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I

'

;

Cllapter

1

Fluid Flow in Porous Media

1.1 Introduction

In this initial

\\'c hcgin

Cqllation~ t hat are u~~d most often to model un-

chapter on nuid now in porous media,

with

a

discussion

of

the

differential

~tcady-~tate

cqllations

now.

are provided

SImple

statements

of

in the text;

the more

these

tedious

oil),

simplifies to

we obtain a partial

differential

a2p

J ap

cf>JlC

ap

a:z+-a=

ka'

r

r

r

0.<XX>264

t

equation

that

(1.1)

if we assume that compressibility, c, is small and independent of pressure; permeability, k, is constant and isotropic; viscosity, Jl, is independent of

di~cll,~sionof some of the most useful solutions to pressure; porosity, cf>,is constant; and that certain

these equations, with emphasis on the exponential-

intcgral solution describing

now. An appended discussion (Appendix B) of equation is called the diffusivity equation; the term dimcnsionless variables may be useful to some 0.OOO264klcf>Jlcis called the hydraulic diffusivity and

mathcmatical details are given in Appendix A for the in~tructor or student who wishes to develop greater lInderstanding. The equations are followed by a

terms in the basic differential

equation

(involving

radial,

unsteady-state

pressure gradients squared) are negligible. This

readcrsat this point.

of

radills-of-investigation

sllperposition.

The chapter concludes with

a discussion of the

in

Superposition,

concept and of the principle

illustrated

frequently is given the symbol '7.

Eq. 1.1 is written in terms of field units. Pressure, p, feet; is in porosity, pounds per cf>,is square a fraction; inch (psi); viscosity, distance, Jl, r, is is in in

mlilt i\vell infinite reservoirs, is used to simulate simple reservoir boundaries and to simulate variable rate production histories. An approximate alter-

native to superposition. Horner's "pseudopro- diffusivity, '7,has units of square feet per hour.

dlldiml time," completes this discussion. A similar eqllation can be developed for the.adial now of a nonideal gas:

centipoise; compressibility, c, is in volume per

volume per psi [c=(I/p)

(dpldp)];

permeability, k,

is in millidarcies; time, t, is in hours; and hydraulic

1.2 The

Ideal

Reservoir

Model

I

a

a

cf>

a

To .dcvelop a~alysis and design techniqu~s fo~ \~ell

-a

(~

r

-£)

= 0.000264 k at ( '!),

tCStlllg, we first must make

several simplifYing

r

r

JlZ

Z

(1.2)

a~sumptiOJ1Sabout the well and reservoir that we are

nlOdcling. We Ilaturally

assllillptions thall are absolutely necessary to obtain sitllal simple, ion useful -but solutions we obviously to equations can make describing no fewer our

make no more simplifying

where Zis the gas-law deviation

factor.

For simultaneous now of oil, gas, and water,

I

a

-a(r r

r

ap

cf>c

ap

a)= r.

O-()(X)2~

,

at'

(1.3)

assllmptions. These a~sumptions are introduced as

where c, is the total systemcompressibility,

Ilccdcd, to comhine

(I)

the law of ~onservation of

c

(0 =S

c

0

+S

W c M ,+S

mass, (2) Darcy's law, and (3) equations of state to

achieve our objectives. This work is only outlined in and the total mobility ~, is the sum of the mobilities 'his cllapter; detail is provided in Appendix A and the of the individual phases:

g

c

P, +c.

f

(1.4)

~t

,

Refercnces.

k

k

k

Consider radial

now toward

a well

in a circular

.~,'=

(-.£

+ :.:.I.+ ~).

(1.5)

re~crvoir. If we comhine the law of conservation of P-o Jlp, P-w

ma~~ and Darcy's law for thc isothermal now of

In Eq.

