1. Patricians (Professor Bowman / SLU) History-111 Finals Study Guide 2.

Plebeians -The citizen population of ancient Rome that included farmers, merchants, and the urban poor; plebeians compromised the majority of the population. One of the two classes in Rome; decide they’re going to revolt. -Assembly of the Plebeians is created (Tribal Assembly). Tribal Assembly becomes main assembly, and becomes the main law-making body. Still rely on Senate, but eventually Senate loses power to veto; they only become a position of ‘prestige’. -By the end of 4th Century BCE they kept gaining more power, patricians tried to hold on to what they had left (competition b/t ppl) Sacred Band -Traditional institution religious stuff important to Romans. -Plebeians established selves w/ Sacred Band, and succeed away from Romans, which isn’t good because the Patricians need them for their tax money. -Patricians prosecute Plebeians who refuse military service (and they’re majority) they gained a concession from the ruling class. 12 Tables -Rome’s law codes, knowing law code could help you so much; there were certain days one can prosecute. -Patricians still had control of the law. -If you fell in debt, would pay back thru price of freedom as result = dangerous thing. -367 BCE law passed that gave Plebeians access to councilship (executive power of Roman government) if they rose to power they can be elected, important bc made Plebeians socially mobile and can become a Patrician -Any Roman citizen can appeal a punishment thru conviction (beaten, execution) appeal would go thru tribal assembly. -Had to know calandar, had to know which day able to pursue a certain case in court. -Incorporated city-states into Roman systems. -2 major requirements in Rome: 1) pay taxes 2) military service -Half of Roman military made up of allied people. -Military – Roman citizens that are soldiers but gain power, gain land, and even get some of loots they captured.

Municipia -Where the word “municipal” comes from; means you’re a conquered city. 3. Punic wars -The struggles between Romans and Carthaginians. First Punic War -The war started because of Rome’s fear that the Carthaginians might gain control over Messina. -23 year of bitter fighting, concluded with a peace agreement with Carthage forced to return Sicily back to Rome. They had to pay damages to Rome. Second Punic War -218, Carthage attempted to expand rule thru-out Spain as a threat to Rome’s interests, and the Romans declared war; went on for 16 years, ending with the Spanish offensive, Scipio’s invasion in Northern Africa, etc, and his victory concluded the war; Carthaginians forced to abandon all possessions except the city of Carthage itself. Third Punic War -By mid-second century BCE, Carthage managed to recover some of its former prosperity, which provoked Romans; Romans were very obsessive. -Rome demanded total demolition of Carthage; the Rome senate now wanted Carthage to even abandon the city of Carthage, and to settle at least 10 mi away from the coast, which was basically suicide for a nation depended on commerce. -The demand of Rome was rejected by Carthage, invoking the third Punic war. -Rome once again defeated Carthage; Carthaginian survivors were sold into slavery. Messina A Sicilian port directly across from the Italian mainland. Carthage An empire along the northern coast of northern Africa to Spain/Sicily. A Phoenician colony. Developed into a rich and powerful independent state.

4. Octavian/Augustus -In Julius Caesar’s will, he adopted Octavian as his grandnephew and heir. When Caesar got killed, Octavian was only 18-years-old and went to Rome to claim his heir. -Octavian discovered he had to join forces with Caesar’s powerful friends Antony and Lepidus. There was much tension b/t Antony and Octavian mounting. So Octavian peaced out East and became alliances with Cleopatra hoping she’d lend him her resources so he can screw Octavian right back. Actium Battle (31 BCE) -The naval battle b/t Octavian and Antony/Cleopatra, Octavian’s forces defeated them, and then both of them committed suicide. Augustan System of Govt. -Ruled as consul for 4 years; followed by the “imperator” (emperor) and “augustus” and this was the step historians deemed as the beginning of the Roman empire. -Augustus was determined not to appear as a dictator. -Senate and the citizens had the supreme authority; but Augustus controlled the army himself and determined govt policy. -Augustus instituted new coinage system thru-out empire -Augustus introduced a range of public services in the city of Rome -Augustus reorganized the army -Augustus allowed cities/provinces more rights of self-governing than before. -Augustan propaganda pushed towards imperialism for domestic virtue and sexual prosperity; he made divorces harder to obtain, made laws that punished adultery, he penalized citizens who failed to marry / increase birthrate, required widows to marry within 2 years. -The Roman empire expanded a great deal under Augustus’ rule; gained more land than any other ruler of Rome; conquered Switzerland, Austria, and Bulgaria. -Augustus ruled for 4 decades, because of him Rome enjoyed almost 2 centuries of peace, prosperity, and stability bc of his reforms. -The Augustus system was adopted by the following emperors that succeeded him after his death.

