I
'
;
Cllapter
1
Fluid Flow in Porous Media
1.1 Introduction
In this initial
\\'c hcgin
Cqllation~ t hat are u~~d most often to model un
chapter on nuid now in porous media,
with
a
discussion
of
the
differential
~tcady~tate
cqllations
now.
are provided
SImple
statements
of
in the text;
the more
these
tedious
oil),
simplifies to
we obtain a partial
differential
a2p 
J ap 
cf>JlC 
ap 

a:z+a= 
ka' 

r 
r 
r 
0.<XX>264 
t 
equation
that
(1.1)
if we assume that compressibility, c, is small and independent of pressure; permeability, k, is constant and isotropic; viscosity, Jl, is independent of
di~cll,~sionof some of the most useful solutions to pressure; porosity, cf>,is constant; and that certain
these equations, with emphasis on the exponential
intcgral solution describing
now. An appended discussion (Appendix B) of equation is called the diffusivity equation; the term dimcnsionless variables may be useful to some 0.OOO264klcf>Jlcis called the hydraulic diffusivity and
mathcmatical details are given in Appendix A for the in~tructor or student who wishes to develop greater lInderstanding. The equations are followed by a
terms in the basic differential
equation
(involving
radial,
unsteadystate
pressure gradients squared) are negligible. This
readcrsat this point.
of
radillsofinvestigation
sllperposition.
The chapter concludes with
a discussion of the
in
Superposition,
concept and of the principle
illustrated
frequently is given the symbol '7.
Eq. 1.1 is written in terms of field units. Pressure, p, feet; is in porosity, pounds per cf>,is square a fraction; inch (psi); viscosity, distance, Jl, r, is is in in
mlilt i\vell infinite reservoirs, is used to simulate simple reservoir boundaries and to simulate variable rate production histories. An approximate alter
native to superposition. Horner's "pseudopro diffusivity, '7,has units of square feet per hour.
dlldiml time," completes this discussion. A similar eqllation can be developed for the.adial now of a nonideal gas:
centipoise; compressibility, c, is in volume per
volume per psi [c=(I/p)
(dpldp)];
permeability, k,
is in millidarcies; time, t, is in hours; and hydraulic
1.2 The 
Ideal 
Reservoir Model 
I 
a 
a 
cf> 
a 

To .dcvelop a~alysis and design techniqu~s fo~ \~ell 
a 
(~ 
r 
£) 
= 0.000264 k at ( '!), 

tCStlllg, we first must make 
several simplifYing 
r 
r 
JlZ 
Z 
(1.2)
a~sumptiOJ1Sabout the well and reservoir that we are
nlOdcling. We Ilaturally
assllillptions thall are absolutely necessary to obtain sitllal simple, ion useful but solutions we obviously to equations can make describing no fewer our
make no more simplifying
where Zis the gaslaw deviation
factor.
For simultaneous now of oil, gas, and water,
I
a
a(r r
r
ap 
cf>c 
ap 

a)= r. 
O()(X)2~ 
, 
at' 
(1.3)
assllmptions. These a~sumptions are introduced as
where c, is the total systemcompressibility,
Ilccdcd, to comhine
(I)
the law of ~onservation of
c
(0 =S
c
0
+S
W c M ,+S
mass, (2) Darcy's law, and (3) equations of state to
achieve our objectives. This work is only outlined in and the total mobility ~, is the sum of the mobilities 'his cllapter; detail is provided in Appendix A and the of the individual phases:
g
c
P, +c.
f
(1.4)
~t
,
Refercnces. 
k 
k k 

Consider radial 
now toward 
a well 
in a circular 
.~,'= 
(.£ 
+ :.:.I.+ ~). 
(1.5) 
re~crvoir. If we comhine the law of conservation of Po Jlp, Pw 

ma~~ and Darcy's law for thc isothermal now of 
In Eq. 
1.4, So refers to oilphase saturation, Co to 

n\lid~ of small alld constant compressibility (a highly 
oilphase compressibility, ,,>,M'and c M'to water phasc, 

satisfactory model for singlephase now of reservoir 
S" and c" 
to p,asphase; and c f is the formation 
I '"l
h~
dcc,lill
lI.~"
~
~
;.;. 