1.4, So refers to oil-phase saturation,

Co to

n\lid~ of small alld constant compressibility (a highly

oil-phase compressibility, ,,>,M'and c M'to water phasc,

satisfactory model for single-phase now of reservoir

S"

and c"

to p,asphase; and c f is the formation

I '"l

h~

dcc,lill

lI.~"

~

~

 

;.;.

FLUID FLOW IN POROUS

MEDIA

3

compressibility.

 

In

Eq.

1.5,

ku

i~

the

effe\:live

 

per-

al1u

where

Jl

and

YI

are

BI.'S~I.'I

fun\:tion~.

(Total

meability

to

oil

in

lhe

presence

of

the

other

phases,

~ompre~sibililY,

CI'

is

used

in

all

equalion5

in

lhi5

and

1J.0 is

the

oil

viscosilY;

k

and

p.

refer

to

the

gas

chapter

becau~e

even

formalions

thaI

produce

a

phase;

and

k wand

 

p.w

refer

to

tte

water

phase.

single-phase

oil

contain

an

immobile

waler

pha5e

and

Because

the

formation

is

considered

compre5sible

 

have

formatioll

compre5~ibility.)

 

(i.e.,

pore

volume

decreases

as

pressure

decrea~es),

 

The

reader

unfamiliar

with

Bessel

function5

~hould

porosity

is

not

a constanl

in

Eq.

1.3

as

it was

assumed

not

be

alarmed

 

at

this

equation.

It

will

nor

be

to

be

in

Eqs.

1.1

and

1.2.

necessary

to

use

Eq.

1.6

in

its

complele

form

to

 

,

','

"

calculate

numerical

values

of

Pw/;

instead,

we

will

1,3

Solutions

 

to

Dlffu~lvlty

Equation

 

use

limiting

 

forms

of

the

50lutlon

 

in

mo~t

com-

This

section

 

deals

with

useful

solutions

to

the

dif-

putations.

The

most

imporlant

facl

about

Eq.

1.6

i5

fll~ivity

 

equation

(Section

1.2)

uc~~ribing

Ihe

Ilow

of

that,

unu\.'r

the

a5~umptioll~

nwdl.'

in

il~

dl.'v\.'lopnl\.'lll,

a

slightly

compressible

 

liquid

in

a

porous

medium.

it

i~

an

exaci

sohllion

to

Eq.

1.1,

It

~ometime~

i~

We

also

have

 

some

comments

on

solutions

to

Eqs.

called

the

van

Everdingen-Hurst

constant-terminal-

1.2and

1.3.

rate

solution.2

 

Appendix

C

discusses

this

solution

 

There

are

 

four

solutions

 

to

Eq.

1.1

that

are

par-

more

colllpletely.

 

Because

it

is

exacl,

it

serves

a5

a

licularly

useful

in

well

resting:

the

solution

for

a

standard

 

wilh

which

we

may

compare

more

useful

bounded

cylindrical

reservoir;

the

solution

for

an

(but

more

approximate)

solutions.

 

One

such

ap-

infinite

reservoir

with

a

well

considered

to

be

a

line

proximate

 

solution

 

follows.

sourcestate

solution;with

zeroand wellthe boresolutionradius;that theincludespseudosteady-well

bore

Infinite

 

Cylindrical

 

Reservoir

With

 

Line-Source

W~"

storage

for

a

well

in

an

infinite

reservoir.

 

Before

 

we

Assume

that

(I)

a

well

produces

 

at

a

constant

rate,

discuss

these

solutions,

 

however,

we

should

sum-

qB;

(2)

the

well

has

zero

radius;

(3)

the

reservoir

is

at

marize

the

assumptions

 

that

were

neces~ary

 

to

uniform

pressure.

 

Pi.

before

prodllction

 

begins;

and

develop

Eq.

 

1.1:

homogeneous

and

isotropic

porous

(4)

the

well

drains

an

infinite

area

(i.e

that

P-Pi

as

medium

of

uniform

 

thickness;

pressure-independent

 

,-

CX».

Under

those

conditions.

