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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5

CHAPTER 5: POLYNOMIAL AND RATIONAL FUNCTIONS


5.1) Quadratic Functions
A general form of quadratic function is
c bx ax x f + +
2
) (
where
c b a , ,
are real
numbers and 0 a . The graph of any quadratic function is a parabola.

axis of symmetry vertex (max value)

vertex (minimum value)

opens upward ( 0 > a ) opens downward ( 0 < a )
The standard form of quadratic function is :
0 , ) ( ) (
2
+ a k h x a x f
and the graph
of quadratic function is:
a) y
f(x)= a(x - h)
2
+ k
(after several transformation)

f(x) = x
2
vertex (h,k)
x





a > 0
b) y

x
f(x) = - x
2

vertex (h,k)
f(x)= - a(x - h)
2
+ k (after several transformation)

a < 0
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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
Example:
Graph the quadratic functions below:
a)
1 ) 3 ( ) (
2
+ + x x f
b)
8 ) 3 ( 2 ) (
2
+ x x f
solution :
a)
1 ) 3 ( ) (
2
+ + x x f

k h x a x f +
2
) ( ) (
0 1 > a (the graph is opens upward) , h = -3 , k = 1 vertex = (h,k) = (-3,1)
Intercepts :
10 1 3 0 0 0
2
+ + ) ( ) ( f y , x
y intercept = (0,10)
Graph : y


10 1 ) 3 ( ) (
2
+ + x x f

1

-3 x
b)
8 ) 3 ( 2 ) (
2
+ x x f k h x a x f +
2
) ( ) (
0 2 < a (the graph is opens downward) ,
h = 3 , k = 8 vertex = (h,k) = (3,8)
Intercepts :
10 8 3 0 2 0 0
2
+ ) ( ) ( f y , x

y intercept = (0,-10)

1 or 5 2 3 4 3 0 8 3 2 0
2 2
t + x x ) x ( ) x ( , y
x intercept = (5,0) and (1,0)
Graph: y
8 ) 3 ( 2 ) (
2
+ x x f
8

1 3 5 x
10

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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
Graphing quadratic functions of the form f(x ) = ax
2
+ bx + c
Let:
c bx ax x f + +
2
) (
By completing the square, we obtain:
a
b ac
a
b
x a
c
a
b
a
b
x a
c
a
b
a
b
x a
c x
a
b
x a x f
4
4
2

4 2

2 2

) (
2
2
2
2
2 2
2

+
,
_

+
+
,
_

+
+
1
1
]
1

,
_


,
_

+
+
,
_

+
Comparing this form with the standard form of quadratic function :
0 , ) ( ) (
2
+ a k h x a x f
we obtain:
a
b ac
k
a
b
h
4
4
,
2
2


so the vertex of the graph is :
(h, k) =

,
_

,
_

,
_

a
b
f
a
b
a
b ac
a
b
2
,
2
or
4
4
,
2
2
Example: Graph the quadratic function :
3 2 ) (
2
x x x f
Solution:
Given :
3 2 ) (
2
x x x f
where : a = 1 , b = -2 , c = -3
The graph is opens upward (a > 0),
1
) 1 ( 2
) 2 (
2


a
b
h
,
4 3 2 1 ) 1 ( f k
, vertex = (1,-4).
Intercept:
3 ) 0 ( , 0 f y x
y intercept = (0,-3)
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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5

1 or 3 0 ) 1 )( 3 ( 0 3 2 , 0
2
+ x x x x x y
x-intercept = (3,0) and (-1,0)
Graph :
y
3 2 ) (
2
x x x f


-1 1 3 x

-3
-4


Exercise:
Graph the function : a)
2
4 6 ) ( x x x f +
b)
10 3 ) (
2
+ x x x g
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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
5.2) Polynomial Functions and Their Graphs.
A polynomial function in one variable x with degree n is given as :
0 1
1
1
......... ) ( a x a x a x a x f
n
n
n
n
+ + + +