5. Etruscan influences upon the Romans -Non-Indo-European-speaking settlers of the Italian peninsula who dominated the region from the late Bronze Age until the rise of the Romans in the sixth century BCE. -Established independent city-states in north-central Italy, 6th century BCE. -Etruscans were skilled metal-workers, artists, and architects. -Romans borrowed many knowledge and adopted many remedies from Etruscans; e.g. the arch and the vault, the sport of gladiatorial combat, the practice of telling the future by studying entrails of animals, and even the 2 most told myths about the founding of Rome itself. 6. Scholasticism -The emergence of Scholasticism is the medieval encounter b/t Greek and Arabic philosophy and Christian faith; the theory and practice of reconciling classical philosophy w/Christian faith. -Has MANY meanings. Root Meaning -A highly systematic method of learning and teaching that respected authority. World-view Meaning -Taught that there was a compatibility b/t the knowledge humans can get by experience / reason and the teachings of divine (religious) revelation. Peter Abelard -Paved the way for scholasticism; active around Paris in 12th century. -He made himself many enemies; lacked tact; often outshone experts, he’d openly humiliate his opponents/elders in public debate. -His student, Heloise was seduced by him and got impregnated; he forced her to marry him against her will; her family had him thrown in jail. He returned being a teacher in Paris (peak of his career). -His greatest contributions was the development of scholasticism; his book “Sic et Non” (‘yes and no’) prepared the way for the scholastic method by gathering a collection of statements from the church fathers that spoke for both sides of one hundred fifty theological questions. -Scholastics later followed his method of studying theology by (raising fundamental questions and arraying the answers that had been put forth in txts) -Was one of the first to harmonize religion with rationalism.

(6. scholasticism, con’td) St. Thomas Aquinas -(1225-1274) made the greatest accomplishments in scholasticism -The leading scholastic theologian of the University of Paris. -Said that faith could be defended by reason. -Said that bc God created the natural world, God can be approached thru its terms, even if certainty can be reached thru supernatural revelations of the Bible. -Placed higher value on human reason & human life, and ability of humans to participate in their own salvations. -Helped inspire confidence in rationalism and human experience. -Because of his achievements, it led on for western medieval thought to reach its pinnacle. 7. Triumvirates -A political regime dominated by three powerful political and/or military leaders. The arrangement can be formal or informal, and though the three are usually equal on paper, in reality this is rarely the case. The term can also be used to describe a state with three different military leaders who all claim to be the sole leader of the state.

Roman Republic -Twice the political power shifted from the formal magistrates & senate to three men, thus creating a transitional govt “triumviratus”, each time only to break up again in civil war. First Triumvirate -Informal governing body: Julius Caesar, Marcus Crassus, & Pompey the Great = representing senatorial party. This fell apart when Crassus died, leaving the other two fighting in a civil war, ending in Pompey’s death and Caesar prevailed as the sole dictator. Second Triumvirate -Formal governing body: Octavian/Augustus, Marcus Lepidus, & Mark Antony. Lepidus was sidelined, he was the third wheel to begin with anyway. Antony was eliminated in a civil war, letting Octavian prevail.