Ihe

solution

to

Eq.

rock

and

fluid

properties;

 

small

pressure

 

gradients;

 

1.1

is

(

 

radial

flow;

applicability

 

of

Darcy's

law

(sometimes

 

qBp.

-'- 948

~p.CI,2

)

 

called

laminar

flow);

 

and

negligible

gravity

forces.

 

P=Pi+70.6~

 

Ei

k

 

(1.7)

We

will

introduce

 

further

as~umptions

 

to

obtain

 

-I

solutions

to

Eq.

1.1.

 

where

the

new

symbols

are

p,

the

pressure

(psi)

at

 

distance,

 

(feet)

from

the

well

at

time

I (hours).

and

Bounded

Cylindrical

 

Reservoir

 

~

-u

Solution

of

 

Eq.

1.1

requires

that

we

specify

two

 

Ei(

-x)

=

-~

~dl',

boundary

conditions

and

 

an

initial

condition.

 

A

x

U

realistic

and

practical

 

solution

 

is

obtained

if

we

the

Ei

function

 

or

exponential

integral.

 

assume

that

 

(1)

a

well

produces

at

constant

 

rate.

qB.

Before

 

we

examine

the

properties

 

and

implications

 

into

the

well

bore

(q

refers

 

to

flow

rate

in

STB/D

at

of

Eq.

1.7,

we

must

answer

a

logical

question:

Since

surface

conditions,

and

 

B

is

the

formation

 

volume

Eq.

1.6

is

an

exact

 

solution

and

Since

Eq.

1.7

clearly

factor

in

RB/STB);

(2)

the

well.

with

wellbore

radius

is

based

on

idealized

boundary

conditions,

when

(if

r w'

is centered

in

a

cylindrical

reservoir

of

radius,

e'

ever)

are

pressures

 

calculated

at

radius,

 

w

from

Eq.

and

that

there

is

no

flow

 

across

this

outer

boundary;

1.7

satisfactory

 

approximations

 

to

pressures

 

and

(3)

before

production

 

begins,

the

reservoir

is

at

calculated

 

from

Eq.

1.67

Analysis

 

of

these

solutions

uniform

pressure.

 

Pi.

The

 

most

useful

form

of

the

shows3

that

the

Ei-function

solution

 

is

an

accurate.

desired

solution

relates

 

flowing

pressure,

 

Pwf'

at

the

approximation

 

to

the

more

exact

 

solution

for

time

sand face

to

 

time

and

to

reservoir

rock

 

and

fluid

3.79x

105

<PIJ.CI'I~.lk<I<948

 

<plJ.c,,;/k.

 

For

times

properties.Thesolutioni~1

 

lcss

than

3.79xlo5

 

~/'C",~.lk,

 

Ihe

assllmption

 

of

qBIJ.

 

[

21

3

ll.'ro

well

~ize

(i.e

a~~umillg

the

well

10

be

a

line

Pwf=Pi

-141.2-

 

-2!!-.-

+

In'

eO

--SOllrcl.'

 

or

~ink)

lilllil~

IIII.'

uc\:uracy

 

of

IIII.' c'llluliull;

,II

 

kh

'eO

 

4

times

grealer

 

than

948

<P1J.(.'/,;lk.

Ihe

reservoir's

 

~

2

ht)lllldari\.'s

 

hl.'gill

 

Iu

afft.'\:1

III\.'

prl.'SSllrC

distrihlili0l1

 

+2E

 

e-",I/JJ1(u,,'eO)

 

1.

(1.6)

 

~11

III.t.'

rl.':il.'.rvoir,!;u

tllulillt.'

rt.'!;t.'rvuir

 

i~

110

lulIgt.'r

 

-

n-

l

a2rr2/

"

[J

l (a

lIe '

-\~12/~

O )-J2

1 (a

n

\

1

»)j

 

1111.ll1lteactll1g. f I

.

l.

fi

.

f

h

I

.