where
0 1 1
, ,......., , a a a a
n n
are real numbers (called the coefficient) and
0
n
a
is called
leading coefficient (the coefficient with the highest power of x)
Example:
Polynomial function f(x) Degree
n
Leading coefficient
a
n
1 6 5 ) (
3 2
+ + + x x x x f
3 6
5 2 9 7 ) (
4 2
+ + x x x x f
4 9
4 8 ) (
3 2
+ x x x f
3 -8
3 4
4 2 ) ( x x x f +
4 -2
4 2
) 4 ( ) 1 ( 3 ) ( x x x f
6 -3
3 2
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) ( + x x x f
5 1
The graph of polynomial functions.
Polynomial functions of degree 2 or less have either a parabola or lines. The graph of
polynomial function of degree more than 2 is a curve.
Important features of the graph of polynomial function
i) Smooth: The graph contains anly rounded curve , no sharp corner.
ii) Continous : The graph has no gaps/breaks (can be drawn without
lifting your pencil)
Examples:
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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
a) y
smooth & continous.
The graph of polynomial
function

x



b) y


smooth but not continous
this is not a graph of
x polynomial function.



c)


Sharp corner not a graph of
polynomial function.


Sharp corner


The Leading Coefficient Test (LCT)
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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
How to determine whether the graph of polynomial function goes up or down at each end?
The behavior of the graph at each end is called the end behavior of the graph.
Let :
0 1
1
1
......... ) ( a x a x a x a x f
n
n
n
n
+ + + +

as
x
or
x
, the graph of f(x) is either rises or falls.
By using Leading Coefficient Test (LCT) , if :
Degree , n Leading Coefficient, a
n
End behavior of the graph
Odd
a
n
> 0
The graph falls to the left and rises to
the right
a
n
< 0 The graph rises to the left and falls to
the right
Even
a
n
> 0
The graph rises to the left and rises to
the right
a
n
< 0 The graph falls to the left and falls to
the right
Example:
Use the Leading Coefficient Test to determine the end behavior of the graph :
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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
a)
3 3 ) (
2 3
+ x x x x f
solution:
since that 3 n (odd) and
0 1 >
n
a
, then the graph of f(x) falls to the left and rises to the
right.
b)
2 4
4 ) ( x x x f
solution:
since that 4 n (even) and
0 1 >
n
a
, then the graph of f(x) rises to the left and rises to
the right.
c)
3 5 ) (
2 3
+ x x x x f
solution:
since that 3 n (odd) and
0 1 <
n
a
, then the graph of f(x) rises to the left and falls to
the right.
d)
2 2
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) ( + x x x f
solution:
since that 4 n (odd) and
0 1 <
n
a
, then the graph of f(x) falls to the left and falls to
the right.
Zeros of polynomial function
If
0 1
1
1
......... ) ( a x a x a x a x f
n
n
n
n
+ + + +

then the zeros of polynomial f(x) is the


values of x for which f(x) = 0 . (also called the roots or the solutions)
Example:
Find all zeros of the polynomial functions below:
a)
3 3 ) (
2 3
+ x x x x f
b)
2 3 4
4 4 ) ( x x x x f +
solution:
a) To get the zeros of f(x), set :
0 ) ( x f
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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
0 3 3
2 3
+ x x x
solve for x :
0 ) 3 ( ) 3 (
2
+ + x x x
(factoring by grouping)
0 ) 3 )( 1 )( 1 ( 0 ) 3 )( 1 (
2
+ + + x x x x x
1 0 1 + x x
1 0 1 x x
3 0 3 + x x
The zeros of
) x ( f
: {-1, 1, -3}
b) To get the zeros of f(x), set :
0 ) ( x f
0 4 4
2 3 4
+ x x x
solve for x
0 ) 2 ( 0 ) 4 4 (
2 2 2 2
+ x x x x x
(factor completely)
2 0 2 or 0 x x x
The zeros of
) x ( f
: {0, 2}
The multiplicity of the zeros and its behavior.
Let :
0 ) (
k
r x
where k is an even or odd integer number which is called the multiplicity.
If :
r is a zero of even multiplicity then the graph touches the x-axis and turn around
at r.
r r r r
r is a zero of odd multiplicity then the graph crosses the x-axis at r.
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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
r r r r

Note: The graphs tend to flatten out at zeros with multiplicity greater than one.
Example :
Find the zeros for each polynomial function and give the multiplicity for each zero.
a)
2 2
) 2 ( ) ( x x x f
b)
2
) 2 )( 5 ( 3 ) ( + + x x x f
solution :
a) set:
0 ) 2 ( 0 ) (
2 2
x x x f

