model 6N137A.
Double protection optical isolators having an isolation voltage of 3750 Vrms, Models VOM617A, VOM618A.
Double protection optical isolators, providing 5300 Vac isolation, Models LH1262, VO1263 and VO15665. All models may be followed by
additional alphanumeric characters.
[+] - may be followed by M, S, F, FM, FS, then followed by 1, 2, 3 or 4.

Marking: Company name or "E52744" or trademark and system, model or catalog designation on the device itself or on the smallest
shipping container. System designation may be preceded by an maximum 4 digit date code, and may be followed by the factory identification code,
with or without spaces due to space constraints.
2012 UL LLC
The appearance of a company's name or product in this database does not in itself assure that products so identified have been manufactured
under UL's Follow-Up Service. Only those products bearing the UL Mark should be considered to be Listed and covered under UL's Follow-Up
Service. Always look for the Mark on the product.
UL permits the reproduction of the material contained in the Online Certification Directory subject to the following conditions: 1. The Guide
Information, Designs and/or Listings (files) must be presented in their entirety and in a non-misleading manner, without any manipulation of the
data (or drawings). 2. The statement "Reprinted from the Online Certifications Directory with permission from UL" must appear adjacent to the
extracted material. In addition, the reprinted material must include a copyright notice in the following format: " 2012 UL LLC".
Last Updated on 2012-04-20
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CQC Certificate 09001032637
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Optocoupler

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VI SHAY SEMI CONDUCTORS
Optocouplers and Solid-State Relays Application Note 43
Design Guidelines for
Optocoupler Safety Agency Compliance
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E

Rev. 1.4, 07-Nov-11
1
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INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL SAFETY
Traditionally, electrical isolation from hazardous voltages
has been the most common application for optocoupler
devices. Other applications for optocouplers include
reducing EMI through the elimination of common-mode
current loops, which are the greatest contributors to
radiated emissions in high-speed digital systems. However,
isolation is still the predominant role for optocouplers in
today's electronics marketplace.
Electrical isolation is important in modern electronics design
as a way of minimizing the likelihood of exposing an enduser
to injury from hazardous currents. The currents at which
harm or even death can occur are far lower than most
people think. In certain invasive medical operations,
currents as low as 80 A can be fatal and have an
acceptable safety limit of 10 A. These thresholds are
outlined in figure 1.
Fig. 1 - Shock Hazardous Levels
Electrical isolation is typically achieved by one of three
methods: magnetic, capacitive, or electrooptical. All three
have their pros and cons. Magnetic isolation (using an
isolation transformer) is probably the longest-established
method of electrical isolation, providing high levels of
isolation at high frequencies in a robust package. Among the
downsides of this method of isolation are a large device
footprint when compared with other methods and suitability
only for AC signal coupling. Due to these characteristics,
magnetic coupling is for the most part limited to high-power
AC applications.
Fig. 2 - Magnetic Isolation
The second common method of electrical isolation is
capacitive coupling. The advantages of capacitive coupling
are high switching speeds and a relatively small package
footprint, but to eliminate the need for a floating power
supply on the secondary side, a large capacitance is
required to transfer energy from the primary to the
secondary side. Thus, the electrical isolation value of this
technique is greatly diminished by the need for efficient
energy coupling. Consequently, most capacitive coupling
isolation schemes have isolation values in the hundreds of
volts rather than the thousands of volts achievable with
other methods.
Fig. 3 - Capacitive Isolation
Another potential isolation method involves the use of
magneto-resistive sensors. These sensors are able to detect
DC as well as AC magnetic fields. However, this is an
emerging technology and is susceptible to induced noise
from extraneous external magnetic fields.
17348
Pain, respiratory paralysis
Burns
Ventricular fibrilliation
Let go current
Perception
1 mA 10 mA 100 mA 1 A 10 A 100 A
60 Hz current RMS
17349
V-isolation
V-primary V-secondary
17350
Voltage
to
frequency
+

Frequency
to
voltage
+

Coupling
capacitance
Secondary
side
voltage
Primary
side
voltage
Design Guidelines for
Optocoupler Safety Agency Compliance
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Application Note 43
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.4, 07-Nov-11
2
Document Number: 83743
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Optical isolation has many of the best aspects of the former
methods without the drawbacks. Mainly, optical isolation
offers high electrical isolation values, an effective line in the
sand barrier that hazardous voltages are incapable of
penetrating. In the case of Vishays couplers, these values
are as high as 8000 V, the highest level in the industry. This
is achieved with small-footprint packages and high speed;
moreover, it is equally effective with AC or DC signals.
Fig. 4 - Electro-Optical Isolation
SAFETY AGENCY STANDARDS OVERVIEW
There are several widely accepted industry standards that
govern the manufacture and testing of electronic
equipment. Probably the most widely known of these in
North America is Underwriter's Laboratories (UL). UL has
two types of basic approvals: UL Listing and
UL-recognition. The difference is simple but often a subject
of much confusion. The UL Recognized mark, optionally
inscribed on the devices themselves, refers to components
that have been evaluated to a certain extent by UL and will
be re-reviewed by UL for proper incorporation into the
end-use equipment. A UL Listed mark is placed on
complete equipment. For example, a computer would be a
UL Listed, while the component hard drive would be a UL
Recognized part. As seen in the next page, UL was
concerned enough about potential confusion between the
meanings of these two marks that it intentionally made them
distinct from one another.
Fig. 5 - UL Listed/UL Recognized
UL has safety standards for everything that is or possibly
can be manufactured; however, to simplify things, these
standards can be divided into two groups: system
standards and component standards. The system
standards are beyond the scope of this document to
address in their entirety. Arguably, the most commonly
applicable system standard in the electronics industry is
UL60950, which governs the electrical safety requirements
for the broad category of information technology equipment
(ITE). In addition to information technology, there are also
standards that deal with other specialty fields of product
electrical safety. Of particular interest to optocoupler design
is IEC 60601-1, which governs the safety of medical
equipment. IEC 60601-1 was generated by those in the
medical field worldwide, and it is the basis for many
countries national standards, such as UL2601-1 in the
United States. Similarly, UL 60950 has been based on the
internationally generated IEC 60950 and adopted with
changes due to unique national conditions in the United
States, including the National Electrical Code (NEC).
The European Union adopted the IEC-based version as
EN 60950. As is the case for all components, optocouplers
do not necessarily need to meet all particular end-use
system standards, such as IEC 609050 or IEC 60601-1. In
trying to meet any of the specific system standards, it is
important to know which component parameters create
design limitations. For safety purposes, these parameters
include creepage (along a surface) distances, clearance
(through air) distances, maximum isolation voltages, and
insulation thicknesses. For the most part, this document
will deal with standards exclusively dealing with the
manufacture and testing of optocouplers. These are
covered under two standards, UL1577 and IEC 60747-5-1,
which incorporate and supersede the earlier DIN EN
60747-5-5. In addition to these standards, which explicitly
deal with optocouplers, the latest version of IEC 60950-1
clauses, 2.10.5.1, 2.10.7, 2.10.8 , ANEX P.1, and ANEX P.2,
also address issues that deal with optocouplers directly.
UL 1577
The main UL component standard, addressing
optocouplers in the United States is UL 1577, which covers
the safety specifications that pertain to optocouplers in
North America. This document offers an outline of the
specification and points out the highlights that deal with
electrical safety.
Generally, all tests classified as type tests refer to those
tests performed to validate a particular design to a standard.
They are conducted by qualified testing laboratories, often
only once before serial production begins. This is in contrast
to routine tests, also known as 100 % production line tests,
which are intended to prevent manufacturing defects from
ever leaving the factory. In other words, 100 % production
17351
+

V-secondary
RL
RF
Isolation barrier
V-primary
V
iso
min. ms
up to 11.6 kV
Operational characteristics
High isolation voltage
High CMRR
Small package footprint
Intrinsic secondary floating supply
High CMRR
Small package footprint
UL Listed UL Recognized
17356
C
US

Design Guidelines for


Optocoupler Safety Agency Compliance
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Application Note 43
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.4, 07-Nov-11
3
Document Number: 83743
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
line tests are designed to assure that products coming off
the line are confirmed to be constructed as those evaluated
during the type tests. The first sections of UL1577 deal with
package construction issues, materials, corrosion
protection, spacing, thermal testing, etc.
The section of greatest interest is section 16.2, which
specifies rated dielectric insulation voltage testing. It
specifies a test at the rated dielectric insulation voltage for
60 s; however, it gives the manufacturer the option of testing
at 120 % of the rated dielectric insulation voltage for only
1 second. For obvious efficiency concerns, the 1 s test is
much more desirable. Thus, on a Vishay optocoupler data
sheet, a minimum isolation test voltage, or isolation
voltage for 1 s, is actually 120 % of the rated dielectric
insulation voltage. Consequently, the actual rated
dielectric insulation voltages are arrived at from Table 1,
where they are identified by system type (family of related
components).
In addition to the general optocoupler standards listed
above, there is one additional component classification, that
of double-protection optical isolators, which is a fairly
unique evaluation specific under UL 1577. This is often
confused with the more commonly used IEC-based terms of
double insulation and reinforced isolation. Both terms,
explained in great detail in IEC60950, are briefly defined as
follows:
Reinforced insulation: A single, robust level of insulation
that meets a high level of constructional and performance
requirements at a single point. This can be thought of as a
high-integrity component, such as a power transformer with
low-voltage outputs or an optocoupler with at least a
0.4 mm minimum insulation thickness to fulfill this
requirement. Most of Vishays optocouplers fulfill this
criterion. Those that do will indicate the required 0.4 mm
minimum insulation thickness. Vishays unique over-under
double-molded construction inherently provides excellent
dielectric insulation characteristics.
Double insulation: An insulation system, equivalent in
principle to the above in that it prevents the operator from
being exposed to hazardous currents, that consists of the
sum of basic insulation and a secondary, independent
fault-protection method. Such an insulation system should
protect the end-user from any single point of failure of the
primary insulation medium. One of the most common
methods of providing secondary fault protection is to use a
grounded metal chassis, which is designed to trip a
fault-protection device should the line fault to the chassis.
Another would be to employ a completely independent
insulation system such as would be provided by a plastic
chassis.
Double protection: does not refer to either of the above
common IEC defined terms but rather is a performance test,
outlined in the UL1577 standard. All of Vishay's system H
and J parts have been tested and conform to the double
protection standard. The double protection test basically
involves subjecting the part under test to 20 kV pulse
discharges and then testing the device using a partial
discharge method to verify that no permanent damage has
been incurred. The apparatus used to perform the double
protection test is described below.
Fig. 6 - Circuit Discharge Test
TABLE 1 - PRODUCTION TESTING CONDITIONS
OPTO. FAMILY
(SYSTEM TYPE)
60 s TEST
V
AC RMS
60 s TEST
V
DC
1 s
V
AC RMS
1 s
V
DC
A, C, D 1500 2120 1800 2550
B, H, J 4420 6250 5304 7500
E 3748 5300 4498 6360
F 1980 2800 2376 3360
G 3536 5000 4243 6000
S, Y, O 2500 3536 3000 4200
I, V 1473 2083 1768 2500
T 3750 5303 4500 6364
L 1250 1768 1500 2122
U 3125 4419 3750 5303
17352
C1 0.0005 F
R2 100 M
V
+

E C1
S
R1
O1
R2
O1 Device Under Test
R2 100
S Switch
V DC voltmeter
Design Guidelines for
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Application Note 43
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.4, 07-Nov-11
4
Document Number: 83743
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
DIN EN 60747-5-5/IEC 60747
The main German standard-writing body, VDE (Verband
Deutscher Electrotechniker), has a different approach to
optocoupler safety testing and certification than the UL. This
approach relies to a much lesser degree on assumptions
regarding the viability of insulation thickness.
Rather than assuming that a particular insulation thickness
guarantees the electrical dielectric barrier required to
maintain a given standard of electrical safety, the VDE
method of testing and certification admits the possibility that
the insulation could be flawed by voids due to cracks, air
bubbles, etc., and compromised over time by voltage
transients. This approach allows for a higher degree of
confidence in the insulation system, as well as a more
flexible approach to meeting a given isolation standard.
Using this approach, it is possible to meet an isolation
standard with an insulation of lower thickness than would be
required by perspective standards that are based strictly on
insulation thickness. The consequence of this higher
standard of safety confidence is the need for more frequent
and accurate testing.
The key to the VDE method of testing is the partial discharge
test. As in the case of UL1577, VDE testing methodology
includes testing 100 % of the manufactured devices in
question to an elevated voltage for 1 s and testing for
dielectric breakdown. However, the VDE standard for
dielectric failure is extremely tight. It allows for leakage from
the ganged input-to-output pins of no greater than 5 pC.
Furthermore, this elevated voltage test is done at a lower
voltage than the required UL high-pot test, reducing the
possibility of component damage during the test. Moreover,
in addition to the 100 % partial discharge test on the
production line and a type or qualification test during the
engineering evaluation phase, VDE requires a destructive
sample testing by random sampling tests throughout the
manufacturing process. The destructive type and batch
sample test is described in figure 7.
Fig. 7 - VDE TYPE and Sampling Destructive Test
V
IOTM
and V
IORM
are parameters designated by Vishay
based on the inherent material and construction
characteristics of particular parts. These are provided in the
Vishay data book for each specific part in question. V
IOTM
refers to the impulse voltage value of a particular device,
and it will be important for determining usage category,
which is described in detail later on in this document. V
IORM
is the maximum recurring peak voltage, or maximum
operation voltage, which is one of the parameters used
when determining the maximum continuous operating
voltage. V
PR
, the partial discharge test voltage, is derived
from V
IORM
, being 1.875 V
IORM
for 100 % production line
testing and 1.5 V
IORM
to 1.2 V
IORM
for various stages of type
testing.
In addition to the destructive tests that are performed for
type qualification and sample batch testing, VDE requires a
partial discharge test to be performed for every single part
as a routine test. Moreover, preceding the partial discharge
test, Vishay performs an isolation voltage test for 1 s for
each and every part coming through production. This test is
performed on all Vishay optocoupler parts, whether or not
they are required to meet the DIN EN 60747-5-5 standard,
because it is a test also required for UL 1577. It is described
in figure 8.
Fig. 8 - Isolation Voltage Test
For those parts that comply to DIN EN 60747-5-5 or
IEC 60747, a partial discharge test is conducted subsequent
to the isolation test described above. This partial discharge
test consists of applying an elevated voltage from the
input side to the output side of the optocoupler device
under test and measuring the leakage current from primary
to secondary. The leakage current allowed is 5 pC.
Consequently, this is an excellent test for measuring the
insulation integrity of a device, much more so than the use
of a prescribed minimum insulation thickness. This test is
described in figure 9.
17353
V
IOTM
V
1 s
V
IORM
t
1 s 60 s
V
PR
1 s 1 s 10 s
17354
V
IOTM
V
0.1 s
V
V
t
0.1 s 1 s
PR
IOTM
Design Guidelines for
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Application Note 43
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.4, 07-Nov-11
5
Document Number: 83743
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 9 - Partial Discharge Test Profile
In addition to the UL and VDE/IEC specs described above,
Vishay couplers are also certified by several other regional
competent bodies such as CSA, which is accredited by
the Standards Council of Canada, and notified bodies in the
European Union such as BSI and FIMKO. Whether or not a
specific part is certified by a specific agency can be
determined by looking at the Vishay Agency Approval Table,
and if there are any doubts, this may be ascertained by
contacting Vishay directly. All of these additional approvals
involve the submission of product to various regulatory
agencies and notified bodies, and do not require any
additional production line testing.
INSTALLATION CATEGORY
An additional issue to consider when addressing the
electrical safety issues involved with the use of
optocouplers is installation category. Installation category
refers to a grouping of equipment based on where the
end-user product is located in the power distribution
system, and therefore what overvoltage transients the
circuits would be expected to tolerate. For example, the
worst-case installation category IV would be a power meter
that is connected directly to the main power feed and does
not benefit from the additional transient protection that is
enjoyed by systems farther downstream from the main
power feed. This would require the highest-possible
transient withstand voltage, and it would be the highest
installation category. The further away equipment is from
the main power feed, the lower will be the required transient
withstand voltage and installation category. This concept is
illustrated below.
In addition to how close to the utility line equipment resides,
a second consideration to take into account when
determining installation category is utility line voltage.
Fig. 10 - Installation Category
UL60950 for ITE only details spacings with the assumption
that the products covered under the standard are category
II, so the decision of the installation category is essentially
made for the manufacturers when they choose to abide by
standards such as UL60950.
17355
V
0.1 s
V
t
0.1 s 1 s
V
PR
IOTM
Installation Category
Utility
Power
Meter
Fixed
Kitchen
Range
Off-Line
PC
Non Off-Line
powered
Peripheral
Devices
CAT IV CAT III CAT II CAT I
Devices
Connected
Directlyto
Utility
Power
Fixed
Appliances
not Tied to
Wall Outlet
Plug
Connected
Devices
Non-Plug
Connected
Devices
17346
TABLE 2 - IEC-664 INSTALLATION CATEGORIES
UTILITY VOLTAGE
PHASE TO EARTH
V
RMS
OR DC
IMPULSE WITHSTAND VOLTAGES IN VOLTS FOR INSTALLATION CATEGORY
V
IOTM
(FROM VISHAY VDE TABLES)
INSTALLATION
CATEGORY I
INSTALLATION
CATEGORY II
INSTALLATION
CATEGORY III
INSTALLATION
CATEGORY IV
50 330 500 800 1500
100 500 800 1500 2500
150 800 1500 2500 4000
300 1500 2500 4000 6000
600 2500 4000 6000 8000
1000 4000 6000 8000 12 000
Design Guidelines for
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Application Note 43
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.4, 07-Nov-11
6
Document Number: 83743
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
CREEPAGE AND CLEARANCE
Crucial points of interest when trying to meet any specific
system standards are creepage and clearance parameters.
Creepage is defined as the shortest distance between two
conductors over a materials surface. Clearance is simply
the shortest distance between two conductors through air.
These two parameters, discussed in great detail in
EN 60950, and other IEC standards do not apply where
insulation is relied upon to isolate circuits, but do apply
where there are potential paths around the insulation.
Both of these parameters are provided in the Vishay product
data sheet as they apply to Vishay optocouplers. They are
explained in figures 11 and 12.
Fig. 11 - Over-Under, Double-Molded Optocoupler Crossection
In addition to the standard clearance paths, option 6 and
option 8 can increase the spacing paths by in-creasing the
lead spread as illustrated in figure 12.
Fig. 12 - Coplanar Optocoupler Crossection
Designers should note that often it is the pad-to-pad
spacing on the circuit boards themselves that is the limiting
factor for the allowable spacing requirements. Most printed
wiring board manufacturers do not evaluate their boards for
comparative tracking index (CTI) ratings, so the worst-case
material group IIIb (as defined in IEC 60950) is almost always
assumed, with hard-to-control soldermask not depended
upon as a reliable insulating means.
Some manufacturers place 1 mm wide minimum slots in the
board for pollution degree 2 environments to break up the
creepage distance requirement and meet only the clearance
distance. See figure 13.
Fig. 13 - Lead Spacings
DESIGN EXAMPLE
A power supply designer wants to sell an existing AC-to-DC
switching power supply, which is agency-approved for the
ITE industry under UL60950, to the international (IEC based)
industrial control market that normally sits upstream of ITE
in the building's branch circuit distribution. That is, the
power supply would be used in an installation category-III
environment instead of II. The product will be used in a
208 V application. Table 2 shows that a 4000 V impulse
withstand voltage (or V
IOTM
) is required. Also, in the supply
there is a maximum repetitive peak working voltage of
350 V
pk
in the front end of the supply that may appear at the
optocoupler, so it should be selected with the minimum
repetitive peak working voltage (or V
IORM
) of 350 V
pk
. V
IOTM
and V
IORM
values are often confused with the isolation test
voltage (or dielectric or high-pot rating). The spacings
(creepage and clearances) would then need to be checked,
with the circuit boards pads usually being the limiting
factor. Vishays spacings are typically shown on the
specification sheets.
CONCLUSION
It is important to reemphasize the difference between
system-level standards and component-level standards.
The procedures and standards discussed in this document
refer to component-level standards and must be looked at
in that context. If issues arise regarding specific system
standards such as IEC 60950, IEC 60601, etc., Vishay
applications engineering is able to deal with questions as
they may pertain to the optocoupler requirements. Meeting
system electrical safety standards is an issue that must be
addressed on a final system level, and it cannot be
completely addressed by simply choosing the right
optocoupler.
17919
Outside Creepage Distance
Clearance
Inside Creepage
Distance
Receiver Die
Emitter Die
0.4 mm
0.4 mm
Inside Creepage Distance
Emitter Die
Receiver Die
17920
Outside Creepage Distance
Clearance
10.16 mm
> 0.7 mm
> 9.27 mm
17347
OPTION 6 OPTION 8
Design Guidelines for
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Application Note 43
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.4, 07-Nov-11
7
Document Number: 83743
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
REFERENCES
Webster, G. John, Medical Instrumentation Application and Design. New York: Wiley, 1998.
Burek, Robert & Linehan, James, Product Safety for ITE, Telecom, Laboratory, and Test and Measurement Equipment.
Compliance Engineering, Foxborough, 1998
UL 1577 Standard for Safety for Optical Isolators.
IEC 60950 Safety Standard for Information Technology Equipment.
IEC 60747-5-2 Standard for Optoelectronic Devices.
USEFUL WEB LINKS
Vishay http://www.vishay.com
UL http://www.ul.com/
IEC http://www.iec.ch/
FIMCO http://www.sgsfimko.fi/index_en.html
BSI http://www.bsi-global.com/index.xalter
CSA http://www.csa-international.org/default.asp?lanuage=english
VDE http://www.vde.com/VDE/de/
VI SHAY SEMI CONDUCTORS
Optocouplers and Solid-State Relays Application Note 54
Isolated Industrial Current Loop Using the IL300 Linear
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Rev. 1.5, 18-Oct-11
1
Document Number: 83710
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
www.vishay.com
INTRODUCTION
Programmable logic controllers (PLC) were once only found
in large manufacturing firms but now are used in small to
medium manufacturing firms. PLCs are being retrofitted into
manufacturing environments where temperature, pressure,
and level sensor control signals are exposed to harsh
electrical noise. The connection between these sensors and
the controller requires the use of high noise immunity
communication technology.
One solution to this communication problem is the analog
current loop. A current loop is an interface technique that
converts a process sensors output to a DC current signal.
When compared to voltage control techniques, a current
loop receivers low input resistance offers higher noise
immunity. Current loops have the added advantage of better
accuracy, because they eliminate sensor signal errors
introduced by communication line resistance.
Electrical noise can be reduced further by providing isolation
between the current loop receiver or transmitter and the
process controller. An isolated receiver and transmitter can
be constructed using the IL300 linear optocoupler. This
application note will describe how to design a line powered
isolated current loop receiver and transmitter. It will discuss
the design process and show circuit variations compatible
with common current loop pseudo-standards.
Fig. 1 - Isolated Transmitter and Receiver Current Loop
CURRENT LOOP ELEMENTS
A current loop typically consists of a transmitter, a receiver,
and a DC power supply. The highest insulation and noise
immunity is achieved when an isolated transmitter and an
isolated receiver are used as shown in figure 1. However,
there are many situations where only one end of the loop
can be isolated. Figures 2 and 3 illustrate combinations of
isolated and non-isolated current loop elements.
Isolated current loop transmitters and receivers commonly
require separate isolated power supplies in addition to the
standard loop voltage supply. The designs in this
application note derive their power from the DC supply
found in the loop. Commonly the loop power supply is an
isolated voltage supply whose output voltage will range
from 10 V to 24 V. Thus only a single isolated power supply
is needed to power the loop.
CURRENT LOOP CONVENTIONS
The 4 mA to 20 mA current loop is the most common
pseudo-standard. This convention defines a 4 mA loop
current as the sensors zero reference. The full scale of the
sensor output corresponds to a 20 mA loop current,
representing a minimum to maximum current ratio of 1:5.
The sensors signal output commonly has a zero reference
of + 1 V and a full scale of + 5 V which also corresponds to
a 1:5 signal ratio and a + 4 V span.
Figure 4 shows the transmitters output loop current as a
function of input sensor voltage. Other conventions include
sensor signal spans of 5 V, where the sensors zero
reference is 0 V, and full scale is + 5 V (figure 5).
V
out
V
in
Line
RCVR
XMTR
Power
supply
Process
controller
Sensor
17811
Isolated Industrial Current Loop Using the IL300 Linear
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Application Note 54
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.5, 18-Oct-11
2
Document Number: 83710
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 2 - Isolated Transmitter and non-Isolated Receiver Current Loop
Fig. 3 - Non-Isolated Transmitter and Isolated Receiver
Figures 4 and 5 show the transmitter transfer function. The loop current (IL) is the product of the sensor voltage (V
in
) times the
transmitter trans conductance, milli-Siemens. The receiver in Figure 4 has a trans resistance of 250 , while for Figure 5 it is
312.5 .
Fig. 4 - 1 V to 5 V, 4 mA to 20 mA Current Loop Transfer Fig. 5 - 0 V to 5 V, 4 mA to 20 mA Current Loop Transfer
V
out
V
in
Line RCVR
XMTR
Power
Supply
Sensor
Process
Controller
17812
V
out
V
in
Line
RCVR
XMTR
Power
Supply
Sensor
Process
Controller
17813
Sensor Voltage - V
in
I
L

-

L
o
o
p

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

-

m
A
5 4 3 2 1 0
0
5
10
15
20
I
L
(mA) = 4 mS x V
in
17814
5 4 3 2 1 0
0
5
10
15
20
I
L
(mA) = 4 mA + 3.2 mS x V
in
17815 Sensor Voltage - V
in
I
L

-

L
o
o
p

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

-

m
A
Isolated Industrial Current Loop Using the IL300 Linear
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 54
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.5, 18-Oct-11
3
Document Number: 83710
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
CURRENT LOOP TRANSMITTER
Figure 6 shows an isolated current loop transmitter with a
1 V to 5 V input and a 4 mA to 20 mA output. The sensor
section consists of an optical feedback amplifier (U1, IL300)
that converts the sensor voltage (V
in
) to an output
photocurrent (I
P2
). The output amplifier, U2, operates as a
current controlled current sink. The equation for the line
current (I
L
) as a function of the output photocurrent (I
P2
) is
given below:
The equation for the output photocurrent, I
P2
, as a function
of the sensor voltage is given below:
Combining equations 1 and 2 results in the complete
transmitter DC transfer relationship with K3 the IL300s
transfer gain.
1 V to 5 V, 4 mA to 20 mA TRANSMITTER
DESIGN
The design of the 1 V to 5 V input, 4 mA to 20 mA output
isolated current loop transmitter starts with analyzing the
isolated current to current converter. This amplifier (U2), a
National Semiconductor LM10 operational amplifier, was
chosen for its high output current and ability to operate from
a single supply. The input sensor amplifier controls the
output photocurrent (I
P2
). I
P2
develops a voltage across R3
at the inverting input of U2, forcing a loop current to flow
through R4. Thus I
o
times R4 is equal to the voltage
developed across R3 times IP2 (Equation 4). Equation 5
shows that resistors R3 and R4 set U2s current gain.
Fig. 6 - Isolated 1 V to 5 V, 4 mA to 20 mA Transmitter
A current gain of 400 is selected, with R4 equal to 50 .
From equation 5, R3 is 20 k. Equation 1 shows that a loop
current of 4 mA to 2 mA requires an output photocurrent (I
P2
)
of 10 A to 50 A.
The last design step is to determine the input resistor (R1) by
rearranging Equation 3. The trans conductance, I
o
/V
in
of
Figure 6, is 4 milli-Siemens (mS). The remaining variable is
the IL300s transfer gain, K3. The part to part variation of the
transfer gain offers a range of 0.56 to 1.53. With K3 = 1, R1
is calculated to be 100 k from equation 6. See figure 7 for
the spread of R1 versus the guaranteed range of K3. Thus a
200 k, 10 turn potentiometer will compensate for the full
distribution of K3.
I
O
I
P2
x R3
R4
---------------------- =
(1)
I
P2
V
i n
x K3
R1
---------------------- =
(2)
I
O
V
i n
-------
K3 x R3
R1 x R4
---------------------- = (3)
I
P2
x R3 I
O
x R4 = (4)
Current Gain
I
P2
x R3
R4
---------------------- =
(5)
U1
OP90

+
100pF
3
2
6
2N3906
+15 V
6
2
3
Output
Sensor Input
R1
3
2
4
1
GND
100
R3 R4
7
4
+

GND
Isolated Line
Sensor Connection
Vin
GND
Io
+

U2
LM10
5
6
7
8
K1
IP1
IL300
K2
IP2
17816

Isolated Industrial Current Loop Using the IL300 Linear


A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 54
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.5, 18-Oct-11
4
Document Number: 83710
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 7 - R1 vs. K3 for Isolated 1 V to 5 V, 4 mA to 20 mA Transmitter
0 V to 5 V, 4 mA to 20 mA TRANSMITTER
DESIGN
A current loop transmitter conforming to the pseudo-
standard of 0 V to 5 V input to 4 mA to 20 mA output can be
designed using the general circuit topology in figure 6. With
the addition of a bias source (V
ref
) 4 mA of line current will
flow when V
in
= 0 V. The LM10 offers an integrated 200 mV
band gap reference source with voltage follower buffer
amplifier. The LM10s voltage reference and differential
amplifier make it uniquely qualified as the output current
amplifier. Figure 8 shows the schematic of a current
transmitter including a bias source, U3.
By inspection and using Equation 4, the transmitter current
transfer function can be determined. The transfer function
for figure 8 is given in equation 7.
This equation shows that the loop current is the sum of the
sensor controlled signal (V
in
) and current provided by the
bias source (V
ref
). The bias source consists of a voltage
follower (U3) that buffers a 200 mV band gap reference. This
voltage reference is converted to a current source by the R2
resistor. The value of R2 can be calculated from equation 8,
when V
in
= 0 V, and I
o
= 4 mA.
Fig. 8 - Isolated 0 V to 5 V, 4 mA to 20 mA Transmitter
2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0
0
50
100
150
200
K3 - Transfer Gain - K2/K1
R
1

-

I
n
p
u
t

R
e
s
i
s
t
o
r

-

k

17817
R1
K3 x 20 k
6 ms x 50 k
------------------------------------- =
(6)
R1 100 k for K3 = 1.0 =
I
O
V
i n
x K3 x R3
R1 x R4
------------------------------------- +
V
ref
x R3
R2 x R4
------------------------- =
(7)
I
ref
V
ref
R2
---------- =
I
O
V
ref
R2
---------- x
R3
R4
------- when V
i n
= 0 V =
R2
V
ref
x R3
I
O
x R4
------------------------- =
(8)
U1
OP90
-
+
100 pF
3
2
6
2N3906
+ V
CC
+
-
6
2
3
Output
U2
LM10
R1
3
2
4
1
GND
100
R3 R4
7
4
+

GND
Sensor
Input
Isolated Line
Sensor Connection
-
+
8
1
R2
U3
V
in
GND
I
o
V
ref
IL300
K1
IP1
K2
IP2
5
6
7
8
17818
Isolated Industrial Current Loop Using the IL300 Linear
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 54
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.5, 18-Oct-11
5
Document Number: 83710
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Given the current gain, R3/R4 = 400, V
in
= 0 V, and
I
o
= 4 mA, R2 is calculated to be 20 k.
The input resistor (R1) sets the trans conductance (I
P2
/V
in
)
of the input amplifier. The current transmitters trans
conductance equals the trans conductance of the input
amplifier times the current gain of the output amplifier. The
transmitter incremental trans conductance is calculated
given a V
in
of 5 V, (0 V to 5 V), and Io of 16 mA (4 mA to
20 mA). A transmitter trans conductance 3.2 milli-Siemens
results.
Fig. 9 - R1 vs. K3 for Isolated 0 V to 5 V, 4 mA to 20 mA Transmitter
Assume an output amplifier current gain of
400 (R3 = 20 k, R4 = 50 ), a typical K3 = 1, and a
transmitter trans conductance of 3.2 ms. Substituting R3,
R4, and K3 into Equation 10, R1 can be determined.
Figure 11 shows the relationship of R1 as a function K3.
See Table 1 for the component values for each design.
Isolated transmitter resistor values, K3 = 1.
1 V to 5 V, 4 mA to 20 mA TRANSMITTER
PERFORMANCE
The transmitter described in figure 6 was constructed and
evaluated for accuracy and linearity as a function of input
sensor voltage and ambient temperature. The transmitter
was calibrated by adjusting R1 for 12 000 mA loop current
with an input voltage of 3000 V at T
A
= 23 C. Figure 10
shows the percent error deviation from the expected loop
current. This circuit offers a typical accuracy of 0.2 % over
a temperature range of 0 C to 75 C. Note that the
temperature performance appears to follow a parabolic
contour.
Fig. 10 - Percent Error vs. Input Sensor Voltage
1 V to 5 V, 4 mA to 20 mA Transmitter
Fig. 11 - Linearity Error vs. Input Sensor Voltage
1 V to 5 V, 4 mA to 20 mA Transmitter
Many industrial controllers have calibration techniques that
can compensate for temperature imposed accuracy errors.
These techniques are only valid if the transmitter exhibits a
high degree of linearity. Figure 11 shows the linearity error
for the transmitter. The linearity error is expressed as a
deviation in parts per million (ppm) from a best fit linear
regression at each temperature. Figure 11 shows a typical
linearity of + 200 ppm to - 600 ppm over a 0 C to 75 C
temperature range.
0 V to 5 V to 4 mA to 20 mA 1 V to 5 V to 4 mA to 20 mA
R1 125 k 100 k
R2 20 k INF
R3 20 k 20 k
R4 50 k 50
1.5 1.0 0.5
50
100
150
200
K3 - IL300 Transfer Gain
R
1
-
I
n
p
u
t
R
e
s
i
s
t
o
r
-
K
17819
I
P2
V
i n
-----------
K2
R1
------- =
I
O
V
i n
-----------
K3
R1
------- x
R3
R4
------- = (9)
R1
I
O
---------
V
i n
x K3 x R3
R4
------------------------------------- =
(10)
R1
1.0 x 20 k
3.2 ms x 50
------------------------------------ =
(11)
R1 125 k =
25 C
0 C
75 C
V
in
- Sensor Input Voltage - V
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

E
r
r
o
r

-

%
5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0
- 0.2
- 0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
50 C
17820
5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0
- 600
- 400
- 200
0
200
400
0 C
25 C
50 C
75 C
V
in
- Sensor Input Voltage - V
L
i
n
e
a
r
i
t
y

E
r
r
o
r

-

p
p
m
17821
Isolated Industrial Current Loop Using the IL300 Linear
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 54
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.5, 18-Oct-11
6
Document Number: 83710
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
0 V to 5 V, 4 mA to 20 mA TRANSMITTER
PERFORMANCE
The transmitter in figure 8 was constructed and evaluated
for accuracy and linearity as a function of input sensor
voltage and ambient temperature. The transmitter was
calibrated by adjusting R2 for 4000 mA loop current with an
input voltage of zero volts (0.000 V).
The R1 resistor is then adjusted for 12000 mA loop current
with an input voltage of 2.5 V at T
A
= 23 C. Figure 12 shows
the percent error deviation from the expected loop current.
This circuit offers a typical accuracy of + 0.4 % over a
temperature range of 0 C to 75 C. Note that the
temperature performance appears to follow a parabolic
contour.
Fig. 12 - Percent Error vs. Input Sensor Voltage
0 V to 5 V, 4 mA to 20 mA Transmitter
Figure 13 shows the linearity error for the transmitter. The
linearity error is expressed as a deviation in parts per million
(ppm) from a best fit linear regression at each temperature.
Figure 13 shows a typical linearity of + 600 ppm to
- 1000 ppm over a 0 C to 75 C temperature range.
Fig. 13 - Percent Error vs. Input Sensor Voltage
0 V to 5 V, 4 mA to 20 mA Transmitter
CURRENT LOOP RECEIVER
The sensor controlled, current loop signal is converted to a
voltage by the current loop receiver. The receivers
conversion gain and output voltage span is determined by
the adopted current loop standard. A 4 mA to 20 mA loop
current is commonly converted to a 1 V to 5 V output signal.
The receiver design in this section conforms to this
standard. Signal conversion and isolation are provided by
an IL300, linear optocoupler. The circuit is loop current
powered. The isolation feature and the receivers low
operating voltage drop permits multiple receivers within the
loop.
RECEIVER OPERATION
The isolated current loop receiver consists of two sections.
They include a loop current to photocurrent current
amplifier, U1, and an output trans resistance amplifier, U2.
Figure 14 shows a simplified schematic. The receivers
linearity and stability are insured by using optical feedback
within the loop current to photocurrent amplifier.
Fig. 14 - Isolated Current Loop Receiver
The optical feedback amplifier provides precise control of
the LEDs output flux. A bifurcated optical signal path within
the IL300 provides an equally well controlled photocurrent
for the output trans resistance amplifier.
The loop current to photocurrent current amplifier consists
of a single-supply micro-powered differential control
amplifier, U1, and an LED current shunt regulator, Q1. Shunt
control of the LED current was chosen to accommodate the
receivers need for a low supply voltage operation.
The current loop receiver circuit functions as follows. The
loop current (I
L
) flows into the junction of U1s V
cc
(R1 and
R2). U1s supply current (IU1) is substantially smaller than
the loop current and will be omitted in the analysis. The loop
current is divided at the juncture of R1 and R2. The sum of
the currents flowing in each leg is equal to the loop current.
The individual currents (I
q
and I
F
) are determined by the
required LED current to generate the needed photocurrent
(I
P1
) connected to the control network at U1. Figure 15
shows the I
q
and I
F
relationships for the receiver.
5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
V
in
- Sensor Input Voltage - V
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