   
 

A

urt

ler

sImp

I

Icatlon

0

t

e

so

utlon

to

t h e

fl

ow

where.

for

 

efficiency

 

and

convenience.

 

we

have

equation

 

is

possible:

for

x<0.02.

 

Ei(

-x)

can

be

introduced

the

dimensionless

 

variables

 

approximated

 

with

 

an error

less

than

0.6070

by

 

'eO='e/rw

 

Ei(-x)=ln(I.78Ix).

 

,

(1.8)

and

To

evaluate

the

Ei

function,

we

can

use

Table

1.1

for

 

2

0.02

<XS

10.9.

For

xsO.02,

we

use

Eq.

1.8;

and

for

to=0.OOO464kl/~p.CI'W'

 

x>10.9.

 

Ei(-x)

can

be

considered

 

zero

for

ap-

where

the

an

are

the

roots

of

 

plications

in

well

testing.

 

Jl(an'eO)Yl(an)-Jl(an)Yl(an'eO)

=0;

In

practice.

permeability

we

find

(damage)

thal

near

most

the

wells

well

have

bore

reduced

resulting

4

-,

~

'"""""

WELL TESTING

~-

--

from drilli'tg fracturing. wcll~ arc

its derivation holds the explicit assumption of uniform permeability throughout the drainage area

ofthewelluptothewellbore.

or colttplction opcralion~.

Many otllcr

or

~ti,nt,lalcu

Itydraillic

Eq. I. 7 fail~ to modcl such wcll~ properly;

by acidimtion

Hawkins4 pointed out

that if the damaged or stimulated zone is con~idered eqtlivalent to an altered zone of uniform permeability

(kf)

steady-state drop across radial this zone now (L\IJ.f)can equation (seeFig. be modeled 1.1). by Thus, the

and outer raditls (rs)'

the additional

pressure

q/lll. ~/J.f= 141.2'-k-' .f '

-111(rflrlt.)

-141.2~

qBp.

qBp.

'

=141.2~(k

In(rslr".)

k

s

-1)ln(rslrw).

(1.9)

 

TABLE 1.1. -VALUES

OF THE EXPONENTIAL

INTEGRAL,

-E/(-

x)

 

-EI

( -x),

0.000 < 0.209, interval

-0.001

x

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0-:00

-.;:;;;

6:332

5:639

5:235

~

~

4:545

4:m-

4:259

~

0.01 4.038

3.944

3.858

3.779

3.705

3.637

3.574

3.514

3.458

3.405

0.02 3.355

3.307

3.261

3.218

3.176

3.137

3.098

3.062

3.026

2.992

0.03 2.959

2.927

2.897

2.867

2.838

2.810

2.783

2.756

2.731

2.706

0.04

2.681

2.658

2.634

2.612

2.590

2.568

2.547

2.527

2.507

2.487

0.05

2.468

2.449

2.431

2.413

2.395

2.377

2.360

2.344

2.327

2.311

0.06

2.295

2.279

2.264

2.249

2.235

2.220

2.206

2.192

2.178

2.164

0.072.151

 

2.138

2.125

2.112

2.099

2.087

2.074

2.062

2.050

2.039

0.08

2.027

2.015

2.004

1.993

1.982

1.971

1.960

1.950

1.939

1.929~

 

,

0.09

0.10

1.823 1.919

1.909 1.814

1.899 1.805

1.889 1.796

1.879 1.788

1.869 1.779

1.770 1.860

1.850 1.762

1.841 1.754

1.745 1.832

 

0.11

1.737

1.729

1.721

1.713

1.705

1.697

1.689

1.682

1.674

1.667

'"

0.12

1.660

1.652

1.645

1.638

1.631

1.623

1.616

1.609

1.603

1.596

0.131.589

 

