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GES-013-52 GENERAL ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION FOR CONCRETE WORK

REV

DATE

DESCRIPTION

PREPARED

REVIEWED

APPROVED

RAJHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES CO.


This document is the property of Rajhi Heavy Industries Co. (RHI). The technical information herein may not be used nor reproduced without the written permission of Rajhi Heavy Industries Co.
GES NO. TITLE REV. NO. PAGE NO.

GES-013-52

CONCRETE WORK

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NUMBER:

Rajhi Heavy Industries Co.


Cast-In-Place Reinforced Concrete

REVISION NO.

DATE:

Casi-In-Place Reinforced Concrete

FUNCTION Prepared

NAME Eng. Suleiman Bahabri

TITLE AND ORGANIZATION GM-Project

INITIALS SAB

DATE

Reviewed Approved

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page


1. 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 3. 4. 5. 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 SCOPE REFERENCES RHI Specification Industry Code & Standards Government Regulations DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS QUALITY ASSURANCE General Concrete Quality Control Program COCE Authority Submittals 5 5 5 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9

6. 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 7. 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17 8. 9. 9.1 9.2 9.3

MATERIALS Water Cement Aggregates Admixtures Reinforcing Steel Curing Materials Colored Concrete for Underground Ducts Accessories EXECUTION Formwork Concrete Joints Waterstops Embedded Items Concrete Mix Requirements Trial Mixes Design Concrete Production Testing Laboratory Testing Concrete Testing Fresh Concrete Testing Hardened Concrete Reinforcement Construction Concrete Transportation, Placement And Compaction Curing Remedial Work Protection to Concrete Surfaces READY-MIX CONCRETE WATER RETAINING CONSTRUCTION General Joints Protective Coating

9 9 10 10 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 16 17 17 17 20 21 22 22 22 24 25 27 27 29 30 30 31 32 32 32 32

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9.4

Testing

32 32 32 32 32 32 33 33 DATA AND DOCUMENTS REQUIRED MINIMUM CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS CONTENTS AND MAXIMUM WATERCEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS RATIO CONCRETE POUR CARD CONCRETE PLACEMENT RECORD ADDITIONAL PROVISIONS FOR EPOXY COATED REINFORCING BARS. 34 45

10. PRECAST CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 General Identification of Precast Units Curing, Maturing and Sticking Cement/Sand Mort Concrete Cover SAFETY TABLE 1 TABLE 2

TABLE 3A TABLE 3B APPENDIX A

36 37 38

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1.

SCOPE This specifications describes the technical requirements for furnishing and installation of all materials, proportioning, mixing, delivery, placing, curing , coasting, testing and all other related requirements for all plain, reinforced concrete used in structures, foundations, and paving for RHI Affiliate project.

2.

REFERENCES The Latest issue of the following Standards, Specifications, Codes, and References in effect on the date of contract award shall be applicable for all materials, workmanship and testing, except that this Specification will have priority over any analogies requirements. RHI Specifications GES-013-57 Epoxy Coating of Steel Reinforcing Bar

2.1

2.2 2.2.1

Industry Codes & Standards American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) T26 T259 T260 T277 Quality of Water to be Used in Concrete Standard Method of Test For Resistance of Concrete to Chloride Ion Penetration Standard Method for Sampling and Testing for Total Chloride Ion in Concrete and Concrete Raw Materials Standard Method of Test For Electrical Location of Concretes Ability to resist chloride

2.2.2

American Concrete Institute (ACI) 117 201.2 R 222 R 301 302.1 R 304 R 305 R 308 309 R 315 318 318.1 M 347 R 350R 504 R SP-66 Standard Specification for Tolerances for concrete construction & materials Guide to Durable Concrete Corrosion of Metals In Concrete Specification for Structural Concrete for buildings Guide for Concrete Floor and Slab Construction Guide for Measuring, Mixing, Transporting and Placing Concrete Hot Weather Concreting Standard Practice for Curing Concrete Guide for consolidation of concrete Details and Detailing of Concrete Reinforcement Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary Building Code Requirements for Structural Plain Concrete Guide to Formwork for Concrete Environment Engineering Concrete Structures Guide to Sealing Joints in Concrete Structure Detailing Manual

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2.2.3

American National Standards Institution (ANSI) ASQC Q9002 ASQC Q91 Model for Quality Assurance in Production, Installation and Servicing Model for Quality/Assurance in Design/Development, Production, Installation and Servicing