E
r
r
o
r

-

%
0 C
25 C
50 C
75 C
17822
V
in
- Sensor Input Voltage - V
L
i
n
e
a
r
i
t
y

E
r
r
o
r

-

p
p
m
5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0
- 1200
- 1000
- 800
- 600
- 400
- 200
0
200
400
600
800
1000
0 C
25 C
50 C
75 C
17823
+
U1
Q1
R4
I
L
V1
I
q
I
R3
I
F
I
P1
V
b
V
a
R3
I
UI
K1
V
gs
P
D1
K2
+

I
P2
GND
V
o
U2
R5
P
D2
LED
I
L
R1 R2

17824
Isolated Industrial Current Loop Using the IL300 Linear
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 54
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.5, 18-Oct-11
7
Document Number: 83710
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 15 - LED Current Shunt Control
The total loop current flows into the junction, V1. This
current, IR3, develops a voltage across R3. Under initial
conditions, this positive voltage appearing at the inverting
input of U1 will force U1s output towards the negative rail.
This V
gs
forces Q1 into cut-off. Under this condition the LED
current (I
F
) equals the loop current (I
L
). This rise in LED
current generates an optical flux which falls on the feedback
photodiode (PD1) and generates a photocurrent (I
P1
). This
photocurrent will rise to a value where voltage developed
across R4 equals the voltage across R3. This satisfies the
differential amplifier requirement of V
a
= V
b
. U1s output
provides the control signal for Q1s gate, forcing it into
conduction and shunting excess loop current away from the
LED current path. The feedback control relationship is
shown in equation 12.
Where: I
P1
= feedback photocurrent
K1 = feedback gain
P2 = output photocurrent
K2 = output gain
K3 = transfer gain (K2/K1)
With equations 12 and 15, solve for I
P2
.
The transfer gain can be written from equation 16.
The output current, I
P2
, is converted to a voltage by the trans
resistance amplifier U2. The output voltage gain equation is
shown below.
Combining equations 18 and 17 results in the current loop
transfer gain solution, V
o
/I
L
(equation 19).
LED CURRENT SHUNT OPERATION
The differential amplifier, U1, provides the control signal to
the LED current shunt regulator. U1s output is connected to
the gate of an n-channel FET, Q1. This transistor is the
control element of the LED current shunt regulator. The
regulator consists of a network made up of the series
connection of the FET and R1, in parallel with the series
connection of the IL300s LED and R2.
The amplifiers output signal controls the FETs drain to
source resistance, R
q
. As the gate voltage is increased, the
FET resistance will decrease causing a larger percentage of
the loop current to be diverted away from the LED signal
path. Thus a rising control voltage, V
gs
, causes the LED
current to decrease. A Siliconix TN0201L enhancement
low-voltage FET was selected as the control device for two
reasons. First, with I
q
20 mA, the FETs gate voltage should
be less than 3 V. The TN0201L control characteristics as a
function of loop current are shown in figure 16. Second, the
FETs dynamic resistance should be in the same order of
magnitude as the IL300s LED dynamic resistance. The
dynamic resistance of both the LED and FET are shown in
figure 17.
Fig. 16 - TN0201L Gate Voltage vs. Drain Current
20 15 10 5 0
0
5
10
15
20
I
F
I
q
I
L
- Loop Current - mA
I
-
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
-
m
A
I
L
= I
q
+ I
F
I
F
(mA) = - 0.327 mA + 0.48 x I
L
(mA)
I
q
(mA) = 0.327 mA + 0.52 x I
L
(mA)
17825
I
P1
x R4 I
R3
x R3; I
R3
I
L
=
I
P1
x R4 I
L
x R3 = (12)
I
P1
K1 x I
F
=
(13)
I
P2
K2 x I
F
=
(14)
I
P2
I
P1
x K3 = (15)
I
P2
R3
R4
------- x I
L
x K3 =
(16)
I
P2
I
L
-------
R3
R4
------- x K3 =
(17)
V
O
I
P2
x R5 =
(18)
V
O
I
L
-------
R3
R4
------- x R5 x K3 =
(19)
20 15 10 5 0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
I
L
- Loop Current - mA
I
d
s

-

D
r
a
i
n

S
o
u
r
c
e

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

-

m
A
V
g
s

-

G
a
t
e

t
o

S
o
u
r
c
e

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

-

V
I
q
V
gs
17826
Isolated Industrial Current Loop Using the IL300 Linear
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 54
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.5, 18-Oct-11
8
Document Number: 83710
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 17 - Dynamic Resistance vs. Current
The shunt regulator includes a series resistor in each leg of
the network. These resistors are included in the design for
two reasons: first, to provide a measure of current overload
protection for the LED and FET, and second to set the initial
control conditions for the network.
The design equations are given below:
Where: I
L
= loop current
I
q
= Q1 drain current
I
F
= LED forward current
R
FET
= Q1 dynamic resistance
R
LED
= LED dynamic resistance
V
n
= Voltage across the control network
Combining equations 20, 21, and 22:
Replacing I
q
in terms of I
F
and setting to zero gives equation
24.
The LED and FET dynamic resistance equations are
substituted into EQ 24.
This transcendental equation is best solved by iterative
techniques.
CURRENT LOOP RECEIVER DESIGN
The current loop receiver design is divided into two
sections. The first is the shunt regulator; the second is the
feedback control amplifier. The shunt regulator design relies
on equation 25 and intuitive selection of an LED operating
point. The LED forward current is bounded by the loop
current range which is 4 mA to 20 mA. The selection of R1
and R2 is determined by solving equation 25 when the LED
current, I
F
= 10 mA, for a loop current equal to 20 mA. This
point is selected to provide sufficient FET current control
range given the initial value range of K1 and its temperature
dependence. Under the I
F
and IL conditions selected,
Equation 25 will provide the resistance range for R1 and R2.
Equation 26 shows that R2 is greater than R1, and the
recommended difference is 67 . Given this guidance, a
100 resistor is selected for R2. A larger value than the
recommended 33 is selected for R1. A 47 resistor is
used providing for greater LED current limiting. Given
R1 = 47 and R2 = 100 , the LED current is calculated
equation 25 at loop current extremes. At I
L
= 4 mA, the LED
current (I
F
) is equal to 1.735 mA, while for a loop current of
20 mA, I
F
= 9.42 mA.
The next part of the design is selecting the resistors, R3 and
R4, surrounding the feedback control amplifier. Recall that
R3 is the loop current sense resistor and should be valued
less than 100 . For this design example, R3 = 20 .
equation 27 shows the relationship of R4 in terms of circuit
variables.
Figure 18 shows the nonlinear nature of the feedback gain,
K1, for the IL300. The worst case condition occurs when
the loop current is at its minimum, I
L
= 4 mA. Under this
condition I
F
= 1.75 mA. Figure 14 can be used to determine
K1 under these conditions. The figure shows that at
I
F
= 1.75 mA, K1 equals 0.00475.
Fig. 18 - LED Current and Feedback Gain vs.
Feedback Photocurrent
Substituting these values into equation 27, R4 can be
determined.
R4 = 9.62 k, a 10 k resistor is selected.
20 15 10 5 0
0
500
1000
1500
I - Current - mA
R

-

R
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

-

TN0210L FET
IL300 LED
R
LED
( ) = 1.023 I
F
(A)^-1.017
R
LED
() ~
1
I
F
(A)
R
FET
() = 2.7524 I
ds
(A) ^ - 0.892
17827
L I
q
x I
F
= (20)
V
n
I
q
x R
FET
+ R1 ( ) = (21)
V
n
I
F
x R
LED
+ R2 ( ) = (22)
I
q
x R
FET
+ R1 ( ) I
F
x R
LED
+ R2 ( ) = (23)
0 R
FET
- R
LED
+ R1 - R2 =
(24)
0 2.7524 x I
L
- I
F
( )
- 0.892
( ) -
1
I
F
---- + R1 - R2 =
(25)
R2 - R1 67 =
(26)
R4
R3 x I
L
I
F
x K1
------------------- =
(27)
80 60 40 20 0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.007
0.008
I
F
K1
I
P1
- Feedback Photocurrent - A
I
F

-

L
E
D

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

-

m
A
K
1

-

F
e
e
d
b
a
c
k

G
a
i
n

-

I
P
1
/
I
F
1.75
0.00475
17828
R4
20 x 4 mA
1.75 mA x 0.00475
-------------------------------------------------- =
(28)
Isolated Industrial Current Loop Using the IL300 Linear
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Application Note 54
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.5, 18-Oct-11
9
Document Number: 83710
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
The final section of the design centers on the selection of the
trans resistance of the output amplifier shown in figure 19.
The feedback resistor (R5) combined with the operation of
the output amplifier (U2) converts the IL300s output
photocurrent (I
P2
) into the output voltage (V
o
). The output
voltage span ( V
o
) will be 1 V to 5 V, given a loop current
span ( I
L
) of 16 mA.
This relationship substituted into equation 19 can be used to
solve for R5.
The final circuit of the isolated current loop receiver is shown
in figure 19.
The circuit is completed by adding two diodes placed in
series with the loop. The diode, D2, is a protection device
which will block current flow if the receivers loop voltage
source is improperly connected. The diode, D1, performs
two functions:
(1) a visual indicator of loop current flow,
(2) functions as a 2 V drop in the loop.
This voltage drop is needed to provide supply head room for
the control of the shunt regulator FET.
RECEIVER PERFORMANCE 4 mA to 20 mA
LOOP CURRENT, 1 V to 5 V OUTPUT
The receiver in Figure 19 was constructed and evaluated for
accuracy and linearity as a function of input loop current and
ambient temperature. The receiver was calibrated by
adjusting R6 for 3.00 V output with a loop current of
12.00 mA at T
A
= 23 C. Figure 20 shows the percent error
deviation from the expected output voltage. This circuit
offers a typical accuracy of + 0.8 % to - 0.5 % over a
temperature range of 0 C to 75 C. Note that the
temperature performance appears to follow a linear
temperature characteristic. Figure 18 shows a typical
temperature coefficient of 175 ppm/C.
Many industrial controllers have calibration techniques that
can compensate for temperature imposed accuracy errors.
These techniques are only valid if the receiver exhibits a high
degree of linearity. Figure 21 shows the receivers linearity
error as a deviation in parts per million (ppm) from a best fit
linear regression at each temperature. Figure 21 shows a
typical linearity of + 300 ppm to -1000 ppm over a 0 C to
75 C temperature range.
CONCLUSION
Isolated current loops offer the industrial control designer
the peace of mind that electrical noise and grounding
problems will not influence the sensor signal. This
application note has shown the design technique and
results to construct a line powered 4 mA to 20 mA current
loop receiver.
It also presented two isolated current loop transmitters, one
conforming to the 1 V to 5 V input and a second to the 0 V
to 5 V input standard.
The performance data in this application note shows that the
receiver and transmitter easily conform to a 8 bit operation
over a 0 C to 75 C operating range.
Fig. 19 - Isolated Current Loop Receiver
R5
V
O
x R4
I
L
x K3 x R3
-------------------------------------- =
(29)
V
O
V
O max.
- V
O min.
=
I
L
I
L max.
- I
L min.
=
(30)
R5
V
O max.
- V
O min.
( ) x R4
I
L max.
- I
L min.
( ) x K3 x R3
----------------------------------------------------------------------- =
(31)
R5
5 V - 1 V ( ) x 10 k
20 mA - 4 mA ( ) x 1.0 x 20
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ =
(32)
R5 125 k =
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
IP1 IP2
GND
R1

+
100 pF
3
2
6
20
10 k
100
47
TN0201L
7
4
Q1
*C1
R4
R3
R2
Line
+ Line D2*
1N914
D1
LDH1111
* optional
OP90
Q1 Siliconix
OP90
Analog Devices
+

6
2
3
4 - V
CC
7
100 pF *C3
OUTPUT
+ V
CC
V
CC
= 9 V
OP90
50 k
R5
100 k
R6
GAIN
17829

Isolated Industrial Current Loop Using the IL300 Linear


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Application Note 54
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.5, 18-Oct-11
10
Document Number: 83710
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 20 - Percent Error vs. Loop Current 4 mA to 20 mA Receiver Fig. 21 - Linearity Error vs. Loop Current 4 mA to 20 mA Receiver
20 15 10 5 0
- 0.6
- 0.4
- 0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
25 C
0 C
75 C
50 C
I
L
- Loop Current - mA
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

E
r
r
o
r

-

%
17830
20 15 10 5 0
- 1000
- 800
- 600
- 400
- 200
0
200
400
600
L
i
n
e
a
r
i
t
y
E
r
r
o
r
-
p
p
m
0 C
25 C
50 C
75 C
17831
I
L
- Loop Current - mA
VI SHAY SEMI CONDUCTORS
Optocouplers and Solid-State Relays Application Note 45
How to Use Optocoupler Normalized Curves
A
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A
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N

N
O
T
E

Rev. 1.5, 18-Oct-11
1
Document Number: 83706
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
www.vishay.com
An optocoupler provides insulation safety, electrical noise
isolation, and signal transfer between its input and output.
The insulation and noise rejection characteristics of the
optocoupler are provided by the mechanical package
design and insulating materials.
A phototransistor optocoupler provides signal transfer
between an isolated input and output via an infrared LED
and a silicon NPN phototransistor.
When current is forced through the LED diode, infrared light
is generated that irradiates the photosensitive base collector
junction of the phototransistor. The base collector junction
converts the optical energy into a photocurrent which is
amplified by the current gain (HFE) of the transistor.
The gain of the optocoupler is expressed as a Current
Transfer Ratio (CTR), which is the ratio of the phototransistor
collector current to the LED forward current. The current
gain (HFE) of the transistor is dependent upon the voltage
between its collector and emitter. Two separate CTRs are
often needed to complete the interface design. The first
CTR, the non-saturated or linear operation of the transistor,
is the most common specification of a phototransistor
optocoupler and has a V
CE
of 10 V. The second is the
saturated or switching CTR of the coupler with a V
CE
of 0.4
V. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the normalized CTR
CE
for the
linear and switching operation of the phototransistor. Figure
1 shows the normalized non-saturated CTR
CE
operation of
the coupler as a function of LED current and ambient
temperature when the transistor is operated in the linear
mode. Normalized CTR
CE(SAT)
is illustrated in figure 2. The
saturated gain is lower with LED drive greater than 10 mA.
Fig. 1 - Normalized CTR vs. I
F
and T
A
Fig. 2 - Normalized Saturated CTR
The following design example illustrates how normalized
curves can be used to calculate the appropriate load
resistors.
PROBLEM 1
Using an IL1 optocoupler in a common emitter amplifier
(figure 3) determine the worst case load resistor under the
following operation conditions:
Fig. 3 - IL1 to 74HC04 Interface
T
A
= 70 C, I
F
= 2 mA, V
OL
= 0.4 V, logic load = 74 HC04
IL1 Characteristics:
CTR
CE(NON SAT)
= 20 % min. at T
A
= 25 C, I
F
= 10 mA,
V
CE
= 10 V
0.1 1 10 100
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d
C
T
R
17485
T
A
= 25 C
T
A
= 50 C
T
A
= 70 C
T
A
= 100 C
Normalized to:
I
F
= 10 mA, V
CE
= 10 V
T
A
= 25 C
I
F
- LED Current (mA)
0.1 1 10 100
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
T
A
= 25 C
I
F
- LED Current (mA)
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

C
T
R
V
CE(SAT)
= 0.4 V
17486
T
A
= 50 C
T
A
= 70 C
T
A
= 100 C
Normalized to:
I
F
= 10 mA, V
CE
= 10 V
T
A
= 25 C
HC04
L
R
OL
V
F
I
CC
V
17487
How to Use Optocoupler Normalized Curves
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Application Note 45
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.5, 18-Oct-11
2
Document Number: 83706
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
SOLUTION
Step 1.
Determine CTR
CE(SAT)
using the normalization factor
(NF
CE(SAT)
) found in figure 2.
Fig. 4 - Normalized Saturated CTR
CTR
CE(SAT)
= CTR
CE(NON SAT)
NF
CE(SAT)

CTR
CE(SAT)
= 20 % x 0.36 (1)
CTR
CE(SAT)
= 7.2 %
Step 2.
Select the minimum load resistor using the following
equation:
R
L(MIN)
= 48.94 k, select 51 k 5 %
The switching speed of the optocoupler can be greatly
improved through the use of a resistor between the base
and emitter of the output transistor. This is shown in figure
5. This resistor assists in discharging the charge stored in
the base to emitter and collector to base junction
capacitances. When such a speed-up technique is used the
selection of the collector load resistor and the base emitter
resistor requires the determination of the photocurrent and
the h
FE
of the optocoupler.
The photocurrent generated by the LED is described by the
CTR
CB
of the coupler. This relationship is shown in
equations 3 and 4. Equation 5 shows that CTR
CE
is the
product of the CTR
CB
and the h
FE
. The h
FE
of the transistor
is easily determined by evaluating equation 4, once the
CTR
CE(SAT)
and CTR
CB
are known. The normalized CTR
CB
is
shown in figure 6. Equations 5, 6, and 7 describe the
solution for determining the R
BE
that will permit reliable
operation.
Fig. 5 - Optocoupler/Logic Interface with R
BE
Resistor
Fig. 6 - Normalized CTR
CB
vs. LED current
0.1 1 10 100
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

C
T
R
C
B
17488
Normalized to:
I
F
= 10 mA, V
CB
= 9.3 V
T
A
= 25 C
SCTR
CB
- 25
SCTR
CB
- 50
SCTR
CB
- 70
SCTR
CB
- 100
I
F
- LED Current (mA)
(0.072) 2 mA
100 %
R
L(min.)
=
-
50 A
5 V
-
0.4 V
CTR
CE(SAT)
I
F
100 %
R
L(min.)
=
-
I
L
V
CC
-
V
OL
(2)
HC04
L
R
O
V
F
I
CC
V
CB
I
BE
R
17489
0.1 1 10 100
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
17490
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

C
T
R
C
B
I
F
- LED Current (mA)
Normalized to:
I
F
= 10 mA, V
CB
= 9.3 V
T
A
= 25 C
SCTR
CB
- 25
SCTR
CB
- 50
SCTR
CB
- 70
SCTR
CB
- 100
I
CB
I
F
CT
CB
= 100 % (3)
CTR
CB
100 %
I
CB
= I
F
(4)
CTR
CE(SAT)
= CTR
CB
HFE
(SAT)
(5)
CTR
CE(SAT)
hFE
(SAT)
=
CTR
CB
(6)
V
BE
R
BE
=
I
CB

-
I
BE
(7)
V
BE
HFE
(SAT)
R
L
R
BE
=
I
CB
HFE
(SAT)
R
L

-
[V
CC
-
V
CE(SAT)
]
(8)
V
BE
CTR
CE
NF
CE(SAT)
CTR
CB
NF
CB
I
F
CTR
CE
NF
CE(SAT)
R
L
100 %
R
L
R
BE
=
-
[V
CC
-
V
CE(SAT)
]
(9)
How to Use Optocoupler Normalized Curves
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Application Note 45
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.5, 18-Oct-11
3
Document Number: 83706
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
PROBLEM 2
Using an IL2 optocoupler in the circuit shown in figure 6,
determine the value of the collector load and base emitter
resistor, given the following operational conditions:
T
A
= 70 C, I
F
= 5 mA, V
OL
= 0.4 V,
Logic load = 74HC04
IL2 Characteristics:
CTR
CE
= 100 % at T
amb
= 25 C, V
CE
= 10 V, I
F
= 10 mA
CTR
CB
= 0.24 % at T
amb
= 25 C, V
CB
= 9.3 V, I
F
= 10 mA
SOLUTION
Step 1.
Determine CTR
CE(SAT)
, and CTR
CB
.
From figure 2 the CTR
CE(SAT)
= 55 %, [NF
CE(SAT)
= 0.55]
From figure 6 the CTR
CB
= 0.132 %, [NF
CB
= 0.55]
Step 2.
Determine R
L
.
From equation 2 R
L
= 1.7 k
Select R
L
= 3.3 k
Step 3.
Determine R
BE
, using equation 9.
R
BE
= 199 k, select 220 k
Using a 3.3 k collector and a 220 k base emitter resistor
greatly minimizes the turn-off propagation delay time and
pulse distortion. The following table illustrates the effect the
R
BE
has on the circuit performance.
Not only does this circuit offer less pulse distortion, but it also
improves high-temperature switching and common mode
transient rejection while lowering static DC power
dissipation.
0.65 V
(100 %)(0.55)
(0.24 %)(0.55)
(5 mA)(100 %)(0.55)(3.3 k)
100 %
(3.3 k)
R
BE
=
-
[5 V
-
0.4 V]
(10)
TABLE 1
I
F
= 5 mA, V
CC
= 5 V
R
L
= 3.3 k
R
BE
=
R
L
= 3.3 k
R
BE
= 220 k
t
delay
1 s 2 s
t
rise
4 s 5 s
t
storage
17 s 10 s
t
fall
5 s 12 s
t
phl
3.5 s 7 s
t
plh
22 s 12 s
Pulse distortion 50 s pulse 37 % 10 %
VI SHAY SEMI CONDUCTORS
Optocouplers and Solid-State Relays Application Note 55
Optoelectronic Feedback Control Techniques for Linear
and Switch Mode Power Supplies
A
P
P
L
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A
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I
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N

N
O
T
E

Rev. 1.5, 18-Oct-11
1
Document Number: 83711
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
www.vishay.com
INTRODUCTION
The power supply designer is continually being pressured to
provide units which have higher efficiency, better regulation,
less EMI and RFI, and smaller size and weight, all at a lower
cost. The solution to this problem is a combination of circuit
topology, layout, and supply control. This application note
will address output control techniques for linear and switch
mode power supplies (SMPS). Specifically, it will cover
control techniques using standard phototransistors and a
new family of linear optocouplers.
ISOLATED REGULATION
National and international safety agencies require a supplys
output to be isolated and insulated from the AC mains. Many
supply manufacturers have elected to offer power supplies
that satisfy all national and international safety insulation
criteria by selecting power transformers and feedback
devices that meet a 3750 V
AC
withstand test voltage.
Feedback systems that use optocouplers easily comply with
this insulation criteria. Optocouplers also offer a high degree
of noise rejection or isolation combined with their insulation
characteristics.
LINEAR POWER SUPPLY FEEDBACK
Linear power supplies comply with the main insulation and
isolation safety requirements by virtue of the
primary/secondary insulation of the power transformer.
There are numerous circumstances where isolated
feedback in a linear power supply is needed, such as
monitoring high-voltage power supplies, current
measurement in the high side of the supply, or monitoring
multiple isolated outputs. Figure 1 shows a typical block
diagram.
The feedback system for a linear power supply should be
DC transparent and continuous. A standard phototransistor
coupler, when properly specified, can perform the feedback
function. To properly specify the phototransistor it is
important to review the elements that contribute to a
couplers operation. Figure 2 shows the phototransistor
optocoupler schematic.
Fig. 1 - Linear Power Supply Phototransistor Model
Fig. 2 - Phototransistor Coupler Schematic
Phototransistor optocouplers are current amplifiers. These
couplers include an infrared light emitting diode, LED,
and an NPN silicon phototransistor. Figure 2A shows
the common schematic of a standard phototransistor
optocoupler. Figure 2B is an expanded schematic that
includes a collector-base photodetector. An input LED
current, I
F
, creates an optical flux, which is detected by
the photodiode. The photodiode develops a photocurrent,
I
cb
, which is amplified by the phototransistor. The
phototransistor supplies a collector-emitter current, I
ce
. The
current gain of the device is defined as a current transfer
ratio (CTR) and is expressed as a percentage. The CTR
relationship is given in equation 1:
Mains
AC/DC
Rectifier
Regulator Xformer
Isolated
Feedback
Current or
Voltage
Isolated
DC
Outputs
Originally presented at the PCIM /Power Quality

, 1993
Conference, Irvine, CA, U.S.A.
17832

A. Simple Phototransistor
I
F
Collector
Emitter
LED
I
CE
I
F
Collector
Emitter
LED
Base
Detector
I
CB
B. Expanded Simple Phototransistor 17833
I
CE
CTR =
I
CE
x 100 %
I
F
--------------------------------- (1)
Optoelectronic Feedback Control Techniques for Linear
and Switch Mode Power Supplies
A
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N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 55
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.5, 18-Oct-11
2
Document Number: 83711
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
The relationship of the LED forward current flux creation and
the generation of photocurrent is called current transfer ratio
collector-base (CTR
cb
). See equation 2.
Combining equation 2 with the transistor current gain, h
FE
,
provides a more complete optocoupler gain equation:
The relationship given in equation 3 can be shown in a block
diagram of the four elements that make up the DC transfer
function of the phototransistor coupler. These elements are
shown in figure 3.
Fig. 3 - Phototransistor Block Diagram
The LED, package, detector, and transistor components
have independent variables contributing to the optocoupler
transfer function. The performance of the LED is influenced
by four variables. These include the LEDs external quantum
efficiency,
e
, the forward current, I
F
, junction temperature,
T
J
, and the total operation time.
The LEDs external quantum efficiency,
e
, specifies the
electrical-to-optical conversion factor. The optimum
efficiency is determined by LED construction. For example,
a GaAs LED has an
e
of approximately 10 %, while the
e
for a AlGaAs LED may be as high as 30 %. The operational
LED efficiency is determined by the three remaining
variables. The two most important are junction temperature
and LED current. The LEDs
e
has a negative temperature
coefficient, typically - 1 %/C. Figure 4 shows the
temperature dependence. This figure shows that when the
LED junction experiences a 50 C temperature change, for
example, from 25 C to 75 C. The output of the LED may
be reduced by as much as 50 %. The temperature
characteristic is more pronounced at a lower LED drive
current. As the LED current is increased this coefficient may
fall to - 0.5 %/C.
Fig. 4 - Normalized LED Efficiency
The influence of forward current on LED efficiency is also
shown in figure 4. Note that a standard GaAs LED efficiency
will be reduced by 50 % when the LED current is changed
from 10 mA to 2 mA. One can conclude that in a DC circuit
designs, the LED introduces large variations as a function of
forward current and junction temperature.
Todays LED processing techniques have all but eliminated
efficiency reduction as a function of time. LED efficiency
reduction is commonly called CTR degradation. Typical
degradation is less than 10 % at 10 k/h and increases at a
logarithmic rate.
The second element is the optical coupling (K) within the
package. Numerous assembly techniques exist for creating
the LED-photodiode coupling path. However manufacturing
variations introduce coupling deviations, such as optical
transmission media, emitter-detector separation distance,
and alignment. K

is set at the time of manufacturing and is
constant as a function of time and temperature.
The third element is the phototransistors collector-base
photodetector responsivity. This factor is the most
consistent and linear element of the coupler. Process
variations introduce worst case responsivity, R, variations
of less than 25 %. The nonlinearity of the detector, over the
designed photocurrent range, is less than 0.1 %.
The fourth element is the phototransistor current gain, h
FE
.
The typical DC current gain showing the temperature,
collector current, and V
CE
influence on DC current gain is
illustrated in figure 5. Note that Vishay phototransistors do
not exhibit the typical beta peak found at low (< 1 mA)
collector currents. It shows a typical h
FE
temperature
coefficient of + 0.5 %/C. The most noticeable is the
influence that V
CE
has on current gain. Figure 5 shows that
the saturated gain (V
CE
< 0.4 V) is reduced by 30 % for an
LED current of 10 mA.
CTR
cb
=
I
cb
x 100 %
I
F
------------------------------- (2)
CTR =
I
cb
x 100 %
I
F
x h
FE
-------------------------------- (3)
LED Package
transmission
separation
alignment
Detector Amplifier

e
I
F
Time
Temp
R

I
F
I
ce
h
FE
V
ce
Temp
I
b
17834
100 10 1 0.1
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
I
F
- LED Current (mA)
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

L
E
D

E
f
f
i
c
e
n
c
y
T
A
= 25 C
T
A
= 70 C
17835
T
A
= 50 C
Optoelectronic Feedback Control Techniques for Linear
and Switch Mode Power Supplies
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 55
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.5, 18-Oct-11
3
Document Number: 83711
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 5 - Phototransistor H
These four optocoupler elements create a linear DC transfer
function, implying that a change in any one of these
elements creates a factored change at the output.
Functionally, the relationship is shown in equation 4:
This section has presented the basic DC model and
resulting transfer equation of the standard phototransistor.
The goal was to illustrate factors that effect the DC
current gain. The designer is encouraged to review the
characteristics of the optocoupler being considered and be
aware of the temperature and LED current influences on the
current transfer ratio of a simple phototransistor.
Most designers compensate for these variations by
selecting narrow-binned CTR optocouplers. Designers often
compensate for gain variations by introducing negative
feedback within a control loop. Equation 4 illustrates that
typical voltage or current feedback techniques are not
possible if insulation or noise isolation is to be maintained.
OPTICAL FEEDBACK CONTROL TECHNIQUE
The factors that influence the DC current gain of the
optocoupler can be compensated by introducing optical
feedback within the LED or input side of the coupler. This
technique consists of including an optical detector or
photodiode on the input that monitors the LEDs output flux,
which is possible now with the introduction of the Vishay
family of linear optocouplers.
A DC coupler optical isolation amplifier using the new IL300
linear optocoupler is shown in figure 6.
This optical isolation amplifier uses an operational amplifier
(U1) as an electro-optical servo amplifier that controls the
LED current. The servo photodiode is operated in the
photovoltaic mode and is zero biased from its connection to
U1's inverting and non-inverting inputs.
This circuit responds to positive unipolar voltages, as found
at the voltage output of the power supply. Initially, when the
power supply is energized, V
in
= 0 V, I
F
and I
P1
are also zero.
As the input voltage rises, U1 forces a voltage across the
LED causing it to emit light. The LED's optical flux generates
a servo photocurrent (I
P1
) which is proportional to the input
voltage, I
P1
= V
in
/R1. The LED's current increases until
sufficient servo photocurrent is generated to keep the
difference between U1's inverting-noninverting inputs equal
to zero volts.
The servo photocurrent is proportional to the LED's current.
This relationship is defined as servo gain, K1 = I
P1
/I
F
.
Combining the two equations describes the LED's current
dependence on input voltage:
The isolated output circuit consists of a zero-biased
photodiode transresistance amplifier. This output amplifier
is configured to generate an output voltage proportional to
I
P2
and the transresistance R2. The output photocurrent, I
P2
,
is determined by the output transfer gain, K2 = I
P2
/I
F
. The
output gain equation is V
o
= I
P2
x R2. Solving for LED current
by combing the preceding equations results in:
The composite DC transfer function of the input and output
amplifiers can be determined when the equations 5 and 6
are combined resulting in the voltage gain equation:
For simplicity, the ratio of K2/K1 is defined as the transfer
gain, K3. The transfer gain can be rewritten as:
The couplers transfer gain (K3) is determined by the
bifurcation of the LEDs optical path within the coupler
package. The time, temperature, and LED current have little
effect on the transfer gain (figure 7).
60 50 40 30 20 10 0
0
200
400
600
800
T
a
= 25 C
I
ce
- Collector Emitter Current (mA)
H
F
E

-

T
r
a
n
s
i
s
t
o
r

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

G
a
i
n
T
a
= 70 C
V
ce
= 10 V
T
a
= 50 C
T
a
= 25 C
17836
V
ce
= 0.4 V
I
CE
= I
F
x
e
I
F
, T
J
, time ( ) x
K

T, A, S ( ) x R

x HFE lb, T
J
, V
CE
( )
[
]
(4)
I
F
=
V
i n
K1 x R1
--------------------- (5)
I
F
=
V
O
K2 x R2
---------------------- (6)
V
O
V
i n
------- =
K2
K1
------- x
R2
R1
------- (7)
V
O
V
i n
------- = K3 x
R2
R1
------- (8)
Optoelectronic Feedback Control Techniques for Linear
and Switch Mode Power Supplies
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 55
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.5, 18-Oct-11
4
Document Number: 83711
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 6 - Optical Feedback Amplifier
Fig. 7 - IL300 Transfer Gain, K3
Fig. 8 - IL300 Frequency and Phase Response
Fig. 9 - SMPS Block Diagram
V
CC
OP-07

+
3
2
10 k
R1
V
in
= 0 to + 1 V
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
IP1 IP2
6
OP-07
+
6

2
3
10 k
R2
V
in
V
out
R3
100
Ip1
I
F
GND2
GND 1
100 pF
17837
25 20 15 10 5 0
0.990
0.995
1.000
1.005
1.010
I
F
- LED Current (mA)
K
3

-

T
r
a
n
s
f
e
r

G
a
i
n

(
K
2
/
K
1
)
Normalized to I
F
= 10 mA, T
A
= 25 C
0 C
50 C
75 C
17838
25 C
10
6
10
5
10
4
10
3
10
2
10
1
- 15
- 10
- 5
0
5
10
- 180
- 135
- 90
- 45
0
45
Amplitude
Phase
Frequency (Hz)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

(
d
B
)


-

P
h
a
s
e

R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

(

)
MOD = 40 %
17839
T
A
= 25 C, V
R
= 10 V,
R
L
= 2.2 k, I
Q
= 10 mA
Mains
AC/DC
rectifier
Switch
Regulator
Xformer
AC/DC
rectifier
Control Isolated
feedback
DC output
17840
Optoelectronic Feedback Control Techniques for Linear
and Switch Mode Power Supplies
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 55
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.5, 18-Oct-11
5
Document Number: 83711
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 10 - + 5 V Isolated Feedback Amplifier
Figure 7 shows that the IL300s gain typically varies by only
0.2 % over an LED current range of 5 mA to 20 mA, and
has a temperature stability of 50 ppm/C.
Figure 8 shows the frequency and phase response curve
that shows the - 3 dB point and a phase shift of 45 occur at
a frequency in excess of 100 kHz.
The optical feedback technique greatly improves the main
characteristic needed for a feedback amplifier used in a
linear power supply.
MAINS ISOLATED SWITCHING POWER SUPPLY
Todays mains connected switch mode power supplies
require an insulated and isolated output voltage control
method. Standard phototransistor optocoupler are one of
the various techniques used to effect this regulation. With
the goal of high switching frequencies, the use of
phototransistors is being pushed to its frequency response
limits. Most power supply designers have found that gain
and phase flatness can only be assured to operating
frequencies of 10 kHz. Given these limitations, designers
are considering the optical feedback optocoupler.
Figure 9 shows a block diagram of a typical SMPS. The
isolated feedback section can be viewed as an isolated
piece of wire connecting the DC output to the control pin of
the switch mode regulator. A simple design using a LM201
low-cost differential op-amp is shown in figure 10. R1 and
R2 function as a voltage divider, dividing the + 5 V supply
output to 3 V. The servo/feedback photodiode sources a
feedback current (I
P1
) to R1 (30 k). This resistor will
develop 3 V when 100 A flows through it. With K3 = 1, a
similar value of 100 A will flow through R5 (30 k).
Thus I
P2
of 100 A will develop the 3 V DC signal needed by
the control pin of the regulator. Figure 11 shows the DC
response of this amplifier. Figure 12 shows the phase and
frequency response.
Fig. 11 - LM201 DC Transfer Gain
Fig. 12 - LM201 Phase and Frequency Response
This feedback circuit offers linearity and gain accuracy of
0.02 % over a 4.0 V to 6.0 V input (figure 13).
To regulator input
R5
100 pF
8
R4
6

+
V
CC1
+ 5 V
3
2
7
4
LM20 1
V
CC
100
20 k R1
R2
R3
V
CC1
V
CC2
U1
1
Va
Vb
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
IP1 IP2
17841
30 k
30 k
30 k
6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0
2.25
2.50
2.75
3.00
3.25
3.50
3.75
V
in
- Input Voltage (V)
V
o
u
t

-

O
u
t
p
u
t

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)

17842
Vout = 14.4 mV + 0.6036 x V
in
LM201 T
a
= 25 C
10
6
10
5
10
4
10
3
10
2
- 8
- 6
- 4
- 2
0
2
- 180
- 135
- 90
- 45
0
45
dB
PHASE
F - Frequency (Hz)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

(
d
B
)
P
h
a
s
e
R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e
-

17843
LM201, T
a
= 25 C
Optoelectronic Feedback Control Techniques for Linear
and Switch Mode Power Supplies
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 55
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.5, 18-Oct-11
6
Document Number: 83711
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 1 - LM201 Linearity Error
The previous examples use differential amplifiers as the
summing device. It is possible to configure a single-input
DC amplifier that will perform the sample optical-servo
control. One such design is shown in figure 14.
Figure 14 shows a DC-coupled current feedback amplifier.
Q1 and Q2 form the gain stages. The feedback
photocurrent, IP, is supplied to the summing network at V
A
.
By inspection, the nodal equation indicates that the
photocurrent will be that necessary to create a 2 V
BE
drop
across R1. The input resistor is also sourcing current to this
node. Thus, as the input voltage rises, the photocurrent will
drop. For this reason this amplifier functions as an inverting
amplifier
Fig. 2 - Discrete Isolation Amplifier
The frequency response and phase response for figure 14 is
shown in figure 15.
Fig. 13 - Discrete Isolation Phase and Frequency Response
Given this circuits simplicity, gain accuracy and linearity are
not compromised. The linearity error for this amplifier is
0.015 %, as shown in figure 16.
Fig. 14 - Discrete Isolation Linearity Error
Most power supply designers are familiar with TL431 and
LM4041 precision adjustable zener diodes. When you look
more closely at the internal operation of this device you will
find that it too can function as a optical feedback amplifier
for the IL300 (figure 17).
4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0
- 0.015
- 0.010
- 0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
0.020
0.025
V
in
- Input Voltage (V)
L
i
n
e
a
r
i
t
y