1.582

1.576

1.569

1.562

1.556

1.549

1.543

1.537

1.530

0.14

1.524

1.518

1.512

1.506

1.500

1.494

1.488

1.482

1.476

1.470

0.15

1.464

1.459

1.453

1.447

1.442

1.436

1.431

1.425

1.420

1.415

0.16

1.409

1.404

1.399

1.393

1.388

1.383

1.378

1.373

1.368

1.363

 

-0.17

1.358

1.353

1.348

1.343

1.338

1.333

1.329

1.324

1.319

1.314

 

0.18

1.310

1.305

1.301

1.296

1.291

1.287

1.282

1.278

1.274

1.269

0.19

1.265

1.261

1.256

1.252

1.248

1.243

1.239

1.235

1.231

1.227

0.20

1.223

1.219

1.215

1.210

1.206

1.202

1.198

1.195

1.191

1.187

-Ei(

-x),

O.OO<x< 2.09, Interval

= 0.01

0.0

+ ~

4.038

3.335

2.959

2.681

2.468

2.295

2.151

2.027

1.919

0.1

1.823

1.737

1.660

1.589

1.524

1.464

1.409

1.358

1.309

1.265

0.21.2231.1831.1451.1101.0761.0441.0140.9850.9570.931

 

0.3 0.906

0.882

0.858

0.836

0.815

0.794

0.774

0.755

0.737

0.719

0.4 0.702

0.686

0.670

0.655

0.640

0.625

0.611

0.598

0.585

0.572!

 

0.5

0.560

0.548

0.536

0.525

0.514

0.503

0.493

0.483

0.473

0.464

"

0.6

0.454

0.445

0.437

0.428

0.420

0.412

0.404

0.396

0.388

0.381

'.'

0.7

0.374

0.367

0.360

0.353

0.347

0.340

0.334

0.328

0.322

0.316

lc

0.8

0.311

0.305

0.300

0.295

0.289

0.284

0.279

0.274

0.269

0.265

0.9

0.260

0.256

0.251

0.247

0.243

0.239

0.235

0.231

0.227

0.223

1.0

0.219

0.216

0.212

0.209

0.205

0.202

0.198

0.195

0.192

0.189

1.1 0.186

0.183

0.180

0.177

0.174

0.172

0.169

0.166

0.164

0.161

1.2 0.158

0.156

0.153

0.151

0.149

0.146

0.144

0.142

0.140

0.138

1.30.1350.1330.1310.1290.1270.1250.1240.1220.1200.118

 

1.4

0.116

0.114

0.113

0.111

0.109

0.108

0.106

0.105

0.103

0.102

1.5

0.1000

0.0985

0.0971

0.0957

0.0943

0.0929

0.0915

0.0902

0.0889

0.0876

1.6

0.0863

0.0851

0.0838

0.0826

0.0814

0.0802

0.0791

0.0780

0.0768

0.0757

1.7

0.0747

0.0736

0.0725

0.0715

0.0705

0.0695

0.0685

0.0675

0.0666

0.0656

1.8

0.0647

0.0638

0.0629

0.0620

0.0612

0.0603

0.0595

0.0586

0.0578

0.0570

1.9

0.0562

0.0554

0.0546

0.0539

0.0531

0.0524

0.0517

0.0510

0.0503

0.0496

2.0

0.0489

0.0482

0.0476

0.0469

0.0463

0.0456

0.0450

0.0444

0.0438

0.0432

2.0<x<

10.9, Interval

= 0.1

 