2.2.4

American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) A-82 A-185 A-370 A-497 Specification of Steel Wire, Plain for Concrete Reinforcement Specification for Steel Welded Wire Fabric, Plain for Concrete Reinforcement Test Methods and Definitions for mechanical testing of Steel Products Specification for Welded Deformed Steel Wire Fabric for Concrete Reinforcement

A-615 M Metric Specification for deformed and Plain Carbon Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement of A-615 A-775 C-31 C-33 C-39 C-40 C-42 C-88 C-94 C-114 C-117 C-127 C-128 C-131 Standard specification for Epoxy coated reinforcement Practice For Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Field Specifications for Concrete Aggregates Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens Test for Organic Impurities in Sands for Concrete Test Method for Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed beams Concrete Test for Soundness of Aggregates by use of Sodium Sulfate or Magnesium Sulfate Specification for Ready Mixed Concrete Test Method for Chemical Analysis of Hydraulic Cement Test Method for Materials Finer then 75 microns (No. 200) Sieve In Mineral Aggregates by Washing Test Method for Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate Test Method for Specific Gravity and Absorption of Fine Aggregate Test Method for Resistance to Degradation of Small Size Coarse Aggregates by Abrassion and Impact in the Log Angeles Machine Test Method for Unit Weight, Yield, and Air Content of Concrete Test Method for Clay Lumps and Friable Particles in Aggregates Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic Cement Concrete Specification for Portland Cement Specification for Sheet materials for Curing Concrete Practice For Sampling Freshly Mixed Concrete Test Method for Air Content for Freshly Mixed Concrete by The Volumetric Method Test Method for Time of Setting of Hydraulic Cement by vicat needle Test Method for Making And Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Laboratory Test Method for Potential Alkali Reactivity of Cement Aggregate Combinations (Mortar Bar Methods)

C-135 C-142 C-143 C-150 C-171 C-172 C-173 C-191 C-192 C-227

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C-269 C-494 C-642 C-1017 C-1064 C-1077

Test Method for Potential Reactivity of Aggregates (Chemical Method) Standard Specification for Chemical and admixtures for Concrete Standard Test Method For Specific Gravity Absorption and Void in Hardened Concrete Specification of Chemical Admixtures for Use in Producing Flowing Concrete Test Method for Temperature for Freshly Mixed Portland Cement Concrete Standard Practice for Laboratories Testing Concrete And Concrete Aggregates for use in Construction and Criteria for Laboratory Evaluation Test Method for Acid-Soluble Chloride in Mortar and Concrete Standard Test Method for Electrical Indication of Concretes Ability to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration Silica Fume for use in Hydraulic Cement Concrete or Mortar Test Method for Chloride Ion in Water Test Method for Sulphate Ion in Water Standard Specification for Concrete Joint Sealer, Hot-Applied Elastic Type Standard Specification for Preformed Expansion Joint Filter for Concrete Paving and Structural Construction (NoneExtruding and Resilient Bituminous Types) Specification for Polyethylene Film & Sheeting Standard Specification for Preformed Polychloropene Estastometric Joints Seals for Concrete Pavements

C-1152 C-1202 C-1240 C-512 C-516 D-1190 D-1751

D-2105 D-2528

2.2.5

British Standards (BS) BS 812 Methods of Sampling and Testing of Mineral Aggregates, Sand and Filters BS 1881 Methods of Testing Concrete BS 5493 Code of Practice for Protective Coating of Iron & Steel Structures against Corrosion

2.2.6

Commercial Standards National Ready-Mixed Concrete Association (NRMCA), U.S.A Concrete Plant Manufacturer Bureau (CPMS), U.S.A Concrete Plant Standards Guide to Concrete Construction in Gulf Region, SP-31 by Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CRIA) of UK.

2.2.7

Corps of Engineers (CE) CRD-C572 PVC Waterstops

2.3.

Government Regulations Saudi Arabian Standard Organizations (SASO) SASO/SSA142 SASO/SSA43 Physical or Mechanical Methods of Testing of Portland Cement Portland Cement Ordinary and Rapid Hardening

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3.