E
r
r
o
r

(
%
)
LM201
17844
MPSA12
MPSA10
4.7 k
100 10 k
104 k
5 V
V
CC1
GND2
V
in
GND1
5 V V
CC2
V
out
25.5 k
I
IN
R1
P
i
i
b
v
b
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
IP1 IP2
R
in
R2
R3 R4
Q1
Q2
R
i
17845
10
6
10
5
10
4
10
3
10
2
- 15
- 10
- 5
0
5
- 135
- 90
- 45
0
45
dB
Phase
F - Frequency (Hz)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

(
d
B
)


-

P
h
a
s
e

R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

(

)
17846
Phase response reference
to amplifier gain of - 1; 0 = 180
5.50 5.25 5.00 4.75 4.50
- 0.02
- 0.01
0.00
0.01
0.02
V
in
- Input Voltage (V)
G
a
i
n

L
i
n
e
a
r
i
t
y

E
r
r
o
r

(
%
)
T
A
= 25 C
17847
Optoelectronic Feedback Control Techniques for Linear
and Switch Mode Power Supplies
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 55
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.5, 18-Oct-11
7
Document Number: 83711
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 15 - Shunt Voltage Regulator
The three terminal regulators include U1, Q1, and the
precision reference, V
ref
. The linear coupler will supply
sufficient photocurrent to develop a difference voltage
across R1. The transfer equation for this amplifier is given in
equation 9:
The precision voltage reference (V
ref
) is 2.5 V for the TL43.
When lower voltage supplies, i.e. 3.3 V, are to be regulated,
the new LM4041 with a reference of 1.225 V can be used.
The designer may be more familiar with the circuit
schematic shown in figure 18.
Fig. 16 - Shunt Voltage Regulator Isolation Amplifier
CONCLUSION
This application note was a generic presentation of the DC
model of the standard phototransistor. Most designers have
overcome many of standard phototransistors temperature
and initial gain variations by selecting well-specified
couplers such as the CNY17-X family.
When wider bandwidth and greater gain stability is required,
power supply designers are using the new optical feedback
linear optocouplers. The circuits provided and their
performance characteristic will satisfy even the most
demanding high-frequency SMPS applications.
2N3906
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
IP1 IP2
V
out
V
CC2
+
-
100
R2
GND2
R1
V
ref
U1
Q2
Q1
+
V- Supply monitor
TL431
LM4041
1.5 k
17848
V
O
V
i n
- V
ref
------------------------ =
R2
R1
------- x K3 (9)
GND2
V
out
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1 K2
IP1 IP 2
TL431
100 2N3906
R1
GND1
+
-
U1
Q1
1.5 k
V
CC2
R2
17849
VI SHAY SEMI CONDUCTORS
Optocouplers and Solid-State Relays Application Note 42
Optocouplers in Switching Power Supplies
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E

Rev. 1.7, 29-Nov-11
1
Document Number: 80065
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
www.vishay.com
The following provide information on how to use
optocouplersin designs to protect against electric shock.
Safety standards for optocouplers are intended to prevent
injury or damage due to electric shock Two levels of
electrical interface are normally used:
Reinforced, or safe insulation is required in an optocoupler
interface between a hazardous voltage circuit (like an AC
line) and a touchable safety extra low voltage (SELV)
circuit.
Basic insulation is required in an optocoupler interface
between a hazardous voltage circuit and a non-touchable
extra low voltage (ELV) circuit.
The most widely used insulation for optocouplers in
switch-mode power supply is reinforced insulation (class II).
The following information enables the designer to
understand the safety aspects, the basic concept of the
DIN EN 60747-5-5 (VDE0884) and the design requirements
for applications.
FACTS AND INFORMATION
(1)
Optocouplers for line-voltage separation must have several
national standards. The most accepted standards are:
UL for America
UL/CSA for Canada
CQC for China
BSI for Great Britain
FIMKO, SEMKO, NEMKO, DEMKO for Nordic countries
(Europe)
VDE for Germany
Today, most manufacturers operate on a global scale.
Therefore, it is important to understand and meet those
requirements.
The DIN EN 60747-5-5 (VDE 0884) is a major safety
standard in the world.
The DIN EN 60747-5-5 (VDE0884) standard and
IEC 60047C/199/CD standards may become part of
IEC 60747-5.
If design engineers work with Vishay optocouplers, they will
find some terms and definitions in the data sheets which
relate to DIN EN 60747-5-5 (VDE0884).
Rated Isolation Voltages
V
ISO
is the voltage between the input terminals and the
output terminals.
Note: All voltages are peak voltages!
V
IOWM
is a maximum RMS. voltage value of the
optocouplers assigned by Vishay. This characterizes the
long term withstand capability of its insulation
V
IORM
is a maximum recurring peak (repetitive) voltage
value of the optocoupler assigned by Vishay. This
characterizes the long-term withstand capability against
recurring peak voltages
V
IOTM
is an impulse voltage value of the optocoupler
assigned by Vishay. This characterizes the long-term
withstand capability against transient over voltages.
Isolation test voltage for routine tests is at factor 1.875
higher than the specified V
IOWM
/V
IORM (peak)
.
A partial discharge test is a different test method to the
normal isolation voltage test. This method is more sensitive
and will not damage the isolation behavior of the
optocoupler like other test methods probably do. The DIN
EN 60747-5-5 (VDE 0884) therefore does not require a
minimum thickness through insulation. The philosophy is
that a mechanical distance only does not give you an
indication of the safety reliability of the coupler. It is
recommended that construction together with the
assembling performance. The partial discharge test
method can monitor this more reliably.
The following tests must be done to guarantee this safety
requirement.
100 % test (piece by piece) for one second at a voltage level
of specified V
IOWM
/V
IORM (peak)
multiplied by 1.875
(1)
test
criteria is partial discharge less than 5 pC.
A lotwise test at V
IOTM
for 10 s and at a voltage level of
specified V
IOWM
/V
IORM

(peak)
multiplied by 1.5 for 1 min
(1)
test
criteria is partial discharge less than 5 pC.
Design Example
The line AC voltage is 380 V
RMS
. Your application class is III
(DIN/VDE 0110 Part 1/1.89). According to table 1, you must
calculate with a maximum line voltage of 600 V and a
transient over voltage of 6000 V.
Note
(1)
See safety agency application note for more information
Optocouplers in Switching Power Supplies
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 42
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.7, 29-Nov-11
2
Document Number: 80065
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Now select the TCDT1100 from our Vishay coupler program.
The next voltage step of 380 V is 600 V (V
IOWM
).The test
voltages are 1600 V for the TCDT1100 for the routine test
and 6000 V/1300 V for the sample test.
The DIN EN 60747-5-5 (VDE 0884) together with the
isolation test voltages also require very high isolation
resistance, tested at an ambient temperature of 100 C.
Apart from these tests for the running production, the VDE
Testing and Approvals Institute also investigates the total
construction of the optocoupler.
The DIN EN 60747-5-5 (VDE 0884) requires life tests in a
very special sequence; 5 lots for 5 different subgroups are
tested.
The sequence for the main group is as follows:
Cycle test
Vibration
Shock
Dry heat
Accelerated damp heat
Low temperature storage (normally - 55 C)
Damp heat steady state
Final measurements
Finally there is another chapter concerning the safety
ratings. This is described in DIN EN 60747-5-5 (VDE 0884).
The maximum safety ratings are the electrical, thermal and
mechanical conditions that exceed the absolute maximum
ratings for normal operations. The philosophy is that
optocouplers must withstand a certain exceeding of the
input current, output power dissipation, and temperature for
at least 72 h. This is a simulated space of time where failures
may occur. It is the designers task to create his design
inside of the maximum safety ratings.
Optocouplers - approved to the DIN EN 60747-5-5
(VDE 0884) - must consequently pass all tests undertaken.
This enables you to go ahead and start your design.
LAYOUT DESIGN RULES
The previous chapter described the important safety
requirements for the optocoupler itself; but the knowledge
of the creepage distance and clearance path is also
important for the design engineer if the coupler is to be
mounted onto the circuit board. Although several different
creepage distances refer to different safety standards, e.g.
IEC 60065 for TV or the IEC 60950 for office equipment,
computer, data equipment etc. there is one distance which
dominates switching power supplies: This is the 8 mm
spacing requirement between the two circuits: The
hazardous input voltage (AC 240 power-line voltage) and the
safety low voltage.
This 8 mm spacing is related to the 250 V power line and
defines the shortest distance between the conductive parts
(either from the input to the output leads) along the case of
the optocoupler, or across the surface of the print board
between the solder eyes of the optocoupler input/ output
leads, as shown in figure 1. The normal distance input to
output leads of an optocoupler is 0.3". This is too tight for
the 8 mm requirement. The designer now has two options:
He can provide a slit in the board, but then the airgap is still
low or.
Depending on the product, option 1 or the "G" version can
be used e.g. SFH619-X001 or TCDT1100G.
G stands for a wide-spaced lead form of 0.4" and meets
the 8 mm spacing.
The spacing requirements of the 8 mm must also be taken
into consideration for the layout of the board.
Figures 2 and 3 provide examples for your layout.
The creepage distance is also related to the resistance of
the tracking creepage current stability. The plastic material
of the optocoupler itself and the material of the board must
provide a specified creepagecurrent resistance.
The behavior of this resistance is tested with special test
methods described in the IEC 112. The term is CTI
(comparative tracking index).
The DIN EN 60747-5-5 (VDE 0884) requires a minimum of a
CTI of 175.
TABLE 1 - RECCOMENDED TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGES RELATED TO AC/DC LINE VOLTAGE
(PEAK VALUES)
V
IOWM
/V
IORM
up to Appl. Class I Appl. Class II Appl. Class III Appl. Class IV
50 V 350 V 500 V 800 V 1500 V
100 V 500 V 800 V 1500 V 2500 V
150 V 800 V 1500 V 2500 V 4000 V
300 V 1500 V 2500 V 4000 V 6000 V
600 V 2500 V 4000 V 6000 V 8000 V
1000 V 4000 V 6000 V 8000 V 12000 V
Optocouplers in Switching Power Supplies
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Application Note 42
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Rev. 1.7, 29-Nov-11
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Document Number: 80065
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Fig. 1 - Isolation Creepage/Clearance Path Along the Body
(The creepage path is the shortest distance between
conductive parts along the surface of the isolation material.
The clearance path is the shortest distance between
conductive parts.)
Fig. 2 - Isolation Creepage/Clearance Path after Mounting on a
Board (Side View)
Fig. 3 - Top View of Optocoupler Mounting on a Board
(Clearance on PC Board: 0.322/8.2 mm, Creepage Path on PC
Board is 0.322/8.2 mm)
Not only the solder eyes of the coupler itself on the board
must have the 8 mm distance, but also all layers located
between the SELV areas and the power interface areas.
Creepage
path
Clearance path
18181
0.4"/10.16 mm
0.332"/8.2 mm
18182
G
G
G
G
SELV control circuit area
SELV control circuit area
G = 0.322"/8.2 mm
Power interface area
Layer
18183
Power interface area
VI SHAY SEMI CONDUCTORS
Optocouplers and Solid-State Relays Application Note 48
Optocoupler for Safe Electrical Isolation to
DIN EN 60747-5-2 (VDE 0884)/DIN EN 60747-5-5 Pending
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Rev. 1.4, 11-Oct-11
1
Document Number: 83707
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
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ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
www.vishay.com
Because of their high reliability and long life,
optocouplers are used in applications requiring safe
electrical isolation of two circuits, such as in
switchmode power supplies (SMPS). Optocouplers have
to comply with the relevant VDE standards and/or
international standards like IEC when used for
protecting systems against electrical damage.
Currently the tendency is to incorporate international
standards (e.g. IEC) into the German VDE regulations. On
the other hand, the goal is to make a national VDE standard
(such as one that has proved to increase safety) into an
internationally recognized IEC standard. For example, a new
standard, DIN EN 60747-5-5 (VDE 0884), has just been
introduced in Germany and also is being reviewed in various
international standardization committees.
German VDE standards are divided into three main groups:
Basic VDE standards, such as VDE 0110 which describes
air and creepage path requirements in general
VDE standards governing components, such as the
recently expired VDE 0883 standard for optocouplers
VDE standards governing systems and equipment, such
as VDE 0805/0806 for office machines and EDP systems
Optocouplers used in a computer SMPS have to satisfy the
requirements of VDE 0883 and VDE 0805/0806.
Thickness of solid insulation between conducting parts, the
isolation test voltage and the air and creepage paths are
crucial in applications requiring reliable electrical isolation.
Depending on the sensitivity of the application, different
values are given in the VDE standards.
For example, an electrical control cabinet will probably be
opened and operated infrequently and only by skilled staff.
However, it's not unusual for a cup of coffee to be spilled
accidentally over the keyboard of an electric typewriter.
Thus the requirements to be met in the two cases are very
different.
The latest findings in high-voltage technology have
questioned the two parameters of thickness of solid
insulation and isolation test voltage. Dielectric strength does
increase with the thickness of the insulating material, but
only when the insulating material is homogeneous and free
of impurities or air-pockets. A high-quality thin insulation
can be better than a thick layer with impurities or
air-bubbles. The trend is clearly towards reducing insulation
thickness (about 0.3 mm to 0.5 mm) for more economical
manufacturing and technologically advanced optocoupler
functions.
To test the breakdown strength, isolation test voltage
normally lasts 60 s in qualification tests and up to one
second in 100 % inspection (depending on the particular
VDE standard). However, no determination is made whether
any partial discharge occurs in the insulation material during
testing. This requires measurement equipment of extreme
sensitivity which has been introduced on the market only
recently.
Studies in high-voltage technology have shown that a single
partial discharge will probably not be extinguished at low
voltages and that a permanent partial discharge may
degrade and damage the insulating material. Even under
normal operating conditions, therefore, partial discharge
may occur when the operating voltage is applied. A
high-voltage breakdown is likely to occur after a certain time
of operation.
The new standard for optocouplers, DIN EN 60747-5-5
(VDE 0884), used for safe electrical isolation, addresses the
two drawbacks mentioned earlier. Suitable dielectric
strength is now determined by the presence of partial
discharges at a defined test voltage. Partial discharges
occur when there are impurities or air-bubbles in the
insulating material or if the solid insulation is too thin.
The conventional breakdown test (isolation test voltage)
may risk causing initial damage to the optocoupler which is
not detectable. This test has been replaced in DIN EN
60747-5-5 by the partial discharge test which detects any
partial discharge. The absence of partial discharge during
the test reliably proves the isolation capability without any
undesirable initial damage to the insulation material.
Optocoupler for Safe Electrical Isolation to
DIN EN 60747-5-2 (VDE 0884)/DIN EN 60747-5-5 Pending
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Application Note 48
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.4, 11-Oct-11
2
Document Number: 83707
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
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PARTIAL DISCHARGE MEASUREMENT
METHOD PER DIN EN 60747-5-2 (VDE 0884)/
DIN EN 630747-5-5 PENDING
Two measurement methods, as described in
DIN EN 60747-5-2 (VDE 0884)/DIN EN 60747-5-5 pending,
have proved to be reliable and suitable for optocouplers.
Measurement method A
a destructive test to qualify optocouplers and for sample
testing in manufacture
Measurement method B
a non-destructive test of every component (100 %
inspection)
Figures 1 and 2 show two typical voltage time curves
(AC voltage peak-to-peak values) for Vishay optocoupler
testing per DIN EN 60747-5-2 (VDE 0884)/
DIN EN 60747-5-5 pending
A destructive test for the qualification of optocouplers and
sample testing in manufacture. This time-test voltage
diagram can be used with SFH601 and CNY17 couplers.
Fig. 1 - Measurement Method A of DIN EN 60747-5-5 (VDE 0884)
A non-destructive test of every component (100 %
inspection).
Fig. 2 - Measurement Method B
MORE DIN EN 60747-5-2 (VDE 0884)/ DIN EN
630747-5-5 PENDING TEST CRITERIA FOR
SAFE ELECTRICAL ISOLATION BY
OPTOCOUPLERS
In addition to the partial discharge test, DIN EN 60747-5-2
(VDE 0884)/DIN EN 60747-5-5 pending has further
requirements to improve optocoupler reliability. For
example, data on reliability limits such as limit current,
temperature, and/or power dissipation must be given for
every approved and qualified component. Figure 3 shows
the reliability limit values for SFH601 and CNY17
optocouplers.
Limit values are generally higher than the maximum ratings.
They indicate whether and if additional components are
required in the circuit to ensure safe electrical isolation in
case of failure in the surrounding circuitry.
In the qualification test (destructive test) the optocoupler is
exposed to numerous tests in rugged environments such as
humidity cycles or temperature shocks. The optocouplers
are then stressed to the limit values for 72 h. Finally, they are
tested for partial discharge. Absence of partial discharge
(PD) currently means a value below 5 picocoulombs.
Importance of DIN EN 60747-5-2 (VDE 0884)/
DIN EN 60747-5-5 pending standard for the future.
Optocouplers used in applications for safe electrical
isolation are tested for freedom from partial discharge to
give improved reliability and useful information on the long
term stability of insulating materials. DIN EN 60747-5-2
V
INITIAL
(6 kV)
V (1 kV)
Pr
t
1
t
ini
t
2
t
3
t
p
t
p
(measurement time for PD) = 10 s
t
b
= 12 s
t
ini
= 60 s
t
1
, t
2
= 1 to10 s
t
3
, t
4
= 1 s
t
b
t
t
4
V
IORM
(630 V)
V
17499
V
Pr
(1 kV)
t
3
t
p
t
p
(measurement time for PD) = 1 s
t
b
= 1.2 s
t
3
, t
4
= 0.1 s
t
b
t
t
4
V
IORM
(630 V)
V
17500
Optocoupler for Safe Electrical Isolation to
DIN EN 60747-5-2 (VDE 0884)/DIN EN 60747-5-5 Pending
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Application Note 48
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.4, 11-Oct-11
3
Document Number: 83707
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
(VDE 0884)/DIN EN 60747-5-5 pending is only a first step in
this direction. Partial discharge measurements probably will
become applicable to transformers, capacitors, and other
components. VDE 0883 is no longer the standard since
December 1988. However, until the end of 1991 approvals
to VDE 0883 were accepted in the marketplace.
From 1992 optocouplers must have DIN EN 60747-5-2
(VDE 0884)/DIN EN 60747-5-5 pending approval. New
designs of PC boards or systems using optocouplers which
have to fulfil the requirements of safe electrical isolation,
must use only optocouplers with DIN EN 60747-5-2
(VDE 0884)/DIN EN 60747-5-5 pending approval.
Vishay already offers the SFH601 and CNY17 optocouplers
with DIN EN 60747-5-2 (VDE 0884)/DIN EN 60747-5-5
pending approval under option 1. Other types, especially
DIP-4 series, have been approved and are available.
For every optocoupler type approved to DIN EN 60747-5-2
(VDE 0884)/DIN EN 60747-5-5 pending, reliability limit
values such as limit temperature, current and power
dissipation must be given.
Fig. 3 - Dependency of Reliability Maximum Ratings on Ambient
Temperature for SFH601, CNY174
100 125 150 175
0
100
200
300
400
500
I
S
I
P
S
I

A
(=
SI
)
I
SI P
SI
50 75 25 0
17751
VI SHAY SEMI CONDUCTORS
Optocouplers Application Note 50
Designing Linear Amplifiers Using the IL300 Optocoupler
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Rev. 1.6, 20-Mar-12
1
Document Number: 83708
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
www.vishay.com
INTRODUCTION
This application note presents isolation amplifier circuit
designs useful in industrial, instrumentation, medical, and
communication systems. It covers the IL300s coupling
specifications, and circuit topologies for photovoltaic and
photoconductive amplifier design. Specific designs include
unipolar and bipolar responding amplifiers. Both single
ended and differential amplifier configurations are
discussed. Also included is a brief tutorial on the operation
of photodetectors and their characteristics.
Galvanic isolation is desirable and often essential in many
measurement systems. Applications requiring galvanic
isolation include industrial sensors, medical transducers,
and mains powered switchmode power supplies. Operator
safety and signal quality are insured with isolated
interconnections. These isolated interconnections
commonly use isolation amplifiers.
Industrial sensors include thermocouples, strain gauges,
and pressure transducers. They provide monitoring signals
to a process control system. Their low level DC and AC
signal must be accurately measured in the presence of high
common-mode noise. The IL300s 130 dB common mode
rejection (CMR), 50 ppm/C stability, and 0.01 %
linearity provide a quality link from the sensor to the
controller input.
Safety is an important factor in instrumentation for medical
patient monitoring. EEG, ECG, and similar systems demand
high insulation safety for the patient under evaluation. The
IL300s 7500 V withstand test voltage (WTV) insulation, DC
response, and high CMR are features which assure safety
for the patient and accuracy of the transducer signals.
The aforementioned applications require isolated signal
processing. Current designs rely on A to D or V to F
converters to provide input/output insulation and noise
isolation. Such designs use transformers or high-speed
optocouplers which often result in complicated and costly
solutions. The IL300 eliminates the complexity of these
isolated amplifier designs without sacrificing accuracy or
stability.
The IL300s 200 kHz bandwidth and gain stability make it an
excellent candidate for subscriber and data phone
interfaces. Present OEM switch mode power supplies are
approaching 1 MHz switching frequencies. Such supplies
need output monitoring feedback networks with wide
bandwidth and flat phase response. The IL300 satisfies
these needs with simple support circuits.
OPERATION OF THE IL300
The IL300 consists of a high-efficiency AlGaAs LED emitter
coupled to two independent PIN photodiodes. The servo
photodiode (pins 3, 4) provides a feedback signal which
controls the current to the LED emitter (pins 1, 2). This
photodiode provides a photocurrent, I
P1
, that is directly
proportional to the LEDs incident flux. This servo operation
linearizes the LEDs output flux and eliminates the LEDs
time and temperature. The galvanic isolation between the
input and the output is provided by a second PIN
photodiode (pins 5, 6) located on the output side of the
coupler. The output current, I
P2
, from this photodiode
accurately tracks the photocurrent generated by the servo
photodiode.
Figure 1 shows the package footprint and electrical
schematic of the IL300. The following sections discuss the
key operating characteristics of the IL300. The IL300
performance characteristics are specified with the
photodiodes operating in the photoconductive mode.
Fig. 1 - IL300 Schematic
SERVO GAIN - K1
The typical servo photocurrent, I
P1
, as a function of LED
current, is shown in figure 2. This graph shows the typical
non-servo LED-photodiode linearity is 1 % over an LED
drive current range of 1 to 30 mA. This curve also shows that
the non-servo photocurrent is affected by ambient
temperature. The photocurrent typically decreases by
- 0.5 % per C. The LEDs nonlinearity and temperature
characteristics are minimized when the IL300 is used as a
servo linear amplifier.
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
I
P1
I
P2
17752
Designing Linear Amplifiers Using the IL300 Optocoupler
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Application Note 50
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.6, 20-Mar-12
2
Document Number: 83708
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 2 - Servo Photocurrent vs. LED Current
The servo gain is defined as the ratio of the servo
photocurrent, I
P1
, to the LED drive current, I
F
. It is called K1,
and is described in equation 1.
(1)
The IL300 is specified with an I
F
= 10 mA, T
A
= 25 C, and
V
d
= - 15 V. This condition generates a typical servo
photocurrent of I
P1
= 70 A. This results in a typical
K1 = 0.007. The relationship of K1 and LED drive current is
shown in figure 3.
Fig. 3 - Servo Gain vs. LED Current
The servo gain, K1, is guaranteed to be between 0.005
minimum to 0.011 maximum of an I
F
= 10 mA, T
A
= 25 C,
and V
D
= 15 V.
Fig. 4 - Normalized Servo Gain vs. LED Current
Figure 4 presents the normalized servo gain, NK1(I
F
, T
A
), as
a function of LED current and temperature. It can be used to
determine the minimum or maximum servo photocurrent,
I
P1
, given LED current and ambient temperature. The actual
servo gain can be determined from equation 2.
(2)
The minimum servo photocurrent under specific use
conditions can be determined by using the minimum value
for K1 (0.005) and the normalization factor from figure 4. The
example is to determine I
P1
(min.) for the condition of K1 at
T
A
= 75 C, and I
F
= 6 mA.
(3)
(4)
(5)
Using K1( I
F
, T
A
) = 0.0036 in equation 1 the minimum I
P
1 can
be determined.
(6)
(7)
(8)
The minimum value I
P1
is useful for determining the
maximum required LED current needed to servo the input
stage of the isolation amplifier.
OUTPUT FORWARD GAIN - K2
Figure 1 shows that the LED's optical flux is also received by
a PIN photodiode located on the output side (pins 5, 6) of the
coupler package. This detector is surrounded by an optically
transparent high-voltage insulation material. The coupler
construction spaces the LED 0.4 mm from the output PIN
photodiode. The package construction and the insulation
material guarantee the coupler to have a withstand test
voltage of 7500 V peak.
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0 C
25 C
50 C
75 C
I
F
- LED Current - mA
I
P
1

-

S
e
r
v
o
P
h
o
t
o
c
u
r
r
e
n
t

(

A
)
17753
K1 I
P1
I
F
=
I
F
- LED Current (mA)
0.1 1 10 100
0
K
1
-
S
e
r
v
o
G
a
i
n
-
I
P
1
/
I
F
0.010
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0
25
50
75
100
17754
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
I
F
- LED Current (mA)
N
K
1

-

N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

S
e
r
v
o

G
a
i
n
0
25
50
75
100
Normalized to:
I
F
= 10 mA,
T
A
= 25 C
17755
0.1 1 10 100
K1 I
F
T
A
, ( ) K1 datasheet limit ( ) NK1 I
F
T
A
, ( ) =
NK1 I
F
6 mA T
A
75 C = , = ( ) 0.72 NK1 I
F
T
A
, ( ) =
K1 MIN I
F
T
A
, ( ) K1 MIN 0.005 ( ) NK1 0.72 ( ) ( ) =
K1 MIN I
F
T
A
, ( ) 0.0036 =
I
P1
MIN K1 MIN I
F
T
A
, ( ) I
F
( ) =
I
P1
MIN 0.0036 6 mA =
I
P1
MIN I
F
6 mA T
A
75 C = , = ( ) 21.6 A =
Designing Linear Amplifiers Using the IL300 Optocoupler
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Application Note 50
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.6, 20-Mar-12
3
Document Number: 83708
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
K2, the output (forward) gain is defined as the ratio of the
output photodiode current, I
P2
, to the LED current, I
F
. K2 is
shown in equation 9.
(9)
The forward gain, K2, has the same characteristics of the
servo gain, K1. The normalized current and temperature
performance of each detector is identical. This results from
using matched PIN photodiodes in the IL300s construction.
TRANSFER GAIN - K3
The current gain, or CTR, of the standard phototransistor
optocoupler is set by the LED efficiency, transistor gain, and
optical coupling. Variation in ambient temperature alters the
LED efficiency and phototransistor gain and results in CTR
drift. Isolation amplifiers constructed with standard
phototransistor optocouplers suffer from gain drift due to
changing CTR.
Isolation amplifiers using the IL300 are not plagued with the
drift problems associated with standard phototransistors.
The following analysis will show how the servo operation of
the IL300 eliminates the influence of LED efficiency on the
amplifier gain.
The input-output gain of the IL300 is termed transfer gain,
K3. Transfer gain is defined as the output (forward) gain, K2,
divided by servo gain, K1, as shown in equation 10.
(10)
The first step in the analysis is to review the simple optical
servo feedback amplifier shown in figure 5.
The circuit consists of an operational amplifier, U1, a
feedback resistor R1, and the input section of the IL300. The
servo photodiode is operating in the photoconductive
mode. The initial conditions are:
.
Initially, a positive voltage is applied to the nonirritating input
(V
a
) of the op amp. At that time the output of the op amp will
swing toward the positive V
cc
rail, and forward bias the LED.
As the LED current, I
F
, starts to flow, an optical flux will be
generated. The optical flux will irradiate the servo
photodiode causing it to generate a photocurrent, I
P1
. This
photocurrent will flow through R1 and develop a positive
voltage at the inverting input (V
b
) of the op amp. The
amplifier output will start to swing toward the negative
supply rail, - V
CC
. When the magnitude of the V
b
is equal to
that of V
a
, the LED drive current will cease to increase. This
condition forces the circuit into a stable closed loop
condition.
Fig. 5 - Optical Servo Amplifier
When V
in
is modulated, V
b
will track V
in
. For this to happen
the photocurrent through R1 must also track the change in
V
a
. Recall that the photocurrent results from the change in
LED current times the servo gain, K1. The following
equations can be written to describe this activity.
(11)
(12)
(13)
The relationship of LED drive to input voltage is shown by
combining equations 11, 12, and 13.
(14)
(15)
(16)
Equation 16 shows that the LED current is related to the
input voltage V
in
. A changing V
a
causes a modulation in the
LED flux. The LED flux will change to a level that generates
the necessary servo photocurrent to stabilize the optical
feedback loop. The LED flux will be a linear representation
of the input voltage, V
a
. The servo photodiodes linearity
controls the linearity of the isolation amplifier.
The next step in the analysis is to evaluate the output trans
resistance amplifier. The common inverting trans resistance
amplifier is shown in figure 6. The output photodiode is
operated in the photoconductive mode. The photocurrent,
I
P2
, is derived from the same LED that irradiates the servo
photodetector. The output signal, V
out
, is proportional to the
output photocurrent, I
P2
, times the trans resistance, R2.
V
out
= - I
P2
R2 (17)
(18)
Combining equations 17 and 18 and solving for I
F
is shown
in equation 19.
(19)
K2 I
P1
I
F
=
K3 K2 K1 =
V
a
V
b
0 = =
6
-
+
3
2
7
4
R1
V
CC
U1
V
a
V
b
V
in
I
F
+
I
P1
3
IL300
2
4
1
K1
17756
V
CC
I
P1
V
a
V
b
V
i n
0 = = =
I
P1
I
F
K1 =
V
b
I
P1
R1 =
V
a
I
P1
R1 =
V
i n
I
F
K1 R1 =
I
F
V
i n
K1 R1 ( ) =
I
P2
K2 I
F
=
I
F
- V
out
K2 R2 ( ) =
Designing Linear Amplifiers Using the IL300 Optocoupler
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Application Note 50
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.6, 20-Mar-12
4
Document Number: 83708
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 6 - Optical Servo Amplifier
The input-output gain of the isolation amplifier is determined
by combining equations 16 and 19.
(16)
(19)
(20)
(21)
Note that the LED current, I
F
, is factored out of equation 21.
This is possible because the servo and output photodiode
currents are generated by the same LED source. This
equation can be simplified further by replacing the K2/K1
ratio with IL300s transfer gain, K3.
(22)
The IL300 isolation amplifier gain stability and offset drift
depends on the transfer gain characteristics. Figure 7 shows
the consistency of the normalized K3 as a function of LED
current and ambient temperature. The transfer gain drift as
a function of temperature is 0.005 %/C over a 0 C to
75 C range.
Figure 8 shows the composite isolation amplifier including
the input servo amplifier and the output trans resistance
amplifier. This circuit offers the insulation of an optocoupler
and the gain stability of a feedback amplifier.
Fig. 7 - Normalized Servo Transfer Gain
An instrumentation engineer often seeks to design an
isolation amplifier with unity gain of V
out
/V
in
= 1.0. The
IL300s transfer gain is targeted for: K3 = 1.0.
Package assembly variations result in a range of K3.
Because of the importance of K3, Vishay offers the transfer
gain sorted into 5 % bins. The bin designator is listed on
the IL300 package. The K3 bin limits are shown in table 1.
This table is useful when selecting the specific resistor
values needed to set the isolation amplifier transfer gain.
U2
6
-
+
3
2
7
4
V
out
V
CC
R2
I
P2
5
6
7
8
IL300
K2
I
P2
17757
V
CC
I
F
V
i n
K1 R1 ( ) =
I
F
- V
out
K2 R2 ( ) =
V
i n
K1 R1 ( ) - V
out
K2 R2 ( ) =
V
out
V
i n
K2 R2 ( ) K1 R1 ( ) =
V
out
V
i n
- K3 R2 R1 ( ) =
TABLE 1 - K3 TRANSFER GAIN BINS
BIN TYP. MIN. MAX.
A 0.59 0.56 0.623
B 0.66 0.623 0.693
C 0.73 0.693 0.769
D 0.81 0.769 0.855
E 0.93 0.855 0.95
F 1.0 0.95 1.056
G 1.11 1.056 1.175
H 1.24 1.175 1.304
I 1.37 1.304 1.449
J 1.53 1.449 1/61
0 5 10 15 20 25
0.990
0.995
1.000
1.005
1.010
I
F
- LED Current (mA)
K
3

-

T
r
a
n
s
f
e
r

G
a
i
n

(
K
2
/
K
1
)
Normalized to I
F
= 10 mA, T
A
= 25 C
0 C
25 C
50 C
75 C
Non - servoed
17758
Designing Linear Amplifiers Using the IL300 Optocoupler
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 50
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Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.6, 20-Mar-12
5
Document Number: 83708
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
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ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 8 - Composite Amplifier
ISOLATION AMPLIFIER DESIGN TECHNIQUES
The previous section discussed the operation of an isolation
amplifier using the optical servo technique. The following
section will describe the design philosophy used in
developing isolation amplifiers optimized for input voltage
range, linearity, and noise rejection.
The IL300 can be configured as either a photovoltaic or
photoconductive isolation amplifier. The photovoltaic
topology offers the best linearity, lowest noise, and drift
performance. Isolation amplifiers using these circuit
configurations meet or exceed 12 bit A to D performance.
Photoconductive photodiode operation provides the largest
coupled frequency bandwidth. The photoconductive
configuration has linearity and drift characteristics
comparable to a 8 to 9 bit A to D converter.
PHOTOVOLTAIC ISOLATION AMPLIFIER
The transfer characteristics of this amplifier are shown in
figure 9.
The input stage consists of a servo amplifier, U1, which
controls the LED drive current. The servo photodiode is
operated with zero voltage bias. This is accomplished by
connecting the photodiodes anode and cathode directly to
U1s inverting and non-inverting inputs. The characteristics
of the servo amplifier operation are presented in figure 9a
and figure 9b. The servo photocurrent is linearly proportional
to the input voltage, . Figure 9b shows the
LED current is inversely proportional to the servo transfer
gain, . The servo photocurrent, resulting from
the LED emission, keeps the voltage at the inverting input of
U1 equal to zero. The output photocurrent, I
P2
, results from
the incident flux supplied by the LED. Figure 9c shows that
the magnitude of the output current is determined by the
output transfer gain, K2. The output voltage, as shown in
figure 9d, is proportional to the output photocurrent I
P2
. The
output voltage equals the product of the output
photocurrent times the output amplifiers trans resistance,
R2.
When low offset drift and greater than 12 bit linearity is
desired, photovoltaic amplifier designs should be
considered. The schematic of a typical positive unipolar
photovoltaic isolation amplifier is shown in figure 10.
The composite amplifier transfer gain (V
o
/V
in
) is the ratio of
two products. The first is the output transfer gain, K2 R2.
The second is the servo transfer gain, K1 R1. The amplifier
gain is the first divided by the second. See equation 23.
Fig. 9 - Positive Unipolar Photovoltaic Isolation
Amplifier Transfer Characteristics
6

+
3
2
7
4
V
CC
R1
U1
V
a
V
b
V
in
I
F
+
I
P1
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
U2
6

+
3
2
7
4
V
out
R2
17759
V
CC
I
P1
I
P2
V
CC
V
CC
I
P2
I
P1
V
i n
R1 =
I
F
I
P1
K1 =
I
P1
V
in
+ 0
a
+
I
F
0
b
V
out
+ 0
d
+ 0
c
R2
1
K1
1
R1
K2
17760
I
P1
I
P2
I
P2
I
F
I
P1
V
in
+ 0
a
+
I
F
0
b
V
out
+ 0
d
+ 0
c
R2
1
K1
1
R1
K2
17760
I
P1
I
P2
I
P2
I
F
Designing Linear Amplifiers Using the IL300 Optocoupler
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 50
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Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.6, 20-Mar-12
6
Document Number: 83708
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 10 - Positive Unipolar Photovoltaic Aamplifier
(23)
Equation 23 shows that the composite amplifier transfer gain
is independent of the LED forward current. The K2/K1 ratio
reduces to IL300 transfer gain, K3. This relationship is
included in equation 24. This equation shows that the
composite amplifier gain is equal to the product of the IL300
gain, K3, times the ratio of the output to input resistors.
(24)
Designing this amplifier is a three step process. First, given
the input signal span and U1s output current handling
capability, the input resistor R1 can be determined by using
the circuit found in figure 9 and the following typical
characteristics:
OP-07 out = 15 mA
L300 K1 = 0.007
K2 = 0.007
K3 = 1.0
V
in
0 + 1.0 V
The second step is to determine servo photocurrent, I
P1
,
resulting from the peak input signal swing. This current is the
product of the LED drive current, I
F
, times the servo transfer
gain, K1. For this example the I
outmax
is equal to the largest
LED current signal swing, i.e., I
F
= I
outmax
.
I
P1
= K1 I
outmax
I
P1
= 0.007 15 mA
I
P1
= 105 A
The input resistor, R1, is set by the input voltage range and
the peak servo photocurrent, I
P1
.
Thus R1 is equal to:
R1 =V
in
/I
P1
R1 = 1.0/105 A
R1 = 9.524 k
R1 is rounded to 10 k.
Fig. 11 - Photovoltaic Amplifier Transfer Gain
Fig. 12 - Photovoltaic Amplifier Frequency Response
V
CC
OP-07
-
+
3
2
R1
+ Voltage
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
I
P1
6
OP-07
6
-
2
3
10 k
R2
V
in
V
out
I
F
+
17761
I
P2
I
P1
10 k
1

k

V
out
V
i n
-----------
K2 R2
K1 R1
-------------------- =
V
out
V
i n
-----------
K3 R2
R1
-------------------- =
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
V
in
- Input Voltage (V)
V
o
u
t