x

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

2

4.sg-x1Q-=~ 4.26 x 10~~

mx1r

3:2W0-=2

2.84x-1~2

2.49x 10-~

2.19x 10 -2 '1:92X~

1.69x 10 -2

1.48x 10 -2

3

1.30x10-2

1.15x10-2

1.01x10-2

8.94x10-3

7.89x10-3

6.87x10-3

6.16x10-3

5.45xI0-3

4.82x10-3

4.27x10-2

4

3.78x10-3

3.35xI0-3

2.97x10-3

2.64x10-3

2.34x10-3

2.07x10-3

1.84x10-3

1.~x10-3

1.45x10-3

1.29x10-3

5

1.15x10-3

1.02x10-3

9.08x10-4

8.09x10-4

7.19x10-4

6.41x10-4

5.71x10-4

5.09x10-4

4.53x10-4

4.04x10-4

6

3.60xI0-4

3_21x10-4

2.86xI0-4

2.55x10-4

228x10-4

2.03x10-4

1.82x10-4

1.62x10-4

1.45x10-4

1.29x10-4

7

1.15xI0-4

1.03x10-4

9.22x10-5

8.24x10-5

7.36x10-5

6.58x10-5

5.89x10-5

5.26x10-5

4.71x10-5

4.21x10-5

8

3.77x10-5

3.37x10-5

3.02x10-5

2.70x10-5

2.42x10-5

2.16x10-5

1.94x10-5

1.73x10-5

1.55x10-5

1.39x10-5

9

1.24x10-5

1.11x10-5

9.99x10-6

895)(10-6

B02x10-6

7.1Bx10-8

6.44)(10-6

5.77x10-8

5.17x10-8

4.64x10-8

10

4.15x10-8 3.73x10-6 3.34)(10-6 3.00x10-6

2.68x10-6

2.41)(10-8

2.16x10-8

1.94,<10-6

1.74x10-8

1.56x10-6

.Adapl@d'rom Nlsle, RG.: "How ToUseTheExpon@nlialinleoral," Pel Eng.(~uO. 1956)8171.173.

FLUID FLOW IN POROUS

MEDIA

-5-,.:

t

I

fonnation the damage extelld~, tll~ larger the numerical value of s. There is no uPI1Crlimit for ~'.

P

Some newly drilled wells will not flow at all before stimulation; for these wells, ks =0 and s-~. If a well is stimulated (ks >k), s will be negative, and the deeper the stimulation, the greater the numeril.:al

 

~e

value of s. Rarely does a stimulated well have a skin

 

S

factor less than -7 or -8, and such skin factors

f?

arise only for

wells with deeply penetrating,

highly

W

I

conductive hydraulic fractures. We should notc finally that, if a well is neither damaged nor

 

r

~

stimulated

(k=ks)'

s;O.

We caution

the reader that

 

W

S

Eq.

1.10 is

best applied

qualitatively;

actual

wells

 

rarely can be characterized

exactly by such a sim-

 

r

Before

plified model. leaving the discussion of skin factor,

we

F' Ig,

1 1

S

h

t'

.-w~II~~r~,'c

0 f pressuredistribution ' , , near

should point out that an altered zone near a par-

ticular well affects only the pressure near that well-

i.c.,

from tile well is 110laffected by the I.'xi~ll.'l1l.:cof till.' altered zone. Said another way, we use Eq. I. II to

away

the pressure in the unaltered formation

Eq. 1.9 simply states that the pressure drop in the calculate pressures at the sandface of a well with an altered zone is inversely proportional to k rather altered zone, but we useEq. 1.7 to calculate pressures

than to k and that a correction to the pressur: drop in

beyond the altered zone in the formation surroun-

this region (which assumed the same permeability, k,

ding

the well. We have presented no simple equations

as in

the

rest of

the

reservoir)

must

be made.

that

can be used to calculate pressures for radiu!i, r,

Combining Eqs. 1.7 and 1.9, we find thalthe pressuredrop at the wellbore is

tolal

pj-Pwf=

-70.6~

qBJJ.

.

E,

(

948 tPlJoCtr~

-kt

) +Aps

;

-70.6

~

q B

JJ.,

[

E,

(

-kt

948.1. c r2 )

'I'll

t

w

-2

(

k

--I ks

) ( r s )]

In

-. r w

For r=rw, the argument of the Ei function is suf- ficiently small after a short time that we can use the

logarithmic approximation;

[

In

thus, the drawdowl1 i!i ( 1,688 tPJJ.ctr~,,)

k

t,

pj-Pwf-

-qBJJ.