DEFINITIONS Certification As a minimum, certification shall contain a clear definition or what is being certified, the items involved, purchase order number, date, and signature and title of a duty authorized representative of Company issuing the certificate. Additional requirements may be imposed by the applicable code, standard, or specification. Refer to PDF file. Concrete Quality Control Engineer. A full-time qualified, dedicated engineer appointed by the Contractor with the sole duty of ensuring that concrete is properly produced, placed, cured and protected. RHIs authorized representative with overall authority and responsibility for the structural design, supervision or construction including Quality Control. Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coated Rebar. The authorized representative of RHIs with authority to act on behalf of RHI in all Quality Assurance matters. National Measurement Accreditation Service of U.S.A. National Ready-Mix Concrete Association of U.S.A. Welded Wire Fabric

Contractor CQCE

Engineer

FBECR Inspector

NAMAS NRMCA WWF

4. 4.1

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS All concrete reinforcing steel and concrete accessories shall be furnished and installed in accordance with ACI 301 and this specification All concrete shall be normal weight concrete. Concrete shall have low permeability, high strength, and the ability to obstruct chloride penetration into the concrete by diffusion, absorption, or hydraulic pressure.\

4.2

5 5.1 5.1.1

QUALITY ASSURANCE General The Contractor shall be responsible for the quality of all purchased items and for work covered by this specification. The Contractor shall establish, document and maintain a Quality Assurance System in accordance to ANSI-ASQCQ-9002. a. The Contractors Quality Assurance (QA) Manager shall be responsible for preparation of a Q.A. Plan and obtaining RHIs approval for the operations detailed in this specification. As part of Q.A. plan, the Q.A. Manager shall establish and maintain documented procedure for planning and implementing audits of Concrete Quality Control Program. The Q. A. Manager or his designee shall schedule and perform audits to verify whether the quality activities and related results comply with planned arrangements and to determine the effectiveness of the quality system.

5.1.2

b.

5.2 5.2.1

Concrete Quality Control Program Concrete Quality Control Engineer. The Contractor shall always have a qualified, dedicated concrete quality control Engineer (COCE), who has no other duties than to ensure that concrete is properly produced, placed, cured and protected as per this specification. The COCE shall be at least equivalent to a Member of the Institute of Concrete Technology (MICT) and shall be responsible for the Maintenance and submission of all specified records. The COCE shall not report to this own Site Construction Management but to his own Home Office Management and RHI designate(s).

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5.2.1.1

The COCE shall prepare a Quality Control Program describing in detail how compliance with this specification will be ensured. The Q.C. Program shall be approved by RHI prior to start of concrete work and shall include: a. b. c. All fabrication, handling, placing of rebars and curing and construction procedure. Testing and Inspection procedure for all concrete work. Maintenance of all reports & records.

5.3

COCE Authority. The COCE shall be authorized to: a. b. c. d. e. Postpone concreting operations until outstanding requirements are fulfilled. Reject materials or workmanship which do not conform to this specification. Prevent the use of equipment which could cause improper construction relative to this specification. Stop any work which is not being done in accordance with this specification. Report within 24 hours and provide records to and as required by the Engineer upon discovery of noncompliance.

5.4

Submittals. Prior to start of work, the contractor shall submit to RHI for review and approval the documents listed in Table 1 and other documents called for in this specification. MATERIALS Water. Potable water shall be used in the production, transportation, placement of concrete, mixing concrete, production of ice used in concrete operations, washing aggregates, cooling aggregate, curing concrete, and cleaning forms. Water shall be free from impurities, oil, acid, salts, alkali, organic matters and other potentially deleterious substances in accordance with AASHTO T-26. The pH value of water shall be between 5.5 to 6.0 The chloride and sulphate ion content shall not exceed the following: Ion Chloride Sulphate test per ASTM D512 ASTM D516 Maximum 530ppm 100 ppm

6 6.1

6.1.1

6.1.2 6.1.3

6.1.4

When a source of supply for water has been established based on above requirements and approved by RHI, the source shall not be changed without RHI approval. Samples of water delivered to site and the concrete batch plant shall be taken weekly and tested for chloride and sulphate in water by the Contractor in accordance with the above requirements. The maximum limits of chloride and sulphate specified in paragraph 7.5,8 shall not exceed. The Contractor shall have a continuous supply of water needed to perform all concrete operations without interruption. If needed, the Contractor shall install a temporary back-up water storage facility on site. Cement Portland Cement shall conform to ASTM C-150. Type I cement shall be used in all cases ( above/below ground, pavements and slab-on-grade etc). Tricalcium Aluminate (C3A) content for Type 1 cement shall be minimum 8% and maximum 14% by weight, as tested in accordance with ASTM C-114. Cement Type I shall be a low alkali cement in accordance with Table 2 of ASTM C-150 and SSA 142 SSA 143. Magnesium Oxide content shall not exceed 4% by weight of cement as tested in accordance with ASTM C-114.