FLUID FLOW IN POROUS 
MEDIA 
3 

compressibility. 
In 
Eq. 
1.5, 
ku i~ 
the 
effe\:live 
per 
al1u 
where Jl 
and 
YI 
are 
BI.'S~I.'I 
fun\:tion~. 
(Total 

meability 
to 
oil 
in 
lhe 
presence 
of 
the 
other 
phases, 
~ompre~sibililY, 
CI' 
is 
used 
in 
all 
equalion5 
in 
lhi5 

and 1J.0 is 
the 
oil 
viscosilY; k 
and 
p. 
refer 
to 
the 
gas 
chapter becau~e 
even 
formalions 
thaI 
produce 
a 

phase; and 
k wand 
p.w refer 
to 
tte 
water 
phase. 
singlephase oil 
contain 
an 
immobile 
waler 
pha5e 
and 

Because 
the 
formation 
is considered 
compre5sible 
have 
formatioll 
compre5~ibility.) 
(i.e., 
pore 
volume 
decreases as 
pressure 
decrea~es), 
The 
reader 
unfamiliar 
with 
Bessel 
function5 ~hould 

porosity 
is 
not 
a constanl 
in Eq. 
1.3 
as it was assumed 
not 
be alarmed 
at 
this equation. 
It 
will nor 
be 

to 
be 
in 
Eqs. 
1.1 
and 
1.2. 
necessary 
to 
use 
Eq. 
1.6 
in 
its complele 
form 
to 

, 
',' 
" 
calculate numerical 
values 
of 
Pw/; 
instead, we 
will 

1,3 Solutions 
to 
Dlffu~lvlty 
Equation 
use 
limiting 
forms 
of the 
50lutlon 
in 
mo~t 
com 

This 
section 
deals 
with 
useful 
solutions 
to 
the 
dif 
putations. 
The 
most 
imporlant 
facl 
about 
Eq. 
1.6 i5 

fll~ivity 
equation 
(Section 
1.2) 
uc~~ribing 
Ihe 
Ilow 
of 
that, 
unu\.'r 
the 
a5~umptioll~ 
nwdl.' in 
il~ 
dl.'v\.'lopnl\.'lll, 

a 
slightly 
compressible 
liquid 
in a 
porous 
medium. 
it 
i~ 
an exaci 
sohllion 
to 
Eq. 
1.1, 
It 
~ometime~ 
i~ 

We also 
have 
some 
comments 
on 
solutions 
to 
Eqs. 
called 
the 
van 
EverdingenHurst 
constantterminal 
1.2and 
1.3. 
rate 
solution.2 
Appendix 
C 
discusses 
this solution 

There are 
four 
solutions 
to 
Eq. 
1.1 
that 
are 
par 
more 
colllpletely. 
Because 
it 
is 
exacl, 
it 
serves 
a5 
a 

licularly useful 
in 
well 
resting: 
the solution 
for 
a 
standard 
wilh 
which 
we 
may 
compare 
more 
useful 

bounded cylindrical 
reservoir; 
the solution 
for 
an 
(but 
more 
approximate) 
solutions. 
One 
such ap 

infinite 
reservoir 
with 
a 
well 
considered 
to 
be a 
line 
proximate 
solution 
follows. 

sourcestate 
solution;with 
zeroand wellthe boresolutionradius;that theincludespseudosteadywell bore 
Infinite 
Cylindrical 
Reservoir 
With 
LineSource 
W~" 

storage for 
a 
well 
in 
an 
infinite 
reservoir. 
Before 
we 
Assume 
that 
(I) 
a 
well 
produces 
at 
a 
constant 
rate, 

discuss these 
solutions, 
however, 
we 
should 
sum 
qB; 
(2) the 
well 
has 
zero 
radius; 
(3) 
the 
reservoir 
is 
at 

marize 
the 
assumptions 
that 
were 
neces~ary 
to 
uniform 
pressure. 
Pi. before 
prodllction 
begins; 
and 

develop Eq. 
1.1: 
homogeneous 
and isotropic 
porous 
(4) 
the well 
drains 
an infinite 
area 
(i.e 
that PPi 
as 

medium of 
uniform 
thickness; 
pressureindependent 
, 
CX». 
Under 
those 
conditions. 
Ihe 
solution 
to Eq. 