0 ) 2 ( or 0
2 2
x x
0 x (repeated with multiplicity, k = 2)
2 x (repeated with multiplicity, k = 2)
The graph touches x-axis at 0 and turn around.
The graph touches x-axis at 2 and turn around
0 2
b) set:
0 ) 2 )( 5 ( 3 0 ) (
2
+ + x x x f

0 ) 2 ( or 0 ) 5 (
2
+ + x x
5 x (with multiplicity, k = 1)
2 x (with multiplicity, k = 2)
The graph touches x-axis at -2 and turn around.
The graph crosses x-axis at 5.
-5 -2
Turning points of polynomial functions
Definition:
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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
A turning point is a point where the graph changes either from increasing to decreasing
or from decreasing to increasing.
If f(x) is a polynomial function of degree n then the graph of f(x) has at most (n 1)
turning points.
maximum turning point = (n 1)
Example:

y




x




Turning point
Turning point
There are 4 turning points from the graph above.
Example:
If
3 3 ) (
2 3
+ x x x x f
then the graph of f(x) has at most 2 turning points.
(n 1) = 3 1 = 2
Example:
If
2 2
) 2 ( ) ( x x x f
then the graph of f(x) has at most 3 turning points.
(n 1) = 4 1 = 3
Graphing Polynomial Functions
Steps:
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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
(1) Determine end behavior.
(2) Find the zeros of polynomial ( f(x) = 0) and check the multiplicity at each zero.
(3) Find y-intercept (x = 0).
(4) Check the symmetry of the graph f(x).
(5) Check the maximum number of turning points.
(6) Sketch the graph.
Examples:
Graph the following polynomial functions:
(a)
1 2 ) (
2 4
+ x x x f
solution :
i) since that 4 n (even) and
0 1 >
n
a
, then the graph of f(x) rises to the left and
rises to the right.
ii) Zeros of polynomial : f(x) = 0
0 ) 1 ( ) 1 (
0 ) 1 (
0 ) 1 )( 1 (
0 1 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 4
+


+
x x
x
x x
x x
then :
0 ) 1 ( or 0 ) 1 (
2 2
+ x x

2) ity, (multiplic 1 or 2) ity, (multiplic 1 k x k x
The graph of f(x) touches x-axis at 1 and turn around.
The graph of f(x) touches x-axis at 1 and turn around.
-1 1
iii) y-intercept : x = 0
1 ) 0 ( f y
; (0,1)
iv) check the symmetry :
) ( 1 2 1 ) ( 2 ) ( ) (
2 4 2 4
x f x x x x x f + +
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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
even function, symmetry to y axis.
v) Maximum turning point = (n - 1) = (4 1) = 3
vi) Graph:
y

f(x) = x
4
2x
2
+1

1


-1 1 x


b) 2 2 ) (
2 3
+ x x x x f
solution:
i) since that 3 n (odd) and
0 1 >
n
a
, then the graph of f(x) falls to the left and
rises to the right.
ii) Zeros of polynomial : f(x) = 0
0 ) 2 )( 1 )( 1 (
0 ) 2 )( 1 (
0 ) 2 ( ) 2 (
0 2 2
2
2
2 3
+ +
+
+ +
+
x x x
x x
x x x
x x x
then :
0 ) 2 ( or 0 ) 1 ( or 0 ) 1 ( + + x x x

1) ( 2 or ) 1 ( 1 or ) 1 ( 1 k x k x k x
The graph of f(x) crosses x-axis at 1, -1 and -2.
-2 -1 1x
iii) y-intercept : x = 0
2 ) 0 ( f y
; (0,-2)
iv) check the symmetry :
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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
) ( ) (
) 2 2 (
2 2 2 ) ( ) ( 2 ) ( ) (
2 3
2 3 2 3
x f x f
x x x
x x x x x x x f

+
+ + +
neither function, not symmetry to y-axis or to the origin.
v) Maximum turning point is (n - 1) = (3 1) = 2
vi) Graph:
y

f(x) = x
3
+ 2x
2
x - 2



-2 -1 1 x


-2


c)
4 2
4 ) ( x x x f
d)
5 3
6 ) ( x x x x f
e) 1 ) (
4
x x f
5.3) Dividing Polynomials: Remainder and Factor Theorem
Long Division
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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
Let f(x) be a polynomial function with degree n and d(x) is a polynomial function with
degree n and
0 ) ( x d
. Then :
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
x d
x r
x q
x d
x f
+
,
0 ) ( x d
or
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( x r x d x q x f +
where:
) (x q
the quotient ;
) (x r
the remainder ;
) (x d
the divisor
Illustration for long division:
) (
) (