6.1.5 6.1.6

6.2 6.2.1

6.2.2 6.2.3

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6.2.4

Cement shall be obtained from a single source approved by RHI after the cement source has been established and approved by RHI, it shall not be changed without RHI approval. For cement manufactured in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, manufacturers test certification conforming cement compliance with the requirements of this specification shall be submitted for RHIs review and acceptance prior to any shipment. Subsequent testing of the cement shall be performed by the Contractor for every cement shipment delivered to the site or batch plant, and results submitted for RHI approval. The use of imported cement manufactured outside the Kingdome of Saudi Arabia, shall be subject to prior RHI approval and will only be considered in the case of a severe shortage in the local cement that may adversely affect the project schedule. In addition to the manufacturers test certification samples shall be collected from the manufacturing facility and tested independently. Subsequently every shipment delivered to the site or batch plant shall be tested. RHI has the right to call for additional testing of the cement at any point, manufacturing facility, supplier warehouse, batch plant, etc. as necessary to establish cement conformance with this specification. All cement shall be stored in dry, weather-tight and well-ventilated enclosures (storage) to prevent absorption of moisture. Aggregates General a. b. c. d. e. The aggregates shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C-33, except as specified herein. Petrographic analysis shall be made to ASTM C-295 Fine and coarse aggregate shall be considered as separate ingredients and the combined graduation shall be per paragraph 6.3.4. Coarse aggregate shall be crushed stones of 20 mm maximum size. Carbonate and dolomitic materials are not permitted. The aggregate shall be washed with water meeting the requirements or paragraph 6.1.1

6.2.5

6.2.6

6.2.7

6.2.8

6.3 6.3.1

6.3.2

Coarse Aggregate The coarse aggregate shall be selected, recused finished screened and washed as necessary to comply with the following test requirements: Test a. b. Los Angeles Abrasion Loss (Grading A or B) Ratio of Los Angeles Abrasion loss at 100 & 500 revolutions (100/500 revolutions value) Clay lamps and Friable Particles Material Finer than 75 micron Water Absorption Reactive Silica Standard ASTM C-131 ASTM C-132 (Note 6) ASTM C-142 ASTM C-117 ASTM C-127 ASTM C-227 Or ASTM C-289 BS 812 BS 812 ASTM C-88 Percent Maximum by weight (Unless as noted) 40 0.25

c. d. e. f.

1.0 1.0 2.5 As in ASTM C-33 Appendix XI 0.02 0.40 5.0

g. h. i.

Chlorides as Cl. Sulphates as SO4 Magnesium sulfate soundness loss (5 cycles)

Additional limits in paragraph 7.5.8.1.

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6.3.

Fine Aggregate Fine aggregate shall consist of sweet sand with rounded or surrounded particles and shall be washed as necessary to comply with the following test requirements (Beach sand shall be used); Test Standard Percent Maximum by weight (unless as noted) a. Clay Lumps and Friable Particles ASTM C-142 1.0 b. c. d. e. f. Material Finer than 75 micron Organic Impurities Water Absorption Chlorides as CL Sulphates as SO4 ASTM C-117 ASTM C-40 ASTM C-128 BS 812 BS812 2.0 Color Lighter than Standard 1.0 0.02 0.4

Additional limits paragraph 7.5.8.1

6.3.4

Combination Aggregate Gradation Coarse and fine aggregate shall be combined to require the least amount of sand (passing 4.75 mm) and mixing water. The gradation limits for mix design and for the control of approved mix design gradations are given in Table below. ASTM E11 SIEVE (mm) 20 9.5 4.75 0.60 0.30 GRADATION LIMITS FOR MIX DESIGN ONLY (% PASSING) 100 40-65 30-50 22-38 10-20

6.3.5

Sources a. b. The aggregate shall be from RHI approve sources. The Contractor shall perform all tests listed under 6.3.2 and 6.3.3 for each aggregate size and every proposed source and submit test results for RHI review and acceptance. All test results shall be recent within sixty (60) days. Additionally, the following information shall be submitted for RHI approval; c. Quarry Location Aggregate Type Gradation Curves & Sieve Analysis Shape Surface Texture Moisture Content

Once a source of aggregate has been established and approved by RHI, it shall not be changed without RHI approval.

6.3.6

Testing a. The samples of materials delivered to site shall be taken and tested by the Contractor in accordance with the following frequencies:

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Test for clay, silt and dust, and sieve analysis shall be carried out on fine and coarse aggregates for every 100m3 of concrete produced. Test for chloride and sulfate contents shall be carried out on the fine and coarse aggregates for every 100m3 of concrete produced. Test for reactive silica, soundness and Los Angeles abrasion shall be carried out at least once every three months.

b.