-

O
u
t
p
u
t

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)
17762
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
- 10
- 9
- 8
- 7
- 6
- 5
- 4
- 3
- 2
- 1
0
1
F - Frequency (Hz)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

(
d
B
)
T
A
= 25 C
17763
Designing Linear Amplifiers Using the IL300 Optocoupler
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 50
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.6, 20-Mar-12
7
Document Number: 83708
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 13 - Negative Unipolar Photovoltaic Isolation Amplifier
The third step in this design is determining the value of the
trans resistance, R2, of the output amplifier. R2 is set by the
composite voltage gain desired, and the IL300s transfer
gain, K3. Given K3 = 1.0 and a required V
out
/V
in
= G = 1.0,
the value of R2 can be determined.
R2 = (R1 G) / K3
R2 = (10 k 1.0) /1.0
R2 = 10 k
When the amplifier in figure 9 is constructed with OP-07
operational amplifiers it will have the characteristics shown
in figure 11 and figure 12.The frequency response is shown
in figure 12. This amplifier has a small signal bandwidth of
45 kHz.
The amplifier in figure 9 responds to positive polarity input
signals. This circuit can be modified to respond to negative
polarity signals.
The modifications of the input amplifier include reversing the
polarity of the servo photodiode at U1s input and
connecting the LED so that it sinks current from U1s output.
The non inverting isolation amplifier response is maintained
by reversing the IL300s output photodiodes connection to
the input of the trans resistance amplifier. The modified
circuit is shown in figure 13.
The negative unipolar photovoltaic isolation amplifier
transfer characteristics are shown in figure 14. This
amplifier, as shown in figure 13, responds to signals in only
one quadrant. If a positive signal is applied to the input of
this amplifier, it will forward bias the photodiode, causing U1
to reverse bias the LED. No damage will occur, and the
amplifier will be cut off under this condition. This operation
is verified by the transfer characteristics shown in figure 14.
Fig. 14 - Negative Unipolar Photovoltaic Isolation Amplifier Transfer
Characteristics
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
I
P1
I
P2
OP-07

+
3
2
R1
- Voltage
6
V
in
I
F
V
out
OP-07
6

2
3
10 k
R2
+
17764
10 k
1 k
I
P1
+
I
F
0
b
d
+
c
+
V
in
- 0
a
-
I
P1
-1
R1
1
K1
I
P2
0
K2
V
out
0
- R2
17765
I
P2
I
P1
I
F
Designing Linear Amplifiers Using the IL300 Optocoupler
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 50
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Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.6, 20-Mar-12
8
Document Number: 83708
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 15 - Bipolar Input Photovoltaic Isolation Amplifier
Fig. 16 - Bipolar Input Photovoltaic Isolation Amplifier Transfer Characteristics
A bipolar responding photovoltaic amplifier can be
constructed by combining a positive and negative unipolar
amplifier into one circuit. This is shown in figure 15. This
amplifier uses two IL300s with each detector and LED
connected in anti parallel. The IL300a responds to positive
signals while the IL300b is active for the negative signals.
The operation of the IL300s and the U1 and U2 is shown in
the transfer characteristics given in figure 16. Bipolar input
photovoltaic isolation amplifier transfer characteristics
The operational analysis of this amplifier is similar to the
positive and negative unipolar isolation amplifier. This
simple circuit provides a very low offset drift and
exceedingly good linearity. The circuits useful bandwidth is
limited by crossover distortion resulting from the
photodiode stored charge. With a bipolar signal referenced
to ground and using a 5 % distortion limit, the typical
bandwidth is under 1 kHz. Using matched K3s, the
composite amplifier gain for positive and negative voltage
will be equal.
Whenever the need to couple bipolar signals arises a pre
biased photovoltaic isolation amplifier is a good solution. By
pre biasing the input amplifier the LED and photodetector
will operate from a selected quiescent operating point. The
relationship between the servo photocurrent and the input
voltage is shown in figure 17.
3
5
6
7
8
IL300b
2
4
1
K1b
K2b
U1

+
3
2
R1
3
5
6
7
8
IL300a
2
4
1
K1a
K2a
I
P1a
6
U2
6

2
3
R2
Vout
V
in
1 k
+
17766
10 k
10 k
I
P2a
I
P2b I
P1b
a
b
0
c
0
V
out
+
d
R2
+ 0
I
Fa
I
P2a
I
P2B
+
+
+
+
I
P1a
0
+
+
I

-R2

I
P1b
+
1
K1b
+
+
I
Fb
K2b
+ +
V
in
0 0 0
0
+
1
R1
K2a
1
K1a
-1
R1
17767
V
out
V
in
I
P1a
I
Fa
I
P2a
I
P2B
I
Fb
I
P1b
Designing Linear Amplifiers Using the IL300 Optocoupler
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 50
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.6, 20-Mar-12
9
Document Number: 83708
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
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Fig. 17 - Transfer Characteristics Pre Biased Photovoltaic Bipolar Amplifier
Fig. 18 - Pre Biased Photovoltaic Isolation Amplifier
The quiescent operation point, I
P1
Q, is determined by the
dynamic range of the input signal. This establishes
maximum LED current requirements. The output current
capability of the OP-07 is extended by including a buffer
transistor between the output of U1 and the LED. The buffer
transistor minimizes thermal drift by reducing the OP-07
internal power dissipation if it were to drive the LED directly.
This is shown in figure 18. The bias is introduced into the
inverting input of the servo amplifier, U1. The bias forces the
LED to provide photocurrent, I
P1
, to servo the input back to
a zero volt equilibrium. The bias source can be as simple as
a series resistor connected to V
CC
. Best stability and
minimum offset drift is achieved when a good quality current
source is used.
Figure 20 shows the amplifier found in figure 18 including
two modified Howland current sources. The first source pre
biases the servo amplifier, and the second source is
connected to U2s inverting input which matches the input
pre bias.
Fig. 19 - Pre Biased Photovoltaic Isolation Amplifier
Transfer Characteristics
I
P1
V
in
- +
I
P1Q
1
R1
17768
OP-177
-
+
0.1 F
3
2
6
2N3906
V
CC
100
10 k
OP-177
-
6
2
3 Output
Input
R1
R2
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
I
P1
0.1 F
+
100 A
100 A current
source
GAIN= K3
R2
R1
FS = 1 V
17770
100 A
10 k
I
P2
100 A
V
in
+ 0
a
I
P1
+ 0
b
I
P2
V
out
+ 0
d
I
P2
+ 0
c
I
F
-
+
-
1
R1
1
K1
R2
K2
17769
I
F
I
P1
Designing Linear Amplifiers Using the IL300 Optocoupler
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 50
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Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.6, 20-Mar-12
10
Document Number: 83708
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
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Fig. 20 - Pre Biased Photovoltaic Isolation Amplifier
Fig. 21 - Differential Pre Biased Photovoltaic Isolation Amplifier
1.2 V
1.2 V
OP-07

+
100 pF
3
2
6
2N3906
V
CC
100
10 k
OP-07

6
2
3
Output

OP-07
+
6
LM313
3
2
0.01 F
100A
100 A current
source
100A

OP-07
+
6
LM313
3
2
0.01 F
100 A
100 A current
source
V
CC
-
Input
2N4340
2N4340
100 pF
R1
R2
FS = 1 V
R2
R1
K3 GAIN =
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
I
P1
I
P2
+
17771
V
CC
-
12 k
12 k
10 k
1.2 V
Output

OP-07
+
3
2
6
LM313
0.01F
100 A
100 A current
source

OP-07
+
2
3
6
V
CC
-
2N4340
OP-07

+
3
2
100 pF
6
2N3906
V
CC
10 k
OP-07
6

2
3
12 k
100A
Input +
100 pF
R1
R2
OP-07
+
2
3
100 pF
6
100
12 k
2N3906
Input -
R4

OP-07
+
2
3
6
OP-07
6

2
3
100 pF
R3
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
I
P1
+
+
100 A
17772
10 k
10 k
10 k
10 k
V
CC
I
P2
I
P1
I
P2
10 k
10 k
1
0

k

1
0

k

1
0

k

1
0

k

100
Designing Linear Amplifiers Using the IL300 Optocoupler
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 50
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.6, 20-Mar-12
11
Document Number: 83708
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
The previous circuit offers a DC/AC coupled bipolar isolation
amplifier. The output will be zero volts for an input of zero
volts. This circuit exhibits exceptional stability and linearity.
This circuit has demonstrated compatibility with 12 bit A/D
converter systems. The circuits common mode rejection is
determined by CMR of the IL300. When higher common
mode rejection is desired one can consider the differential
amplifier shown in figure 21.
This amplifier is more complex than the circuit shown in
figure 20. The complexity adds a number of advantages.
First the CMR of this isolation amplifier is the product of the
IL300 and that of the summing differential amplifier found in
the output section. Note also that the need for an offsetting
bias source at the output is no longer needed. This is due to
differential configuration of the two IL300 couplers. This
amplifier is also compatible with instrumentation amplifier
designs. It offers a bandwidth of 50 kHz, and an extremely
good CMR of 140 dB at 10 kHz.
PHOTOCONDUCTIVE ISOLATION AMPLIFIER
The photoconductive isolation amplifier operates the
photodiodes with a reverse bias. The operation of the input
network is covered in the discussion of K3 and as such will
not be repeated here. The photoconductive isolation
amplifier is recommended when maximum signal bandwidth
is desired. Bipolar photoconductive isolation amplifier.
UNIPOLAR ISOLATION AMPLIFIER
The circuit shown in figure 22 is a unipolar photoconductive
amplifier and responds to positive input signals. The
gain of this amplifier follows the familiar form of
. R1 sets the input signal
range in conjunction with the servo gain and the maximum
output current, I
o
, which U1 can source. Given this,
. R1 can be determined from equation 28.
(28)
The output section of the amplifier is a voltage follower. The
output voltage is equal to the voltage created by the output
photocurrent times the photodiode load resistor, R2. This
resistor is used to set the composite gain of the amplifier as
shown in equation 29.
(29)
This amplifier is conditionally stable for given values of R1.
As R1 is increased beyond 10 k, it may become necessary
to frequency compensate U1. This is done by placing a
small capacitor from U1s output to its inverting input. This
circuit uses a 741 op amp and will easily provide 100 kHz or
greater bandwidth.
Fig. 22 - Unipolar Photoconductive Isolation Amplifier
Fig. 23 - Bipolar Photoconductive Isolation Amplifier
V
out
V
i n
G K3 R2 R1 ( ) = =
I
0
max
I
Fmax
=
R1 V
i n
max
K1 I
0
max
( ) =
R2 R1 G ( ) K3 =
U2
6

+
3
2
7
4
V
CC
V
out
6

+
3
2
7
4
R1
U1
V
a
V
b
V
in
I
F
+
R2
IP1
IP2
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
IP1 IP2
17773
V
CC
V
CC
V
CC
V
CC
U1
741
6

+
R3
R1
3
2
7
4
R2
100
V
in
20 pF
-V
ref1
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
IP1 IP2
R4
+ V
ref2
U2
741
6
-
+
3
2
7
4
V
out
17774
- V
CC
V
CC
V
CC
- V
CC
V
CC
V
CC
- V
CC
Designing Linear Amplifiers Using the IL300 Optocoupler
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 50
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Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.6, 20-Mar-12
12
Document Number: 83708
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
BIPOLAR ISOLATION AMPLIFIER
Many applications require the isolation amplifier to respond
to bipolar signals. The generic inverting isolation amplifier
shown in figure 23 will satisfy this requirement. Bipolar
signal operation is realized by pre biasing the servo loop.
The pre bias signal, Vref1, is applied to the inverting input
through R3. U1 forces sufficient LED current to generate a
voltage across R3 which satisfies U1s differential input
requirements. The output amplifier, U2, is biased as a trans
resistance amplifier. The bias or offset, V
ref2
, is provided to
compensate for bias introduced in the servo amplifier.
Much like the unipolar amplifier, selecting R3 is the first step
in the design. The specific resistor value is set by the input
voltage range, reference voltage, and the maximum output
current, Io, of the op amp. This resistor value also affects the
bandwidth and stability of the servo amplifier.
The input network of R1 and R2 form a voltage divider. U2
is configured as a inverting amplifier. This bipolar
photoconductive isolation amplifier has a transfer gain given
in equation 30.
(30)
Equation 31 shows the relationship of the V
ref1
to V
ref2
.
(31)
Another bipolar photoconductive isolation amplifier is
shown in figure 24. It is designed to accept an input signal
of 1 V and uses inexpensive signal diodes as reference
sources. The input signal is attenuated by 50 % by a voltage
divider formed with R1 and R2. The solution for R3 is given
in equation 32.
(32)
For this design R3 equals 30 k. The output trans resistance
is selected to satisfy the gain requirement of the composite
isolation amplifier. With K3 = 1, and a goal of unity transfer
gain, the value of R4 is determined by equation 33.
(33)
R4 = 60 k
From equation 31, V
ref2
is shown to be twice V
ref1
. V
ref2
is
easily generated by using two 1N914 diodes in series.
This amplifier is simple and relatively stable. When better
output voltage temperature stability is desired, consider the
isolation amplifier configuration shown in figure 25. This
amplifier is very similar in circuit configuration except that
the bias is provided by a high quality LM313 band gap
reference source.
This circuit forms a unity gain non-inverting
photoconductive isolation amplifier. Along with the
LM113 references and low offset OP-07 amplifiers the
circuit replaces the 741 op amps. A 2N2222 buffer transistor
is used to increase the OP-07s LED drive capability. The
gain stability is set by K3, and the output offset is set by the
stability of OP-07s and the reference sources.
Figure 26 shows a novel circuit that minimizes much of the
offset drift introduced by using two separate reference
sources. This is accomplished by using an optically coupled
tracking reference technique. The amplifier consists of two
optically coupled signal paths. One IL300 couples the input
to the output. The second IL300 couples a reference voltage
generated on the output side to the input servo amplifier.
This isolation amplifier uses dual op amps to minimize parts
count. Figure 26 shows the output reference being supplied
by a voltage divider connected to V
CC
. The offset drift can
be reduced by using a band gap reference source to replace
the voltage divider.
Fig. 24 - Bipolar Photoconductive Isolation Amplifier
V
out
V
i n
-----------
K3 R4 R2
R3 R1 R2 + ( )
--------------------------------------- =
V
ref 2
V
ref 1
R4 ( ) R3 =
R3 0.5 V
i n
max
V
ref1
+ ( ) I
F
K1 ( ) =
R4 R3 G R1 R2 + ( ) [ ] K3 R2 ( ) =
U1
6
-
+
V
in
20 pF
22 F
30 k
3
2
7
4
6
-
+
3
2
7
4
741
30 k
14.3 k
22 F
741
+
100
V
out
1N914
+ 13.7 k
20 pF
1N914
+
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
IP1 IP2
R3
+
+
U2
17775
30 k
60 k
V
CC
V
CC
V
CC
V
CC
- V
CC
V
CC
- V
CC
- V
CC
- V
CC
Designing Linear Amplifiers Using the IL300 Optocoupler
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 50
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.6, 20-Mar-12
13
Document Number: 83708
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 25 - High Stability Bipolar Photoconductive Isolation Amplifier
Fig. 26 - Bipolar Photoconductive Isolation Amplifier with Tracking Reference
10 k
6
2N2222
-
+ V
in
20pF
47 F
0.1 F
2 k
1 k
18 k
3
2
7
4
6
-
+
3
2 7
4
OP07
1.5 k
1 k
6.8 k 10 k
2 k
LM313
LM313
2 k
6.8 k
10 F
18 k
OP07
20 k
Gain
Offset
1 k
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
IP1 IP2
R3
17776
- V
CC
- V
CC
- V
CC
V
CC
V
CC
V
CC
V
CC
V
CC
V
CC
6
10 k
3
2
7
4
10 k
470
V
in
20 pF
6
-
+
3
2
7
4
5 k
+V
ref2
+ V
ref1
6
-
+
2
3
73.2 k
7
4
6
-
+
4.7 k
3
2 7
4
1 k
470
5 k
V
CC
900 k
90 k
0.1 V
1 V
100 V
10 V
9 M
7.5 k
10 k
Gain adjust
0 to 100 mV
Output
Tracking Reference
Zero
adjust
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
IP1 IP2
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
IP1
IP2
OP77
OP77
OP77
OP77
- V
CC 220 pF
+ V
CC
+
-
17777
V
CC
- V
CC
- V
CC
- V
CC
- V
CC
+ V
CC
+ V
CC
+ V
CC
+ V
CC
+ V
CC
+ V
CC
Designing Linear Amplifiers Using the IL300 Optocoupler
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 50
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.6, 20-Mar-12
14
Document Number: 83708
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
One of the principal reasons to use an isolation amplifier is
to reject electrical noise. The circuits presented thus far are
of a single ended design. The common mode rejection,
CMRR, of these circuits is set by the CMRR of the coupler
and the bandwidth of the output amplifier. The typical
common mode rejection for the IL300 is shown in figure 27.
Fig. 27 - Common mode rejection
The CMRR of the isolation amplifier can be greatly
enhanced by using the CMRR of the output stage to its
fullest extent. This is accomplished by using a differential
amplifier at the output that combines optically coupled
differential signals. The circuit shown in figure 28 illustrates
the circuit.
Op amps U1 and U5 form a differential input network. U4
creates a 100 A, I
S
, current sink which is shared by each of
the servo amplifiers. This bias current is divided evenly
between these two servo amplifiers when the input voltage
is equal to zero. This division of current creates a differential
signal at the output photodiodes of U2 and U6. The transfer
gain, V
out
/ V
in
, for this amplifier is given in equation 34.
(34)
The offset independent of the operational amplifiers is given
in equation 35.
(35)
Equation 35 shows that the resistors, when selected to
produce equal differential gain, will minimize the offset
voltage, V
offset
. Figure 29 illustrates the voltage transfer
characteristics of the prototype amplifier. The data indicates
the offset at the output is - 500 V when using 1 k 1 %
resistors.
Fig. 28 - Differential Photoconductive Isolation Amplifier
10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000
- 130
- 120
- 110
- 100
- 90
- 80
- 70
- 60
F - F
C
M
R
R

-

R
e
j
e
c
t
i
o
n

R
a
t
i
o

(
d
B
)
T
A
= 25 C
17778
V
out
V
i n
-----------
R4 R2 K3 U5 ( ) R3 R1 K3 U2 ( ) +
2 R1 R2
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- =
V
of fset
Is R1 R3 K3 U2 ( ) R2 R4 K3 U5 ( ) [ ]
R1 R2 +
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- =
U1
U5
U4 U3

OP-07 OP-07
+
+

6.8 k
LM313
3
Noninverting
Inverting
Common
6
7 V
CC
4 -
2
3
1.2 V
12 k
OP-07

+
2.2 k
470
100 pF
3
2
4 - V
CC
7 V
CC
6
2N3904
OP-07

+
2.2 k
470
100 pF
3
2
4 - V
CC
7 V
CC
6
2N3904
4 - V
CC
6
2N3904
2
1 k 1 %
2 k
2 k
Gain
Zero adjust
Output
0.01 F
10 k
10 k
1 k
100 A current sink
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
IP1 IP2
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
IP1 IP2
U2
U6
17779
V
CC
V
CC
V
CC
V
CC
V
CC
- V
CC
7 V
CC
1 k 1 %
Designing Linear Amplifiers Using the IL300 Optocoupler
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 50
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.6, 20-Mar-12
15
Document Number: 83708
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 29 - Differential Photoconductive Isolation Amplifier
Transfer Characteristics
Fig. 30 - Transistor Unipolar Photoconductive Isolation
Amplifier Transfer Characteristics
DISCRETE ISOLATION AMPLIFIER
A unipolar photoconductive isolation amplifier can be
constructed using two discrete transistors. Figure 32 shows
such a circuit. The servo node, Va, sums the current from
the photodiode and the input signal source. This control
loop keeps Va constant. This amplifier was designed as a
feedback control element for a DC power supply. The DC
and AC transfer characteristics of this amplifier are shown in
figures 30 and 31.
Fig. 31 - Transistor Unipolar Photoconductive Isolation
Amplifier Frequency and Phase Response
CONCLUSION
The analog design engineer now has a new circuit element
that will make the design of isolation amplifiers easier. The
preceding circuits and analysis illustrate the variety of
isolation amplifiers that can be designed. As a guide, when
highest stability of gain and offset is needed, consider the
photovoltaic amplifier. Widest bandwidth is achieved with
the photoconductive amplifier. Lastly, the overall
performance of the isolation amplifier is greatly influenced
by the operational amplifier selected. Noise and drift are
directly dependent on the servo amplifier. The IL300 also
can be used in the digital environment. The pulse response
of the IL300 is constant over time and temperature. In digital
designs where LED degradation and pulse distortion can
cause system failure, the IL300 will eliminate this failure
mode.
- 0.15 - 0.10 - 0.05 - 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15
- 0.6
- 0.5
- 0.4
- 0.3
- 0.2
- 0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
V
in
- Input Voltage (V)
V
o
u
t

-

O
u
t
p
u
t

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)
V
out
= - 0.4657 mV - 5.0017 x V
in
T
A
= 25 C
17780
4.4 4.6 4.8 5.0 5.2 5.4 5.6
38
40
42
44
46
V
in
- Input Voltage (V)
I
p
2

-

O
u
t
p
u
t

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(

A
)
I
p2
= 74.216 A - 6.472 (A/V) x V
in
T
A
= 25 C
17810
10
2
10
3
104 10
5
10
6
- 15
- 10
- 5
0
5
- 135
- 90
- 45
0
45
F - Frequency (Hz)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

(
d
B
)


-

P
h
a
s
e

R
e
s
p
o
n
c
e

(

C
)
to amplifier gain of - 1; 0 = 180
Phase response reference
dB
17781
PHASE
Designing Linear Amplifiers Using the IL300 Optocoupler
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 50
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.6, 20-Mar-12
16
Document Number: 83708
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 32 - Unipolar Photoconductive Isolation Amplifier with Discrete Transistors
SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION
PHOTODETECTOR OPERATION TUTORIAL
PHOTODIODE OPERATION AND
CHARACTERISTICS
The photodiodes in the IL300 are PIN (P-material - Intrinsic
material - N-material) diodes. These photodiodes convert
the LEDs incident optical flux into a photocurrent. The
magnitude of the photocurrent is linearly proportional to the
incident flux. The photocurrent is the product of the diodes
responsivity, S
l
, (A/ W), the incident flux, E
e
(W/mm
2
), and
the detector area A
D
(mm
2
). This relationship is shown
below:
(1a)
PHOTODIODE I/V CHARACTERISTICS
Reviewing the photodiodes current/voltage characteristics
aids in understanding the operation of the photodiode, when
connected to an external load. The I-V characteristics are
shown in figure 33. The graph shows that the photodiode
will generate photocurrent in either forward biased
(photovoltaic), or reversed biased (photoconductive) mode.
In the forward biased mode the device functions as a
photovoltaic, voltage generator. If the device is connected
to a small resistance, corresponding to the vertical load line,
the current output is linear with increases in incident flux. As
R
L
increases, operation becomes nonlinear until the open
circuit (load line horizontal) condition is obtained. At this
point the open circuit voltage is proportional to the logarithm
of the incident flux.
In the reverse-biased (photoconductive) mode, the
photodiode generates a current that is linearly proportional
to the incident flux. Figure 33 illustrates this point with the
equally spaced current lines resulting from linear increase of
E
e
.
The photocurrent is converted to a voltage by the load
resistor R
L
. Figure 33 also shows that when the incident flux
is zero (E = 0), a small leakage current, or dark current (I
D
)
will flow.
Fig. 33 - Photodiode I/V Characteristics
PHOTOVOLTAIC OPERATION
Photodiodes, operated in the photovoltaic mode, generate
a load voltage determined by the load resistor, R
L
, and the
photocurrent, I
P
. The equivalent circuit for the photovoltaic
operation is shown in figure 34. The photodiode includes a
current source (I
P
), a shunt diode (D), a shunt resistor (R
P
), a
series resistor (R
S
), and a parallel capacitor (C
P
). The
intrinsic region of the PIN diode offers a high shunt
resistance resulting in a low dark current, and reverse
leakage current.
Fig. 34 - Equivalent Circuit - Photovoltaic Mode
MPSA10
MPSA10
1.1 k
6.2 k
200
15 k
10 k
100 k
5 V V
CC
GND2
Vi n
GND1
+ 5 V
5 V
V
out
Va
IL300
3
5
6
7
8
2
4
1
K1
K2
IP1 IP2
17782
V
CC
I
P
S
I
E
e
A
D
=
Reverse bias Forward bias
RL (small)
Photovoltaic
load line
RL (large)
Photoconductive
load line
Ee-5
Ee-4
Ee-3
Ee-2
Ee-2
Ee-1
Id
Vd/RL
17783
D
R
S
R
P
C
P
I
L
I
P
+
- Cathode
Anode
V
O
R
L
I
F
17784
Designing Linear Amplifiers Using the IL300 Optocoupler
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 50
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.6, 20-Mar-12
17
Document Number: 83708
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
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The output voltage, V
o
, can be determined through nodal
analysis. The circuit contains two nodes. The first node, V
F
,
includes the photocurrent generator, I
P
, the shunt diode, D,
shunt resistor (R
P
), and parallel capacitance, C
P
. The
second node, V
O
, includes: the series resistor, R
S
, and the
load resistor, R
L
. The diode, D, in the V
F
node is responsible
for the circuits nonlinearity. The diodes current voltage
relationship is given in equation 2a.
(2a)
This graphical solution of 2a for the IL300 is shown in
figure 35.
Fig. 35 - Photodiode Forward Voltage vs. Forward Current
Inserting the diode equation 2a into the two nodal equations
gives the following DC solution for the photovoltaic
operation (equation 3a):

(3a)
Typical IL300 values:
I
S
= 13.94 10
-12
R
S
= 50
R
P
= 15 G
K = 0.0288
By inspection, as R
L
approaches zero ohms the diode
voltage, V
F
, also drops. This indicates a small diode current.
All of the photocurrent will flow through the diode series
resistor and the external load resistor. Equation 3a was
solved with a computer program designed to deal with
nonlinear transcendental equations. Figure 36 illustrates the
solution.
Fig. 36 - Photovoltaic Output vs. Load Resistance and
Photocurrent
This curve shows a series of load lines, and the output
voltage, V
o
, caused by the photocurrent. Optimum linearity
is obtained when the load is zero ohms. Reasonable linearity
is obtained with load resistors up to 1000 . For load
resistances greater than 1000 , the output voltage will
respond logarithmically to the photocurrent. This response
is due to the nonlinear characteristics of the intrinsic diode,
D. Photovoltaic operation with a zero ohm load resistor
offers the best linearity and the lowest dark current, I
D
. This
operating mode also results in the lowest circuit noise. A
zero load resistance can be created by connecting the
photodiode between the inverting and non-inverting input of
a trans resistance operational amplifier, as shown in figure
37.
Fig. 37 - Photovoltaic Amplifier Configuration
PHOTOCONDUCTIVE OPERATION MODE
Isolation amplifier circuit architectures often load the
photodiode with resistance greater than 0 . With non-zero
loads, the best linearity is obtained by using the photodiode
in the photoconductive or reverse bias mode. Figure 38
shows the photodiode operating in the photoconductive
mode. The output voltage, V
o
, is the product of the
photocurrent times the load resistor.
The reverse bias voltage causes a small leakage or dark
current, I
D
, to flow through the diode. The output
photocurrent and the dark current, sum the load resistor.
I
F
I
S
EXP V
F
K ( ) 1 [ ] =
0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0
10
-10
10
-9
10
-8
10
-7
10
-6
10
-5
10
-4
V
f
- Forward Voltage (V)
I
F

-

F
o
r
w
a
r
d

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)
17785
0 I
P
I
S
EXP V
O
R
S
R
L
+ ( ) K R
L
[ ] 1 { }
V
O
R
S
R
L
R
P
+ + ( ) R
P
R
L
( ) [ ]
=
0 5 0 100 150 200
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
100
300
500
700
1 K
3 K
5 K
7 K
10 K
20 K
30 K
50 K
I
p
- Photocurrent (A)
V
o

-

O
u
t
p
u
t

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)
17786
I
p
+
V
out
I
F
V
out
= RI
p
U
-
R
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
IP1 IP2
17787
Designing Linear Amplifiers Using the IL300 Optocoupler
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 50
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.6, 20-Mar-12
18
Document Number: 83708
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
This is shown in equation 4a.
(4a).
Fig. 38 - Photoconductive Photodiode Model
The dark current depends on the diode construction,
reverse bias voltage and junction temperature. The dark
current can double every 10 C. The IL300 uses matched
PIN photodiodes that offer extremely small dark currents,
typically a few picoamps. The dark current will usually track
one another, and their effect will cancel each other when a
servo amplifier architecture is used. The typical dark current
as a function of temperature and reverse voltage is shown in
figure 39.
The responsivity, S, of the photodiode is influenced by the
potential of the reverse bias voltage. Figure 40 shows the
responsivity percentage change versus bias voltage. This
graph is normalized to the performance at a reverse bias of
15 V. The responsivity is reduced by 4 % when the bias is
reduced to 5 V.
Fig. 39 - Dark Current vs. Reverse Bias
Fig. 40 - Photoconductive Responsivity vs. Bias Voltage
The photodiode operated in the photoconductive mode is
easily connected to an operational amplifier. Figure 41
shows the diode connected to a trans resistance amplifier.
The transfer function of this circuit is given in equation 5a.
(5a)
BANDWIDTH CONSIDERATIONS
PIN photodiodes can respond very quickly to changes in
incident flux. The IL300 detectors respond in tens of
nanoseconds. The slew rate of the output current is related
to the diodes junction capacitance, C
j
, and the load resistor,
R. The product of these two elements set the
photo-response time constant.
(6a)
This time constant can be minimized by reducing the load
resistor, R, or the photodiode capacitance. This capacitance
is reduced by depleting the photodiodes intrinsic region, I,
by applying a reverse bias. Figure 42 illustrates the effect of
photodiode reverse bias on junction capacitance.
Fig. 41 - Photoconductive Amplifier
V
L
R
L
I
P
I
D
+ ( ) =
D
I
P
R
S
R
P C
P
I
D
I
L
+
Cathode
Anode
V
O
R
L
V
D
I
F
17788
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
10
-2
10
-1
11
0
10
1
10
2
V
r
- Reverse Bias (V)
I
d

-

D
a
r
k

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
n
A
)
T
a
70 C
50 C
25 C
17789
0 5 10 15 20
- 8
- 7
- 6
- 5
- 4
- 3
- 2
- 1
0
1
2
V
r
- Reverse Voltage (V)
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

D
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

(
%
)
17790
V
out
R I
P
I
d
( ) =
R Cj =
V
cc
I
F
I
P2
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
U2
6
-
+
3
2
7
4
V
out
R
17791
I
P2
I
P1
Designing Linear Amplifiers Using the IL300 Optocoupler
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 50
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.6, 20-Mar-12
19
Document Number: 83708
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 42 - Photodiode Junction Capacitance vs. Reverse Voltage
The zero biased photovoltaic amplifier offers a 50 kHz to
60 kHz usable bandwidth. When the detector is reverse
biased to - 15 V, the typical isolation amplifier response
increases to 100 kHz to 150 kHz. The phase and frequency
response for the IL300 is presented in figure 43. When
maximum system bandwidth is desired, the reverse biased
photoconductive amplifier configuration should be
considered.
Fig. 43 - Phase and Frequency Response
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
5
10
15
20
V
r
- Reverse Bias (V)
C
J

-

J
u
n
c
t
i
o
n

C
a
p
a
c
i
t
a
n
c
e

(
p
F
)
17792
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
- 20
- 15
- 10
- 5
0
5
- 180
- 135
- 90
- 45
0
45
dB
F - Frequency (Hz)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

(
d
B
)


-

P
h
a
s
e

R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

(

C
)
17793
I
Fq
= 10 mA, MOD = 4 mA
T
A
= 25 C, R
I
= 50 W
PHASE
VI SHAY SEMI CONDUCTORS
Optocouplers and Solid-State Relays Application Note 53
Optocouplers Isolate Modem Data Access Arrangement
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E

Rev. 1.5, 11-Oct-11
1
Document Number: 83709
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
www.vishay.com
Laptop, palmtop, and pen-based computer modem
manufacturers are seeking ways to accommodate the
small form factor of the PCMCIA peripheral cards. They
are looking for devices to replace the bulky magnetic
and electromechanical components normally found in
the modems telco line interconnection. Modem
suppliers have found that optocouplers satisfy both the
space and performance needs of a PCMCIA format
fax/modem product.
This application note describes various DAA circuit
architectures*. It shows how the IL350 linear optocoupler, is
used to isolate the modem signal, provide ring detection,
and Off/Hook operation. The IL350 offers the PCMCIA
modem designer a small package with wide signal
bandwidth and high insulation and isolation.
DATA ACCESS ARRANGEMENT - DAA
Figure 1 shows the block diagram of the data-access
arrangement (DAA) direct connect modem. The line
interconnect section consists of the Off/Hook relay, ring
detector, signal isolation, line current sink, and surge
protection. An optically coupled FET switch, such as the
LH1056, is commonly used for Off/Hook switching. Ringer
signal sensing is done by phototransistor optocouplers such
as 4N35 or ILD255.
Fig. 1 - DAA-Direct Connect Modem
Modem
Billing-delay
control
CPU
DTE
Dialer
Off- hook enable
Pulse
Tone
Telco
connect
Isolation line
2 to 4 wire
conversion
Signal isolation
surge protection
line current sink
Off-hook
delay
control
Call
progress
detector
Ring
detector
Off-hook
relay
*The circuits shown are believed to be
functional, but compliance to telco,
FCC or other government specications
is not guaranteed. The following circuits
were developed independently by
Vishay OED applications. The intercon-
nection of these circuits may infringe on
existing patents.
17794
Optocouplers Isolate Modem Data Access Arrangement
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T
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N
O
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E
Application Note 53
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.5, 11-Oct-11
2
Document Number: 83709
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
OPTICAL 2 TO 4 WIRE HYPRID
Replacing the 600 transformer is the most obvious
application of the IL350. When a single baud rate modem is
being designed, the IL350 can provide line isolation and also
can function as the 2 to 4 wire hybrid.
Fig. 2 - 2 to 4 Wire Electronic Hybrid
A typical transformer coupled 2 to 4 wire electronic hybrid is
shown in figure 2. This circuit provides transmitted tone
cancellation, while supplying a - 3 dBm transmit level, and
receiver sensitivity for a - 42 dBm signal. It offers a 600
termination impedance to the telco transformer in both
transmit and receive function. The hybrid function is
provided by U2. When a telco signal is being received the
transformer sees a 600 load, R3, terminated to virtual
ground. U2 amplifies the receive signal across R3 with a
gain specified by the values of R1 and R4. The modems
transmit signal is canceled by U2s differential amplifier
action. The amplifier inverting gain is set so that the
feedback signal is equal and 180 out of phase to the
transmit signal level arriving at U2s non-inverting input. R1
is selected to set U2s gain. The magnitude of transmit tone
cancellation is described in the following equation. Optimum
tone cancellation is achieved when R3 = R2 and R1 = R4.
Transmit suppresion
Figure 3 is a block diagram of an optical transformer
connected between the output U1 and the non-inverting
input U2. By introducing two unity gain isolation amplifiers
in this path, it is possible to isolate the 600 line termination
resistor while preserving the hybrids tone cancellation
feature. Figure 4 is a detail of figure 3.
Fig. 3 - DDA/2
Fig. 4 - 2 to 4 Wire Hybrid Optically Isolated Transformer
22.0 K
50.0 K
22.0 K
22.0 K
REC
XMT
0.1 F
600
17795
dB ( ) 20Log Abs
R1 R4 +
R1
----------------------
R3
R1 R3 +
----------------------
\ .
| |
R4
R1 R4 +
----------------------
\ .
| |

\ .
| |
)
`

=
Ring
detector
Tip
Ring
On/Off hook
On/Off hook
LH1540
LH1540
Bridge
rectifier
Optical
transformer
2 to 4W
hybrid
IL300s
IL252
SFH6286
SFH628
Rec
XMIT
Control
Current
aink
17796
50.0 K
0.1 F
22.0 K
600
22.0 K 22.0 K
+1 +1
REC
XMT
0.1 F
LH1540
0.1 F/400 V
330
Darlington
47 0
0.1 F
12 K
82 K
1N4007 - 4 ea
Tip
Ring
On/Off hook
DC loop current drain
permitting use of a
DRY transformer
interface