) ( ) (
x q
x r
x f x d
Examples:
a) Divide 21 10
2
+ + x x by 3 + x

7
0
21 7
21 7
3
21 10 3
2
2
+
+
+
+
+ + +
x
x
x
x x
x x x

7
3
0
7
3
21 10
2
+
+
+ +
+
+ +

x
x
x
x
x x

remainder
quotient
divisor
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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
b) Divide 45 14
2
+ + x x by 9 + x

5
0
45 5
45 5
9
45 14 9
2
2
+
+
+
+
+ + +
x
x
x
x x
x x x
5
9
45 14
2
+
+
+ +
x
x
x x


c) Divide
3 2
6 5 4 x x x + by 2 3 x

1 2
2
2 3
4 3 -
2 3
5 3
4 6
4 5 6 2 3
2
2
2
2 3
2 3
+
+
+

+
x x
x
x
x x
x x
x x
x x x x


2 3
2
1 2
2 3
6 5 4
2
3 2

+ +

x
x x
x
x x x

remainder
quotient
remainder
quotient
d) Divide
10 7 3 2
3 4
+ x x x
by
x x 2
2

e) Divide
20 27 17 6
2 3
+ + + x x x
by 4 3 + x
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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
Synthethic Division
Synthethic division can be used to divide any polynomial if the divisor is of the
form
c x
.
Example:
a) Divide by using synthethic division :
5 5 4
2 3
+ + x x x
by 3 x
( c = 3)
3
53
16 7
3
5 5 4
2
2 3

+ + +

+ +
x
x x
x
x x x
b) Divide by using synthethic division :
8 6 5
3
+ + x x
by 2 + x
( c = -2)
2
44
26 10 5
2
8 6 5
2
3
+

+ +
+
+ +
x
x x
x
x x
c) Divide by using synthethic division :
1 3 4 2 6
2 3 5
+ + x x x x
by 2 x
( c = 2)
2
187
93 48 22 12 6
2
1 3 4 2 6
2 3 4
2 3 5

+ + + + +

+ +
x
x x x x
x
x x x x
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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
d) Divide by using synthethic division :
12 10
3 5 7
+ + x x x
by 2 + x

+
+ +
2
12 10
3 5 7
x
x x x
e) Divide by using synthethic division :
20 27 17 6
2 3
+ + + x x x
by 4 3 + x

+
+ + +
4 3
20 27 17 6
2 3
x
x x x
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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
The Remainder Theorem.
If the polynomial f(x) is divided by x c then the remainder is f(c).
Example:
Given
3 5 4 ) (
2 3
+ + x x x x f
, use the remainder theorem to find
) 2 ( f
. Interpret the
result.
Solution:
5 3 ) 2 ( 5 ) 2 ( 4 ) 2 ( ) 2 (
2 3
+ + f
from the remainder theorem :
5 is a remainder when
3 5 4 ) (
2 3
+ + x x x x f
is divided by x 2.
Example:
Find the remainder if
6 5 7 ) (
2 3
+ x x x x f
is divided by x 3.
Solution:
c = 3 , the remainder is :
27 6 ) 3 ( 5 ) 3 ( 7 ) 3 ( ) 3 (
2 3
+ f
The Factor Theorem.
Let f(x) be a polynomial
f(c) = 0 x c is a factor of f(x)
Example:
) ( h of factor a is ) 1 2 ( 0 ) 2 / 1 (
) ( of factor a is ) 5 ( 0 ) 5 (
) ( of factor a is ) 3 ( 0 ) 3 (
x x h
x g x g
x f x f

+

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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
Example:
Given that 3 is a zero of
6 11 3 2 ) (
2 3
+ x x x x f
. Find the other factor of f(x) and
solve the equation
0 6 11 3 2
2 3
+ x x x
.
Solution:
3 is a zero of
6 11 3 2 ) (
2 3
+ x x x x f

0 ) 3 ( f
0 ) 3 ( f
x 3 is a factor of f(x)
To find the other factor of f(x) , use synthetic division :
) 2 3 2 )( 3 ( 6 11 3 2
2 3 2
3
6 11 3 2
2 2 3
2
2 3
+ +
+