rock 
and fluid 
properties; 
small 
pressure 
gradients; 
1.1 
is 
( 

radial 
flow; 
applicability 
of 
Darcy's 
law 
(sometimes 
qBp. 
' 948 ~p.CI,2 
) 

called 
laminar 
flow); 
and 
negligible 
gravity 
forces. 
P=Pi+70.6~ 
Ei 
k 
(1.7) 

We 
will introduce 
further 
as~umptions 
to obtain 
I 

solutions to 
Eq. 
1.1. 
where 
the 
new 
symbols 
are 
p, 
the 
pressure 
(psi) 
at 

distance, 
(feet) 
from 
the 
well 
at 
time 
I (hours). 
and 

Bounded Cylindrical 
Reservoir 
~ 
u 

Solution of 
Eq. 
1.1 
requires 
that we 
specify 
two 
Ei( 
x) 
= ~ 
~dl', 

boundary 
conditions 
and 
an 
initial 
condition. 
A 
x 
U 

realistic and 
practical 
solution 
is obtained 
if 
we 
the 
Ei function 
or 
exponential 
integral. 

assume that 
(1) a 
well 
produces 
at 
constant 
rate. 
qB. 
Before 
we examine 
the 
properties 
and 
implications 

into 
the well 
bore 
(q 
refers 
to 
flow 
rate 
in 
STB/D 
at 
of 
Eq. 1.7, 
we 
must 
answer 
a logical 
question: 
Since 

surface conditions, 
and 
B 
is 
the 
formation 
volume 
Eq. 
1.6 
is 
an 
exact 
solution 
and 
Since 
Eq. 
1.7 
clearly 

factor 
in RB/STB); 
(2) 
the 
well. 
with wellbore 
radius 
is 
based 
on idealized 
boundary 
conditions, 
when 
(if 

r w' 
is centered 
in 
a 
cylindrical 
reservoir 
of 
radius, 
e' 
ever) 
are 
pressures 
calculated 
at 
radius, 
w from Eq. 

and 
that there 
is 
no 
flow 
across 
this outer 
boundary; 
1.7 
satisfactory 
approximations 
to 
pressures 

and 
(3) before 
production 
begins, 
the 
reservoir 
is 
at 
calculated 
from 
Eq. 
1.67 
Analysis 
of these solutions 

uniform pressure. 
Pi. 
The 
most 
useful 
form of 
the 
shows3 
that 
the 
Eifunction 
solution 
is 
an accurate. 

desired solution 
relates 
flowing 
pressure, 
Pwf' at 
the 
approximation 
to 
the more 
exact 
solution 
for time 

sand face to 
time 
and 
to 
reservoir 
rock 
and 
fluid 
3.79x 
105 
<PIJ.CI'I~.lk<I<948 
<plJ.c,,;/k. 
For 
times 

properties.Thesolutioni~1 
lcss 
than 
3.79xlo5 
~/'C",~.lk, 
Ihe assllmption 
of 

qBIJ. 
[ 
21 
3 
ll.'ro 
well 
~ize 
(i.e 
a~~umillg 
the 
well 
10 be 
a line 

Pwf=Pi 
141.2 
2!!. 
+ 
In' eO SOllrcl.' 
or 
~ink) 
lilllil~ 
IIII.' 
uc\:uracy 
of IIII.' c'llluliull; 
,II 

kh 
'eO 
4 
times 
grealer 
than 
948 
<P1J.(.'/,;lk. 
Ihe 
reservoir's 

~ 
2 
ht)lllldari\.'s 
hl.'gill 
Iu afft.'\:1 
III\.' 
prl.'SSllrC 
distrihlili0l1 

+2E 
e",I/JJ1(u,,'eO) 
1. (1.6) 
~11 III.t.' rl.':il.'.rvoir,!;u 
tllulillt.' 
rt.'!;t.'rvuir 
i~ 110 
lulIgt.'r 

 n l 
a2rr2/ " 
[J l (a 
lIe ' 
\~12/~ O )J2 
1 (a 
n \ 1 »)j 
1111.ll1lteactll1g. f I 
. 
l. 
fi . 
f h 
I . 

