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If the region bounded by the function and the x axis, between and is revolved about the x axis, the resulting three-dimensional figure is known as a solid of revolution. Its cross-sectional area is circular, and its volume may be computed by evaluating the integral [ or A mnemonic device for remembering this formula is to think of the solid being sliced into infinitesimally thin disks of ]

If the region bounded by two curves is revolved about the x axis, the resulting solid of revolution will be hollow. Its cross section will be in the shape of a washer, i.e., the area between two concentric circles. The following method of computing volume is named the washer method. If the inner radius is and the outer radius is , and we think of the thickness of the washer as dx, the volume of the washer is

. The volume of the solid of revolution, expressed as an integral, becomes Example 2 Find the volume obtained if the region bounded on the first quadrant by and is rotated about the x axis. Answer: 64 /15 cubic units

radius y and thickness dx. The volume of a typical disk is and the sum of the volumes is . This method is sometimes known as the disk method. Example 1 Find the volume of the solid of revolution obtained by revolving the region bounded by , and the x axis about the x axis. Answer: cu ic units

Another method for computing volumes of solids of revolution, the shell method, uses a different approach for constructing an integral representing volume. Consider a thin-wall cylindrical shell having inner and outer radii and , respectively, where , and height h. (Imagine a soup can with its top and bottom cut out. The thickness of the wall of the can is .)

In a given problem, dr will be replaced by either dx or dy, depending upon the axis of rotation (dx if rotated about the y axis and dy if rotated about the x axis). In either case, the height h and the radius r must be expressed in terms of the variable of integration. The limits of integration must correspond to the variable of integration as well. Example 3 Find the volume of the solid of revolution formed by rotating the region bounded by the parabola and the lines and about the x axis.

The volume of the shell is the difference between two cylindrical volumes.

If we let represent the average radius and represent the wall thickness, we may write

As and the number of shells within the solid , the sum of their volumes will approach the volume of the solid of revolution. As a mnemonic device, we may represent the average radius by r, the length of the shell by h, and the (infinitesimal) shell wall thickness by dr. The volume of a typical shell may be thought of as and the total volume is

If represents an arbitrary point on the graph , the length of the generated shell is , the radius , and the thickness of the shell is dy. The volume of a typical shell is and the total volume of the solid is obtained by integration. Since the volume of the shell involves dy, integration will be with respect to y. Since , when and when Therefore, The variable x must be expressed in terms of y before the integration can be performed. Since , . ( )

The nature of the shell method makes it well suited for finding volumes of hollow solids.

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