+
x x x x x x
x x
x
x x x
Therefore:
) 2 )( 1 2 )( 3 ( ) 2 3 2 )( 3 ( 6 11 3 2 ) (
2 2 3
+ + + x x x x x x x x x x f
so, the other factors are
) 1 2 ( x
and
) 2 ( + x
.
2 or 2 / 1 or 3
0 ) 2 )( 1 2 )( 3 (
0 6 11 3 2 ) (
2 3

+
+
x x x
x x x
x x x x f
solutions: {3, , -2}
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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
5.4) Rational Functions and Their Graphs
Definition:
A function of the form :
0 ) ( ,
) (
) (
) ( x q
x q
x p
x f
where p(x) and q(x) are polynomial functions with no common factors is called a rational
function.
The domain of f(x) is :
} 0 ) ( { x q x
Example:
Find the domain of :
a)
3
) (

x
x
x f b)
9
) (
2

x
x
x g
solution :
a)
3
) (

x
x
x f ,
} 3 { } 0 3 { x x x x D
f
b)
9
) (
2

x
x
x g
,
} 3 , 3 { } 0 ) 3 )( 3 ( { } 0 9 {
2
+ x x x x x x x D
g
Arrow notation :
Symbol Meaning
+
a x
x approaches a from the right

a x
x approaches a from the left
x
x decreases without bound
x
x increases without bound
Consider the graph of rational function :
x
x f
1
) (
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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5

y




0 x






From the graph :
As x increases without bound, the
graph f(x) approaches 0
0 ) ( , x f x
As x decreases without bound, the
graph f(x) approaches 0
0 ) ( , x f x
As x approaches 0 from the right,
the graph f(x) increases without
bound

+
) ( , 0 x f x
As x approaches 0 from the left,
the graph f(x) decreases without
bound


) ( , 0 x f x
Example:
Given a graph below:
y

y = f(x)


-3 0 3 x



a) As
+
+
) ( , 3 x f x
, as


) ( , 3 x f x
b) As
+
+
) ( , 3 x f x
, as


) ( , 3 x f x
c) As
0 ) ( , 0
+
x f x
, as
0 ) ( , 0

x f x
d) As
0 ) ( , + x f x
, as
0 ) ( , x f x
Asymptotes of Rational Functions.
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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
When a curve does not touches or crosses the certain line but only approaches to
the line, then the line is called the asymptote of the graph.
To represent an asymptote of the graph, use dashed line.
A) Vertical Asymptote
Definition:
A line x = a is a vertical asymptotes for the graph of a function f(x) if :
f(x) increases or decreases without bound as x approaches a from the right.
x = a x = a



or
f(x) increases or decreases without bound as x approaches a from the left.
x = a x = a




Note : the graph of a rational function never cross a vertical asymptote x = a because f(x)
does not exist.
Finding a vertical asymptote.
Let a rational function :
0 ) ( ,
) (
) (
) ( x q
x q
x p
x f
where p , q have no common factor.
To find a vertical asymptote :
set
0 ) ( x q
.
solve for x.
Example :
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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
Find the vertical asymptote (if any) of the graph of each rational function below :
(a)
4
) (
2

x
x
x f
(b)
1
1
) (
2
+

x
x
x g
(c)
1
1
) (
2

x
x
x h
solution :
(a)
4
) (
2

x
x
x f
set : x
2
4 = 0 (x 2)(x + 2) = 0 x = 2, -2
Vertical Asymptote (VA) : x = 2 and x = -2
(b)
1
1
) (
2
+

x
x
x g
set : x
2
+ 1 = 0 false statement, no real solution for x.
Vertical Asymptote (VA) : DNE
(c)
1
1
) (
2

x
x
x h
set : x
2
- 1 = 0 (x + 1)(x - 1) = 0 x = 1, -1
Vertical Asymptote (VA) : x = 1 and x = -1
B) Horizontal Asymptotes
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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
Definition :
A line y = b is a horizontal asymptotes for the graph of a function f(x) if :
f(x) approaches b from above or below as x decreases without bound (x is getting smaller
and smaller).

y = b y = b




or
f(x) approaches b from above or below as x increases without bound (x is getting larger
and larger).