17797
Optocouplers Isolate Modem Data Access Arrangement
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E
Application Note 53
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.5, 11-Oct-11
3
Document Number: 83709
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Application of the optical transformer results in a Dry
Transformer type line termination. A dry transformer
requires a separate central office battery current return path,
which is usually a current sink constructed with discrete
components. This example shows a Darlington transistor
current sink providing this path.
Various optical transformer 2 to 4 hybrid circuits were
investigated. One circuit used single-supply Thevenin style
differential operational amplifiers in the isolated section of
the interface. The results were less than acceptable. These
circuits had difficulty driving reactive low-impedance
(600 ) loads.
Figure 5 shows a better performing design that uses Norton
or current input operation amplifiers (LM3900) in the isolated
telco line and standard Thevenin Dual supply operational
amplifiers (LM324) within the subscriber unit. The LM3900,
U6, easily drives the IL350's LED, and a non-inverting
photodiode amplifier requires a minimum of components,
U5. Note that U3, LM324, requires a buffer transistor
(2N3906) to adequately drive the LED. U4 is used as a trans
resistance amplifier, converting the receive IL350's
photocurrent into a voltage that is compatible with the
cancellation requirements of U2. The R3, R4, C1 forms the
lag compensation network to compensate for the delay in
the isolated path between U1s output and U2s input.
A lower component count circuit is shown in figure 5. This
interface uses Norton amplifiers exclusively for both the
telco line and subscriber instrument sections. The transmit
and receive sections are identical to those in figure 4. The
transmit suppression is accomplished in the current
differential amplifier, U2. R4, R5, C2 form the lag network to
compensate for the delay introduced by U3, U4, U5, U6, and
U7. 2 to 4 wire optically coupled hybrid Norton amplifier
configuration
Fig. 5 - 2 to 4 Wire Optically Coupled Hybrid Norton/Thevenin Amplifier

100K
9
13

Receive
+ 10
8
12
14
Transmit
LM324
LM324
LM324
2
9
8

100
3

604
13
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
IP1I P2
+
+
+

LM324
LM3900
LM3900
6
0
4

604
Telephone
line
U6
Vcc2
Vcc1
Vcc1
U2
U5
U1
6
5
7
Gnd2
Vcc2
Ring
Tip
Gnd1
Gnd1
2N3906
Gnd1
Gnd1
Gnd1
Gnd1
Gnd2
U7
Isolated telephone line
Subcriber instrument
2
3
4
R3
R2
C1
R1
R7
R8
C5
C4
R10
R9
C2
R4
R5
R6
R14
C7
C3
R13
R11
C6
R12
3
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
IP1
IP2
5
6
7
8
U4
+
+
Gnd1
100
R8
17798
Optocouplers Isolate Modem Data Access Arrangement
A
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A
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Application Note 53
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.5, 11-Oct-11
4
Document Number: 83709
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 6 - 2 to 4 Wire Optically Coupled Hybrid Norton Amplifier Configuration
Fig. 7 Fig. 8
-
100K
11
6
-
Receive
+ 12
10
5
1
Transmit
LM3900
LM3900
8
100
9
8
-
100
13
-
604
13
3
5
6
7
8
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
IP1I P2
+
+
- LM3900
LM3900
LM3900
6
0
4

604
Telephone
line
U6
Vcc2
Vcc1
U2
U5
U3
U1
Gnd2
Vcc1
Vcc2
Ring
Tip
Gnd1
Gnd1
Gnd1
Gnd2
U7
Isolated telephone line
Subcriber instrument
2
3
4
R4
R3
R2
C1
R1
R7
R8
C4
C3
R9
C2
R5
R6
R13
C6
R12
R10
C5
R11
3
IL300
2
4
1
K1
K2
IP1
IP2
5
6
7
8
U4
+
+
17799
Tip
Ring
Ring
detector
4N35
Line switch
Bridge
rectifier
LH1540 IL350
IL35
0
Receiver
XMT
RCVD
Control
Line switch
LH1540
IL217
IL252
Transmitter
and line
current sink
17800
Tip
Ring
IL350
Receiver
and
ring
detector XMT
RCVD
Control
Line switch
LH1540
Transmitter
and line
current
sink
Line Switch
LH1540
Bridge
rectifier
IL350
17804
Optocouplers Isolate Modem Data Access Arrangement
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Application Note 53
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.5, 11-Oct-11
5
Document Number: 83709
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 9
A 1 kHz transmit signal suppression of - 36 dB was
measured on the bench. Both of these optical hybrids derive
their power from the telco line through a voltage dropping
network connected after the off/hook switch. The circuits
were evaluated with 5 V to 9 V supply voltages.
NON HYBRID DAA ARCHITECTURES
The previous circuits may not be suitable for multiple baud
rate applications. This results from the frequency
dependency of the lag network found in the hybrid. This
situation leads to a series of architectures that use digital
transmit suppression techniques. When such techniques
are possible then standard IL350 interface circuits can be
used.
Figure 7 shows a design with a phototransistor coupler as
the ring detector and one or more LH1540 or LH1546
switches for Off/hook control.
This design can be simplified by having ring detection
performed by the IL350 receiver, using one LH1540 or
LH1546 off/hook switch and combining the transmitter and
line current into one circuit function. The block diagram for
this approach is shown in figure 8, the schematic in figure 9.
The circuit operation is as follows. Line off/hook control is
performed by one LH1540 or LH1546 FET switch. Ring
detection is accomplished by the signal path of C1, R1 and
the LED of the IL350 coupler. These values are selected to
provide a 1 mA to 2 mA LED ringing current.
Once the ringing signal is detected the off/hook control
closes the LH1056, and the IL350 receiver amplifier is
energized from power supplied by the central office battery
via the bridge rectifier D1-D4. The zener diode ZD2 is used
to supply + 15 V. The IL350 servo amplifier is constructed
with Q3 and a shunt regulator, TL431. R7 is used to set a pre
bias current for the servo operation. The optical servo
current can range from 50 A to 100 A depending on the
K1 servo gain of the IL350. This photo bias current will result
in a LED current of 5 mA to 10 mA. C2 provides a
low-impedance received signal path into the input of the
TL431. The received signal is converted to an output
photocurrent based upon the transfer gain, K3, of the IL350.
This output photocurrent is then amplified by the trans
resistance amplifier, U2.
R4
R3
R5
Q1
Q2
100
R8
R9
R6
D1 to D4
C2
TL43 1
1
0
0

Q3
R
7
IL30 0
IL30 0
Q4
GND 2
Vcc
GND2
GND2
GND1
GND1
XM T
RVD signal,
ring detection
Tip
RING
C1
R1
LH1540
line
switch
R2
U1
U2

17801
Optocouplers Isolate Modem Data Access Arrangement
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Application Note 53
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.5, 11-Oct-11
6
Document Number: 83709
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Fig. 10 - Switchless DAA Interconnection
Fig. 11 - Switchless DAA Interconnection
The transmit function and central office battery current sink
is provided by the transmit amplifier. This circuit consists of
Q1, Q2, R2, R4, R5, and R6. Under transmit operation the
transmit signal XMT consists of a DC and AC component.
The DC component pre biases the transmit amplifier. This
pre bias sets the supplemental line current to be sunk.
Recall that the receiver amplifier will require a 5 mA to 10 mA
operating current, therefore the transmit current sink will
handle any additional current required by the central office
switch. The central office line current is typically 20 mA to
30 mA. The AC component of the transmit signal is set to a
level that satisfies the - 3 dBm line transmit level. This circuit
was designed to use the smallest and the fewest number of
components as possible.
See figure 10 for a circuit design that further minimizes
board space by eliminating the off/hook optocouplers. The
schematic of this design is shown in figure 11.
The circuit operation for this design is as follows. Ring
detection is performed by a network consisting of C3, R5,
Q2, and the LED of the IL350. This ringer offers a higher
impedance than previous designs. This was done to reduce
the value and physical size of C3. During ringing, Q2
functions as a ringer amplifier for the LED. Once the ringing
signal has been recognized by the modem, the receiver
amplifier is activated by turning ON the SFH618
optocoupler, U2. When U2 is Off, it disables a bias network
which also disables the micro-power opamp, U1. Under this
condition this amplifier requires only a 20 A supply current,
equivalent to an Off/Hook resistance of 2.5 M. When the
U2 is ON, it provides a current return for the photo bias
current supplied by R2 and R3. This bias network is selected
to set an LED quiescent current of 5 mA to 10 mA.
Tip
Ring
IL350
Receiver
XMT
RCVD
Control
and
ring
detector
Transmitter
and line
current
sink
Bridge
rectifier
IL350
17802
2N3906
1
0
0
+
-
6
2
3
3
5
6
7
8
IL350
2
4
1
K1
K2
IP1 IP2
+ 15 V
R6
C1
C3
SFH618
MOV
Tip
Ring
RVD signal
RING DET
loop voltage
56V
C4
U4
3
6
2
C2
OP-90
-
+
4
7
U1
1 mA
R5
R3
R1
R2
R4
R7
D1 to D4
ZD1
ZD2
ZD3
3
5
6
7
8
IL350
2
4
1
K1
K2
IP1 IP2
3
6 2
-
+
4
7
U7
3
6 2
-
+
4
7
U5
Vcc
100
XMT
Dynamic loop
current control
2N3906
27 V
D1, D2
MJE181
R8
R9
R10
R11
RVD
control
C6
C5
ALD1706
Q1
Q2
Q3
U6
U2
U3
Vcc

17803
Optocouplers Isolate Modem Data Access Arrangement
A
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N
O
T
E
Application Note 53
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.5, 11-Oct-11
7
Document Number: 83709
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
The received signal is supplied to U1 via C1 and R1. These
values are selected to satisfy the bandwidth and signal to
noise requirement of the modem. The received signal
generates a modulated LED current that is optically coupled
through U3 to the modem receive trans resistance amplifier
consisting of U4, C4, and R4.
The transmit and central office battery current sink is
provided by the transmit amplifier. The transmit amplifier
and current sink are connected across the telco line. The
transmit signal consists of a DC and AC component. When
not transmitting, the transmit signal will have a DC level that
forces the LED current of transmit IL350, U6, to zero. Under
this condition the output photocurrent, I
P2
, of U6 will also be
zero, disabling the transmit amplifier U5 and Q1.
When disabled, the transmit amplifier requires a supply
current of less that 10 A, giving the line an off/hook
resistance of 5 M.
When the modem is transmitting, the transmit signal, XMT,
will have a DC component sufficient to force Q1 to sink any
additional central office line current not required by the
activated receive amplifier. U5 and Q1 function as a current
to current amplifier. The trans conductance of the amplifier
is set by R8, and R11. The transmit AC signal level at U7 is
set to provide a - 3 dBm signal to the telco line. R9 provides
the output photodiode bias return path. The bandwidth of
the transmit circuit is set by amplifier selection, with the
values of R11, R8, and C6. Signal bandwidths in excess of
20 kHz are possible with proper component selection.
CONCLUSION
The circuit designs shown in this application note are
provided as a starting point for the design of PCMCIA
compatible modems. By using the special lead-formed
IL350, SOT23, and SOT223 transistors, surface-mount ICs
and passive components, a DAA interface that will fit the
5 mm height form factor of the PCMCIA standard can be
constructed.
VI SHAY SEMI CONDUCTORS
Optocouplers and Solid-State Relays Application Note 02
Application Examples
A
P
P
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N

N
O
T
E

Rev. 1.4, 07-Nov-11
1
Document Number: 83741
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
www.vishay.com
INTRODUCTION
Optocouplers are used to isolate signals for protection and
safety between a safe and a potentially hazardous or
electrically noisy environment. The interfacing of the
optocoupler between digital or analogue signals needs to be
designed correctly for proper protection. The following
examples help in this area by using DC- and AC-input
phototransistor optocouplers.
OPTOCOUPLERS IN IC LOGIC DESIGN
To interface with TTL logic circuits, Vishay offers a wide
range of 4 pin and 6 pin optocoupler series such as the
CNY17x, SFH61xA, TCET110x, or K817P family.
a) Supply voltage: V
CC
= 5 V
b) Operation temperature range: - 20 C to + 60 C
c) Service life of application: 10 years
Example 1:
Phototransistor wired to an emitter resistor.
For simplicity, a typical CTR value of 100 % at I
F
= 10 mA is
selected. Within the temperature range of - 20 C to + 60 C
the CTR undergoes a change between + 12 % and - 17 %.
The - 17 % reduction is critical to the functioning of the
circuit.
Assuming a 10-year service life period of the interface
circuit, allowance needs to be made for additional CTR
reduction of approximately 20 % on account of degradation.
Making an additional tolerance allowance of approximately
- 25 % for the CTR will result in a safe minimum value of
approximately 50 %.
CTR
min.
= 100 % x (0.83) x (0.80) x (0.75) = 49.8 %
For a defined low state at the output of the optocoupler the
voltage V
L
at R
L
must be V
IL
0.8 V and current
I
IL
(I
IL
max. = 1.6 mA) must be capable of flowing through R
L
from the TTL input.
Owing to the phototransistor in this case being blocked at
the output of the optocoupler and I
CEO
maximum 200 nA
(at approximately 60 C), the I
L
- I
IL
setting can proceed
practically without any error.
This results in the following maximum value of R
L
:
A voltage V
L
at R
L
resistor of V
IH
2 V is necessary in order
to attain a safe high state at the output. This needs to be
generated by the collector current I
C
of the phototransistor.
In the case of the TTL output at the input of the optocoupler,
the current should remain I
OL
16 mA. The CTR value of
50 % results in the maximum output current I
C
for the
optocoupler of 8 mA.
With I
L
= I
C
+ I
IH
and I
IH
for standard TTL being maximum,
40 A, I
L
= I
C
can be assumed without any essential error.
This allows the minimum value to be determined for R
L
:
If, for example, R
L
= 390 is selected and 20 % safety is
computed to the minimum V
IH
in respect of the high state
(V
IH
+ V
IH
x 20 % = 2.4 V), this will then permit I
C
, I
F
, and the
dropping resistor R
V
at the input of the optocoupler to be
determined,
With V
F
= 1.2 V, (the forward voltage of the IR diode) and V
OL
0.4 V for the TTL output follows:
R
L
I
L
I
IL
I
IH
V
CC
V
CC
R
V
I
F
I
C
TTL
V
L
15096
TTL
R
L
V
IL
I
IL
-------- <
0.8 V
1.6 mA
------------------- 500 = =
R
L
V
IH
I
L
--------- >
2 V
8 mA
-------------- 250 = =
I
C
I
L
2.4 V
390
---------------- > 6.15 mA = =
- I
F
6.15 mA
CTR
----------------------- 12.3 mA = > >
R
V
V
CC
V
F
V
OL

12.3 mA
----------------------------------------- > 276 R
V
270 = , =
Application Examples
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 02
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Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.4, 07-Nov-11
2
Document Number: 83741
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THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
The TTL interface with the optocoupler is able to transmit
signals having a frequency of > 50 kHz or a transmission rate
of 100 kbit/s.
In the same way, the optocoupler can interface with other
logic circuits, such as LSTTL, HCMOS, or HCTMOS
components. All that needs to be done is to work the
corresponding limit values V
IH
, V
OH
, I
IL
, I
OL
, etc, into the
computation for the relevant family.
If use is made of LSTTL or HCTMOS components this will
also bring about an essential reduction in current
consumption.
Example 2:
Phototransistor wired to a collector resistor.
The CTR is determined by applying the same calculation
- 50 % - as that given in example 1. In this example,
dimensioning of the interface is launched from the high state
at the output of the optocoupler.
In the high state a non-operate current of the I
IH
- of
maximum 40 A - may flow in the TTL input. If R
L
selection
is too high, the entire non-operate current = I
CEO
+ I
IH
may
produce such a voltage drop through the R
L
that the critical
V
IH
voltage (minimum = 2 V) is not attained.
Or if another + 20 % safety is added to the V
IH
voltage,
For calculating the smallest usable R
L
value, I
Cmax
= 8 mA is
assumed as in example 1 and use is made of the low state
of the optocoupler output. In this circuit the current I
IL
of the
TTL input flows through the phototransistor in such a way
that the following applies: I
C
= I
L
+ I
IL
.
This results in the following:
To select the value for R
L
, the following should be observed.
Proceeding from the voltage V
IL
= 0.8 V, the phototransistor
is on the limits of saturation.
Owing to the voltage V
CE
being relatively unstable in this
state, V
CE
should be selected in such a way that the
phototransistor is in full saturation.
From the diagram V
CEsat
vs. I
C
in any given 4 pin or 6 pin
phototransistor data sheet, CTR reduced by 50 % and for
I
C
< 5 mA follows V
CEsat
< 0.5 V.
I
Cmax.
is now reduced to approximately 4 mA and for the
minimum R
L
follows,
If a suitable value is selected for the resistor R
L
, it is possible
to determine R
V
at the input.
Example for R
L
= 5.1 k follows:
I
C
= I
IL
+ I
L
= 2.68 mA
and with CTR = 25 %, I
F
= I
C
/CTR = 10.72 mA:
This interface circuit can be used for transmission rates of
up to about 28 kbit/s The fact that considerably lower
transmission rates are possible here compared with the
circuit given in example 1 is partly due to the saturation state
of the phototransistor, and to a large extent, to the higher
value required for R
L
.
Example 3:
Here are other circuit configurations to interface with TTL
circuit, specifically the 7400 family.
R
L
I
IL
V
CC
V
CC
R
V
I
F
I
L
TTL
V
IL
, V
IH
15097
TTL
I
IH
I
C
R
L
V
CC
V
IH

I
CEO
I
IH
+
-------------------------- <
5 V 2 V
40.2 A
------------------------ 74.6 k = =
R
L
V
CC
V
IH
V
IH
20 100 + ( )
I
CEO
I
IH
+
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- <
5 V 2.4 V
40.2 A
------------------------------------- 64.7 k = =
R
L
V
CC
V
IL

I
Cmax
I
IL

--------------------------- >
5 V 0.8 V
6.4 mA
----------------------------- 656 = =
R
L
V
CC
V
CEsat

4 mA 1.6 mA
--------------------------------------- >
5 V 0.5 ( ) V
2.4 mA
---------------------------------- 1875 = =
I
L
V
CC
V
CEsat

R
L
------------------------------------
5.5 mA V
5.1 k
------------------------- 1.08 mA = = =
R
V
V
CC
V
F
V
OL

10.72 mA
----------------------------------------- 317 R
V
330 = , = =
Application Examples
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 02
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Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.4, 07-Nov-11
3
Document Number: 83741
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
TTL ACTIVE LEVEL LOW (7400)
It is more difficult to operate into TTL gates in the active
level- high configuration. Some possible methods are as
follows:
Obviously, several optocoupler output transistors can be
connected to perform logical functions.
Note: Use smaller pull-up resistor
for higher speed
12 k
Vcc
17454
Note: Best method if negative
supply is available
V
CC
2 mA
V
_
240
Note: Requires 10 mA from
transistor and sacrifices
noise margin
10 k
Note: High sensitivity but sacrifices
noise margin. Needs extra parts
17455
2 k
V
CC
V
CC
10 k
V
CC
Note: Extra parts cost but, high sensitivity
17456
10 k
V
CC
A+B
7400
Note: Logical OR connection
A
B
AB
7400
A
B
17457
Note: Logical AND connection
V
CC
12 k
12 k
Application Examples
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 02
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Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.4, 07-Nov-11
4
Document Number: 83741
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
INPUT DRIVING CIRCUITS
The input side of the optocoupler has an emitter
characteristic as shown.
The forward current must be controlled to provide the
desired operating condition.
The input can be conveniently driven by integrated circuit
logic elements in a number of different ways.
TTL ACTIVE LEVEL HIGH (7400 SERIES)
TTL ACTIVE LEVEL LOW (7400 SERIES)
There are obviously many other ways to drive the device
with logic signals, but a majority can be met with the above
circuits. All provide 10 mA into the LED, giving 2 mA
minimum out of the phototransistor. The 1 V diode knee and
its high capacitance (typically 100 pF) provides good noise
immunity. The rise time and propagation delay can be
reduced by biasing the diode onto perhaps 1 mA forward
current, but the noise performance will be increased.
AC INPUT COMPATIBLE OPTOCOUPLER
INTRODUCTION
With the rapid penetration and diversification of electronic
systems, demand for optocouplers is strengthening. Most
popular are products featuring compact design, low cost,
and high added value. To meet the market needs, Vishay is
expanding the optocoupler. This application note focuses
on optocouplers compatible with AC input, and covers
configuration, principles of operation, and application
examples.
80
40
0
100
60
20
1
2
3
8
4 0 0.8 1.6
V
R
(V) V
F
(V)
I
R
(
t
n
A
)
I
R
(

A
)
17458
68
Note: Can omit resistor for about
15 mA into diode
V
CC
17459
Note: More parts required than above
270
510
Note: Not as good as above circuit.
Not recommended
2 k
V
CC
Vcc
330
17460
Application Examples
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 02
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Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.4, 07-Nov-11
5
Document Number: 83741
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
CONFIGURATION
(INTERNAL PIN CONNECTION DIAGRAM)
Fig. 1 - 4 Pin AC-Input Optocoupler
Fig. 2 - 4 Pin DC-Input Optocoupler
Figure 1 shows the internal pin connection of a 4 pin
AC-input SFH620A-x optocoupler TCET1600, K814P series;
and figure 2, of a 4 pin DC-input optocoupler TCET1100,
SFH61xA-x, and K817P series. The main difference is that
the AC-input optocouplers incorporate an input circuit with
two emitters connected in reverse parallel. In the DC-input
optocoupler one emitter is connected in the input circuit so
that the emitter emits light to provide a signal when a current
flows in one direction(1- > 2 in figure 1) (one-direction input
type).
However, in the configuration shown in figure 2, when a
current flows in direction 1 to 2, emitter 1 emits light to send
a signal, and when it flows from 2 to 1, emitter 2 emits light
to send a signal (bi-directional input type). Namely, even if
the voltage level between 1 and 2 varies, and the positive
and negative polarities are changed, either of two emitters
emits light to send a signal. This means that the
one-direction input optocoupler permits DC input only,
while the bi-directional input type permits AC input as well.
The next section describes the status of output signals when
V
ac
power is directly input to an AC input compatible
optocoupler via a current limit resistor.
Example 1: AC/DC converter
Fig. 3 - AC-Input-Compatible Optocoupler (Bi-Directional Input)
Fig. 4 - Conventional Optocoupler (One-Direction Input)
(Full-Wave Rectification by Means of Diode Bridge)
Example 2: detection of a telephone bell signal
Fig. 5 - AC-Input-Compatible Optocoupler (Bi-Directional Input)
Fig. 6 - Conventional Optocoupler (One-Direction Input)
(Rectified by CR Circuit)
1
4
A,K A,K
C E
12710
2
3
2
3
1
4
12590
15099
Line
Voltage
V
CC
0
+

15100
Line
Voltage
0
+

0
+
V
CC
0
+

Ring Line
15101
0
+

Ring Line
15102
0
+
Application Examples
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

N
O
T
E
Application Note 02
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 1.4, 07-Nov-11
6
Document Number: 83741
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Example 3: sequencer circuit input section
Fig. 7 - AC-Input-Compatible Optocoupler (Bi-Directioal Input) Fig. 8 - Conventional Optocoupler (One-Direction Input)
(Full-Wave Rectified by Diode Bridge)
PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER EXAMPLE
PURPOSE: IN-OUT INTERFACE
AC Line
15103
AC Line
Common
Common
15104
17912

Document Number: 80054 For technical questions, contact: optocoupler.answers@vishay.com www.vishay.com
Rev. 1.6, 24-Nov-08 121
Assembly Instructions
Assembly Instructions
Vishay Semiconductors
GENERAL
Vishay offers a wide product selection of optocouplers and
solid state relays in a variety of packages. This document
provides instructions on mounting for the different types of
packages, specifically on the different methods of soldering.
For DIP packages, they can be mounted in DIP sockets or
directly on a pre-designed PCB with holes.
The preferred solder process for SMD packages is reflow
soldering. Certain SMD families are also qualified for wave
soldering; please see table 1. The moisture sensitivity Level
(MSL) = 1 for all couplers.
If the device is to be mounted near heat-generating
components, consideration must be given to the resultant
increase in ambient temperature.
SOLDERING INSTRUCTIONS
Protection against overheating is essential when a device is
being soldered. Therefore, the connection wires or PCB
traces should be left as long as possible. The maximum
permissible soldering temperature is governed by the
maximum permissible heat that may be applied to the
package.
The maximum soldering iron (or solder bath) temperatures
are given in the individual datasheets. During soldering, no
forces must be transmitted from the pins to the case (e.g., by
spreading the pins).
SOLDERING METHODS
There are several methods for soldering devices onto the
substrate. The following is a partial list.
(a) Soldering in the vapor phase
Soldering in saturated vapor is also known as condensation
soldering. This soldering process is used as a batch system
(dual vapor system) or as a continuous single vapor system.
Both systems may also include a pre-heating of the
assemblies to prevent high-temperature shock and other
undesired effects.
(b) Reflow soldering of lead (Pb)-free SMD devices
By using infrared (IR) reflow soldering, the heating is
contact-free and the energy for heating the assembly is
derived from direct infrared radiation and from convection.
The heating rate in an IR furnace depends on the absorption
coefficients of the material surfaces and on the ratio of the
component's mass to an as-irradiated surface.
The temperature of parts in an IR furnace, with a mixture of
radiation and convection, cannot be determined in advance.
Temperature measurement may be performed by measuring
the temperature of a certain component while it is being
transported through the reflow oven.
Influencing parameters on the internal temperature of the
component are as follows:
Time and power
Mass of the component
Size of the component
Size of the printed circuit board
Absorption coefficient of the surfaces
Packing density
Wavelength spectrum of the radiation source
Ratio of radiated and convected energy
Temperature/time profiles of the entire process and the
influencing parameters are given. The IR reflow profile is
shown in figure 1. Two cycles of reflow are allowed.
(c) Wave soldering
In wave soldering one or more continuously replenished
waves of molten solder are generated, while the substrates
to be soldered are moved in one direction across the crest of
the wave. Maximum soldering temperature should not
exceed 260 C.
Temperature/time profiles of the entire process are given in
figure 2.
For SMD devices which are qualified for wave soldering, the
temperature profile under figure 2 is also valid. For wave
soldering two cycles are allowed.
(d) Iron soldering
This process cannot be carried out in a controlled situation.
It should therefore not be used in applications where
reliability is important. There is no SMD classification for this
process.
(e) Laser soldering
This is an excess heating soldering method. The energy
absorbed may heat the device to a much higher temperature
than desired. There is no SMD classification for this process
at the moment.
(f) Resistance soldering
This is a soldering method which uses
temperature-controlled tools (thermodes) for making solder
joints. There is no SMD classification for this process at the
moment.

www.vishay.com For technical questions, contact: optocoupler.answers@vishay.com Document Number: 80054
122 Rev. 1.6, 24-Nov-08
Assembly Instructions
Vishay Semiconductors
Assembly Instructions
TABLE 1 - SOLDERING METHODES AND TEMPERATURE PROFILES FOR OPTOCOUPLER
REFLOW WAVE SOLDERING 260 C
SMD SMD THROUGH HOLE
PACKAGE
THROUGH WAVE
PACKAGE NOT
THROUGH WAVE
PACKAGE PART NUMBER EXAMPLES ASSEMBLY METHOD
TEMP. PROFILE
FIG. 1
TEMP. PROFILE
FIG. 2
TEMP. PROFILE
FIG. 2
DIP-6 IL1; IL2; H11; IL250; IL410 Through hole X
DIP-8 IL300; SFH6700; 6N135 Through hole X
DIP-4/8/16 SFH617A-2; SFH615 Through hole X
DIP-6 CNY17; SFH615ABM Through hole X
DIP-4/8/16 TCET1104; TCET1104G Through hole X
DIP-4/8/16 VO615A Through hole X
DIP-6 CQY80NG; CNY75B; TCDT Through hole X
DIP-4/8/16 VO615A series SMD bend.opt. X No
DIP-4/8/16 SFH617A-2X007; 9; SFH6106 SMD bend.opt. X Yes
DIP-8 high speed SFH6700; 6N135; SFH6325 SMD bend.opt. X No
DIP-6 Types with option 7, 8 or 9 SMD bend.opt. X No
DIP-8; DIP-16 ILD2; ILQ2 SMD bend.opt. X No
DIP-8 IL300 SMD bend.opt. X No
SOP low profile TCMT; TCLT series SMD X Yes
SOP-16 low profile SFH6916 SMD X No
SOP-4 (Miniflat) SFH690 SMD X No
SO8 IL205T; ILD207AT SMD X Yes
SO8 VO026..; VO46..; VO06.. SMD X Yes
PCMCIA IL388 SMD X No
Minicoupler SFH6943 SMD X No
SSRs
DIP-4 LH1546AD Through hole X
DIP-6 LH1500AT Through hole X
DIP-8 LH1526AB Through hole X
DIP-6 LHxxxBT Through hole X
DIP-8 LHxxxBB Through hole X
DIP-4 LH1546ADF SMD bend.opt. X No
DIP-6 LH1500AAB SMD bend.opt. X No
DIP-8 LH1526AAC SMD bend.opt. X No
Miniflat LH1546AEF; VO14.. SMD X No
Flatpaks LH1556FP SMD bend.opt. X No
DIP-6 LHxxxBAB SMD bend.opt. X No
DIP-8 LHxxxBAC SMD bend.opt. X No

Document Number: 80054 For technical questions, contact: optocoupler.answers@vishay.com www.vishay.com
Rev. 1.6, 24-Nov-08 123
Assembly Instructions
Assembly Instructions
Vishay Semiconductors
TEMPERATURE-TIME PROFILES
Fig. 1 - Temperature Profile for Lead (Pb)-free Opto Devices
Fig. 2 - Wave Soldering Double Wave Opto Devices
HEAT REMOVAL
The heat generated in the semiconductor junction(s) must be
moved to the ambient. In the case of low-power devices, the
natural heat conductive path between case and surrounding
air is usually adequate for this purpose.
In the case of medium-power devices, however, heat
conduction may have to be improved by the use of star- or
flag-shaped heat dissipators which increase the heat
radiating surface.
The heat generated in the junction is conveyed to the case or
header by conduction rather than convection; a measure of
the effectiveness of heat conduction is the inner thermal
resistance or junction-to-case thermal resistance, R
thJC
,
whose value is given by the construction of the device.
Any heat transfer from the case to the surrounding air
involves radiation convection and conduction, the
effectiveness of transfer being expressed in terms of an
R
thCA
value, i.e., the case-to-ambient thermal resistance.
The total thermal resistance, junction-to-ambient is
therefore:
R
thJA
= R
thJC
+ R
thCA
The total maximum power dissipation, P
totmax.
, of a
semiconductor device can be expressed as follows:
where:
T
jmax.
the maximum allowable junction temperature
T
amb
the highest ambient temperature likely to be reached
under the most unfavorable conditions
R
thJC
the thermal resistance, junction-to-case
R
thJA
the thermal resistance, junction-to-ambient
R
thCA
the thermal resistance, case-to-ambient, depends on
cooling conditions. If a heat dissipator or sink is used,
then R
thCA
depends on the thermal contact between
case and heat sink, heat propagation conditions in
the sink and the rate at which heat is transferred to
the surrounding air.
Therefore, the maximum allowable total power dissipation for
a given semiconductor device can be influenced only by
changing T
amb
and R
thCA
. The value of R
thCA
could be
obtained either from the data of heat sink suppliers or
through direct measurements.
In the case of cooling plates as heat sinks, the approach
outlined in fig. 3 and 4 can be used as guidelines. The curves
shown in both fig. 3 and 4 give the thermal resistance R
thCA
of square plates of aluminium with edge length, a, and with
different thicknesses. The case of the device should be
mounted directly onto the cooling plate.
The edge length, a, derived from fig. 3 and 4 in order to
obtain a given R
thCA
value, must be multiplied
with and :
' = x
where
= 1.00 for vertical arrangement
= 1.15 for horizontal arrangement
= 1.00 for bright surface
= 0.85 for dull black surface
Example
For an IR emitter with T
jmax.
= 100 C and R
thJC
= 100 K/W,
calculate the edge length for a 2 mm thick aluminum square
sheet having a dull black surface ( = 0.85) and vertical
arrangement ( = 1),
T
amb
= 70 C and P
tot max.
= 200 mW.
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Time (s)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
255 C
240 C
245 C
max. 260 C
max. 120 s max. 100 s
217 C
max. 20 s
max. ramp up 3 C/s
max. ramp down 6 C/s
max. 2 cycles allowed
21620
2 K/s
second
wave
first wave
wave
ca. 5 K/s
5 s
full line: typical
dotted line:
process limits
Time (s)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0 50 100 150 200 250
94 8626
Lead temperature
235 C to
260 C
100 C to
130 C
ca. 200 K/s
forced cooling
ca. 2 K/s
P
totmax.
T
j max.
T
amb

R
thJA
---------------------------------------
T
j max.
T
amb

R
thJC
R
thCA
+
----------------------------------------- = =
P
totmax.
T
j max.
T
amb

R
thJC
R
thCA
+
------------------------------------- =
R
thCA
T
j max.
T
amb

P
totmax
--------------------------------------- R
thJC
=
R
thCA
100 C 70 C
0.2 W
--------------------------------------- 100 K/W =

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124 Rev. 1.6, 24-Nov-08
Assembly Instructions
Vishay Semiconductors
Assembly Instructions
can be calculated from the relationship:
Fig. 3
With R
thCA
= 50 k/W and T = 10 C, a plate of 2 mm
thickness has an edge length = 28 .
Fig. 4
However, equipment life and reliability have to be taken into
consideration and therefore a larger sink would normally be
used to avoid operating the devices continuously at their
maximum permissible junction temperature.
R
thCA
30
0.2
---------- 100 K/W =
R
thCA
50 K/W =
T T
case
T
amb
=
P
totmax.
T
j max.
T
amb

R
thJC
R
thCA
+
-------------------------------------
T
case
T
amb

R
thCA
---------------------------------- = =
T T
case
T
amb

R
thCA
T
j max.
T
amb
( )
R
thJC
R
thCA
+
-------------------------------------------------------------- = =
T
50 K/W 100 C 70 C
150 K/W
----------------------------------------------------------------- =
T
50 K/W 30 C
150 K/W
------------------------------------------- =
T 10 C 10 K = =
10 100
1
10
100
R
t
h
C
A

(
K
/
W
)
a (mm)
1000
T = 10 C
30 C
60 C
120 C
Plate thickness: 0.5 mm
94 7834
10 100
1
10
100
R
t
h
C
A

(
K
/
W
)
a (mm)
1000
Plate thickness: 2 mm
T = 10 C
30 C
60 C
120 C
94 7835

Document Number: 80060 For technical questions, please contact: optocoupler.answers@vishay.com www.vishay.com
Rev. 1.5, 14-Jan-08 1
Handling Instructions
Handling Instructions
Vishay Semiconductors
PROTECTION AGAINST ELECTROSTATIC
DAMAGE
Although electrostatic breakdown is most often associated
with IC semiconductor devices, optoelectronic devices are
also prone to electrostatic damage. Miniaturized and highly
integrated components are particularly sensitive.
SENSITIVITY
Breakdown Voltages
Typical electrostatic discharge in the working environment
can easily reach several thousand volts, well above the level
required to cause a breakdown. As market requirements are
moving towards greater miniaturization, lower power
consumption, and higher speeds, optoelectronic devices are
becoming more integrated and delicate. This means that
they are becoming increasingly sensitive to electrostatic
effects.
Device Breakdown
Electrostatic discharge events are often imperceptible.
However, some of the the following problems may occur.
Delay Failure
Electrostatic discharge may damage the device or change its
characteristics without causing immediate failure. The device
may pass inspection, move into the market, then fail during
its initial period of use.
Difficulty in Identifying Discharge Site
Human beings generally cannot perceive electrostatic
discharges of less than 3000 V, while semiconductor devices
can sustain damage from electrostatic voltages as low as
100 V. It is often very difficult to locate the process at which
electrostatic problems occur.
Basic Countermeasures
Optoelectronic devices should be protected from static
electricity at all stages of processing. Each device must be
protected from the time it is received until the time it has been
incorporated into a finished assembly. Each processing
stage should incorporate the following measures.
Suppression of Electrostatic Generation
Keep relative humidity at 50 to 70 % (if humidity is above
70 %, morning dew may cause condensation). Remove
materials which might cause electrostatic generation (such
as synthetic resins) from your workplace. Check the
appropriateness of floor mats, clothing (uniforms, sweaters,
shoes), parts trays, etc. Use electrostatically safe equipment
and machinery.
Removal of Electrostatic Charges
Connect conductors (metals, etc.) to ground, using
dedicated grounding lines. To prevent dangerous shocks
and damaging discharge surges, insert a resistance of
800 k between conductor and grounding line.
Connect conveyors, solder baths, measuring machines, and
other equipment to ground, using dedicated, grounding lines.
Use ionic blowers to neutralize electrostatic charges on
insulators. Blowers pass charged air over the targeted
object, neutralizing the existing charge. They are useful for
discharging insulators or other objects that cannot be
effectively grounded.
Human Electrostatic
The human body readily picks up electrostatic charges, and
there is always some risk that human operators may cause
electrostatic damages to the semiconductor devices they
handle. The following measures are essential.
Anti-Static Wrist Straps
All people who come into direct contact with semiconductors
should wear anti-static wrist straps, i.e., those in charges of
parts supply and people involved in mounting, board
assembly and repair.
Be sure to insert a resistance of 800 k to 1 M into the
straps. The resistance protects against electrical shocks and
prevents instantaneous and potentially damaging
discharges from charged semiconductor devices.
The straps should be placed next to the skin, placing them
over gloves, uniforms or other clothing reduces their
effectiveness.
Antistatic Mats, Uniforms and Shoes
The use of anti-static mats and shoes is effective in places
where use of a wrist strap is inconvenient (for example, when
placing boards into returnable boxes). To prevent static
caused by friction with clothing, personnel should wear
anti-static uniforms, gloves, sleeves aprons, finger covers, or
cotton apparel.
Protection during Inspection, Mounting and Assembly
Each individual must ensure that hands do not come into
direct contact with leads. Avoid non-conductive finger
covers. Cover the work desk with grounded anti-static mats.
Storage and Transport
Always use conductive foams, tubes, bags, reels or trays
when storing or transporting semiconductor devices.

www.vishay.com For technical questions, please contact: optocoupler.answers@vishay.com Document Number: 80060
2 Rev. 1.5, 14-Jan-08
Handling Instructions
Vishay Semiconductors
Handling Instructions
MOUNTING PRECAUTIONS
Installation
Installation on PWB
When mounting a device on PWB whose pin-hole pitch does
not match the lead pin pitch of the device, reform the device
pins appropriately so that the internal chip is not subjected to
physical stress.
Installation Using a Device Holder
Emitters and detectors are often mounted using a holder.
When using this method, make sure that there is no gap
between the holder and device.
Installation Using Screws
When lead soldering is not adequate to securely retain a
photo interrupter, it may be retained with screws.
The tightening torque should not exceed 6 kg/cm
3
. An
excessive tightening torque may deform the holder, which
results in poor alignment of the optical axes and degrades
performance.
Lead Forming
Lead pins should be formed before soldering. Do not apply
forming stress to lead pins during or after soldering. For light
emitters or detectors with lead frames, lead pins should be
formed just beneath the stand-off cut section. For
optocouplers or opto sensors using dual-in-line packages,
lead pins should beformed below the bent section so that
forming stress does not affect the inside of the device. Stress
to the resin may result in disconnection.
When forming lead pins, do not bend the same portion
repeatedly, otherwise the pins may break.
CLEANING
General
Optoelectronic devices are particularly sensitive with regard
to cleaning solvents. The Montreal Protocol for
environmental protection calls for a complete ban on the use
of chlorofluorocarbons. Therefore, the most harmless
chemicals for optoelectronic devices should be used for
environmental reasons. The best solution is to use a modem
reflow paste or solder composition which does not require a
cleaning procedure. No cleaning is required when the fluxes
are guaranteed to be non-corrosive and of high, stable
resistivity.
Cleaning Procedures
Certain kinds of cleaning solvents can dissolve or penetrate
the transparent resins which are used in some types of
sensors. Even black molding components used in standard
isolators are frequently penetrated between the mold
compound and lead frame. Inappropriate solvents may also
remove the marking printed on a device. It is therefore
essential to take care when choosing solvents to remove
flux.
Cleaning is not required if the flux in the solder material is
non-aggressive and any residues are guaranteed to be non
corrosive an long-term stable of high resistivity. In cleaning
procedures using wet solvents only high purity Ethyl and
Isopropyl alcohol are recommended.
In each case, the devices are immersed in the liquid for
typically 3 min and afterwards immediately dried for at least
15 min at 50 C in dry air.
Precautions
Intensified cleaning methods such as ultrasonic cleaning,
steam cleaning, and brushing can cause damage to
optoelectronic devices. They are generally not
recommended.
Ultrasonic cleaning (unless well controlled) can damage the
devices due to mechanical vibrations.
Using high-intensity ultrasonic cleaning, the process might:
a. Promote dissolution or crack the package surface and
thus affect the performance of e.g., the sensors
b. Promote separation of the lead frame and resin and thus
reduce humidity resistance
c. Promote the breakage of band wires
This method should only be used after extensive trials have
been run to ensure that problems do not occur. Brushing can
scratch package surfaces. Moreover, it can remove printed
markings.
Special care should be taken to use only high purity or
chemically well-controlled solvents. Chloride ions, from flux
or solvents that remain in the package are a high risk for the
long-time stability of any electronic device. These as well as
other promote corrosion on the chip which can interrupt all
bond connections to the outside leads.