-70.6-:-

kh

(

k

k --I

)

In

( r s )J

--. w It is convenient to define a skin factor, s, in terms of the properties of the equivalent altered zone:

- (~ -

$-

k

)

Iln.

s

( ~ )

r

(1.10)

-2

s

rw

Thus, the drawdown is

pj-Pwf-

-qBJJ.

-70.6-

kh

[

In

(

1,688tPJJ.Ct"~

kl

)

-2s.

]

(1.11)

Eq. 1.10 provides some insight into the physical

If a well is

damaged (ks <k), s will be positive, and the greater

significance of the sign of the skin factor.

the contrast between ks and k and the deeperinto the

rr

~llchthatrw<r<.rs,butthiswilloffernodifficultic!i In well test analysIs.

Example

1.J-Calculation

of Pressures

Beyondthe WellboreUsing the Ei-Function Solution

Problem.

characteristics: The well is producing only oil;

A well and reservoir have the following

it

is

producing

at a constant rate of 20 STB/D.

Data

describing the well and formation are

Il

;

0.72 cp,

.-1

pSI

k;

0.1 md'_5

c,

;

1.5 x 10

Pj

;

3,000 psi,

r I!

;

3,()()()It,

,

rw

;

0.5 ft,

Bo

;

1.475RB/STB,

h

;

150 ft,

tP ;

0.23, and

s ;

o.

--

ft

after 3 hours of production; then, calculate the

pressur~ at radii of 10 and produl.:tlon.

Calculate the reservoir pressure at a radius of

I

100 ft after

3 hours of

Solution. The Ei

toflowequationsuntilt>3.79XI05tPIlCtr~,,/k.Here,

function is not an accurate solution

3

79x

105tP

~

.IlC

t w = [(3.79 x 105)(0.23)(0.72)

 

k

.(1.5x

10-5)(0.5)2]/(0.1)

 

;

235 <I;

3 hours

Thus, we can useEq. 1.7 with satisfactory accuracy if

6

,,":;,

",j""

-WELL

the

rl'~l'rvoir

1/>1(("";1 k.

re~ervoir

will

is

still

act

infinite

a~ an infinite

acting

at this

time.

reservoir

until

1 >

Here,

948 cf>1Lc,r~

k = r (948)(0.23)(0.72)

.(1.5

x

10

-5)(3,000)2

J/0.3

=

211

,900

hours.

Thll~, for

Eq.

1.7.

At

times

~css than

a radius

of

1ft,

211,900

hours,

p=p.

+ 70.6--

I

qB1L

kl,

£1 . ( -948cf>1LC,r2

kl

)

we

can

The

948

use

(70.6)(20)(1.475)(0.72)

=3,000+

(0.1)(150)

 

.Eil-(948)(0.23)(0.72)(1.5X

10-5)(1)2

 

(0.1)(3)

= 3,()()() + (1()(»Ei(-0.007849)

 

=3,000+

 

100 In [(1.781)(0.007849»)

=3,000+(100)(-4.27)

 

=

2,573

psi.

., -decline

At a radius

of

10 ft,

p = 3,000

+

100

 

.E,

1 -(948)(0.23)(0.72)(1.5X (0.1 )(3)

10-5)(10)2

 

.pressure,

=

3,000

+

100 E,(

-0.7849)

=

3,000

+ (100)(

-0.318)

]

]

 

=

2,968

.drainage

pSI.

In

t!lis

calculation,

we

find

the

value

of

the

fll11rt ion

from

Tablc

1.1,

Note,

a~

indicated

in

tablc,

that

it is a negative

At a radius

of

100 ft,

-

p-,

3

000

+

I 00

quantity.

.£)-(948)(0.23)(0.72)(1.5XIO-5)(IOO)2

t.

= 3,000

+

100 Ei(

(0.1)(3)

-78.49)

]

Ei

tIle

= 3,()()() psi.