y = b y = b



Notes :
Not all graph has horizontal asymptote and vertical asymptote.
The graph of f(x) may cross its horizontal asymptote.
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MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
Finding horizontal asymptotes
Given a rational function :
0 1
0 1
. ..........
.. ..........
) (
) (
) (
b x b x b
a x a x a
x q
x p
x f
m
m
n
n
+ + +
+ + +

If :
n < m then :
0 y
is a horizontal asymptote.
n = m then :
m
n
b
a
y
is a horizontal asymptote.
n > m then : a horizontal asymptote does not exist.
Example :
Find the horizontal asymptote (if any) :
(a)
1 2
4
) (
2
+

x
x
x f
(b)
1 2
4
) (
2
+

x
x
x g
(c)
1 2
4
) (
2
2
+

x
x
x h
solution :
(a)
1 2
4
) (
2
+

x
x
x f
Degree of numerator < degree of denominator.
Therefore : y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote.
(b)
1 2
4
) (
2
+

x
x
x g
Degree of numerator > degree of denominator.
Therefore horizontal asymptote DNE.
(c)
1 2
4
) (
2
2
+

x
x
x h
Degree of numerator = degree of denominator.
Therefore : y = 4/2 = 2 is a horizontal asymptote.
26
Degree, n
Degree, m
MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
Exercise:
Find the horizontal asymptote (if any) and vertical asymptote (if any) :
i)
1 3
15
) (
2
+

x
x
x f
ii)
2 5
7 3
) (

x
x
x g iii)
9
2
) (
2
3

x
x
x k
C) Slant Asymptotes (Oblique Asymptotes)
Definiton:
Let :
0 ) ( ,
) (
) (
) ( x q
x q
x p
x f
where p , q have no common factor and the degree of p is one greater than the degree of
q .
Then f(x) has a slant asymptote ( horizontal asymptote does not exist).
Finding a slant asymptote
use long division or synthethic division .

) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
x q
x r
b mx
x q
x p
x f + +
Therefore a slant asymptote is :
b mx y +
Example : Find a slant asymptote (if exist) :
1
1
) (
2

x
x
x f
solution :
Since the degree of numerator is one greater than the degree of the denominator, slant
asymptote exist.
By long division or synthethic division :
1
2
1
1
1
) (
2

+ +

x
x
x
x
x f
Then a slant asymptote is :
1 + x y
27
MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
GRAPHING A RATIONAL FUNCTION
Steps :
1) Check the symmetry of the graph.
2) Find x-intercept and y-intercept (if any)
3) Find the asymptotes (VA, HA or SA)
4) Plot at least one point between and beyond each x-intercept and VA.
5) Graph the function.
Example 1: Graph a rational function below :
1
2
) (
2
2

x
x
x f
Solution:
Step 1: Check the symmetrical of the graph.
) (
1
2
1 ) (
) ( 2
) (
2
2
2
2
x f
x
x
x
x
x f


even function symmetry to y-axis.
Step 2 : Find the intercepts (if any)
y-intercepts : 0
1 0
) 0 ( 2
) 0 ( 0

f y x (0,0)
x-intercept :
) 0 , 0 ( 0 0 2 0
2
x x y
Step 3 : Find the asymptotes of the graph.
VA :
1 0 1
2
t x x
HA : 2
1
2
y , No SA
Step 4 : Plot at least one point between and beyond each x-intercept and VA
x
-2 -1/2 1/2 2
1
2
2
2

x
x
y
2.6 -0.6 -0.6 2.6
28
MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
Step 5 : Graph the function



1
2
) (
2
2

x
x
x f








y =2
x =-1 x =1
-1 1
2
Example 2: Graph a rational function below:
1

x
x
) x ( f
Solution:
Step 1: Check the symmetrical of the graph.
neither function not symmetry to y-axis and not symmetry to the origin.
Step 2: Find the intercepts (if any)
y-intercepts:
0 0 0 ) ( f y , x
x-intercept: 0 0
1
0

x ,
x
x
) x ( f y
intercept = (0,0)
Step 3: Find the asymptotes of the graph.
VA: 1 0 1 x x
HA:
0 y
Step 4: Plot at least one point between and beyond each x-intercept and VA
x
-2 -1 1/2 2
1

x
x
y
2/3 1/2 -1 2
29
MATF 104 College Algebra Chapter 5
Step 5: Graph the function
0 1 2 -2 -1
x
y
x = 1
(vertical
asymptote)
y = 0
30