RHI may call at any time for additional samples for testing of aggregates delivered to site or for aggregate at the source of supply in order to confirm that the aggregates meet the requirements of this specification.

6.3.7

Storage a. The aggregates shall be stored under shade on a hard impervious surface and each size and type shall be stored in separate heaps without intermixing. The storage shall prevent contamination of the aggregates by foreign material including wind blown dust. Fine and coarse aggregates shall be separated by permanent substantial partitions in the storage. The methods of storing, shading and cooling aggregates shall be subject to prior approval by RHI.

b. c. d.

6.4

Admixtures When specified or approved by RHI for use, chemical admixtures shall conform to ASTM C494, shall be used in strict accordance with manufacturers recommendations and shall not reduce the strength of concrete.

6.5

Reinforcing Steel All reinforcing steel shall be as specified in paragraph 7.12.

6.6 6.6.1

Curing Materials Hessian Hessian shall be in accordance with AASHTO M-182 and shall weight 0.29 kg/m2

6.6.2

Impervious Sheeting Impervious sheeting shall be to ASTM C-171 polyethylthene

6.7 6.7.1

Colored Concrete for Underground Ducts All concrete used for underground duct envelopes (encasement) shall have a minimum compressive strength of 17 Mpa (2500 psi) at 28 days. Maximum aggregate size shall be 3/8- Inch. Concrete envelopes for underground electrical ducts shall be colored red by adding 1 kg of red oxide powder per 100 kg of cement. Accessories Premolded expansion joint material shall conform, as applicable to the requirements of ASTM D 1751. Joint sealant materials shall conform to the requirements of ASTM D 1190 for horizontal joint of ASTM D 2628 for both vertical and horizontal joints.

6.7.2

6.8 6.8.1 6.8.2

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7. 7.1 7.1.1

EXECUTION Formwork Design Formwork of concrete shall be designed to meet the requirements of the structure and required surface finish of the concrete, as described in paragraph 7.1.9. Forms shall be so designed and constructed that the concrete can be properly placed and thorough compacted and that the fresh concrete, while still being supported by the form, shall conform accurately to the required shape, position and level, subject to the tolerance specified to paragraph 7.1.11.

7.1.2

Strength and Stability Formwork shall be of sufficient strength and stability to maintain its position and shape under loads associated with the placing of concrete, outline in ACI-347R taking into account the expected rate of placement and that concrete with a superplasticizer can exert forces equal to a liquid with a specific gravity up to 2.5.

7.1.3

Ties and Spacers

7.1.3.1 7.1.3.2

Internal form ties shall be of such a nature that no permanent metallic has less cover than the reinforcement. Snap-ties or through-bolts shall not be used. The tie shall be constructed so that removal of the ends or end fasteners can be accomplished by unskilled workmen without causing spalling at the faces of the concrete. Form ties shall be so designed that removal of the ends or end fasteners will result in a recess having a maximum dimension of 50mm and a depth equal to cover as described in Paragraph 7.1.10. Waterproof Through Tie System shall be employed for underground structures. Holes left by withdrawal of tie-rods shall be filled solidly with RHI approved non-shrink cementatious repair mortar. Coating Before concreting is commenced, the forms and previously cast concrete shall be thoroughly cleaned and free from all sawdust, tie wire, shavings, dust, dirt and other debris. Formwork shall be coated with an approved release agent before the reinforcement is placed. It shall be non-staining, non-reactive, rust preventive and guaranteed to be compatible with subsequent surface applications to the concrete. Surplus coating on formwork shall be removed prior to concrete placement. Care shall be taken that the release agent does not contact concrete or reinforcement which is to bond with new concrete. The use of coating for forms and/or the use of release agents shall conform to the requirement of ACI 301 and ACI 347 R. The inside surfaces of wood forms shall be soaked with clean water within one half hour before pouring concrete. Forms and adjacent concrete surfaces shall be saturated but standing water puddles on any surfaces shall not be permitted. Cleaning Formwork, shall be so designed that it is capable of being cleaned out immediately prior to concreting with temporary access holes provided as necessary. Access holes shall also be provided to enable cover to reinforcement to be checked, as required in paragraph 7.1.10.