Document Number: 80123 For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com www.vishay.com
Rev. 1.9, 09-Nov-10 75
Standard Marking on Optocouplers
Standard Marking
Vishay Semiconductors

Fig. 1 - 6 Pin
Fig. 2 - Single and Dual SO-8
Fig. 3 - DIP-6 Products
Fig. 4 - Minicoupler
Fig. 5 - DIP-4 Products
Fig. 6 - DIP-8 Products
V WPXXXY 68
Vishay logo
Date code (year, week)
Package code
Plant code
Product code Customer code/
identification/
option
17916
UL logo
XXXXX
XXXXX
C
L
17935
Vishay logo
Date code (year, week)
Package code
Plant code
Product code
Registration
type, number
D213
VXXXY68
V XXX 24
Vishay logo
Date code (year, week)
Plant code
Product code
Customer code/
identification/
option
17936
VDE logo
UL logo
V
D E
XXXXX
XXXXX
Vishay logo
Date code (year, week)
Package code
Plant code
Registration
type, number
Product code
17937
V XXXY 68
6941 - YE1
Vishay logo
Date code
(year, week)
Package code
Plant code
Manufacturer identification/
product code/
type
VDE logo
Customer code/
identification/
option
17938
XXXY 68
V
D E
SFH6156-3
V XXXXX
Vishay logo
Date code (year, week) Package code
Plant code
Product code Customer code /
identification /
option
VDE logo
17939
UL logo
V
D E
XXXXX
XXXXX
V XXXY 68

www.vishay.com For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com Document Number: 80123
76 Rev. 1.9, 09-Nov-10
Standard Marking
Vishay Semiconductors
Standard Marking on Optocouplers

Fig. 7 - PCMCIA Products
Fig. 8 - Pin Miniflat/4 Pin Flatpack
Fig. 9 - DIP-16 Products
Fig. 10 - 16 Pin Miniflat
Markings
For the marking of product options please see the datasheet or the option information sheet www.vishay.com/doc?83713
Vishay logo
Date code
(year, week)
Package code
Plant code
Product code/
Customer code
17940
350X
V XXX
Y 68
17944
Vishay logo
Date code
(year, week)
Package code
Plant code
Product code
XXXX
V XXX
Y 68
17941
Vishay logo
Date code (year, week)
Package code
Plant code
Product code Customer code/
identification/
option VDE logo
UL logo
V
D E
XXXXX
XXXXX
V XXXY 68
SFH6916
V XXXY 68
17942
Vishay logo Date code (year, week) Package code
Plant code Product code

Document Number: 83713 For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com www.vishay.com
Rev. 1.8, 18-Oct-10 1
Option Information
Option Information
Vishay Semiconductors

Optocoupler lead-bend configurations are available as
options. In addition, partial discharge testing as per
VDE/IEC is also available as an option.
See the order information section in the data sheet to
determine if and which options are available to a specific
product. Contact the Vishay sales office for other option
configurations. The options are:
Option 1 VDE option
Option 6 400 mil (10.16 mm) lead spread DIP
configuration
Option 7 Surface mount, gull wing DIP configuration with
standoff
Option 8 Surface mount, gull wing DIP configuration with
increased clearance
Option 9 Surface mount, gull wing DIP configuration
ORDERING OPTIONS
A specific option or combination of options can be ordered
by add the options definition field following the base part
number and CTR range (if applicable) as presented in the
following example:
This field is always 4 characters long and commences with
the character X. In the case of surface mounted products in
Tape and Reel format, the tape and reel option character T
will follow this field. The possible combinations for these
Fields
(1)
are:
X001, X006, X007, X008, X009, X001T
(2)
, X007T, X008T,
X009T, X016, X017, X018, X019, X017T, X018T, X019T
Notes
(1)
Not all options are available for all product types.
(2)
The X001T option is only available on products that are available
on the following SMD products SFH6106, SFH6156, SFH6186,
SFH6206 and SFH6286 series, e.g. SFH6106-3X001T .
OPTION 1
OPTOCOUPLERS FOR SAFE ELECTRICAL
INSULATION PER DIN EN 60747-5-5
(VDE 0884)
(1)
The optocoupler listed are suitable for safe electrical
insulation only within the safety maximum ratings.
Compliance with the safety maximum ratings must be
ensured by protective circuits.
The partial discharge measurement ensures that no partial
discharge occurs during operation at maximum permissible
operating insulation voltage (V
IORM
). Permanent partial
discharge affects the insulating materials and can result in a
high voltage breakdown.
It is recommended that tests with the insulation test voltage
(V
ISOL
) should not be made, otherwise partial discharge may
occur impairing the insulation characteristics. Thus partial
discharges also may occur at the maximum permissible
operating insulation voltage.
The insulation test per DIN EN 60747-5-5 (VDE 0884) is
carried out after all the other tests
18482
S F H 6 1 5 A
-
3 X 0 9 T
Prefix Base Part Number CTR Ranges Options Definition Tape and
Reel Option
BRT
Il
ILD
ILQ
SFH6
VO
1 = 40 % to 80 %
2 = 63 % to 125 %
3 = 100 % to 200 %
4 = 160 % to 320 %
5 =
or 50 % to 150 %
(1)
6 = 100 % to 300 %
(1)
7 = 80 % to 160 %
(1)
8 = 130 % to 260 %
(1)
9 = 200 % to 400 %
(1)
250 % to 500 %
Option 1 Optocouplers for saf e electr ical
Insulation per DIN VDE 0884
Option 6 Optocouplers with 10.16 mm (0.4")
through hole lead spread
Option 7 Optocouplers with SMD lead form bend,
0.9 mm maximum standoff height
Option 8 Optocouplers with 10.16 mm (0.4") SMD
lead form bend
Option 9 Optocouplers with SMD lead form bend,
0.25 mm maximum standoff height
Option 1 may be combined with the other
lead forming options.
Option T may only be combined with
Options 7, 8, and 9
CNY17F-2X017T
4N35-X016
SFH615-3X001
VO615A-9X007T
Examples:
Note

(1)
Used on selected products, consult data sheet for details
0

www.vishay.com For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com Document Number: 83713
2 Rev. 1.8, 18-Oct-10
Option Information
Vishay Semiconductors
Option Information

Fig. 1 - Time Voltage Diagram per DIN EN 60747-5-2 (VDE 0884)/DIN EN 60747-5-5 (pending)
V INITIA L
0. 1 t o 1 kV/s
V Pr
V IORM
10 s t p = 60 s
12 s
1.0 s
1 s
t
V V Pr
V IORM
tp = 1 .0 s 0.1 s
0.1 s
1. 2 s
V
t
tp: measuring time for par tial dischage
Procedure a.
Type and sampling tests, destructive tests
tp: measuring time for partial dischage
Procedure b.
Routine tests, non-destructive tests 17928-1
DESCRIPTION SYMBOL SYSTEM 1 UNIT
DIP4 DIP8 DIP16
SFH610A-.. ILCT6 ILQ1/2/5/74
SFH615A-.. ILD1/2/5/74 ILQ30/31/55
SFH615AA-.. ILD30/31/55 ILQ32
SFH615AGB-.. ILD32 ILQ66-..
SFH615AGR-.. ILD66-.. ILQ615-..
SFH617A-.. ILD250/1/2 ILQ620-..
SFH618A-.. ILD255 ILQ620GB-..
SFH620A-.. ILD621GB-.. ILQ621-..
SFH620AA-.. ILD621-.. ILQ621GB-..
SFH620AGB-.. ILD621GB-..
SFH628A-.. ILD755-..
SFH6106-.. ILD766-..
SFH6116-.. MCT6
SFH6156-..
SFH6186-..
SFH6206-..
SFH6286-..
Installation category (DIN VDE 0110)
For rated line voltages 300 V
RMS
I - IV
For rated line voltages 600 V
RMS
I - IV
For rated line voltages 1000 V
RMS
IEC climatic category (DIN IEC 60068 Part 1/9.80) 55/100/21
Pollution degree (DIN VDE 0110 Part 1/1.89) 2
Maximum operation insulating voltage
(1)
V
IORM
890 V
Test voltage input/output, procedure b
(1)
V
Pr
= 1.875 x V
IORM
, routine
100 % test, t
p
= 1 s, partial discharge < 5 pC
V
Pr
1669 V
Test voltage input/output, procedure a
(1)
V
Pr
= 1.5 x V
IORM
, type and
sampling test t
p
= 60 s, partial discharge < 5 pC
V
Pr
1335 V
Maximum permissible overvoltage (transient overvoltage) V
IOTM
8000 V
Partial discharge test voltage
(1)
V
INITIAL
8000 V
Safety maximum ratings (maximum permissible ratings in case of a
fault, also refer to d diagram)
Package temperature
Current (input current I
F
, P
Si
= 0, T
A
= 25 C)
Derating with higher ambient temperature
Power (output or total power dissipation, T
A
= 25 C)
Derating with higher ambient temperature
T
si
I
si
DI
Si
P
Si
P
Si
175
275
- 1.83
400
- 2.67
C
mA
mA/K
mW
mW/K
Insulation resistance at T
Si
V
I/O
= 500 V R
IS
> 10
9
W

Document Number: 83713 For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com www.vishay.com
Rev. 1.8, 18-Oct-10 3
Option Information
Option Information
Vishay Semiconductors

DESCRIPTION SYMBOL SYSTEM 2 UNIT
4N25/26/27/28 IL250 MCT5210
4N35/36/37/38/39 IL251 MCT5211
4N32/33 IL252 SFH600-..
CNY17-.. IL255-.. SFH601-..
CNY17F-.. IL400 SFH608-..
H11A-.. IL755-.. SFH640-..
H11AA1-.. IL755B-.. MOC8050
H11B-.. IL766-.. IL56B-..
H11B1-.. IL766B-.. MOC8021
H11C-.. MCA230/231 MOC8112
H11D-.. MCA255
MOC8102/03/04/0
5
IL1/2/5/74 MCT2/2E
IL2B-.. MCT270/271
IL30/31/55 MCT272
IL55B-.. MCT273/274
IL66-.. MCT275
IL66B-.. MCT276/277
IL201/202/203
Installation category (DIN VDE 0110)
For rated line voltages 300 V
RMS
I - IV
For rated line voltages 600 V
RMS
I - IV
For rated line voltages 1000 V
RMS
IEC climatic category (DIN IEC 60068 Part 1/9.80) 55/100/21
Pollution degree (DIN VDE 0110 Part 1/1.89) 2
Maximum operation insulating voltage
(1)
V
IORM
890 V
Test voltage input/output, procedure b
(1)
V
Pr
= 1.875 x V
IORM
, routine 100 % test,
t
p
= 1 s, partial discharge < 5 pC
V
Pr
1669 V
Test voltage input/output, procedure a
(1)
V
Pr
= 1.5 x V
IORM
, type and sampling test t
p
= 60 s,
partial discharge < 5 pC
V
Pr
1335 V
Maximum permissible overvoltage (transient
overvoltage)
V
IOTM
8000 V
Partial discharge test voltage
(1)
V
INITIAL
8000 V
Safety maximum ratings
(maximum permissible ratings in case of a fault,
also refer to diagram)
Package temperature
Current
(input current I
F
, P
Si
= 0, T
A
= 25 C)
Derating with higher ambient temperature
Power (output or total power dissipation, T
A
= 25 C)
Derating with higher ambient temperature
T
si
I
si
DI
Si
P
Si
P
Si
175
400
- 2.67
700
- 4.67
C
mA
mA/K
mW
mW/K
Insulation resistance at T
Si
V
I/O
= 500 V R
IS
> 10
9
W

www.vishay.com For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com Document Number: 83713
4 Rev. 1.8, 18-Oct-10
Option Information
Vishay Semiconductors
Option Information

Notes
All voltages referred to are peak values except otherwise specified.
(1)
See time-test voltage diagram
(2)
In preparation
Testing input/output voltage requires all input pins and all output pins to be shorted
Option 1: Tested per DIN EN 60747-5-2 (VDE 0884)/DIN EN 60747-5-5 (pending)
Option 6: Wide lead spacing (10.16 mm creepage/clearance distances > 8 mm)
Option 7: Surface mount leads (creepage/clearance distances > 8 mm)
Option 8: Surface mount leads
Option 9: Surface mount leads
See CECC 00802, edition 1, for soldering conditions for SMT devices (option 7 and 9).
"-.." means dash selections
DESCRIPTION SYMBOL SYSTEM 4
(2)
SYSTEM 5 SYSTEM 7 UNIT
IL410 6N135 IL300
IL420 6N136 IL300E
IL4116 SFH6135 IL300F
IL4117 SFH6136 IL300EF
IL4118 6N138 IL300DEFG
IL4216 SFH6138
IL4217 SFH6139
IL4218 6N139
SFH6345
Installation category (DIN VDE 0110)
For rated line voltages 300 V
RMS
I - IV I - IV I - IV
For rated line voltages 600 V
RMS
I - III I - IV I - IV
For rated line voltages 1000 V
RMS
IEC climatic category (DIN IEC 60068 Part 1/9.80) 55/100/21 55/100/21 55/100/21
Pollution degree (DIN VDE 0110 Part 1/1.89) 2 2 2
Maximum operation insulating voltage
(1)
V
IORM
850 630 890 V
Test voltage input/output, procedure b
(1)
V
Pr
= 1.875 x V
IORM
, routine 100 % test, t
p
= 1 s,
partial discharge < 5 pC
V
Pr
1594 1181 1669 V
Test voltage input/output, procedure a
(1)
V
Pr
= 1.5 x V
IORM
, type and sampling Test t
p
= 60 s,
partial discharge < 5 pC
V
Pr
1275 945 1335 V
Maximum permissible overvoltage (transient
overvoltage)
V
IOTM
6000 8000 8000 V
Partial discharge test voltage
(1)
V
INITIAL
6000 8000 8000 V
Safety maximum ratings
(maximum permissible ratings in case of a fault,
also refer to diagram)
Package temperature
Current
(input current I
F
, P
Si
= 0, T
A
= 25 C)
Derating with higher ambient temperature
Power (output or total power dissipation, T
A
= 25 C)
Derating with higher ambient temperature
T
si
I
si
DI
Si
P
Si
P
Si
175
250
- 1.65
500
- 3.33
175
300
- 2
500
- 3.33
165
235
- 1.57
465
- 3.1
C
mA
mA/K
mW
mW/K
Insulation resistance at T
Si
V
I/O
= 500 V R
IS
> 10
9
> 10
9
> 10
9
W

Document Number: 83713 For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com www.vishay.com
Rev. 1.8, 18-Oct-10 5
Option Information
Option Information
Vishay Semiconductors

OPTION 6
DIP OPTOCOUPLERS WITH 0.4" (10.16 mm)
LEAD SPREAD
The leads of the optocouplers are bent according to a
spacing of 0.4" (10.16 mm). Dimensions deviating from the
standard type are:
Lead spacing 10.16 mm (0.4")
Creepage distance > 8 mm
Clearance > 8 mm
This version additionally complies with the following
standards:
IEC 60950 DIN VDE 0805/05 90 (System 2 and 3 only)
Reinforced insulation up to an operating voltage of 400
V
RMS
or DC
Clearance-creepage distance = 8 mm min.
See standard version for pin configuration
OPTION 7
LEAD BENDS FOR SURFACE MOUNT
OPTOCOUPLERS
These optocouplers are suitable for surface mounting.
Dimensions deviating from the standard type are:
Creepage distance > 8 mm
Clearance distance > 8 mm
This version additionally complies with the following
standards:
IEC 60950 DIN VDE 0805/05 90 (system 2 and 3 only)
Reinforced insulation up to an operating voltage of
400 V
RMS
or DC
During the soldering process, the package should not be
wetted with tin-lead solder to prevent the impairment of the
isolation features. Apart from iron soldering, only reflow
soldering methods (vapor phase, infrared and hot gas) are
permissible.
Permissible soldering conditions for SMD bending options:
please see reflow soldering profile
The soldering process may be repeated two times at the
most. Attention must be paid to the cooling down of the
device to 25 C between the soldering processes.
Clearance and creepage distances must be considered for
the solder pad design.
Clearance-creepage distance = 8 mm min.
See standard version for pin configuration.
OPTION 8
LEAD BENDS FOR SURFACE MOUNT
OPTOCOUPLERS
These optocouplers are suitable for surface mounting.
Dimensions deviating from the standard type are:
Creepage distance > 8 mm
Clearance distance > 8 mm
This version additionally complies with the following
standards:
IEC 60950 DIN VDE 0805/05 90 (system 2 and 3 only)
Reinforced insulation up to an operating voltage of
400 V
RMS
or DC
During the soldering process, the package should not be
wetted with tin-lead solder to prevent the impairment of the
isolation features. Apart from iron soldering, only reflow
soldering methods (vapor phase, infrared and hot gas) are
permissible.
Permissible soldering conditionsfor SMD bending options:
please see reflow soldering profile
The soldering process may be repeated two times at the
most. Attention must be paid to the cooling down of the
device to 25 C between the soldering processes
20802-5
10.16 typ.
7.62 typ.
3.5 0.3
2.55 0.25
0.1 min.
17931-1
8 min.
7.62 typ.
4.6
4.1
8.4 min.
10.3 max.
0.7 min.
DIP 4/8/16
DIP 6
8.41 min.
3.81
3.30
10.3 max.
0.90
0.51
7.62 typ.

www.vishay.com For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com Document Number: 83713
6 Rev. 1.8, 18-Oct-10
Option Information
Vishay Semiconductors
Option Information

Clearance and creepage distances must be considered for
the solder pad design.
Clearance-creepage distance = 8 mm min.
See standard version for pin configuration.
OPTION 9
LEAD BENDS FOR SURFACE MOUNT
OPTOCOUPLERS
During the soldering process, the package should not be
wetted with tin-lead solder to prevent the impairment of the
isolation features. Apart from iron soldering, only reflow
soldering methods (vapor phase, infrared and hot gas) are
permissible.
Permissible soldering conditionsfor SMD bending options:
please see reflow soldering profile
The soldering process may be repeated two times at the
most. Attention must be paid to the cooling down of the
device to 25 C between the soldering processes.
MARKINGS
Product marking is defined in the data sheets. In the cases
where marking is not defined in the datasheet, the following
table defines the option information that is marked on the
product.
Note
(1)
X1 is used on the SOP and SOIC-8 where there are space
constraints.
DIP 4
DIP 6
7.62 typ.
3.81
3.30
12 max.
9.27 min.
12 max.
9.27 min.
0.50
0.00
7.62 typ.
3.81
3.30
0.50
0.00
17932-1
0.51
1.02
7.62 ref.
9.53
10.03
0.30 typ.
0.102
0.249
15 max.
17933-1
OPTION TYPE MARKING
X001, X001T X001, X1
(1)
X006 No mark
X007, X007T X007
X008, X008T X008
X009, X009T No mark
X016 X001
X017, X017T X017
X018, X018T X018
X019, X019T X001
Quality Information

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Quality Information
Vishay Semiconductors
Fig. 1 - VISHAY Quality Policy
Our goal is to exceed the quality
expectations of our customers.
This commitment starts with top
management and extends through
the entire organization. It is achieved
through innovation, technical excellence
and continuous improvement.
Corporate Quality Policy
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Quality Information
Quality Information
Vishay Semiconductors
VISHAY INTERTECHNOLOGY, INC.
ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY
VISHAY INTERTECHNOLOGY, INC. is committed to conducting its worldwide operations in a socially responsible and ethical
manner to protect the environment, and ensure the safety and health of our employees to conduct their daily activities in an
environmentally responsible manner.
Protection of the Environment: Conduct our business operation in a manner that protects the environmental quality of the
communities in which our facilities are located. Reduce risks involved with storage and use of hazardous materials. The company
is also committed to continual improvement of its environmental performance.
Compliance with Environmental, Health and Safety Laws and Regulations:
Comply with all relevant environmental, health and safety laws and regulations in every location. Maintain a system that provides
timely updates of regulatory change.
Cooperate fully with governmental agencies in meeting applicable requirements.
Energy, Resource Conservation and Pollution Control: Strive to minimize energy and material consumption in the design of
products and processes, and in the operation of our facilities. Promote the recycling of materials, including hazardous wastes,
whenever possible. Minimize the generation of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes at our facilities to prevent or eliminate
pollution. Manage and dispose of wastes safely and responsibly.
Fig. 2 - VISHAY Quality Road Map
QUALITY SYSTEM
QUALITY PROGRAM
At the heart of the quality process is the VISHAY worldwide
quality program. This program, which has been in place
since the early 90's, is specifically designed to meet rapidly
increasing customer quality demands now and in the future.
Vishay Corporate Quality implements the Quality Policy and
translates its requirements for use throughout the worldwide
organization.
VISHAY Quality has defined a roadmap with specific targets
along the way. The major target is to achieve world-class
excellence throughout VISHAY worldwide.
VISHAY CORPORATE QUALITY
The VISHAY Corporate Quality defines and implements the
VISHAY quality policy at a corporate level. It acts to
harmonize the quality systems of the constituent divisions
and to implement Total Quality Management throughout the
company worldwide.
Vishay Zero Defect Program
Exceeding quality expectations of our customers
Commitment from top management through entire
organization
Newest and most effective procedures and tools
- design, manufacturing and testing
- management procedures (e.g. SPC, TQM)
Continuous decreasing numbers for AOQ and failure rate
Detailed failure analysis using 8D methodology
Continuous improvement of quality performance of parts
and technology
17275
Business Excellence
2010
1990
1995
2000
ISO/TS 16949
ISO 14000
QS 9000/VDA 6.1
EFQM
ISO 9000
Cost of Quality
World Class Excellence
Advanced Quality Tools
Six Sigma Strategy
Empowered Improvement Team
Integrated Management system
Zero Defect Strategy

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Quality Information
QUALITY GOALS AND METHODS
The goals are straightforward: Customer satisfaction through
continuous improvement towards zero defects in every area
of our operation. We are committed to meet our customers'
requirements in terms of quality and service. In order to
achieve this, we build excellence into our product from
concept to delivery and beyond.
Design-in Quality
Quality must be designed into products. VISHAY uses
optimized design rules based on statistical information.
This is refined using electrical, thermal and mechanical
simulation together with techniques such as FMEA, QFD
and DOE.
Built-in Quality
Quality is built into all VISHAY products by using qualified
materials, suppliers and processes. Fundamental to this is
the use of SPC techniques by both VISHAY and its
suppliers. The use of these techniques, as well as tracking
critical processes, reduces variability, optimizing the
process with respect to the specification. The target is
defect prevention and continuous improvement.
Qualification
All new products are qualified before release by submitting
them to a series of mechanical, electrical and
environmental tests. The same procedure is used for new
or changed processes or packages.
Monitoring
A selection of the same or similar tests used for
qualification is also used to monitor the short- and
long-term reliability of the product.
SPC (Statistical Process Control)
SPC is an essential part of all VISHAY process control. It
has been established for many years and is used as a tool
for the continuous improvement of processes by
measuring, controlling and reducing variability.
VISHAY Quality System
All VISHAY's facilities worldwide are approved
to ISO 9000. In addition, depending on their activities,
some VISHAY companies are approved to recognized
international and industry standards such as
ISO/TS 16949.
Each subsidiary goal is to fulfill the particular requirements
of customers. The Opto Divisions of Vishay Semiconductor
GmbH are certified according to ISO/TS 16949.
The procedures used are based upon these standards and
laid down in an approved and controlled Quality Manual.
BUSINESS EXCELLENCE
Total Quality Management is a management system
combining the resources of all employees, customers and
suppliers in order to achieve total customer satisfaction. The
fundamental elements of this system are:
Management commitment
EFQM assessment methodology
Employee Involvement Teams (EITs)
Supplier development and partnership
Quality tools
Training
Quality system
Six sigma
Automotive excellence program (AEP)
Zero defect
All VISHAY employees from the senior management
downwards are trained in understanding and use of TQM.
Every employee plays its own part in the continuous
improvement process which is fundamental to TQM and our
corporate commitment to exceed customers' expectations in
all areas including design, technology, manufacturing,
human resources, marketing, and finance. Everyone is
involved in fulfilling this goal. The management believes that
this can only be achieved by employee empowerment.
The VISHAY corporate core values
Leadership by example
Employee empowerment
Continuous improvement
Total customer satisfaction
are the very essence of the VISHAY Quality Movement
process.
Training
VISHAY maintains that it can only realize its aims if the
employees are well trained. It therefore invests heavily in
courses to provide all employees with the knowledge they
need to facilitate continuous improvement. A training profile
has been established for all employees with emphasis being
placed on total quality leadership. Our long-term aim is to
continuously improve our training so as to keep ahead of
projected changes in business and technology.
EFQM Assessment Methodology
From 1995, VISHAY has started to introduce the EFQM
(European Foundation for Quality Management)
methodology for structuring its Total Quality Management
approach. This methodology, similar to the Malcolm Baldrige
process, consists in self-assessing the various VISHAY
divisions and facilities according to nine business criteria:
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Vishay Semiconductors
Leadership
People
Policy and strategy
Partnership and resources
Processes
People results
Customer results
Society results
Key performance results
(See figure 3)
The assessments are conducted on a yearly basis by trained
and empowered, internal VISHAY assessors.
This permits the identification of key-priority improvement
projects and the measurement of the progress
accomplished.
The EFQM methodology helps VISHAY to achieve
world-class business excellence.
Employee Involvement Teams
At VISHAY we believe that every person in the company has
a contribution to make in meeting our target of customer
satisfaction. Management therefore involves employees to
higher and higher levels of motivation, thus achieving higher
levels of effectiveness and productivity. Employee
involvement teams, which are both functional and cross
functional, combine the varied talents from across the
breadth of the company. By taking part in training, these
teams are continually searching for ways to improve their
jobs, achieving satisfaction for themselves, the company and
most important of all the customer.
Fig. 3 - EFQM Criteria for Self-Assessment
TQM TOOLS
As part of its search for excellence, VISHAY employs many
different techniques and tools. The most important of them
are:
Auditing
As well as third party auditing employed for approval by ISO
9000 and customers, VISHAY carries out its own internal
and external auditing. There is a common auditing procedure
for suppliers and sub-contractors between the VISHAY
entities. This procedure is also used for inter-company
auditing between the facilities within VISHAY. It is based on
the "Continuous Improvement" concept with heavy emphasis
on the use of SPC and other statistical tools for the control
and reduction of variability.
Internal audits are carried out on a routine basis. They
include audits of satellite facilities (e.g., sales offices,
warehousing etc.). Audits are also used widely to determine
attitudes and expectations both within and outside the
company.
Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)
FMEA is a technique for analyzing the possible methods of
failure and their effect upon the performance/reliability of the
product/process. Process FMEAs are performed for all
processes. In addition, product FMEAs are performed on all
critical or customer products.
Key
Performance
Results
15 %
Results
People Results
9 %
Customer
Results
20 %
Society Results
6 %
Processes
14 %
Enablers
People
9 %
Partnership
and Resources
9 %
Leadership
10 %
Policy and
Strategy
8 %
Innovation and learning
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Quality Information
Design of Experiments (DOE)
There is a series of tools that may be used for the statistical
design of experiments. It consists of a formalized procedure
for optimizing and analyzing experiments in a controlled
manner. Taguchi and factorial experiment design are
included in this. They provide a major advantage in
determining the most important input parameters, making
the experiment more efficient and promoting common
understanding among team members of the methods and
principles used.
Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility (GR and R)
This technique is used to determine equipments suitability
for purpose. It is used to make certain that all equipment is
capable of functioning to the required accuracy and
repeatability. All new equipment is approved before use by
this technique.
Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
QFD is a method for translating customer requirements into
recognizable requirements for VISHAYs marketing, design,
research, manufacturing and sales (including after-sales).
QFD is a process, which brings together the life cycle of a
product from its conception, through design, manufacture,
distribution and use until it has served its expected life.
QUALITY SERVICE
VISHAY believes that quality of service is equally as
important as the technical ability of its products to meet their
required performance and reliability.
Our objectives therefore include:
On-time delivery
Short response time to customers requests
Rapid and informed technical support
Fast handling of complaints
A partnership with our customers
Customer Quality
Complaints fall mainly into two categories:
Logistical
Technical
VISHAY has a procedure detailing the handling of
complaints. Initially complaints are forwarded to the
appropriate sales office where in-depth information
describing the problem, using the VISHAY Product Analysis
Request and Return Form (PARRF), is of considerable help
in giving a fast and accurate response. If it is necessary to
send back the product for logistical reasons, the Sales Office
issues a Returned Material Authorization (RMA) number.
On receipt of the goods in good condition, credit is
automatically issued.
If there is a technical reason for complaint, a sample together
with the PARRF is sent to the Sales Office for forwarding to
the Failure Analysis Department of the supplying facility. The
device's receipt will be acknowledged and a report issued on
completion of the analysis. The cycle time for this analysis
has set targets and is constantly monitored in order to
improve the response time. Failure analysis normally
consists of electrical testing, functional testing, mechanical
analysis (including X-ray), decapsulation, visual analysis and
electrical probing. Other specialized techniques (e.g. LCD,
thermal imaging, SEM, acoustic microscopy) may be used if
necessary.
If the analysis uncovers a quality problem, a Corrective
Action Report (CAR) in 8D format will be issued. Any
subsequent returns are handled with the RMA procedure.
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Quality Information
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Vishay Semiconductors
Complaint and Return Procedure
Yes
No
Customer notifies Vishay Sales
Office of a complaint and Sales obtains
the necessary information about return
using attached form (Product Analysis
Request and Return Form)
Customer has a complaint
regarding Commercial Aspects
e.g. Incorrect products, stock
rotation, wrong delivery times or
quantities
Customer has a complaint
regarding Technical Aspects e.g.
Product out of specification,
labeling error, and packaging
issues
Customer sends samples to
designated factory location
(communicated by Sales)
Customer receives an analysis
report from Vishay with reference
number
End of return procedure
Entitled to
return/replacement
products
Sales assign RMA number
and Customer returns
product
18354

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Quality Information
Product Analysis Request and Return Form (PARRF)
18355

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Rev. 1.5, 12-Mar-08 103
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Quality Information
Vishay Semiconductors
VISHAY 8D Form
18356

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Quality Information
Change Notification
All product and process changes are controlled and released
via ECN (Engineering Change Notification). This requires the
approval of the relevant departments. In the case of a major
change, the change is forwarded to customers via Sales/
Marketing before implementation. Where specific
agreements are in place, the change will not be implemented
unless approved by the customer.
QUALITY AND RELIABILITY
ASSURANCE PROGRAM
Though both quality and reliability are designed into all
VISHAY products, three basic programs must assure them:
Average Outgoing Quality (AOQ) - 100 % testing is
followed by sample testing to measure the defect level of
the shipped product. This defect level (AOQ) is measured
in ppm (parts per million).
Reliability qualification program - to assure that the design,
process or change is reliable.
Reliability monitoring program - to measure and assure
that there is no decrease in the reliability of the product.
AOQ PROGRAM
Before leaving the factory, all products are sampled after
100 % testing to ensure that they meet a minimum quality
level and to measure the level of defects. The results are
accumulated and expressed in ppm (parts per million). They
are the measure of the average number of potentially failed
parts in deliveries over a period of time. The sample size
used is determined by AQL or LTPD tables depending upon
the product. No rejects are allowed in the sample.
The AOQ value is calculated monthly using the method
defined in standard JEDEC 16:
where:
LAR = lot acceptance rate:
The AOQ values are recorded separately with regard to
electrical and mechanical (visual) rejects by product type and
package.
RELIABILITY AND QUALIFICATION
Qualification is used as a means of verifying that a new
product or process meets specified reliability requirements.
This is also used to verify and release changes to products
or processes including new materials, packages and
manufacturing locations. At the same time it provides a
means to obtain information on the performance and
reliability of new products and technologies.
There are three types of qualification and release:
Wafer process/technology qualification
Package qualification
Product/device qualification
The actual qualification procedure depends on which of
these (or combinations of these) are to be qualified. Normally
there are three categories of qualification in order of degree
of qualification and testing required.
For the qualification there are two different standards. For
Commodity and Industrial products the Vishay internal
standard is used. For Automotive grade parts, the
qualification is done according to AEC Q101.
Accelerated testing is normally used in order to produce
results fast. The stress level employed depends upon the
failure mode investigated. The stress test is set so that the
level used gives the maximum acceleration without
introducing any new or untypical failure mode.
The tests used consist of a set of the following:
High temperature life test (static)
High temperature life test (dynamic)
HTRB (high temperature reverse bias)
Humidity 85/85 (with or without bias)
Temperature cycling
High-temperature storage
Low-temperature storage
Marking permanency
Lead integrity
Solderability
Resistance to solder heat
Mechanical shock (not plastic packages)
Vibration (not plastic packages)
ESD characterization
SMD devices only are subjected to preconditioning to
simulate board assembly techniques using the methods
defined in standard J-STD-020C before being subjected to
stresses.
Normally, the endpoint tests are related to the data sheet or
to specified parameters. Additionally, they may include:
18357
AOQ p LAR 10
6
ppm ( ) =
p
number of devices rejected
total number of devices tested
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- =
LAR 1
number of lots rejected
total number of lots tested
--------------------------------------------------------------------- =