8. Roman slavery -A huge increase in slavery is seen that resulted from Rome’s western and eastern conquests; Roman Italy became one of the most slave-based economies known to history. -Majority of slaves worked as agricultural laborers in the estates of Roman aristocracy. -Slaves were treated like cattle; they were foreigners taken as prisoners of war. -Standard policy of slave owners was to get as much work out of them as possible until slave died of exhaustion or were thrown out at old age. -The ready availability and cheapness of slaves made slavery an impersonal and brutal institution – more than in any other slave-holding ancient civilization. -Domestic slaves sometimes treated decently; some slave artisans permitted to run their own business; but generally most slaves were treated terribly. -Married slave not recognized by law bc they were a “property”. -positive side: after a period of good service, the master would often free slaves very frequently, or would offer slaves to buy their way out. 9. Feudalism -A loose term reflecting the political and economic situation in 11th and 12th century Europe. In this system, lords were owed agricultural labor and military service by their serfs, and in turn owed allegiance to more powerful lords and kings. -Different views: relationship among aristocracy; sociological view; economical view; teacher’s view. Nature of Feudal Relationship -B/t the warrior aristocracy = according to Ganshof, feudalism is a relationship b/t diff members of warrior aristocracy (it’s a military relationship) during early period of middle ages. -Beginning of feudal system: decision to tax land seemed to be best method to collect taxes from people. People were fixed to land as tenant; tenant responsible to land owner; land owner responsible to tenant to govt. The only thing tenant does is farm on land or be a craftsman. -Feudal relationship was contractual and personal; if either party failed / vassal didn’t live up to responsibilities, he will lose his fief (grant of land). -When 2 members of warrior aristocracy (Vassal subordinate to Lord) form agreement. -Lord owed vassal maintenance which was giving them fief, and defending their vassal against any encounters since they didn’t have a govt. or police to protect. -Vassal owes Lord by ensuring peasants, taking care of land granted by Lord; vassal also owed much aid and counsel to Lord; give military service, had to provide own horse and fighting equipment; vassal able to afford this stuff thru fief. -The pinnacle of feudalism dies out around 1000-1300.

(9. Feudalism, con’td) Hierarchy 1. Lord -Large land owners (they don’t give it away; only giving it use to vassals). Rely upon their vassals for duties (not exclusively military) 2. Vassal -Receives a fief (a grant of land) -Could gain an arrangement where he would never have to go somewhere / relocate geographically some place too far or remote; a vassal can arrange to serve only where he lives. -Could set a contractual time limit for how much military service he could give (e.g. no more than 40 days in a year). -Begin to demand only cash payments; took advantage of how much benefits they could get or they’d leave their lord. -Able to buy out of military service; Scutage. 3. Peasant -Not part of feudal relationship.

Sociological View Marc Bloc -Presents sociological point of view of feudalism published a book called “feudal society”. Commendation -Completed by warriors of aristocracy: homage & fealty. Problems in Feudalism -Multiplicity of homage (vassals shopping around and offering services to Lords for diff offered fiefs) – can be problematic; if vassal has 3 lords at war that are fighting against each other, which lord should vassal fight for?? This is resolved by vassals designating a “primary lord” (liege homage) Liege Homage -A vassal can have more than 1 Lord, but a liege homage was most loyal. This system also begins to break down when vassals start having more than 1 liege.

10. Republican form of government Patricians -Senatorial and Equestrian 1. Senatorial Class (HIGHEST) -ppl that’ve made it politically, culturally, business, wealth, etc. -To be in senatorial class, had to be nominated in becoming a censor. 2. Censor -Serve for 18 months, overseeing county of all Romans in a census (count all Roman citizens). Duty of ensuring Romans, making sure all lived up to Roman values and ethics, etc. 3. Equestrian Class -Not from noble families -Someone of substance, wealth, if equestrian wants to become senator, would have to get himself elected into Roman state; often referred to “cunsus honorum” -Dedication on battlefield -the stepping-stone in becoming a Censor. -Former slaves not allowed to have equestrian status. -Moral behaviors can cause people to be rejected of eques status. -Eques status was a time for one to prove themselves 4. Questor (LOWEST) -There were more than 1 person at this position to let them alternate (eg commander in chief consul alternates with some other consul) -This rotating was done so that 1 person does not have to much power. -Having many positions promoted cooperation which was VERY important to Roman public life. 5. Aedile -Supervising some services that had to be kept up in Rome (eg make sure sewer was kept up, etc.) Title gave young men positions of power, etc. 6. Praetor -Assistance to judicial officers or individual involved in prosecuting, or to council to important people. If you become a praetor, can become council in Roman state (great way to establish ties). 7. Amicitia -Friendhsip beyond fides – was loyal and campaigned – thru this position one could gain ties and run one day for office.