7.1.3.3 7.1.3.4

7.1.4 7.1.4.1

7.1.4.2

7.1.5

7.1.6 7.1.6.1

Removal of Forms and Shoring Form removal shall generally be in accordance with ACI 347 R unless noted herein. a. Formwork for columns, walls (except tanks), sides of beams and other part not supporting the weight of the concrete may be removed as soon as the concrete has hardened sufficiently to resist damage from removal operations, but not less than 48 hours. Formwork and shoring for the tanks, slabs, beams and joists, and other structural member that must support the weight of the concrete and/or any other loads causing bending stress, shall not be removed until the concrete has reached 75% of its 28-day compressive strength of paragraph 7.5.3 unless indicated otherwise in

b.

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paragraph 7.1.6.2. However no forms or shoring shall be removed prior to 3 days from the time pouring was completed. Determination of the 75% concrete strength shall be based on testing field cured concrete cylinders at minimum age of 3 days and submitting test results for RHI acceptance prior to removal of formwork and/or shoring.

7.1.6.2

In no case shall forms be removed in less than the following minimum periods. a. b. c. d. Walls Columns Sides of beams and girders Pan joist forms: e. f. 750 mm wide or less Over 750 mm wide 3 days 4 days 48 hrs 48 hrs 48 hrs

Arch centers Joint beam or girder soffits Under 3 meters clear span between structural supports 3 meters to 6 meters clear span between structural supports 7 days 10 days

g.

One-way slabs: Under 3 meter clear span between structural supports 3 meters to 6 meters clear span between structural supports Over 6 meters span between structural supports 4 days 7 days 10 days

Extend specified period for form removal by additional 4 days when utilizing concrete with flyash as or silica fume. 7.1.6.3 All concrete members shall be shored after form removal until concrete has reached its specified compressive strength. Chamfers Chamfer strips shall be used for all exposed exterior corners so as to produce 25 mm beveled edges or as specified on the drawing. 7.1.8 Formwork Material Formwork shall be constructed of wood or steel provided that where plywood is used for exposed surfaces. It is of a type (plastic coated marine plywood. Etc) to achieve the specified finish. The number of uses of any particular formwork shall be such that the quality of the specified finish is maintained and where the concrete has subsequently to be coated, that the coating can be effectively applied. 7.1.9 Formed Surface Finishes Generally, all concrete surfaces exposed to public view shall be smooth form finish and concrete surfaces not exposed to public view shall be rough form finish. Class of finish and the requirements for finishing of formed concrete surfaces shall be as specified herein unless indicated otherwise on the drawings. See paragraph 7.14.5 for unformed surface finishes.

7.1.7

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7.1.9.1

Class F1 (Rough form Finish) This finish is for surfaces against which backfill, rendering or further concrete will be placed. Appearance is not important but where backfill is to be placed against the concrete, it is important that the surface finish is acceptable for the application of coating (see paragraph 7.17.3) as s continuous membrane.

7.1.9.2

Class F2 (Smooth Form Finish)

a.

This finish is for surfaces which are permanently exposed to view, but where the highest standard of finish is not required. Joints between the panels shall be horizontal or vertical unless otherwise detected. This finish shall be such as to require no general filling to surface pitting; however for surface discoloration or other minor defects shall be remedied by approved methods. The Cast surface may be coated to protect from ingress of chlorides. No ledges shall be permitted at the position of joints in the formwork.

b.

c.

7.1.9.3

Class F3 (Architectural Finish) a. This finish is for surfaces prominently exposed to view where good appearance and alignment are of special architectural importance. To achieve this finish, the formwork shall be faced with smooth sheets. The sheets shall be arrange in an approved uniform pattern. Whenever possible, joints between sheets shall be arranged to coincide with architectural features, window head or changes in direction of the surface. All joints between panels shall be vertical or horizontal, unless otherwise directed.

b.

Suitable joints shall be arranged and fitted so that no blemish or mark is imparted to the finished surface. 7.1.10 7.1.10.1 Cover Concrete cover to reinforcement including links or ties shall be indicated on drawings, but shall not be less than the following. A. CAST-IN-PLACE-CONCRETE Concrete Exposure a. In contact with soil, foundations up to structural steel or equipment base plate level, exposed to potable or other treated water. Marine conditions or other sea water services (see water intake etc.) Exposed to weather Columns, walls, beams Joists and slabs All WWF d. Not exposed to weather, water or soil (Internal protected faces) All Internal protected surfaces All WWF 19 60 45 40

Minimum Cover (mm) 75

b.

75

c.

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B.