A 
urt 
ler sImp 
I 
Icatlon 
0 
t 
e 
so 
utlon 
to t h e fl 
ow 

where. for 
efficiency 
and 
convenience. 
we 
have 
equation 
is possible: 
for x<0.02. 
Ei( 
x) 
can 
be 

introduced 
the dimensionless 
variables 
approximated 
with 
an error 
less 
than 
0.6070 by 

'eO='e/rw 
Ei(x)=ln(I.78Ix). 
, 
(1.8) 

and 
To 
evaluate 
the 
Ei 
function, 
we 
can 
use 
Table 
1.1 
for 

2 
0.02 
<XS 
10.9. 
For 
xsO.02, 
we 
use 
Eq. 
1.8; 
and 
for 

to=0.OOO464kl/~p.CI'W' 
x>10.9. 
Ei(x) 
can 
be 
considered 
zero 
for 
ap 

where 
the an 
are 
the roots 
of 
plications 
in well 
testing. 
Jl(an'eO)Yl(an)Jl(an)Yl(an'eO)
=0;
In
practice.
permeability
we
find
(damage)
thal
near
most
the
wells
well
have
bore
reduced
resulting
4 
, 
~ '""""" 
WELL TESTING 
~ 
 
from drilli'tg fracturing. wcll~ arc
its derivation holds the explicit assumption of uniform permeability throughout the drainage area
ofthewelluptothewellbore.
or colttplction opcralion~.
Many otllcr
or
~ti,nt,lalcu
Itydraillic
Eq. I. 7 fail~ to modcl such wcll~ properly;
by acidimtion
Hawkins4 pointed out
that if the damaged or stimulated zone is con~idered eqtlivalent to an altered zone of uniform permeability
(kf)
steadystate drop across radial this zone now (L\IJ.f)can equation (seeFig. be modeled 1.1). by Thus, the
and outer raditls (rs)'
the additional
pressure
q/lll. ~/J.f= 141.2'k' .f '
111(rflrlt.)
141.2~
qBp.
qBp.
'
=141.2~(k
In(rslr".)
k
s
1)ln(rslrw).
(1.9)
TABLE 1.1. VALUES 
OF THE EXPONENTIAL 
INTEGRAL, E/( 
x) 

EI 
( x), 
0.000 < 0.209, interval 
0.001 

x 
0 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

0:00 .;:;;; 
6:332 
5:639 
5:235 
~ 
~ 
4:545 
4:m 
4:259 
~ 

0.01 4.038 
3.944 
3.858 
3.779 
3.705 
3.637 
3.574 
3.514 
3.458 
3.405 

0.02 3.355 
3.307 
3.261 
3.218 
3.176 
3.137 
3.098 
3.062 
3.026 
2.992 

0.03 2.959 
2.927 
2.897 
2.867 
2.838 
2.810 
2.783 
2.756 
2.731 
2.706 

0.04 
2.681 
2.658 
2.634 
2.612 
2.590 
2.568 
2.547 
2.527 
2.507 
2.487 

0.05 
2.468 
2.449 
2.431 
2.413 
2.395 
2.377 
2.360 
2.344 
2.327 
2.311 

0.06 
2.295 
2.279 
2.264 
2.249 
2.235 
2.220 
2.206 
2.192 
2.178 
2.164 

0.072.151 
2.138 
2.125 
2.112 
2.099 
2.087 
2.074 
2.062 
2.050 
2.039 

0.08 
2.027 
2.015 
2.004 
1.993 
1.982 
1.971 
1.960 
1.950 
1.939 
1.929~ 

, 
0.09 0.10 
1.823 1.919 
1.909 1.814 
1.899 1.805 
1.889 1.796 
1.879 1.788 
1.869 1.779 
1.770 1.860 
1.850 1.762 
1.841 1.754 
1.745 1.832 