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Vishay Semiconductors
Destructive physical analysis
X-ray
Delamination testing using scanning acoustic microscope
Thermal imaging
Thermal and electrical resistance analysis
A summary of the reliability test results combined with
process flows and technological data will be prepared when
the device has passed the Vishay qualification tests. The
summary is named QualPack.
For Automotive grade devices also additional information
according to the PPAP requirements will be provided on
request.
Example of the QualPack
Qualification procedure
Package
qualification
Device type
qualification
Monitoring Process change
qualification
Wafer process
qualification
18358
CNY17F
18551
Optocoupler

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Quality Information
RELIABILITY MONITORING AND WEAR OUT
The monitoring program consists of short-term monitoring to
provide fast feedback on a regular basis in case of a
reduction in reliability and to measure the Early-life Failure
Rate (EFR). At the same time, Long-term monitoring is used
to determinate the Long-term steady-state Failure Rate
(LFR). The tests used are a subset from those used for
qualification and consist of:
Life tests
Humidity tests
Temperature-cycling tests
The actual tests used depend on the product tested.
Depending on the assembly volume a yearly monitoring and
wear out test plan is created.
Wear Out data are very important in Opto electronic device.
Fig. 4 - Bathtub Curve
The lifetime distribution curve is shown on figure 4. This
curve is also known as the 'bath-tub curve' because of its
shape. There are three basic sections:
Early-life failures (infant mortality)
Operating-life failures (random failures)
Wear-out failures
Out of that data degradation curves can be made. These
curves show the long time behavior of the different devices.
Some typical curves are attached in this report.
RELIABILITY PRINCIPLES
Reliability is the probability that a part works operated, under
specific conditions, performs properly for a given period of
time.
F(t) + R(t) = 1 or R(t) = 1 - F(t)
where:
R(t) = probability of survival
F(t) = probability of failure
F(t) = 1-e
-t
where
= instantaneous failure rate
t = time
thus,
R(t) = e
-t
MTTF, MTBF
MTTF (mean time to failure) applies to parts that will be
thrown away on failing. MTBF (mean time between failures)
applies to parts or equipment that is going to be repaired.
MTTF is the inverse failure rate.
So R(t) becomes to:
After a certain time, t will be equal to MTTF, R(t) becomes:
If a large number of units are considered, only 37 % of their
operation times will be longer than MTTF figure.
The failure rate () during the constant (random) failure
period is determined from life-test data. The failure rate is
calculated from the formula:
where
= failure rate (h
-1
)
r = number of observed failures
f
i
= failure number
t
i
= time to defect
N = good sample size
t = entire operating time
C = number of components X h
The result is expressed in either
a) % per 1000 component hours by multiplying by 10
5
or in
b) FITs by multiplying by 10
9
(1 FIT = 10
-9
h
-1
)
Example 1: Determination of failure rate
500 devices were operated over a period of 2000 h (t) with:
1 failure (f1) after 1000 h (t1)
The failure rate of the given example can be calculated as
follows:
That means that this sample has an average failure rate of
0.1 %/1000 h or 1001 FIT
Observed failure rates as measured above are for the
specific lot of devices tested. If the predicted failure rate for
the total population is required, statistical confidence factors
have to be applied.
Failure
rate

Useful life
Early failure
period
Constant failure rate
period
Wear-out
failure period
21140
MTTF
1

--- =
R
(t)
e
t
e
t
MTTF
-----------------
= =
R
(t)
e
1
0.37 = =

r
fi ti ( ) N t ( ) +
------------------------------------------
r
C
---- = =

1
1 1000 h ( ) 499 2000 h +
---------------------------------------------------------------------- =
2 10
-6
h
-1
=

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Vishay Semiconductors
The confidence factors can be obtained from "chi square"
(
2
) charts. Normally, these charts show the value of (
2
/2)
rather than
2
. The failure rate is calculated by dividing the

2
/2 factor by the number of component hours.
The values for
2
/2 are given in table 1
Example 2: The failure rate of the population
Using example 1 with a failure rate of 1001 FIT and 1 failure:

2
/2 at 60 % confidence is 2.02
This means that the failure rate of the population will not
exceed 2022 FIT with a probability of 60 %.
Accelerated Stress Testing
In order to be able to assure long operating life with a
reasonable confidence, VISHAY carries out accelerated
testing on all its products. The normal accelerating factor is
the temperature of operation. Most failure mechanisms of
semiconductors are dependent upon temperature. This
temperature dependence is best described by the Arrhenius
equation.
where
k = Boltzmann's constant 8.63 x 10
-5
eV/K
E
A
= activation energy (eV)
T
1
= operation temperature (K)
T
2
= stress temperature (K)

T1
= operation failure rate

T2
= stress-test failure rate
Using this equation, it is possible from the stress test results
to predict what would happen in use at the normal
temperature of operation.
ACTIVATION ENERGY
Provided the stress testing does not introduce a failure
mode, which would not occur in practice, this method gives
an acceptable method for predicting reliability using short
test periods compared to the life of the device. It is necessary
to know the activation energy of the failure mode occurring
during the accelerated testing. This can be determined by
experiment. In practice, it is unusual to find a failure or if there
is, it is a random failure mode. For this reason an average
activation energy is normally used for this calculation.
Though activation energies can vary between 0.3 and 2.2
eV, under the conditions of use, activation energies of
between 0.6 and 0.9 eV are used depending upon the
technology.
Fig. 5 - Acceleration factor for different activation energies
normalized to T = 55 C
ACTIVATION ENERGIES FOR COMMON
FAILURE MECHANISMS
The activation energies for some of the major semiconductor
failure mechanisms are given in the table below. These are
estimates taken from published literature.
TABLE 1 -
2
/2 CHART
NUMBER OF
FAILURES
CONFIDENCE LEVEL
60 % 90 %
0 0.92 2.31
1 2.02 3.89
2 3.08 5.30
3 4.17 6.70
4 5.24 8.00
5 6.25 9.25
6 7.27 10.55

pop

2
2 ( )
C
------------------ =

pop
2.02
9.99 10
5

-------------------------- 2022 FIT = =

T2

T1
e
E
A
k
--------
1
T1
-------
1
T2
-------

=
18362
1
10
100
1000
55 75 95 115 135 155
0.8 eV
0.7 eV
0.6 eV
0.5 eV
100 120 150
A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

F
a
c
t
o
r
Temperature (C)
18361

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Quality Information
Failure rates are quoted at an operating temperature of 55 C
and 60 % confidence using an activation energy (E
A
) of
0.8 eV for optoelectronic devices.
Example 3: Conversion to 55 C
In Example 2, the life test was out at 125 C so to transform
to an operating temperature of 55 C.
T1 = 273 + 55 = 328K
T1 = 273 + 125 = 398K
Acceleration factor =
thus
= 14 FIT
(at 55 C with a confidence of 60 %)
This figure can be re-calculated for any operating/junction
temperature using this method.
EFR (Early Life Failure Rate)
This is defined as the proportion of failures, which will occur
during the warranty period of the system for which they were
designed. In order to standardize this period, VISHAY uses
1000 operation hours as the reference period. This is the
figure also used by the automotive industry; it equates to one
year in the life of an automobile. In order to estimate this
figure, VISHAY normally operates a sample of devices for
48 h or 168 h under the accelerated conditions detailed
above. The Arrhenius law is then used as before to calculate
the failure rate at 55 C with a confidence level of 60 %. This
figure is multiplied by 1000 to give the failures in 1000 h and
by 10
6
to give a failure in ppm. All EFR figures are quoted in
ppm (parts per million).
The value of EFR and LFR is also depending on the amount
of new products brought to market in the period. If a lot of
new products are released the EFR and the LFR value can
also be increased in that period due to increased rejects.
Climatic Tests Models
Temperature cycling failure rate
The inverse power law is used to model fatigue failures of
materials that are subjected to thermal cycling. For the
purpose of accelerated testing, this model relationship is
called Coffin-Manson relationship, and can be expressed as
follows:
where:
A
F
= acceleration factor
T
use
= temp. range under normal operation
T
stress
= temp. range under stress operation
M = constant characteristic of the failure mechanism.
For instance:
Relative Humidity failure rate
Moisture effect modeling is based upon the
Howard-Pecht-Peck model using the acceleration factor of
the equation shown below:
where:
RH
stress
= relative humidity during test
RH
use
= relative humidity during operation
T
stress
= temperature during test
T
use
= temperature during operation
E
A
= activation energy
k = Boltzmann constant
C = material constant
For instance:
RH
stress
= 85 %, RH
use
= 92 %
T
stress
= 85 C, T
use
= 40 C
TABLE 2 - ACTIVATION ENERGIES FOR
COMMON FAILURE MECHANISM
FAILURE MECHANISM ACTIVATION ENERGY
Mechanical wire shorts 0.3 to 0.4
Diffusion and bulk defects 0.3 to 0.4
Oxide defects 0.3 to 0.4
Top-to-bottom metal short 0.5
Electro migration 0.4 to 1.2
Electrolytic corrosion 0.8 to 1.0
Gold-aluminum intermetallics 0.8 to 2.0
Gold-aluminum bond
degradation
1.0 to 2.2
Ionic contamination 1.02
Alloy pitting 1.77

T2 ( )

T1 ( )
---------------

423K ( )

328K ( )
---------------------- 144 = =

328K ( )

423K ( )
144
----------------------
2022
144
------------- = =
TABLE 3 - COFFIN - MANSON EXPONENT
FAILURE MECHANISM M
Al wire bond failure 3.5
Intermetallic bond fracture 4.0
Au wire bond heel crack 5.1
Chip-out bond failure 7.1
A
F
T
stress
T
use
--------------------------



M
=
T
use
15 C/60 C 45 C = =
T
stress
- 25 C/100 C 125 C = =
A
F
125 C
45 C
------------------


3
21 =
A
F
RH
stress
RH
use
---------------------------



C
e
E
A
k
--------
1
T
use
--------------
1
T
stress
----------------------


=
A
F
85 % RH
92 % RH
------------------------


3
x e
0.8
8.617 x 10
5
------------------------------------
1
313
----------
1
358
----------


=
A
F
33

Document Number: 80119 For technical questions, contact: optocoupler.answers@vishay.com www.vishay.com
Rev. 1.5, 12-Mar-08 109
Quality Information
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Vishay Semiconductors
This example shows how to transform test conditions into
environmental or into another test conditions. This equation
is applicable for devices subjected to temperature humidity
bias (THB) testing.
Using these acceleration factors the useful lifetime can be
calculated. Applying the acceleration factor once more,
useful lifetime for the moisture effect model for parts
subjected to THB can be estimated by the following
equation:
with:
test hours = 1000
hours per year = 8760
A
F
118 (40 C/60 % RH)
This means that operation in 40 C/60 % RH environment is
good for around 13 years, calculated out of the 85 C/85 % RH
1000 h humidity stress test.
HANDLING FOR QUALITY
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Precautions
Electrostatic discharge is defined as the high voltage, which
is generated when two dissimilar materials move in contact
with one another. This may be by rubbing (e.g. walking on a
carpet) or by hot air or gas passing over an insulated object.
Sometimes, ESD is easily detectable as when a person is
discharged to ground.
Electronic devices may be irreversibly damaged when
subjected to this discharge. They can also be damaged if
they are charged to a high voltage and then discharged to
ground.
Damage due to ESD may occur at any point in the process
of manufacture and use of the device. ESD is a particular
problem if the humidity is low (< 40 %) which is very common
in non-humidified but air-conditioned buildings. ESD is not
just generated by the human body but can also occur with
ungrounded machinery.
ESD may cause a device to fail immediately or damage a
device so that it will fail later. Whether this happens or not,
usually depends on the energy available in the ESD pulse.
All ESD-sensitive VISHAY products are protected by means
of
Protection structures on chip
ESD protection measures during handling and shipping
VISHAY has laid down procedures, which detail the methods
to be used for protection against ESD. These measures
meet or exceed the standards for ESD-protective and
preventative measures. These include the use of:
Earthen wrist straps and benches
Conductive floors
Protective clothing
Controlled humidity
It also lays down the methods for routinely checking these
and other items such as the earthen of machines.
A semiconductor device is only completely protected when
enclosed in a "Faraday Cage". This is a completely closed
conductive container (e.g., sealed conductive bag or box).
Most packaging material (e.g. tubes) used for
semiconductors is now manufactured from anti-static
material or anti-static-coated material. This does not mean
that the devices are completely protected from ESD, only
that the packing will not generate ESD. Devices are
completely protected only when surrounded on all sides by a
conductive package.
It should also be remembered that devices can equally as
easily be damaged by discharge from a high voltage to
ground as vice-versa.
Testing for ESD resistance is part of the qualification
procedure. The methods used are detailed in MIL-STD-883
Method 3015.7 (Human Body Model) and
EOS/ESD-S5.1-1993 (Machine Model) specification. Also
testing according to the CDM (charged coupled device
model) is part of the advanced qualification procedure.
Soldering
All products are tested to ascertain their ability to withstand
the industry standard soldering conditions after storage. In
general, these conditions are as follows
Wave soldering: double-wave soldering according to CECC
00802 s.
Reflow soldering: According to JEDEC STD 20C
Note: certain components may have limitations due to their
construction
Dry pack
When being stored, certain types of device packages can
absorb moisture, which is released during the soldering
operations, thus causing damage to the device. The
so-called "popcorn" effect is such an example. To prevent
this, Surface Mount Devices (SMD) are evaluated during
qualification, using a test consisting of moisture followed by
soldering simulation (pre-conditioning) and then subjected to
various stress tests. In table 4 - Moisture Sensitivity Levels -
the six different levels, the floor life conditions as well as the
soak requirements belonging to these levels are described.
Any device, which is found to deteriorate under these
conditions, is packaged in "dry pack".
The dry-packed devices are packed generally according to
IPC JEDEC STD 33 "Handling, Packing, Shipping and use of
Moisture/Reflow sensitive Surface Mount Devices",
IPC-SM-786 "Recommended Procedures for Handling of
Moisture Sensitive Plastic IC Packages".
Following some general recommend-dations:
Shelf life in the packaging at < 40 C and 90 % RH is
12 months
After opening, the devices should be handled according to
the specifications mentioned on the dry-pack label
Useful life
Years
A
F
test hours
hours per year
-------------------------------------- =
Useful life
Years
118 1000
8760
--------------------------- 13.5 years =

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If the exposure or storage time is exceeded, the devices
should be baked:
- Low-temperature baking - 192 h at 40 C and 5 % RH
- High-temperature backing - 24 h at 125 C.
X=Default value of semiconductor manufacturers exposure
time (MET) between bake and bag plus the maximum time
allowed out of the bag at the distributors facility. The actual
times may be used rather than the default times, but they
must be used if they exceed the default times.
Y = Floor life of package after it is removed from dry pack
bag.
Z = Total soak time for evaluation (X + Y).
Note: There are two possible floor lives and soak times in
level 5. The correct floor life will be determined by the
manufacturer and will be noted on the dry pack bag label per
JEP 113. "Symbol and Labels for Moisture Sensitive
Devices".
RELIABILITY AND STATISTICS GLOSSARY
Definitions
Accelerated Life Test: A life test under conditions those are
more severe than usual operating conditions. It is helpful, but
not necessary, that a relationship between test severity and
the probability distribution of life be ascertainable.
Acceleration Factor: Notation: f(t) = the time transformation
from more severe test conditions to the usual conditions. The
acceleration factor is f(t)/t. The differential acceleration factor
is df(t)/dt.
Acceptance Number: The largest numbers of defects that
can occur in an acceptance sampling plan and still have the
lot accepted.
Acceptance Sampling Plan: An accept/reject test the
purpose of which is to accept or reject a lot of items or
material based on random samples from the lot.
Assessment: A critical appraisal including qualitative
judgements about an item, such as importance of analysis
results, design criticality, and failure effect.
Attribute (inspection by): A term used to designate a
method of measurement whereby units are examined by
noting the presence (or absence) of some characteristic or
attribute in each of the units in the group under consideration
and by counting how many units do (or do not) possess it.
Inspection by attributes can be two kinds: either the unit of
product is classified simply as defective or no defective or the
number of defects in the unit of product is counted with
respect to a given requirement or set of requirements.
Attribute Testing: Testing to evaluate whether or not an
item possesses a specified attribute.
Auger Electron Spectrometer: An instrument, which
identifies elements on the surface of a sample. It excites the
area of interest with an electron beam and observes the
resultant emitted Auger electrons.
These electrons have the specific characteristics of the near
surface elements. It is usually used to identify very thin films,
often surface contaminants.
Availability (operational readiness): The probability that at
any point in time the system is either operating satisfactorily
or ready to be placed in operation on demand when used
under stated conditions.
Average Outgoing Quality (AOQ): The average quality of
outgoing product after 100 % inspection of rejected lot, with
replacement by good units of all defective units found in
inspection.
Bathtub Curve: A plot of failure rate of an item (whether
repairable or not) vs. time. The failure rate initially decreases,
then stays reasonably constant, then begins to rise rather
rapidly. It has the shape of bathtub. Not all items have this
behavior.
Bias: (1) The difference between the s-expected value of an
estimator and the value of the true parameter; (2) Applied
voltage.
Burn-in: The initial operation of an item to stabilize its
characteristics and to minimize infant mortality in the field.
Confidence Interval: The interval within which it is asserted
that the parameters of a probability distribution lies.
Confidence Level: Equals 1 - where = the risk (%).
TABLE 4 - MOISTURE SENSITIVITY LEVELS
FLOOR LIFE SOAK REQUIREMENTS
LEVEL CONDITIONS TIME TIME (h) CONDITIONS
1 30 C/90 % RH Unlimited 168 85 C/85% RH
2 30 C/60 % RH 1 year 168 85 C/60% RH
2a 30 C/60 % RH 4 weeks 696 30 C/60% RH
X Y Z
3 30 C/60 % RH 168 h 24 168 192 30 C/60% RH
4 30 C/60 % RH 72 h 24 72 96 30 C/60% RH
5 30 C/60 % RH 48 h 24 48 72 30 C/60% RH
5a 30 C/60 % RH 24 h 24 24 48 30 C/60% RH
6 30 C/60 % RH 6 h 0 6 6 30 C/60% RH

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Corrective Action: A documented design, process,
procedure, or materials change to correct the true cause of a
failure. Part replacement with a like item does not constitute
appropriate corrective action. Rather, the action should
make it impossible for that failure to happen again.
Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF): The probability
that the random variable takes on any value less than or
equal to a value x, e.g. F(x) = CDF (x) = Pr (x X).
Defect: A deviation of an item from some ideal state. The
ideal state usually is given in a formal specification.
Degradation: A gradual deterioration in performance as a
function of time.
Derating: The intentional reduction of stress/strength ratio in
the application of an item, usually for the purpose of reducing
the occurrence of stress-related failures.
Duty Cycle: A specified operating time of an item, followed
by a specified time of no operation.
Early Failure Rate: That period of life, after final assembly,
in which failures occur at an initially high rate because of the
presence of defective parts and workmanship. This definition
applies to the first part of the bathtub curve for failure rate
(infant mortality).
EDX Spectrometer: Generally used with a scanning
electron microscope (SEM) to provide elemental analysis of
X-rays generated on the region being hit by the primary
electron beam.
Effectiveness: The capability of the system or device to
perform its function.
EOS - Electrical Overstress: The electrical stressing of
electronic components beyond specifications. May be
caused by ESD.
ESD - Electrostatic Discharge: The transfer of electrostatic
charge between bodies at different electrostatic potentials
caused by direct contact or induced by an electrostatic field.
Many electronic components are sensitive to ESD and will be
degraded or fail.
Expected Value: A statistical term. If x is a random variable
and F(x) it its CDF, the E(x) = xdF(x), where the integration
is over all x. For continuous variables with a pdf, this reduces
to E(x) = pfd(x) dx. For discrete random variables with a pdf,
this reduces to E(x) = x
n
p(x
n
) where the sum is over all n.
Exponential Distribution: A 1-parameter distribution
( > 0, t 0) with: pdf (t) = exp (-t);
Cdf(t) 0 1 - exp (-t); Sf(t) = exp(-t);
failure rate = ; mean time-to-failure = 1/. This is the
constant failure-rate-distribution.
Failure: The termination of the ability of an item to perform
its required function.
Failure Analysis: The identification of the failure mode, the
failure mechanism, and the cause (e.g., defective soldering,
design weakness, contamination, assembly techniques,
etc.). Often includes physical dissection.
Failure, Catastrophic: A sudden change in the operating
characteristics of an item resulting in a complete loss of
useful performance of the item.
Failure, Degradation: A failure that occurs as a result of a
gradual or partial change in the operating characteristics of
an item.
Failure, Initial: The first failure to occur in use.
Failure, Latent: A malfunction that occurs as a result of a
previous exposure to a condition that did not result in an
immediately detectable failure. Example: Latent ESD failure.
Failure Mechanism: The mechanical, chemical, or other
process that results in a failure.
Failure Mode: The effect by which a failure is observed.
Generally, describes the way the failure occurs and tells
"how" with respect to operation.
Failure Rate: (A) The conditional probability density that the
item will fail just after time t, given the item has not failed up
to time t; (B) The number of failures of an item per unit
measure of life (cycles, time, miles, events, etc.) as
applicable for the item.
Failure, Wearout: Any failure for which time of occurrence is
governed by rapidly increasing failure rate.
FIT: Failure Unit; (also, Failures In Time) Failures per 10
9
h.
Functional Failure: A failure whereby a device does not
perform its intended function when the inputs or controls are
correct.
Gaussian Distribution: A 2-parameter distribution with:
Cdf(x) = guaf(x). SF(x) = gaufc(x). "Mean value of x" u,
"standard deviation of x" =
Hazard Rate: Instantaneous failure rate.
Hypothesis, Null: A hypothesis stating that there is no
difference between some characteristics of the parent
populations of several different samples, e.g., that the
samples came from similar populations.
Infant Mortality: Premature catastrophic failures occurring
at a much greater rate than during the period of useful life
prior to the onset of substantial wear out.
Inspection: The examination and testing of supplies and
services (including when appropriate, raw materials,
components, and intermediate assemblies) to determine
whether they conform to specified requirements.
Inspection by Attributes: Inspection whereby either the
unit of product or characteristics thereof is classified simply
as defective or no defective or the number of defects in the
unit of product is counted with respect to a given
requirement.
Life Test: A test, usually of several items, made for the
purpose of estimating some characteristic(s) of the
probability distribution of life.
Lot: A group of units from a particular device type submitted
each time for inspection and/or testing is called the lot.
Lot Reject Rate (LRR): The lot reject rate is the percentage
of lots rejected form the lots evaluated.
pdf (x)
1
2

------------ - e
1
2
---
x u

------------


2
=

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Quality Information
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Lot Tolerance Percent Defective (LTPD): The percent
defective, which is to be, accepted a minimum or arbitrary
fraction of the time, or that percent defective whose
probability of rejection is designated by .
Mean: (A) The arithmetic mean, the expected value; (B) As
specifically modified and defined, e.g., harmonic mean
(reciprocals), geometric mean (a product), logarithmic mean
(logs).
Mean Life: R(t)dt; where R(t) = the s-reliability of the item;
t = the interval over which the mean life is desired, usually the
useful life (longevity).
Mean-Life-Between-Failures: The concept is the same as
mean life except that it is for repaired items and is the mean
up-time of the item. The formula is the same as for mean life
except that R(t) is interpreted as the distribution of up-times.
Mean-Time-Between-Failures (MTBF): For a particular
interval, the total functioning life of a population of an item
divided by the total number of failures within the population
during the measurement interval. The definition holds for
time, cycles, miles, events, or other measure of life units.
Mean-Time-To-Failure (MTTF): See "Mean Life".
Mean-Time-To-Repair (MTTR): The total corrective
maintenance time divided by the total number of corrective
maintenance actions during a given period of time.
MTTR: = G(t)dt; where G(t) = Cdf of repair time; T-maximum
allowed repair time, e.g., item is treated as no repairable at this
echelon and is discarded or sent to a higher echelon for repair.
Operating Characteristic (OC) Curve: A curve showing the
relation between the probability of acceptance and either lot
quality or process quality, whichever is applicable.
Part Per Million (PPM): PPM is arrived at by multiplying the
percentage defective by 10000.
Example: 0.1 % = 1000 ppm.
Population: The totality of the set of items, units,
measurements, etc., real or conceptual that is under
consideration.
Probability Distribution: A mathematical function with
specific properties, which describes the probability that a
random variable will take on a value or set of values. If the
random variable is continuous and well behaved enough,
there will be a pdf. If the random variable is discrete, there
will be a pmf.
Qualification: The entire process by which products are
obtained from manufacturers or distributors, examined and
tested, and then identified on a Qualified Product List.
Quality: A property, which refers to, the tendency of an item
to be made to specific specifications and/or the customers
express needs. See current publications by Juran, Deming,
Crosby, et al.
Quality Assurance: A system of activities that provides
assurance that the overall quality control job is, in fact, being
done effectively. The system involves a continuing
evaluation of the adequacy and effectiveness of the overall
quality control program with a view to having corrective
measures initiated where necessary. For a specific product
or service, this involves verifications, audits, and the
evaluation of the quality factors that affect the specification,
production inspection, and use of the product or service.
Quality Characteristics: Those properties of an item or
process, which can be measured, reviewed, or observed and
which are identified in the drawings, specifications, or
contractual requirements. Reliability becomes a quality
characteristic when so defined.
Quality Control (QC): The overall system of activities that
provides a quality of product or service, which meets the
needs of users; also, the use of such a system.
Random Samples: As commonly used in acceptance
sampling theory, the process of selecting sample units in
such a manner that all units under consideration have the
same probability of being selected.
Reliability: The probability that a device will function without
failure over a specified time period or amount of usage at
stated conditions.
Reliability Growth: Reliability growth is the effort, the
resource commitment, to improve design, purchasing,
production, and inspection procedures to improve the
reliability of a design.
Risk: : The probability of rejecting the null hypothesis falsely.
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM): An instrument,
which provides a visual image of the surface features of an
item. It scans an electron beam over the surface of a sample
while held in a vacuum and collects any of several resultant
particles or energies. The SEM provides depth of field and
resolution significantly exceeding light microscopy and may
be used at magnifications exceeding 50000 times.
Screening Test: A test or combination of tests intended to
remove unsatisfactory items or those likely to exhibit early
failures.
Significance: Results that show deviations between
hypothesis and the observations used as a test of the
hypothesis, greater than can be explained by random
variation or chance alone, are called statistically significant.
Significance Level: The probability that, if the hypothesis
under test were true, a sample test statistic would be as bad
as or worse than the observed test statistic.
SPC: Statistical Process Control.
Storage Life (shelf life): The length of time an item can be
stored under specified conditions and still meet specified
requirements.
Stress: A general and ambiguous term used as an extension
of its meaning in mechanics as that which could cause
failure. It does not distinguish between those things which
cause permanent damage (deterioration) and those things,
which do not (in the absence of failure).
Variance: The average of the squares of the deviations of
individual measurements from their average. It is a measure
of dispersion of a random variable or of data.
Wearout: The process of attribution which results in an
increase of hazard rate with increasing age (cycles, time,
miles, events, etc.) as applicable for the item.

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Quality Information
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Vishay Semiconductors
ABBREVIATIONS
AQL Acceptable quality level
AOQ Average outgoing quality
CAR Corrective action report/request
DIP Dual in-line package
ECAP Electronic circuit analysis program
EFR Early failure rate
EMC Electro magnetic compatibility
EMI Electro magnetic interference
EOS Electrical overstress
ESD Electrostatic discharge
FAR Failure analysis report/request
FIT (Failure in time) failure unit; failures/10
9
h
FMEA Failure mode and effects analysis
FTA Fault tree analysis
h(t) Hazard rate
LFR Longterm failure rate
LTPD Lot tolerance percent defective
MOS Metal oxide semiconductor
MRB Material review board
MTBF Mean-time-between-failures
MTTF Mean-time-to-failure
MTTR Mean-time-to-repair
PPM Parts per million
PRST Probability ratio sequential test
QA Quality assurance
QC Quality control
QPL Qualified products list
RPM Reliability planning and management
SCA Sneak circuit analysis
SEM Scanning electron microscope
TW Wearout time
Z(t) Hazard rate
Failure rate (lambda)

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Rev. 1.4, 10-Sep-07 1
Conventions used in Presenting Technical Data
Conventions used in Presenting Technical
Vishay Semiconductors
NOMENCLATURE FOR SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES ACCORDING TO PRO ELECTRON
The type number of semiconductor devices consists of two
letters followed by a serial number.
For example:
The first letter indicates the material used for the active part
of the device.
A GERMANIUM
(Materials with a band gap 0.6 to 1.0 eV)
(1)
B SILICON
2)
(Materials with a band gap 1.0 to 1.3 eV)
(1)

C GALLIUM-ARSENIDE
(2)
(Materials with a band gap > 1.3 eV)
(1)

R COMPOUND MATERIALS
(For instance cadmium-sulfide)
The second letter indicates the circuit function:
A DIODE: detection, switching, mixer
B DIODE: variable capacitance
C TRANSISTOR: low power, audio frequency
D TRANSISTOR: power, audio frequency
E DIODE: tunnel
F TRANSISTOR: low power, high frequency
G DIODE: oscillator, miscellaneous
H DIODE: magnetic sensitive
K HALL EFFECT DEVICE: in an open magnetic circuit
L TRANSISTOR: power, high frequency
M HALL EFFECT DEVICE: in a closed magnetic circuit
N PHOTO COUPLER
2)

I DIODE: radiation sensitive
(2)
Q DIODE: radiation generating
R THYRISTOR: low power
S TRANSISTOR: low power, switching
T THYRISTOR: power
U TRANSISTOR: power, switching
X DIODE: multiplier, e.g. varactor, step recovery
Y DIODE: rectifying, booster
Z DIODE: voltage reference or voltage regulator, transient
suppressor diode
The serial number consists of:
Three figures, running from 100 to 999, for devices
primarily intended for consumer equipment
One letter (Z, Y, X, etc.) and two figures, running from 10
to 99, for devices primarily intended for professional
equipment
A version letter can be used to indicate a deviation of a single
characteristic, either electrically or mechanically.
The letter never has a fixed meaning, the only exception
being the letter R, indicating reversed voltage, i.e. collector
to case.
Notes
(1)
The materials mentioned are examples
(2)
Used for optoelectronic products
Material Function Serial number
C N Y17
17182

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2 Rev. 1.4, 10-Sep-07
Conventions used in Presenting Technical Data
Vishay Semiconductors
Conventions used in Presenting
Technical Data
TYPE DESIGNATION CODE FOR OPTOCOUPLERS
Optocouplers
GENERAL OPTOCOUPLER NOMENCLATURE FOR BRT, IL, AND SFH SERIES
T C
Vishay
Semiconductor
Case varieties
D = Dual inline 6 pin
E = DIL 4 Pin multiple
M= SMD package
Number of
coupler systems
1 = 1 system
2 = 2 systems
3 = 3 systems
4 = 4 systems
Main type G = leadform
CTR selection
0 20 %
(1)
1 = 40 to 80 %
2 = 63 to 125 %
3 = 100 to 200 %
4 = 160 to 320 %
5 = 50 to 150 %
6 = 100 to 300 %
7 = 80 to 160 %
8 = 130 to 260 %
9 = 200 to 400 %
If "T/D" on 4. position
Pin connection:
0 = Base connected
1 = W/O base
6 = AC input
Output
D = Darlington
T = Transistor
Coupler
17183
Note
(1)
Widest range, consult data sheet for details
18482
S F H 6 1 5 A
-
3 X 0 9 T
Prefix
Base Part Number
CTR Ranges Options Definition Tape and
Reel Option
BRT
Il
ILD
ILQ
SFH6
VO
1 = 40 % to 80 %
2 = 63 % to 125 %
3 = 100 % to 200 %
4 = 160 % to 320 %
5 =
or 50 % to 150 %
(1)
6 = 100 % to 300 %
(1)
7 = 80 % to 160 %
(1)
8 = 130 % to 260 %
(1)
9 = 200 % to 400 %
(1)
250 % to 500 %
Option 1 Optocouplers for saf e electr ical
Insulation per DIN VDE 0884
Option 6 Optocouplers with 10.16 mm (0.4")
through hole lead spread
Option 7 Optocouplers with SMD lead form bend,
0.9 mm maximum standoff height
Option 8 Optocouplers with 10.16 mm (0.4") SMD
lead form bend
Option 9 Optocouplers with SMD lead form bend,
0.25 mm maximum standoff height
Option 1 may be combined with the other
lead forming options.
Option T may only be combined with
Options 7, 8, and 9
CNY17F-2X017T
4N35-X016
SFH615-3X001
VO615A-9X007T
Examples:
Note

(1)
Used on selected products, consult data sheet for details
0

Document Number: 83718 For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com www.vishay.com
Rev. 1.5, 11-Feb-11 1
Manufacturing and Reliability
Manufacturing and Reliability
Vishay Semiconductors

THE IMPORTANCE OF OPTOCOUPLER
RELIABILITY
Because of the widespread use of optocouplers as an
interface device, optocoupler reliability has been of major
importance to circuit designers and component engineers.
Published studies of comparative tests have indicated a lack
of manufacturing consistency with individual manufacturers,
as well as from manufacturer to manufacturer. This has
resulted in user uncertainty about designing with
optocouplers; however, these devices often offer the better
circuit solution.
This application note is intended to demonstrate Vishays
concern, efforts, and results in addressing these
manufacturing issues to assure users of the quality
(out-going) and reliability (long-term) of our opto-isolated
products. First, aspects of optocoupler characteristics are
discussed along with the measures Vishay has taken to
assure their quality and reliability. Second, the reliability
tests used to approximate worst-case conditions and the
latest results of these tests are described
OPTOCOUPLER OUTPUT
There are a variety of outputs available in optocouplers. A
standard bipolar phototransistor is the most common. They
are available with different ratings to fit most applications,
including versions without access to the base of the
transistor to reduce noise transmission. Darlington
transistor outputs offer high gain with reduced input current
requirements, but typically trade off speed. Logic
optocouplers provide speed but trade off working voltage
range. Logic couplers are normally only used in data
transmission applications. Silicon controlled rectifier (SCR)
devices allow control of much higher voltages and typically
are applied to control AC loads. They are also offered in
inverse-parallel (anti-parallel) SCR (TRIAC) configurations so
that both cycles of an AC sinusoid can be switched. In
Vishays manufacturing flow, all these devices are 100 %
monitored at a high-temperature hot rail (see figure 1) to
eliminate potential failures due to marginal die attaches and
lead bends, resulting in a more reliable product. Vishay
offers all the above types of products.
In optocouplers, especially the transistor, the slow change
over several days in the electrical parameters when voltage
is applied is termed the field effect. This process is extreme
particularly at high temperatures (100 C) and with a high DC
voltage (1 kV). Changes in the electrical parameters of the
silicon phototransistor can occur due to the release of
charge carriers. In this way, a similar effect as takes place in
a MOS transistor (inversion at the surface) is caused by the
strong electrical field. This may result in changes in the gain,
the reverse current, and the reverse voltage. In this case, the
direction of the electrical field is a decisive factor.
In Vishay's optocouplers, the pn junctions of the silicon
phototransistor are protected by a transparent ion screen
from influences of the electrical field. In this way, changes of
electrical parameters by the electrical field are limited to an
extremely low value or do not occur at all.
OPTOCOUPLER INPUT
The area of greatest concern in optocoupler reliability has
been the infrared LED. The decrease in LED light output
power over current flow time has been the object of
considerable attention in order to reduce its effects. (Circuit
designs which have not included allowances for parametric
changes with temperature, input current, phototransistor
bias, etc. have been attributed to LED degradation. To
insure reliable system operation over time, the variation of
the circuit from data sheet conditions must be considered).
Vishay has focused on the infrared LED to improve CTR
degradation and consequently achieved a significant
improvement in coupler reliability. The improvements have
included die geometry to improve coupling efficiency,
metallization techniques to increase die shear strength and
to increase yields while reducing user cost, and junction
coating techniques to protect against mechanical stresses,
thus stabilizing long-term output.
CURRENT TRANSFER RATIO
The current transfer ratio (CTR) is the amount of output
current derived from the amount of input current. CTR is
normally expressed as a percent. For example, if 10 mA of
input current is applied to the input (LED) and 10 mA of
collector current is obtained, then the CTR is 100, or 100 %.
CTR is affected by a variety of influences, including LED
output power, h
FE
of the transistor, temperature, diode
current, and device geometry. If all these factors remain
constant, the principle cause of CTR degradation is the
degradation of the input LED.
As mentioned earlier, Vishay has made tremendous
progress in manufacturing techniques to reduce CTR
degradation. Vishay's manufacturing techniques maximize
coupling efficiency, which realizes high transfer ratios and
low input current requirements. Additionally, this allows a
large variety of standard CTR values, and the capability of
special selection in production volumes.
ISOLATION BREAKDOWN VOLTAGE
Isolation voltage is the maximum voltage which may be
applied across the input and output of the device without
breaking down. This breakdown will not normally occur
inside the package between the LED and the transistor, but
rather on the boundary surfaces across which partial
discharges can occur. Vishay uses a double mold
manufacturing technique where the LED and transistor are
encapsulated in an infrared transparent inner mold. The next
step in the process is an epoxy over mold. The double-mold
technique lengthens the leakage path for high-voltage
discharges appreciably, allowing the device to achieve very
high isolation voltages. All of Vishay's optocouplers are built
using UL-approved processes. A standard line of
VDE-approved optocouplers is also available in the Agency
Table section.