PRECAST CONCRETE (Manufactured under plant-controlled-conditions) Concrete Exposure a. In contact with soil, foundations up to structural Steel or equipment base plate level, exposed to potable or other treated water Marine conditions or other Sea water services (sea water intake etc.) Exposed to weather Columns, walls, beams Joints and slabs All WWF d. Not exposed to weather, water or soil (internal protected faces) 50 40 35 Minimum Cover (mm) 75

b.

75

c.

See paragraph 7.1.3 for requirements for reinforcement ties and spacers.

7.1.10.2

Cover to reinforcement shall be carefully checked before any concrete is cast, as lack of adequate cover can be the cause of premature chloride access to reinforcement. Special attention shall be given to reinforcement at kicker strip level as misplaced starter bars can impede the fixing of reinforcement. The bending of reinforcement at a concrete cold joint is not permitted. Exposed reinforcement inserts and plates for providing connections to future extentions, shall be protected from corrosion, as shown on construction drawings. Tolerances The tolerances shall be achieved without abrupt changes by the formwork. The tolerances for the hardened concrete are as follows; Type of Structure Buried of Unexposed Concrete Exposed Concrete Including Floor Slabs and Paving Tolerance +15 mm, - 6 mm

7.1.10.3

7.1.11

= 6mm

7.2 7.2.1

Concrete Joints General The construction shall be monolithic to the maximum extent feasible. All joints shall be shown on the construction drawings. Joints not shown on the drawings shall be so made and located as to least impair the strength of the structure and shall be approved by RHI. The joints shall be perpendicular to the main reinforcing.

7.2.2

Construction Joints a. Where construction joints are defined in construction drawings, no deviation shall be allowed without the agreement of RHI. Additional construction joints (i.e. Joints required because of limitation of concreting or shuttering) shall be previously approved by RHI. All construction joint shall be right angles to the main rebar in the member, unless otherwise shown on the construction drawings. Stop ends for vertical joints should be removed as soon as it is practical to do so without damaging the concrete face. The joint surface should be roughened to remove . Without disturbing the coarse aggregate by pressure with air and water or wire brushing. If the concrete joint surface to receive new concrete is more than one (1) hour old then only the concrete joint surface should be primed with the approved bonding agent prior to placement of new concrete. Ensure that the joint is clean prior to placing fresh concrete. The new concrete shall be well worked against the old face to ensure a good joint.

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b.

All concrete joint surfaces to receive new concrete shall be free of surface water but shall be in a saturated surface condition.

7.2.3

Expansion and Construction Joints a. The expansion and contraction joints shall be designed and constructed in accordance with ACI 504 R. Details and the positioning of these joints. Together with the materials to be used shall be shown on the construction drawings. Great care shall be taken on site to ensure that joints are properly constructed as it is extremely difficult to repair a failed joint. The expansion joints for slabs on grade wall construction and other appropriate structures shall be provided on centers up to a maximum of 10m. These joints hall be constructed so that they pass completely through the concrete section. The construction joints for slabs on grade wall construction and other appropriate structures shall be provided on centers up to a maximum of 5m. These joints shall be formed by scoring of the concrete prior to taking its initial set or by saw cutting within 12 hours after placing. They shall extend a minimum of one fourth the thickness of the concrete section. The construction joints for slabs on grade wall construction and other appropriate structures shall be provided on center up to a maximum of 5m. They shall extend a minimum of one-fourth the thickness of the concrete section.

b.

c.

d.

7.3 7.3.1 7.3.2

Waterstops The waterstops shall be installed at the location shown in the Contract Documents (Drawings) The waterstops shall be accurately cut fixed, and fully integrally joined at joints end junctions to provide a continuous waterlight diaphragm at all points. Adequate provisions shall be made for the support and protection of water stops during the progress of the work. Damaged stops shall be replace and/or repaired before embedment in concrete. The waterstops shall be fabricated from PVC in accordance with CE-CRD-C572 Embedded Items All inserts shall be placed prior to concreting and shall have the cover specified in paragraph 7.1.10. Anchor bolts shall be in accordance with the construction drawings. Anchor bolts and other items to be embedded in concrete (such as inserts, hangers, pipe supports, pipe sleeves, conduit and drains) shall be placed and secured in position before any concrete is placed. Concrete Mix Requirements All concrete shall be central-mix and shall be mixed in accordance with ASTM C-94.