0.11 
1.737 
1.729 
1.721 
1.713 
1.705 
1.697 
1.689 
1.682 
1.674 
1.667 

'" 
0.12 
1.660 
1.652 
1.645 
1.638 
1.631 
1.623 
1.616 
1.609 
1.603 
1.596 

0.131.589 
1.582 
1.576 
1.569 
1.562 
1.556 
1.549 
1.543 
1.537 
1.530 

0.14 
1.524 
1.518 
1.512 
1.506 
1.500 
1.494 
1.488 
1.482 
1.476 
1.470 

0.15 
1.464 
1.459 
1.453 
1.447 
1.442 
1.436 
1.431 
1.425 
1.420 
1.415 

0.16 
1.409 
1.404 
1.399 
1.393 
1.388 
1.383 
1.378 
1.373 
1.368 
1.363 

0.17 
1.358 
1.353 
1.348 
1.343 
1.338 
1.333 
1.329 
1.324 
1.319 
1.314 

0.18 
1.310 
1.305 
1.301 
1.296 
1.291 
1.287 
1.282 
1.278 
1.274 
1.269 

0.19 
1.265 
1.261 
1.256 
1.252 
1.248 
1.243 
1.239 
1.235 
1.231 
1.227 

0.20 
1.223 
1.219 
1.215 
1.210 
1.206 
1.202 
1.198 
1.195 
1.191 
1.187 

Ei( 
x), 
O.OO<x< 2.09, Interval 
= 0.01 

0.0 
+ ~ 
4.038 
3.335 
2.959 
2.681 
2.468 
2.295 
2.151 
2.027 
1.919 

0.1 
1.823 
1.737 
1.660 
1.589 
1.524 
1.464 
1.409 
1.358 
1.309 
1.265 

0.21.2231.1831.1451.1101.0761.0441.0140.9850.9570.931 

0.3 0.906 
0.882 
0.858 
0.836 
0.815 
0.794 
0.774 
0.755 
0.737 
0.719 

0.4 0.702 
0.686 
0.670 
0.655 
0.640 
0.625 
0.611 
0.598 
0.585 
0.572! 
0.5 
0.560 
0.548 
0.536 
0.525 
0.514 
0.503 0.493 
0.483 
0.473 
0.464 

" 
0.6 
0.454 
0.445 
0.437 
0.428 
0.420 
0.412 0.404 
0.396 
0.388 
0.381 

'.' 
0.7 
0.374 
0.367 
0.360 
0.353 
0.347 
0.340 0.334 
0.328 
0.322 
0.316 

lc 
0.8 
0.311 
0.305 
0.300 
0.295 
0.289 
0.284 0.279 
0.274 
0.269 
0.265 

0.9 
0.260 
0.256 
0.251 
0.247 
0.243 
0.239 0.235 
0.231 
0.227 
0.223 

1.0 
0.219 
0.216 
0.212 
0.209 
0.205 
0.202 0.198 
0.195 
0.192 
0.189 

1.1 0.186 
0.183 
0.180 
0.177 
0.174 
0.172 0.169 
0.166 
0.164 
0.161 

1.2 0.158 
0.156 
0.153 
0.151 
0.149 
0.146 0.144 
0.142 
0.140 
0.138 

1.30.1350.1330.1310.1290.1270.1250.1240.1220.1200.118 

1.4 
0.116 
0.114 
0.113 
0.111 
0.109 
0.108 0.106 
0.105 
0.103 
0.102 

1.5 
0.1000 
0.0985 
0.0971 
0.0957 
0.0943 
0.0929 0.0915 
0.0902 
0.0889 
0.0876 

1.6 
0.0863 
0.0851 
0.0838 
0.0826 
0.0814 
0.0802 0.0791 
0.0780 
0.0768 
0.0757 

1.7 
0.0747 
0.0736 
0.0725 
0.0715 
0.0705 
0.0695 0.0685 
0.0675 
0.0666 
0.0656 

1.8 
0.0647 
0.0638 
0.0629 
0.0620 
0.0612 
0.0603 0.0595 
0.0586 
0.0578 
0.0570 

1.9 
0.0562 
0.0554 
0.0546 
0.0539 
0.0531 
0.0524 0.0517 
0.0510 
0.0503 
0.0496 

2.0 
0.0489 
0.0482 
0.0476 
0.0469 
0.0463 
0.0456 0.0450 
0.0444 
0.0438 
0.0432 

