A paper submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Course of Research Methodology by Prof Dr M. Zainiy Uthman

Centre for Advanced Studies on Islam, Science, and Civilisation (CASIS) Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) MAY 2012

W Gibb Memorial Series. explained their stations. seclusion (khalwah). His words were narrated many times. No. He was expert in law (sharī’ah) among the men of knowledge. Abū ‘Abd Allāh al-Rūdabārī. and mujtahid in the path (ṭarīqa). whose name and secret was purified by Allāh The Most High. and many others. 1963. guide. Jufri al-Khalidī. He was the ocean which is without limits. discernment (firāsah). Abū Bakr Muḥammad bin Dāwud al-Daynūrī. the writer of Iḥya’ ‘Ulūmuddīn. recognizing of God. He possessed the stations of spiritual training (riyāḍāt). R. XXII. grateful people in path of people of reality in regard of unification (tawḥīd) and reality. AḤMAD AL-GHAZZĀLĪ2 Allāh The Most High purified his secret⎯He was the saint. The book al-Lumā’1 is one of his works. guide. He was also the great leader of unveiling. spiritual training (riyāḍāt). His company and serviced is a great achievement in the group⎯a great role among the veracious. Kitāb al-Luma’ fi al-Ṭaṣawwuf. spiritual exercises (mujāhadāt). He was the sign of perfection of saints in the path. His position in knowledge. willful.A. ABŪ MADYAN AL-MAGHRIBĪ Allāh The Most High purified his secret⎯He was one of the great of traveler saints. sincere. and gave contributions to the sciences of the saints. His friends are also from the saints. He was the possessor of spiritual states (aḥwāl) and high stations (maqāmāt) from unveiling (mukāshafāt). Abū al-Ḥasan ‘Ali bin Bundar al-Nīshābūrī. in the witnessing of                                                              1 Al-Sarrāj. and observant people. 1    . Nicholson. spiritual exercises (mujāhadāt). divine manifestations (tajalliyāt). He had many works in commentary about the perfection of saints. and estrangement (‘uzlah). London.J. and miracles (karāmāt).ABŪ NAṢR AL-SARRĀJ His name is ‘Abdullāh bin ‘Alī. 2 He was the brother of al-Ghazzālī. He was the wanderer in this field and the jewel of guardian for the seeker of God in his time. and abstinent was very high and always observed the sharī’ah. ed. E. such as Yūsuf bin Ḥusayn. He was the great saints (awliyā). Abū Naṣr.

He had many works which had spiritual subtleties (laṭīfah). inner witnessing (mushāhadāt) and spiritual stations of divine manifestations (tajalliyāt) of the Essence (al-dhāt) and Attributes (al-ṣifāt). a great among men. He was the lord of teachers of alHamadānī al-Majāzīn. and the speaker of knowledge about Allāh (ma’rifah). 2    . he was the possessor of unveiling of eyes (mukāshafāt). then lived and died there. fasting. Samarqand. He was left from his birth place to entered Khata. His nickname among the saints was Junayd the Second. prayer. He was also gave treatment to the one being guided. ABŪ BAKR AL-RUSTĀNĪY Allāh The Most High purified his secret⎯He was one of the great guiding saints. He was an ascetics and observant one. degrees of heart. and his perfection was in educating the traveler to Allāh. ḤAJI MUḤAMMAD AL-AṢṢĀRI AL-TABRĪZĪ Allāh The Most High purified his secret⎯He was the man of knowledge of exoteric and also the man of discernment of inner reality (bāṭin). inner witnessing (mushāhadāt). He was from Nuwāḥi. In the place that ruled in Atābiks. obey the laws of the path in seclusion (khalwah) and estrangement (‘uzlah) in forty days. pilgrimage. He died in Qazwin at 517 AH at the age of 73 years old. BURHĀN AL-DĪN AL-SĀGURJĪ Allāh The Most High purified his secret⎯He was the leading of teachers and men of knowledge in his time. In taṣawwuf and other fields. He had an eloquent speaking. with achievement and virtue at his time.reality (ḥaqīqah). There are four things as method of guidance of the sharī’ah namely. He had this perfect state of high degrees on unveiling the eyes. and alms. spiritual exercise. He died in Tabrīz on 792 or 793 AH and buried in Charnadāb. He had deep knowledge on unification (tawḥīd) and realities (ḥaqīqah). he had some spiritual subtleties of Ash’āri.

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