Ilcrc

function

P~l"ldosteady-State

next

wc

notc

tllat

for

an

argul1lcnt

We

diffusivity

is essentially

to

the

zero.

Solution.

radial

~olution

of

now

7R.49,

tile

discuss

equation

Ei

the

that

we will

analysi~.

~tate~olution)isnotnew.ltissimplyalimitingform

use extensively

Actually,

in this

introduction

(the

this

solution

to well

test

pseudosteady-

TESTING-

of

Eq.

1.6,

which

de~cribes

pressure

behavior

with

time

for

a

well

centered

in a cylindrical

reservoir

of

radius

r ("

The

limiting

 

form

of

interest

is that

which

is

valid

for

large

times,

so

that

the

summation

in-

volving

exponentials

 

and

Bessel

functions

is

negligible;

after

this

time

(I >948

cf>1(C,r~/k),

 

-qB1L

 

(21 D

3

P,vf-Pi-141.2-

or

= .-141.2~

P1vf

P,

kl,

r y+lnrl'n--, l'D

l 0.000527kl

kh

cf>1Lc,r~

4

)

 

+In

( r ('

)

3

1

(1.12)

r II'

4

Note

!h~t

during

thi~

time

period

we

find,

by

dif-

ferentlatlng

Eq.

1.12,

 

a

~

al

=--~-=-Li-.0 0744

B

ct>c,hr('

 

Since

the

liquid-filled

pore

volume

of

the

reservoir,

V p (cubic

feet),

is

 

V

p

= ?I,-I.

"('

,#"

then

~

--0.234qB

-c,Vp.

 

ot

(1.13)

Thus,

during

is

this

inversely

time

period,

proportional

the

to

rate

the

of

pressure

liquid-filled

pore

volume

V p.

This

result

leads

to

a form

of

well

te~ting

sometimes

called

reservoir

limits

testing,

which

seeks

to

determine

reservoir

size

from

the

rate

of pressure

decline

in a wellbore

with

time.

Another

form

of

Eq.

1.12

is

useful

for

some

ap-

plications.

It

i~volves

replacing

origi!,al

!es.ervoir

 

Pi'

with

average

pressure,

P,

within

the

drainage

volume

of

the

well.

The

material

resulting

!lours

ft]

is

Pi-P=

volumetric

average

pressure

within

the

volume

of

the

well

can

be

found

from

balance.

The

pressure

decrease

(Pi

-p)

from

[a total

-~V

-=

c, V

removal

of

qB

RB/D

of

fluid

for

t

volume

removed

of

5.615

qB (1124)

cu

5.615

qB(1124)

 

2

c, ( 7rr(' I,cf>)

=~~~~j~.

cf>c,hr('

Substituting

in

Eq.

1.12,

or

Pwf=P+

qBt

0.0744

1.-

1.-2

h

4>c, r~

-141.2-ln

qBp. l

kh

P-P

B

1=141.2~ln(~)--.

kh

w

~

-

0.0744

qBt

L-

ct>c,h 1.-2 r~

( r ('

---,

r w

)

3

4

J

rH,

3

4

]

(1.14)

(1.15)

I

FLUID FLOW IN POROUS

MEDIA

7

Eqs. 1.12 and 1.15 become more useful in practice if

formation

volume factor is 1.5RI3/STB.

they include a skin factor to account for the fact that

1.

Estimate the productivity

index for

the tl:~tl:d

most wells are either damaged or stimulated.

For

well.

example, in Eq. 1.15,

2.

Estimate

formation

permeability

from

thl:~1:

i

B

P-Pwj=141.2~111(-!.)- kh

~

r

r w

3 ]

4

-+(Ap)

I 31

re

rw

4

B IJ.

-q

P-Pwj=141.2-ln(-)--+s,

kh

d

an

-qBIJ.

P;-Pwj-141.2-

.I.

[0.000527 kt

kh

cPlJ.c,re 2