2.0<x< 10.9, Interval 
= 0.1 

x 
0 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

2 
4.sgx1Q=~ 4.26 x 10~~ 
mx1r 
3:2W0=2 2.84x1~2 
2.49x 10~ 2.19x 10 2 '1:92X~ 
1.69x 10 2 
1.48x 10 2 

3 
1.30x102 
1.15x102 
1.01x102 
8.94x103 7.89x103 
6.87x103 6.16x103 
5.45xI03 
4.82x103 
4.27x102 

4 
3.78x103 
3.35xI03 
2.97x103 
2.64x103 2.34x103 
2.07x103 1.84x103 
1.~x103 
1.45x103 
1.29x103 

5 
1.15x103 
1.02x103 
9.08x104 
8.09x104 7.19x104 
6.41x104 5.71x104 
5.09x104 
4.53x104 
4.04x104 

6 
3.60xI04 
3_21x104 
2.86xI04 
2.55x104 228x104 
2.03x104 1.82x104 
1.62x104 
1.45x104 
1.29x104 

7 
1.15xI04 
1.03x104 
9.22x105 
8.24x105 7.36x105 
6.58x105 5.89x105 
5.26x105 
4.71x105 
4.21x105 

8 
3.77x105 
3.37x105 
3.02x105 
2.70x105 2.42x105 
2.16x105 1.94x105 
1.73x105 
1.55x105 
1.39x105 

9 
1.24x105 
1.11x105 
9.99x106 
895)(106 B02x106 
7.1Bx108 6.44)(106 
5.77x108 
5.17x108 
4.64x108 

10 
4.15x108 3.73x106 3.34)(106 3.00x106 2.68x106 
2.41)(108 2.16x108 
1.94,<106 
1.74x108 
1.56x106 
.Adapl@d'rom Nlsle, RG.: "How ToUseTheExpon@nlialinleoral," Pel Eng.(~uO. 1956)8171.173.
FLUID FLOW IN POROUS
MEDIA
5,.:
t 
I 
fonnation the damage extelld~, tll~ larger the numerical value of s. There is no uPI1Crlimit for ~'. 

P 
Some newly drilled wells will not flow at all before stimulation; for these wells, ks =0 and s~. If a well is stimulated (ks >k), s will be negative, and the deeper the stimulation, the greater the numeril.:al 

~e 
value of s. Rarely does a stimulated well have a skin 

S 
factor less than 7 or 8, and such skin factors 

f? 
arise only for wells with deeply penetrating, highly 

W 
I 
conductive hydraulic fractures. We should notc finally that, if a well is neither damaged nor 

r 
~ 
stimulated (k=ks)' s;O. We caution the reader that 

W 
S 
Eq. 1.10 is best applied qualitatively; actual wells 

rarely can be characterized exactly by such a sim 

r 
Before plified model. leaving the discussion of skin factor, we 
F' Ig,
1 1
S
h
t'
.w~II~~r~,'c
0 f pressuredistribution ' , , near
should point out that an altered zone near a par
ticular well affects only the pressure near that well
i.c.,
from tile well is 110laffected by the I.'xi~ll.'l1l.:cof till.' altered zone. Said another way, we use Eq. I. II to
away
the pressure in the unaltered formation
Eq. 1.9 simply states that the pressure drop in the calculate pressures at the sandface of a well with an altered zone is inversely proportional to k rather altered zone, but we useEq. 1.7 to calculate pressures
than to k and that a correction to the pressur: drop in 
beyond the altered zone in the formation surroun 

this region (which assumed the same permeability, k, 
ding 
the well. We have presented no simple equations 