www.vishay.com For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com Document Number: 83718
2 Rev. 1.5, 11-Feb-11
Manufacturing and Reliability
Vishay Semiconductors
Manufacturing and Reliability

COLLECTOR-TO-EMITTER BREAKDOWN
VOLTAGE
Collector-emitter breakdown voltage (BV
CEO
) can be
thought of as a transistor's working voltage. When
considering the application, the selection should be made to
include a safety margin to insure the device is off when it is
supposed to be off. Vishay transistor technology in wafer
processing offers a variety of BV
CEO
devices. Each is
parametrically tested to insure proper operation (see figure
1).
BLOCKING VOLTAGE
Blocking voltage (V
DRM
, expressed in peak value) is used
when describing the working voltage for SCR or TRIAC type
devices. Vishay offers products through 800 V of blocking
capability.
DV/DT RATING
dV/dt, an important safety specification, describes a TRIAC
type device's capability to withstand a rapidly rising voltage
without turning on or false firing. Vishay's TRIAC type
devices have the highest available dV/dt rating offered on
the market. Vishay's manufacturing process yields a
10 000 V/s dV/dt rating. This rating eliminates the need for
snubber (RC) networks which negatively affect loads
sensitive to leakage currents, while reducing component
count for circuit implementation and cost. An example of
such a load would be neon indicator lamps. Vishay's TRIAC
type devices also carry a load current rating three times the
industry standard. This 300 mA current capability allows the
device to drive most AC loads without the need for a
follow-on TRIAC or interposing an electromechanical relay.
Vishay manufactures this device with or without
zero-crossing detector logic.
QUALITY AND RELIABILITY TESTS
The tests in figure 1 were performed on Vishay
optocouplers. The tests allow early detection of weak points
and provide information regarding the reliability
characteristics of the component.
From the life test information, assumptions of useful life
expectancy can be obtained. All quality and reliability tests
are performed in conditions that either exceed or are
equivalent to the limits defined in our data sheets.
International standards are also considered. Assuming that
no additional failure mechanisms are created by the stress
conditions, the results of the stress test will correlate to
conditions in the field and can be used to estimate useful
lifetime. The environmental stress tests ensure Vishays
manufacturing capabilities will provide package integrity in
the most rigorous conditions. The life test results highlight
our ability in packaging and electrical performance to
achieve MTTF hours which meet or exceed the highest
industry standards for the semiconductor.
PACKAGE INTEGRITY
Although packaged in standard IC configurations,
optocouplers have some unique package considerations.
The use of two-chip and internal-light-transfer mediums
require careful selection of materials to insure compatibility
under a variety of operating conditions. In addition to the
high isolation voltages achieved by Vishay optocouplers,
our devices are tested to assure high levels of mechanical
integrity and moisture resistance.
TABLE 1 - RELIABILITY REQUIREMENTS
FOR OPTOCOUPLER ENVIRONMENTAL
TESTS
TEST
APPLICABLE
REFERENCE
TEST CONDITIONS
Thermal climatic IEC 60068
T
C
= - 55 C to + 150 C,
(see datasheet)
Solderability J-STD-002B
245 C/3 s SMD
lead (Pb)-free
TABLE 2 - LIFE TESTS
TEST
TEST CONDITIONS
TEMP. (C) RH (%) BIAS TIME (h)
Electrical life test T
j
max. < 60
Derated
max.
rating
1000
Temp/humidity life 85 85 0 1000
High temperature
reverse bias
According
data sheet
< 60
80 % of
max.
voltage
rating
1000

Document Number: 83718 For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com www.vishay.com
Rev. 1.5, 11-Feb-11 3
Manufacturing and Reliability
Manufacturing and Reliability
Vishay Semiconductors

PACKAGE DENSITY
Board space has become increasingly important in the
electronic industry. Vishay uses a plate molding technique
to achieve reduction in cost, allowing us to offer a wide
selection of packages. These consist of single-channel
optocouplers in 4, 6, 8, and 16 pin packages, dual-channel
devices in 8 pin DIP or SMD packages, and quad-channel
devices in 16 pin DIP packages. The above devices are
available in two surface mount lead configurations, as well
as the standard through-hole lead. Vishay also has a
standard single- and dual-channel optocoupler in an
SOIC-8 package. The dual SOIC-8 package has the highest
packaging density of any high-volume standard
optocoupler available. All of these packages have been
designed and tested to meet the highest quality and
reliability expectations of the semiconductor industry.
Fig. 1 - Coupler Process Flow and Inspections
Operation
Inspection or test
Thermosonic wire
bonding
High temp.
conductive epoxy
DA Cure
Junction
coat
Frame cut,
coding
Inner
mold
QA
Store
Post
cure
Coupling
Post
cure
Outer
mold
Lead
finish
Blast Blast
Mark
Hot
rail
(opt.)
Temp
cycle
(opt.)
Hi pot
Pack
Singulate
LB
monitor
DA
monitor
Coupling
monitor
Para-
metric
Detector die
eutectic DA or
AG epoxy DA
Emitter di e
eutectic or
AG Epoxy DA
Package
Package
visual
17934
visual

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Document Number: 83714
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Packaging, Tape and Reel Information
DESCRIPTION
Optocouplers are available in plastic dual-in-line packages
(DIP), SOP packages, and in a surface-mount, gull-wing,
lead bend configuration. Optocouplers purchased in the
DIP configuration are shipped in tubes. Optocouplers
purchased in a gull-wing configuration can be shipped in
tubes or on carrier tape. This section provides stick
specifications, tape and reel specifications, and component
information.
TUBE SPECIFICATIONS
Figure 1 shows the physical dimensions of transparent,
antistatic, plastic shipping tubes. Figure 2 shows tube safety
agency labeling and orientation information.
The following table lists the number of parts per tube.
Fig. 1 - Shipping Tube Specifications for DIP Packages
DEVICES PER TUBS
TYPE UNITS/TUBE TUBES/BOX UNITS/BOX
DIP-16 25 40 1000
DIP-4 100 40 4000
DIP-6 50 40 2000
DIP-8 50 40 2000
HV, CNY64 40 50 2000
HV, CNY65 30 35 1050
HV, CNY66 25 35 875
M A D E I N M A L A Y S I A
A N T I S T A T I C
Detail A
200 0.5
125 0.5
150 0.5
Detail B
Detail A Detail B
10
6
Section A - B
B
R
0
.
1
R

0
.
5
14 x
// 0.2 B
13 x 10 = 130
A
B
1.0
Not to scale
Transparent rigid PVC
A
Dimensions in millimeters
17996
O P T O S E M I C O N D U C T O R V I S H A Y
260 0.5
330 0.5
528 0.2
30 0.5
0.7 0.5
3 0.5
380 1
12 0.3
6.6 0.3
4.4 0.3
5.7 0.15
11 0.3
0.6 0.1
2.7 0.2
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

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Rev. 2.2, 06-Oct-11
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Document Number: 83714
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Fig. 2 - Shipping Tube Specifications for SOP Packages
TUBE SPECIFICATIONS FOR DIP AND HIGH ISOLATION VOLTAGE PACKAGES
Fig. 3 - DIP-6 N, G Fig. 4 - DIP-4, -2, -16 N, G
Side view
scale: 4X
Top view
not to scale
4 (100)
0.312 ref.
(7.8 ref.)
Dimensions in inches (millimeters)
17997
O P T O S E M I C O N D U C T O R A N T I S T A T I C
V I S H A Y
0.46 0.01
(11.5 0.25)
0.344 0.01
(8.6 0.25)
0.058 0.008
(1.46 0.19)
0.03 0.005
(0.7 0.13)
0.104 0.01
(2.6 0.25)
0.03 0.01
(0.7 0.25)
22.4 0.04
(558.8 1)
15912
15915

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Rev. 2.2, 06-Oct-11
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Document Number: 83714
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Fig. 5 - CNY64
Fig. 6 - CNY65, 66
TAPE AND REEL SPECIFICATIONS
Surface-mounted devices are packaged in embossed tape
and wound onto 13" molded plastic reels for shipment, to
comply with Electronics Industries Association Standard
EIA-481, revision A, and International Electrotechnical
Commission standard IEC 60286.
Leaders and Trailers
The carrier tape and cover tape are not spliced. Both tapes
are one single uninterrupted piece from end to end, as
shown in figure 2. Both ends of the tape have empty pockets
meeting these requirements.
Trailer end (inside hub of reel) is 200 mm minimum
Leader end (outside of reel) is 400 mm minimum and
560 mm maximum
Unfilled leader and trailer pockets are sealed
Leaders and trailers are taped to tape and hub,
respectively, with masking tape
All materials are static-dissipative
Fig. 7 - Tape and Reel Shipping Medium
REELS
As shown in figure 4, all reels contain standard areas for
the placement of ESD stickers and labels. Each reel also
has a tape slot in its core. The overall reel dimension is
13". Reels contain 1000 6 or 8 pin gullwing parts and
could have up to three inspection lots
Fig. 8 - Tape and Reel Shipping Medium
15913
15914
Top cover tape
Embossment
Embossed carrier
17998
ESD sticker
Tape slot
in core
13"
Regular, special
or bar code label
17999

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Rev. 2.2, 06-Oct-11
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Document Number: 83714
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TAPE AND REEL PACKAGING FOR SINGLE CHANNEL SOIC8 OPTOCOUPLERS
Dimensions in millimeters (inches)
Selected SOIC8 optocouplers are available in tape and reel
format. To order surface mount IL2XXA optocoupler on tape
and reel, add a suffix T after the part number, i.e., IL207AT.
The tape is 12 mm wide on a 33 cm reel. There are
2000 parts per reel. Taped and reeled SOIC8-A
optocouplers conform to EIA-481-2 and IEC 60286-3.
Fig. 9
TAPE ANR REEL PACKAGING FOR DUAL CHANNEL
(1)
SOIC8 OPTOCOUPLERS
Dimensions in millimeters (inches)
Selected dual SOIC8 optocouplers are available in tape and
reel format. To order surface mount ILD2XX optocoupler on
tape and reel, add a suffix T after the part number, i.e.,
ILD207T.
The tape is 16 mm and is wound on a 33 cm reel. There are
2000 parts per reel. Taped and reeled dual SOIC8
optocouplers conform to EIA-481-2 and IEC 60286-3.
Note
(1)
Select dual channel devices are available in the shorter SOIC-8
package and will be taped according to the single channel
taping specification
Fig. 10
Embossment
Direction of feed
Center lines
of cavity
10 pitch cumulative
tolerance on tape
0.2 (0.008)
1.5 (0.059) min.
1.5 (0.059)
1.75 0.1
(0.069 0.004)
Pin 1 and
top of component
Top
cover
tape
0.1 (0.004) max.
12.0 0.3
(0.472 0.012)
18003
4 0.1
(1.57 0.004)
2 0.05 (0.079 0.002)
8.0 0.1
(0.315 0.004)
3.78 (0.149)
0.35 (0.014)
9.2 (0.36)
6.4 (0.252)
5.25
(0.205)
5.5 (0.216)
1.5 (0.059)
1.75 0.1
(0.069 0.004)
13.3 (0.523)
0.3 (0.012) max.
0.1 (0.004) max.
16.0 0.3
(0.630 0.012)
18004
4 0.1
(1.57 0.004)
2 0.05 (0.079 0.002)
6.6 (0.26)
6.35 (0.25)
8.0 (0.315)
7.5 0.05
(0.300 0.002)
3.8 (0.15)
Embossment
Direction of feed
Center lines
of cavity
10 pitch cumulative
tolerance on tape
0.2 (0.008)
1.5 (0.059) min.
Pin 1 and
top of component
Top
cover
tape

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Rev. 2.2, 06-Oct-11
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Document Number: 83714
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THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
TAPE ANR REEL PACKAGING FOR SMD-4 OPTOCOUPLERS WITH OPTION 7
Dimensions in millimeters
Selected 4 pin optocouplers are available in tape and reel
format. To order a 4 pin optocoupler with option 7 on tape
and reel, add a suffix T after the part number,
SFH615A-3X007T.
The tape is 16 mm and is wound on a 33 cm reel. There are
1000 parts per reel. Taped and reeled 4 pin optocouplers
conform to EIA-481-2 and IEC 60286-3.
Fig. 11
TAPE ANR REEL PACKAGING FOR SMD-4 OPTOCOUPLERS WITH OPTION 9
Dimensions in millimeters
Selected 4 pin optocouplers are available in tape and reel
format. To order any SFH6xx6 optocoupler on tape and reel,
add suffix T after the part number, i.e., SFH6156-3T.
The tape is 16 mm and is wound on a 33 cm reel. There are
1000 parts per reel. Taped and reeled 4 pin optocouplers
conform to EIA-481-2 and IEC60286-3.
Fig. 12
2 0.1
4 0.1
1.5 + 0.1
1.75 0.1
16 0.3
7.5 0.1
1.5 + 0.250 10.41 0.1
12 0.1
5.05 0.1 5.05 0.1
0.35 0.05
Typ.
4
5
R 0.76
3.71 0.1
4.67 0.1
6.51
21579
10 pitch cumulative
tolerance on tape
0.2
X X
Section X-X
1.5
13.3
4.07
0.3 max.
0.1 max.
16 0.3
18005
4 0.1
2 0.05
10.2
5.05
12
7.5 0.05
Embossment
Direction of feed
Center lines
of cavity
10 pitch cumulative
tolerance on tape
0.2
1.5 min.
Pin 1 and
top of component
Top
cover
tape
1.75 0.1

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Rev. 2.2, 06-Oct-11
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Document Number: 83714
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TAPE ANR REEL PACKAGING FOR SMD-4 OPTOCOUPLERS WITH OPTION 9, 90 ROTATION
Dimensions in millimeters (inches)
Selected 4 pin optocouplers are available in tape and reel
format. To order any SFH6xx series optocoupler on tape
and reel with this orientation, add suffix T1 after the part
number, i.e., SFH6156-5T1.
The tape is 16 mm and is wound on a 33 cm reel. There are
2000 parts per reel. Taped and reeled 4 pin optocouplers
conform to EIA-481-2 and IEC 60286-3.
Fig. 13
TAPE ANR REEL PACKAGING FOR SMD-4 OPTOCOUPLERS WITH OPTION 8
Dimensions in millimeters
Selected 4 pin optocouplers are available in tape and reel
format. To order any SFH6xx series optocoupler on tape
and reel, add suffix T after the part number, i.e.,
SFH615A-4X018T.
The tape is 24 mm and is wound on a 33 cm reel. There are
2000 parts per reel. Taped and reeled 4 pin optocouplers
conform to EIA-481-2 and IEC 60286-3.
Fig. 14
16 0.3
(0.630 0.012)
4
16.00 + 0.30, -0.10
(0.013 (0.0008), -0.0004)
18401
4 0.1
(0.157 0.004)
1.5 + 0.10, - 0.00
(0.59 0.004)
1.75 0.1
(0.069 0.004)
7.5 0.01
(0.295 0.004)
2 0.10
(0.079 0.004)
8.0 0.10
(0.315 + 0.004)
10.36 0.10
0.408 0.004
10.36 0.10
0.408 0.004
4.92 0.10
0.194 0.004
1.5 + 0.25, - 0.0
0.059 + 0.001, - 0.0
24 0.3
4
21831-1
4 0.1
1.75 0.1
11.5 0.1
2 0.1
8 0.1
12.10 0.15
4.9 0.35
(1)
1.5 + 0.25, - 0.0
0.35 0.05
1.5 0.1
X X
8
R 0.76
4.1 0.1
Section X-X
(1)
4.65 0.15 in the case of the VO61X series

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Document Number: 83714
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TAPE ANR REEL PACKAGING FOR SMD-6 OPTOCOUPLERS WITH OPTION 7
Dimensions in millimeters
Selected 6 pin optocouplers with option 7 are available in
tape and reel format. To order 6 pin optocoupler with option
7 on tape and reel, add a suffix T after the option, i.e.,
CNY17-3X007T.
The tape is 16 mm and is wound on a 33 cm reel. There are
1000 parts per reel. Taped and reeled 6 pin optocouplers
conform to EIA-481-2 and IEC 60286-3.
Fig. 15
TAPE ANR REEL PACKAGING FOR SMD-6 OPTOCOUPLERS WITH OPTION 9
Dimensions in millimeters
Selected 6 pin optocouplers with option 9 are available in
tape and reel format. To order 6 pin optocoupler with option
9 on tape and reel, add a suffix T after the option, i.e.,
CNY17-3X009T.
The tape is 16 mm and is wound on a 33 cm reel. There are
1000 parts per reel. Taped and reeled 6 pin optocouplers
conform to EIA-481-2 and IEC 60286-3.
Fig. 16
Embossment
Direction of feed
Center lines
of cavity
10 pitch cumulative
tolerance on tape
0.2
1.5 min.
1.5
Pi n 1 and top
of component
Top
cover
tape
13.3
4.57
0.35
0.1 max.
16 0.3
18006
4 0.1
2 0.05
10.4
9
12
7.5 0.05
1.75 0.1
Embossment
Direction of feed
Center lines
of cavity
10 pitch cumulative
tolerance on tape
0.2
1.5 min.
1.5
Pin 1 and top
of component
Top
cover
tape
13.3
4.09
0.3 max.
0.1 max.
16 0.3
18007
4 0.1
2 0.05
10.35
9.14
12
7.5 0.05
1.75 0.1

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Rev. 2.2, 06-Oct-11
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Document Number: 83714
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ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
TAPE ANR REEL PACKAGING FOR SMD-8 OPTOCOUPLERS WITH OPTION 7
Dimensions in millimeters (inches)
Selected 8 pin optocouplers with option 9 are available in
tape and reel format. To order 8 pin optocoupler with option
7 on tape and reel, add a suffix T after the option, i.e.,
ILCT6-X007T.
The tape is 16 mm and is wound on a 33 cm reel. There are
1000 parts per reel. Taped and reeled 8-pin optocouplers
conform to EIA-481-2 and IEC 60286-3.
Fig. 17
TAPE ANR REEL PACKAGING FOR SMD-8 OPTOCOUPLERS WITH OPTION 9
Dimensions in millimeters (inches)
Selected 8-pin optocouplers with option 9 are available in
tape and reel format. To order 8 pin optocoupler with option
9 on tape and reel, add a suffix T after the option, i.e.,
ILCT6-X009T.
The tape is 16 mm and is wound on a 33 cm reel. There are
1000 parts per reel. Taped and reeled 8 pin optocouplers
conform to EIA-481-2 and IEC 60286-3.
Fig. 18
1.75 0.1
(0.069 0.004)
13.3 (0.523)
4.7 (0.185)
0.35 (0.014)
16.0 0.3
(0.630 0.012)
18008
4 0.1
(1.57 0.004)
2 0.05 (0.079 0.002)
10.41 (0.410)
10.21
(0.402)
12.0 (0.472)
7.5 0.05
(0.295 0.002)
Embossment
Direction of feed
Center lines
of cavity
10 pitch cumulative
tolerance on tape
0.2 (0.008)
1.5 (0.059) min.
1.5 (0.059)
Pin 1 and
top of component
Top
cover
tape
0.1 (0.004) max.
4.17 (0.164)
18009
10.2 (0.402)
10.31
(0.406)
12.0 (0.472)
1.75 0.1
(0.069 0.004)
13.3 (0.523)
0.35 (0.014)
16.0 0.3
(0.630 0.012)
4 0.1
(1.57 0.004)
2 0.05 (0.079 0.002)
7.5 0.05
(0.295 0.002)
Embossment
Direction of feed
Center lines
of cavity
10 pitch cumulative
tolerance on tape
0.2 (0.008)
1.5 (0.059) min.
1.5 (0.059)
Pin 1 and
top of component
Top
cover
tape
0.1 (0.004) max.

Packaging, Tape and Reel Information
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 2.2, 06-Oct-11
9
Document Number: 83714
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
TAPE ANR REEL PACKAGING FOR SMD-16 OPTOCOUPLERS WITH OPTION 7
Dimensions in millimeters (inches)
Selected 16 pin optocouplers with option 7 are available in
tape and reel format. To order 16 pin optocoupler with
option 7 on tape and reel, add a suffix T after the option,
i.e., ILQ-X007T.
The tape is 32 mm and is wound on a 33 cm reel. There are
750 parts per reel. Taped and reeled 16 pin optocouplers
conform to EIA-481 and IEC 60286-3.
Fig. 19
TAPE ANR REEL PACKAGING FOR SMD-16 OPTOCOUPLERS WITH OPTION 9
Dimensions in millimeters (inches)
Selected 16-pin optocouplers with option 9 are available in
tape and reel format. To order 16 pin optocoupler with
option 9 on tape and reel, add a suffix T after the option,
i.e., ILQ1-X009T.
The tape is 32 mm and is wound on a 33 cm reel. There are
750 parts per reel. Taped and reeled 16 pin optocouplers
conform to EIA-481 and IEC 60286-3.
Fig. 20
2.0 (0.079)
1.75 0.1
(0.069 0.004)
25.5 (1.004)
4.72 (0.186)
0.35 (0.014) max.
0.1 (0.004) max.
32 (1.260)
18010
10.41 (0.410)
20.29
(0.799)
16.0 (0.630)
14.2 0.05
(0.559 0.002)
4 0.1
(1.57 0.004)
2 0.05 (0.079 0.002)
Embossment
Direction of feed
Center lines
of cavity
10 pitch cumulative
tolerance on tape
0.2 (0.008)
1.5 (0.059) min.
Pin 1 and
top of component
Top
cover
tape
Embossment
Direction of feed
Center lines
of cavity
2.0 (0.079)
25.5 (1.004)
4.30 (0.169)
0.35 (0.014)
0.1 (0.004) max.
18011
10.19 (0.401)
20.24
(0.797)
16.0 (0.630)
1.75 0.1
(0.069 0.004)
32 (1.260) 14.2 0.05
(0.559 0.002)
4 0.1
(1.57 0.004)
2 0.05 (0.079 0.002)
10 pitch cumulative
tolerance on tape
0.2 (0.008)
1.5 (0.059) min.
Pin 1 and
top of component
Top
cover
tape

Packaging, Tape and Reel Information
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 2.2, 06-Oct-11
10
Document Number: 83714
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
TAPE ANR REEL PACKAGING FOR SOP-8 OPTOCOUPLERS
Dimensions in millimeters (inches)
Selected 8 pin 2 mm optocouplers are available in tape and
reel format. To order 8 pin 2 mm optocoupler on tape and
reel, add a suffix T after the part number.
The tape is 16 mm and is wound on a 33 cm reel. There are
2000 parts per reel. Taped and reeled 8 pin 2 mm
optocouplers conform to EIA-481 and IEC 60286-3.
Fig. 21
TAPE ANR REEL PACKAGING FOR SOT223/10 MINI-COUPLERS
Dimensions in millimeters (inches)
Selected 10 pin mini-couplers are available in tape and reel
format. To order surface mount optocoupler on tape and
reel, add a suffix T after the part number.
The tape is 16 mm and is wound on a 33 cm reel. There are
2000 parts per reel. Taped and reeled 10 pin mini-couplers
conform to EIA-481 and IEC 60286-3.
Fig. 22
1.5 (0.059)
13.3 (0.523)
2.77 (0.109)
0.35 (0.014)
16.0 0.3
(0.630 0.012)
18012
9.04 (0.356)
6.05
(0.238)
12.0 (0.472)
7.5 0.05
(0.295 0.002)
Embossment
Direction of feed
0.1 (0.004) max.
(0.069 0.004)
4 0.1
(1.57 0.004)
2 0.05 (0.079 0.002)
10 pitch cumulative
tolerance on tape
0.2 (0.008)
1.5 (0.059) min.
Pin 1 and
top of component
Center lines
of cavity
Top
cover
tape
1.75 0.1
2.0 (0.079)
0.3 (0.012) max.
18013
7.29 (0.287)
6.76
(0.266)
12.0 (0.472)
1.5 (0.059)
13.3 (0.523)
16.0 0.3
(0.630 0.012)
7.5 0.05
(0.295 0.002)
Embossment
Direction of feed
0.1 (0.004) max.
(0.069 0.004)
4 0.1
(1.57 0.004)
2 0.05 (0.079 0.002)
10 pitch cumulative
tolerance on tape
0.2 (0.008)
Pin 1 and
top of component
Center lines
of cavity
Top
cover
tape
1.75 0.1
1.5 (0.059) min.

Packaging, Tape and Reel Information
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 2.2, 06-Oct-11
11
Document Number: 83714
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
TAPE ANR REEL PACKAGING FOR TCMT4XXX SERIES
Dimensions in millimeters
2000 pcs/reel
Fig. 23
TAPE ANR REEL PACKAGING FOR TCMT4XXXT0 SERIES
Dimensions in millimeters
2000 pcs/reel
Fig. 24
18427
technical drawings
according to DIN
specification
7.4 12
2.2
2 4
2.6
0.3
1
6
7
.
5
1
0
.
6


1
.
5
5
1
.
7
5


1
.
6
5

Direction of pulling out


18427_1
technical drawings
according to DIN
specification
7.4 12
2.2
2
4
2.6
0.3
1
6
7
.
5
1
0
.
6


1
.
5
5
1
.
7
5


1
.
6
5

Direction of pulling out



Packaging, Tape and Reel Information
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 2.2, 06-Oct-11
12
Document Number: 83714
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
TAPE ANR REEL PACKAGING FOR TCMT1XXX SERIES
Dimensions in millimeters
Fig. 25
TAPE ANR REEL PACKAGING FOR TCMT1XXXT3 SERIES
Dimensions in millimeters
Fig. 26
18428
technical drawings
according to DIN
specification
2.95 8
2.2
2
4
2.6
0.3
1
6
7
.
5
7
.
4


1
.
5
5
1
.
7
5


1
.
6
5

Direction of pulling out


20951
technical drawings
according to DIN
specification
Direction of feed
Pin 1 and top of
component
Pot cover tape
2.95
8
2.2
2 4
2.6
0.3
1
6
7
.
5
7
.
4
1.55
1
.
7
5
1.6
1
3
.
3

Packaging, Tape and Reel Information
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 2.2, 06-Oct-11
13
Document Number: 83714
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
TAPE ANR REEL PACKAGING FOR TCLT PRODUCT SERIES (both SOP-4L and SOP-4L5)
Dimensions in millimeters
3000 pcs/reel
Fig. 27
TAPE ANR REEL PACKAGING 4 PIN MINIFLAT FOR SFH690ABT, SFH690AT, SFH690BT, SFH690CT
Dimensions in millimeters (inches)
Fig. 28
18429
technical drawings
according to DIN
specification
4.25
8
2.3
2
4
2.7
0.3
1
6
7
.
5
1
0
.
6


1
.
5
5
1
.
7
5


1
.
6
5

Direction of pulling out


8
0.76 (0.030) R 4
Typ. 4.30
0.318
+ 0.3
- 0.1
(0.0125 0.0012)
2.3 6 0.1
(0.09 3 0.004)
2.6 6 0.1
(0.105 0.004)
7.33 0.1
(0.289 0.004)
8.0 0 0.1
(0.315 0.004)
4.7 2 0.1
(0.18 6 0.004)
1.50 + 0.25
(0.059 + 0.10)
12.00
+ 0.3
- 0.1
(0.472 )
+ 0.012
- 0.004
5.5 0 0.05
(0.216 0.002)
1.7 5 0.1
(0.069 0.0049)
1.50 + 0.1
(0.059 + 0.004)
4.0 0 0.1
(0.157 0.004)
2.0 0 0.05
(0.079 0.002)
18956
1 2
3 4

Packaging, Tape and Reel Information
www.vishay.com
Vishay Semiconductors

Rev. 2.2, 06-Oct-11
14
Document Number: 83714
For technical questions, contact: optocoupleranswers@vishay.com
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
TAPE ANR REEL PACKAGING 4 PIN MINIFLAT, 180 ROTATION
Dimensions in millimeters (inches)
Selected 4 pin miniflats are available in tape and reel format
with the part rotated by 180. To order this version, the
tape and reel suffix T is augmented by the numerial 3
eg. SFH690BT3. The tape is 16 mm and is wound on a
33 cm reel. There are 2000 parts per reel.
Fig. 29
8
0.76 (0.030) R 4
typ. 4.30
0.318
+0.3
- 0.1
(0.0125 0.0012)
2.36 0.1
(0.093 0.004)
2.66 0.1
(0.105 0.004)
7.3 3 0.1
(0.289 0.004)
8.00 0.1
(0.315 0.004)
4.7 2 0.1
(0.186 0.004)
1.50 + 0.25
(0.059 + 0.10)
12.00
+ 0.3
- 0.1
(0.472 )
+ 0.012
- 0.004
5.50 0.05
(0.216 0.002)
1.7 5 0.1
(0.06 9 0.0049)
1.50 + 0.1
(0.05 9 + 0.004)
4.0 0 0.1
(0.157
2.00 0.05
(0.07 9 0.002)
18956_1
3 4
1 2
0.004)

Document Number: 80059 For technical questions, contact: optocoupler.answers@vishay.com www.vishay.com
Rev. 1.6, 08-Jan-08 1
General Description
General Description
Vishay Semiconductors
BASIC FUNCTION
In an electrical circuit, an optocoupler ensures total electric
isolation, including potential isolation, as in the case of a
transformer, for instance
In practice, this means that the control circuit is located on
one side of the optocoupler, i.e., the emitter side, while the
load circuit is located on the other side, i.e., the detector side.
Both circuits are electrically isolated by the optocoupler.
Signals from the control circuit are transmitted optically to the
load circuit. In most cases, this optical transmission is
realized with light beams whose wavelengths span the red to
infrared range, depending on the requirements applicable to
the optocoupler. The bandwidth of the signal to be
transmitted ranges from a dc voltage signal to frequencies in
the MHz band. An optocoupler is comparable to a
transformer or relay. Besides having smaller dimensions in
most cases, the advantages of optocouplers are: shorter
switching times, no contact bounce, no interference caused
by arcs, wear the circuitry
1)
. Optocouplers are suitable for
circuits used in microelectronics, data processing and
telecommunication systems. Optocouplers are used to an
increasing extent as safety tested components, e. g., in
switch mode power supplies.
Note
1. See Applications Notes for additional information.
DESIGN
An optocoupler has to fulfill 5 essential requirements:
Good isolation
High current transfer ratio (CTR)
Low degradation
No interference by field strength influences
These factors are essentially dependent on the design, the
materials used and the corresponding chips used for the
emitter/detector.
Vishay has succeeded in achieving a design with optimized
isolation behavior and good transfer characteristics. The
basic function of an optocoupler is to isolate the input from
the output by means of an insulation material.
The thickness-through-insulation of at least 4 mm provided
by Vishay provides better safety and protection against
electrical shock (see Figure 1 and 2). Vishay builds in
additional reliability in these devices to protect the coupler
system against ambient light and dust.
The mechanical clearance between the emitter and detector
is at least 4 mm and is thus mechanically stable even under
thermal overloads, i.e., the possibility of a short
circuit caused by material short circuit is minimized. This is
important for optocouplers which must meet strict
safety requirements (VDE/UL specifications), see
DIN EN 60747-5-2 (VDE 0884)/DIN EN 60747-5-5 pending
facts and information. As a result, Vishay couplers have a
very low coupling capacitance of 0.2 pF. Couplers with
conventional designs have higher coupling capacitance
values by a factor of 1.3 to 2. Attention must be paid to the
coupling capacitance in digital circuits in which steep pulse
edges are produced which superimpose themselves on the
control signal. With a low coupling capacitance, the
transmission capabilities of these interference spikes are
effectively suppressed between the input and output. This
capability of suppressing dynamic interferences is commonly
known as "common-mode rejection"
1)
.
Note
1. See Applications Notes for additional information.
Fig. 1 - Coplanar Construction Principle
Fig. 2 - Face to Face Construction Principle
17358
Leadframe
Detector Die
Bond Wire
Reflected Radiance
Clear epoxyd Compound
Emitter Die
Epoxyd Compound
17357
Leadframe
Detector Die
Bond Wire
Infrared Permeable
Mold Compound
Infrared Emitter Die
Special Mold
Compound

www.vishay.com For technical questions, contact: optocoupler.answers@vishay.com Document Number: 80059
2 Rev. 1.6, 08-Jan-08
General Description
Vishay Semiconductors
General Description
The degradation of an optocoupler, i.e., impairment of its
CTR over a finite period, depends on:
1. the emitter element due to its decreasing radiation power
while
2. the degradation of an optocoupler over time results
primarily from the emitter chip
A decrease in the radiation power can be primarily ascribed
to thermal stress caused by an external, high ambient
temperature and/or high a forward current. In practice,
optocouplers are operated with forward current of 1 to 30 mA
through the emitting diode. In this range, degradation at an
average temperature of 40 C is less than 5 % after 1000 h.
In general, an optocouplers life time is a period of 100000 h,
i.e, the CTR should not have dropped below 50 % of its value
at 0 h during this time (see figure 4).
Fig. 3 - Function of Parasitic Field Effect Transistor as a Result of
Failure (Latch-up) in the Phototransistor of Couplers
Fig. 4 - Degradation under Typical Operating Conditions
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION ASSEMBLY
Emitter
Emitters are manufactured using the most modern Liquid
Phase Epitaxy (LPE) process. By using this technology, the
number of undesirable flaws in the crystal is reduced. This
results in a higher quantum efficiency and thus higher
radiation power. Distortions in the crystal are prevented by
using mesa technology which leads to lower degradation. A
further advantage of the mesa technology is that each
individual chip can be tested optically and electrically even
on the wafer.
Detector
Vishay detectors have been developed so that they match to
the emitter. They have low capacitance values, high
photosensitivity and are designed for an extremely low
saturation voltage. Silicon nitride passivation protects the
surface against possible impurities.
Assembly
The components are fitted onto lead frames by fully
automatic equipment using conductive epoxy or eutectic
adhesive. Contacts are established automatically with digital
pattern recognition using the well-proven thermosonic
technique. In addition to optical and mechanical check
mechanical checks, all couplers are measured at a
temperature of 100 C on short/open test equipment.
Contact Positive Ions
Plastic
SiO
Si P-Base
Inversion Area
N-Emitter
N-Collector
16514
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

I
n
i
t
i
a
l

C
T
R
Life Test Hours 15918
T
j
= 60 C
T
j
= 125 C
I
F
= 60 mA
I
F
= 60 mA
Leadership in Technology
The Dies Molecular Structure
Mesa Technology
Special Bond Layout Results in an
Homogenuous Current Distribution
SPecial Rear Metalization
Legal Disclaimer Notice
www.vishay.com
Vishay

Revision: 12-Mar-12
1
Document Number: 91000
Disclaimer
ALL PRODUCT, PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS AND DATA ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE TO IMPROVE
RELIABILITY, FUNCTION OR DESIGN OR OTHERWISE.
Vishay Intertechnology, Inc., its affiliates, agents, and employees, and all persons acting on its or their behalf (collectively,
Vishay), disclaim any and all liability for any errors, inaccuracies or incompleteness contained in any datasheet or in any other
disclosure relating to any product.
Vishay makes no warranty, representation or guarantee regarding the suitability of the products for any particular purpose or
the continuing production of any product. To the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, Vishay disclaims (i) any and all
liability arising out of the application or use of any product, (ii) any and all liability, including without limitation special,
consequential or incidental damages, and (iii) any and all implied warranties, including warranties of fitness for particular
purpose, non-infringement and merchantability.
Statements regarding the suitability of products for certain types of applications are based on Vishays knowledge of typical
requirements that are often placed on Vishay products in generic applications. Such statements are not binding statements
about the suitability of products for a particular application. It is the customers responsibility to validate that a particular
product with the properties described in the product specification is suitable for use in a particular application. Parameters
provided in datasheets and/or specifications may vary in different applications and performance may vary over time. All
operating parameters, including typical parameters, must be validated for each customer application by the customers
technical experts. Product specifications do not expand or otherwise modify Vishays terms and conditions of purchase,
including but not limited to the warranty expressed therein.
Except as expressly indicated in writing, Vishay products are not designed for use in medical, life-saving, or life-sustaining
applications or for any other application in which the failure of the Vishay product could result in personal injury or death.
Customers using or selling Vishay products not expressly indicated for use in such applications do so at their own risk and agree
to fully indemnify and hold Vishay and its distributors harmless from and against any and all claims, liabilities, expenses and
damages arising or resulting in connection with such use or sale, including attorneys fees, even if such claim alleges that Vishay
or its distributor was negligent regarding the design or manufacture of the part. Please contact authorized Vishay personnel to
obtain written terms and conditions regarding products designed for such applications.
No license, express or implied, by estoppel or otherwise, to any intellectual property rights is granted by this document or by
any conduct of Vishay. Product names and markings noted herein may be trademarks of their respective owners.
Material Category Policy
Vishay Intertechnology, Inc. hereby certifies that all its products that are identified as RoHS-Compliant fulfill the
definitions and restrictions defined under Directive 2011/65/EU of The European Parliament and of the Council
of June 8, 2011 on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment
(EEE) - recast, unless otherwise specified as non-compliant.
Please note that some Vishay documentation may still make reference to RoHS Directive 2002/95/EC. We confirm that
all the products identified as being compliant to Directive 2002/95/EC conform to Directive 2011/65/EU.