(10. Republican form of government, con’td) 8. Military -Military can control civil societies. -Able to gain upperhand / civil and control over Roman Society – which leads to Republican government and dictatorship. 11. Patron-client system Patron Ppl who have upperhand, ones who clients look up to for support, advice, jobs, Land, etc. Noble families had many clients, their “support” was for when you run for politics, if you have enough clients, you can have enough support to get elected. Client Obligated to support patron unconditionally.

18. Julius Caesar -(100-44 BCE) The Roman general who conquered the Gauls, invaded Britain, and expanded Rome’s territory in Asia Minor. He became the dictator of Rome in 46 BCE and was murdered by Brutus and Cassius, which led to the rise of Augustus (his adopted grandnephew / heir) and the end of the Roman republic. 19. Diocletian -A Remarkable soldier named Diocletian, ruled as emperor 284-305, and imposed many political and economic reforms on empire. -His title was presented as “dominus” (lord). -He realized the Roman empire became too large for one man to rule, so he split it in half and had Maximian rule the western portion while he himself had the wealthier eastern portion. Rule of Four -Government system created by Diocletian -Roman empire divided into two portions; east and west, ruled by two “augusti”. -A “caesar” (lieutenant) governed a subsection of these territories. The caesars would also be the ones to take their place when the augusti’s die.

20. Cursus honorum -If Equestrian wants to become senator, he would have to get himself elected into cursus honorum (Roman state) – it was an honor. Would have to have morals and good character, have to have had / dedicated self to public life; you can’t have JUST wealth to be elected into these positions. 21. Pax Romana -Means “Roman Peace” – it was not universal. -Roman army massacred Britain, Temple of Jerusalem, etc. 22. Paterfamilias -Head of family / male-member, usually father per household -Have ultimate say in marriages of families until death of paterfamilias, everything owned by each fam member belongs to father (paterfamilias) -Helped reserve family wealth -If woman dies in a marriage, woman remains under paterfamilias of her husband. -When father / paterfamilias was gone (eg business trip) there would be a motherly authority in place of him during his short leave. Manus Once woman marries, by law she no longer carries her maiden name. 23. Boccaccio’s Decameron -Boccaccio (1313-1375) was an Italian prose writer famed for his “Dacameron”, which is 100 short stories about the human condition in a comical / cynical point of view. 24. Arian/Athanasian dispute -Arians = The 4th century followers of a priest named Arius, who rejected the idea that Christ could be equal with God. 25. Courtly love -Codes of refined romantic behavior between men and women of high station / yuppies.

28. Monasticism -Asceticism as a form of religious life; usually conducted in a community under a common rule and characterized by celibacy and poverty and obedience. People who dedicated their lives to a pursue of contemplative ideals and practices extreme selfdenial or self-mortification for religious reasons. -Some Christians felt the New World was a far cry from Christian faith; initiated Monasticism; emerged in 3rd century, and emerged for two reasons: substituted conditions of death / suffering; and also for the response / trend of the increasing worldliness of the 4th century church. -Monasticism spread faster in East than it did in West. 29. Serfdom -Slavery-like system of customs and laws whereby peasants were kept poor and stationary by their manor lords; it had spread thru-out the West by the 10th century and its peak was the Middle Ages. 30. Pharisaic teaching -A group of Jewish teachers and preachers that emerged in the 3rd century BCE and insisted that all of God’s commandments were binding on all Jews. 31. Averroes -Succeeded Al-Ghazzali, Avveroes was a Spainared and greatest Aristotelian scholar of his day. -Wrote a series of commentaries on the works of Aristotle, and an expert in Muslim law and theology and a physician. -Subordinated theo into philosophy. Considered both theo and philosophy to be true in diff ways (philosophy was literal, theo was symbolic). These views didn’t sit well with the Islamic rulers of Spain, so they exiled him into Morocco where he died in 1198. -The death of Averroes marked a turning point in Islamic philosophy; tended to blend into Sufistic mysticism or Islamic orthodoxy. 32. Carthage -An empire that rivaled with Rome; fought against Rome in Punic Wars that started 264 BCE and end with the destruction of Carthage in 146 BCE. 33. Augustine -(354-397) One of the most influential Christian theologians of all time; described his conversion in his autobiographical “Confessions” and formulated new aspects of

Christian theology in “On the City of God.”

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