as in 
the 
rest of 
the 
reservoir) 
must 
be made. 
that 
can be used to calculate pressures for radiu!i, r, 
Combining Eqs. 1.7 and 1.9, we find thalthe pressuredrop at the wellbore is
tolal
pjPwf=
70.6~
qBJJ.
.
E,
(
948 tPlJoCtr~
kt
) +Aps
;
70.6
~
q B
JJ.,
[
E,
(
kt
948.1. c r2 )
'I'll
t
w
2
_{(}
_{k}
I ks
) ( r s )]
In
. r w
For r=rw, the argument of the Ei function is suf ficiently small after a short time that we can use the
logarithmic approximation;
[
In
thus, the drawdowl1 i!i ( 1,688 tPJJ.ctr~,,)
k
t,
pjPwf
qBJJ.
70.6:
kh
_{(}
_{k}
k I
)
In
( r s )J
. w It is convenient to define a skin factor, s, in terms of the properties of the equivalent altered zone:
 (~ 
$
_{k}
)
Iln.
s
( ~ )
r
(1.10)
2
s
rw
Thus, the drawdown is
pjPwf
qBJJ.
70.6
kh
[
In
(
1,688tPJJ.Ct"~
kl
)
2s.
]
(1.11)
Eq. 1.10 provides some insight into the physical
If a well is
damaged (ks <k), s will be positive, and the greater
significance of the sign of the skin factor.
the contrast between ks and k and the deeperinto the
rr
~llchthatrw<r<.rs,butthiswilloffernodifficultic!i In well test analysIs.
Example
1.JCalculation
of Pressures
Beyondthe WellboreUsing the EiFunction Solution
Problem.
characteristics: The well is producing only oil;
A well and reservoir have the following
it
is
producing
at a constant rate of 20 STB/D.
Data
describing the well and formation are
Il 
; 
0.72 cp, .1 pSI 

k; 
0.1 md'_5 

c, 
; 
1.5 x 10 

Pj 
; 
3,000 psi, 

r I! 
; 
3,()()()It, , 

rw 
; 
0.5 ft, 

Bo 
; 
1.475RB/STB, 

h 
; 
150 ft, 

tP ; 
0.23, and 

s ; 
o. 

ft
after 3 hours of production; then, calculate the
pressur~ at radii of 10 and produl.:tlon.
Calculate the reservoir pressure at a radius of
I
100 ft after
3 hours of
Solution. The Ei
toflowequationsuntilt>3.79XI05tPIlCtr~,,/k.Here,
function is not an accurate solution
3
79x 
105tP 
~ 

.IlC 
t w = [(3.79 x 105)(0.23)(0.72) 

k 

.(1.5x 
105)(0.5)2]/(0.1) 

; 
235 <I; 
3 hours 
Thus, we can useEq. 1.7 with satisfactory accuracy if
6
,,":;,
",j""
WELL
the
rl'~l'rvoir
1/>1(("";1 k.
re~ervoir
will
is
still
act
infinite
a~ an infinite
acting
at this
time.
reservoir
until
1 >
Here,
948 cf>1Lc,r~
k = r (948)(0.23)(0.72)
.(1.5
x
10
5)(3,000)2
J/0.3
=
211
,900
hours.
Thll~, for
Eq.
1.7.
At
times
~css than
a radius
of
1ft,
211,900
hours,
p=p.
+ 70.6
I
qB1L
kl,
£1 . ( 948cf>1LC,r2
kl
)
we
can
The
948
use
(70.6)(20)(1.475)(0.72)
=3,000+
(0.1)(150)
^{.}^{E}^{i}^{l}^{}^{(}^{9}^{4}^{8}^{)}^{(}^{0}^{.}^{2}^{3}^{)}^{(}^{0}^{.}^{7}^{2}^{)}^{(}^{1}^{.}^{5}^{X} 
^{1}^{0}^{}^{5}^{)}^{(}^{1}^{)}^{2} 

(0.1)(3) 

= 3,()()() + (1()(»Ei(0.007849) 

=3,000+ 
100 In [(1.781)(0.007849») 

=3,000+(100)(4.27) 

= 2,573 
psi. 
., decline 

At a radius 
of 
10 ft, 

p = 3,000 
+ 
100 

.E, 1 (948)(0.23)(0.72)(1.5X (0.1 )(3) 
105)(10)2 
.pressure, 

= 
3,000 
+ 
100 E,( 
0.7849) 
= 
3,000 
+ (100)( 
0.318) 
]
]
= 
2,968 
.drainage pSI. 

In 
t!lis calculation, 
we 
find 
the 
value 
of 
the 

fll11rt ion from 
Tablc 
1.1, 
Note, 
a~ 
indicated 
in 
tablc,
that
it is a negative
At a radius
of
100 ft,

p,
3
000
+
I 00
quantity.
.£)(948)(0.23)(0.72)(1.5XIO5)(IOO)2
t.
= 3,000
+
100 Ei(
(0.1)(3)
78.49)
]
Ei
tIle
= 3,()()() psi.
Ilcrc
function
P~l"ldosteadyState
next
wc
notc
tllat
for
an
argul1lcnt
We
diffusivity
is essentially
to
the
zero.
Solution.
radial
~olution
of
now
7R.49,
tile
discuss
equation
Ei
the
that
we will
analysi~.
~tate~olution)isnotnew.ltissimplyalimitingform
use extensively
Actually,
in this
introduction
(the
this
solution
to well
test
pseudosteady
TESTING
of 
Eq. 1.6, 
which 
de~cribes 
pressure 
behavior 
with 

time 
for 
a 
well centered 
in a cylindrical 
reservoir of 

radius r (" 
The limiting 
form 
of 
interest 
is that 
which 

is valid 
for 
large times, 
so 
that 
the 
summation 
in 

volving 
exponentials 
and 
Bessel 
functions 
is 

negligible; 
after this 
time 
(I >948 
cf>1(C,r~/k), 

qB1L 
_{(}_{2}_{1} _{D} 
_{3} 
P,vfPi141.2
or
_{=} _{.}_{}_{1}_{4}_{1}_{.}_{2}_{~}
P1vf
P,
kl,
r y+lnrl'n, l'D
l 0.000527kl
kh
cf>1Lc,r~
4
)
+In _{(} _{r} _{(}_{'} _{)} 
3 
1 
(1.12) 

r II' 
4 

Note 
!h~t during 
thi~ 
time period 
we find, by 
dif 
ferentlatlng Eq. 1.12, 

a ~ al 
=~=Li.0 0744 B ct>c,hr(' 

Since 
the liquidfilled 
pore volume 
of the reservoir, 

V p (cubic feet), is 

V p 
= ?I,I. "(' ,#" 

then 

~ 
0.234qB c,Vp. 

ot 
(1.13) 

Thus, 
during is this inversely 
time period, proportional 
the to rate the of pressure liquidfilled 

pore 
volume V p. 
This 
result leads 
to a form of 
well 
te~ting 
sometimes 
called reservoir limits testing, 

which 
seeks to determine 
reservoir 
size from the 
rate 

of pressure decline 
in a wellbore 
with time. 

Another form of 
Eq. 
1.12 is 
useful for some 
ap 

plications. It i~volves 
replacing 
origi!,al !es.ervoir 

Pi' with 
average pressure, P, within 
the 

drainage 
volume of 
the 
well. 
The
material
resulting
!lours
ft]
is
PiP=
volumetric 
average pressure 
within 
the 

volume 
of 
the 
well 
can 
be 
found 
from 

balance. 
The pressure 
decrease 
(Pi 
p) 
from
[a total
~V
=
c, V
removal 
of 
qB 
RB/D 
of 
fluid 
for 
t 

volume 
removed 
of 
5.615 
qB (1124) 
cu 

5.615 
qB(1124) 

2 
c, ( 7rr(' I,cf>)
=~~~~j~.
cf>c,hr('
Substituting
in
Eq.
1.12,
or
Pwf=P+
qBt
0.0744
1.
1.2
h
4>c, r~
141.2ln
qBp. l
kh
PP
B
1=141.2~ln(~).
kh
w
_{~}

0.0744
qBt
L
ct>c,h 1.2 r~
( r ('
,
r w
)
3
4
J
rH,
_{3}
4
]
(1.14)
(1.15)
I
FLUID FLOW IN POROUS
MEDIA
7
Eqs. 1.12 and 1.15 become more useful in practice if
formation
volume factor is 1.5RI3/STB.
they include a skin factor to account for the fact that 
1. 
Estimate the productivity 
index for 
the tl:~tl:d 

most wells are either damaged or stimulated. 
For 
well. 

example, in Eq. 1.15, 
2. 
Estimate 
formation permeability 
from 
thl:~1: 
i
B
PPwj=141.2~111(!.) kh
~
r
r w
3 ]
4
+(Ap)
I 31
re
rw
4
B IJ.
q
PPwj=141.2ln()+s,
kh
d
an
qBIJ.
P;Pwj141.2
.I.
[0.000527 kt
kh
cPlJ.c,re 2
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