7.3.3

7.3.4 7.4 7.4.1

7.4.2

7.5

7.5.1

Cement Content Combined Cement and Silica Fumes content in the concrete mix for all structural concrete including paving shall not be less than shown in table 2. Cement content in plain (Lean) concrete such as under foundations, duct banks shall not be less than shown in Table 2. Maximum cement content shall not be greater than 450 kg/m 3.

7.5.2 7.5.2.1

Maximum Water/Cementitious Materials Ratio Maximum water/cementitious materials ratio for all structural concrete mixes and plain (lean) concrete construction shall not exceed the values shown in Table 2. Water/Cementitious materials ratios shall be measured based on the free water available for cement hydration with aggregates being in saturated surface dry (SSD) condition. Aggregate moisture content and water absorption shall be continuously to ensure accurate measurement of the amount of free water in the mix. Under no circumstances shall additional water be added between the mixer and the place of concrete placement. Additionally. RHI may call for the water/cementitious material ratio to be checked by test carried out on fresh concrete samples taken at the time of placement as described in paragraph 7.10.3.

7.5.2.2

7.5.2.3

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7.5.3

Concrete Strength The minimum 7-day and 28-day compressive strength of all structural concrete, including paving shall not be less than shown in Table 2. Plain (lean) concrete under foundation and structural plain concrete shall have a minimum 7-day and 28-day compressive strength of not less than shown in Table 2.

7.5.4 7.5.4.1

Admixtures Superplasticizer (high range water reducing admixtures) meeting the requirements of ASTM C-494 and ASTM C1017 shall be utilized in all concrete mixes to improve workability and impermeability. Superplasticizer content shall be adjusted according to ambient condition to provide enough workability with no segregation when concrete is properly compacted, but shall not exceed two (2) percent by weight of cement. Mixing shall be in accordance with manufacturers intruction. Water reducing retender admixture may be used with superplasticizer subject to prior RHI approval. Silica Fume (SF) used as a cement replacement shall be in accordance with ASTM C-1240. There shall be a 10% replacement of the Type I cement. A. The silica fume shall be obtained from an approved supplier. The approved supplier shall provide documentation to establish the following; a. b. That the silica fume complies with ASTM C-1240. The silica fume results from the production of silicon of Ferro-silicon alloys containing atleast 85% silicon. That source of supply will remain the same for the construction period of the project. That the supply will be adequate to meet the anticipated peak requirement. Chemical analyses to give the percentages of the following materials: SiO2, C, C2O, Fe2O3, Al2O3Na2O,K2O, MgO and SO3. Loss of Ignition. Percentage of particles greater than 44 micron. Specific surface area and method of test, together with corresponding particle size.

7.5.4.2 7.5.4.3

c. d. e.

f. g. h. B. C.

Delivery of silica fume to the concrete batching plant shall be in dry powder form. A supplier test certification shall be provided for each delivery of silica fume and shall confirm that the silica fume complies with the above requirements and shall be submitted by the Contractor no later than the day of delivery of the silica fume. RHI shall have the right to call for tests on each delivery of silica fume. If necessary to establish or confirm that the silica fume meets the above requirements.

D.

7.5.4.4

Strict control shall be maintained by the Contractor to ensure that the correct quality of admixture is used at all times. The equipment to be used for dispensing and method of incorporating the admixture in the concrete shall be subject to prior RHI approval. The dispensing unit shall be translucent so that the operator can see the discharge of the admixture. No other admixtures shall be permitted. Under no circumstances shall admixture containing chlorides or other corrosive agent be used. Where cement replacement has been used the Contractors attention is drawn to the requirement for careful moist curing of concrete. Cement replacement are particularly sensitive to lack of moist curing in the case of silica fume. If no bleed water is available on the surface of the concrete and lack of immediate and sustained moist curing will result in early shrinkage cracking and that will be the reason for rejection and replacement of the concrete by the Contractor.

7.5.4.5

7.5.4.6

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7.5.4.7 7.5.5 7.5.5.1

No air extracting agent shall be used when mineral admixtures are used. Initial Setting Time The initial setting time shall be no less than one (1) hour after the production concrete is discharge into the forms, and with a maximum time between mixing and placing concrete not to exceed one (1) hour the total time between mixing and initial set shall be a minimum of two (2) hours. When trial mixes are made to determine the workability of the concrete, as described in paragraph 7.6, the initial setting time of the cement paste shall be determined using the method defined in ASTM C-191. But follows the maximum allowable temperature per paragraph 7.7.4. Slump The various concrete mixes shall be proportioned so as to comply with working (target) slump at the point of delivery as shown below Working slump range for Normal Concrete with Plasticizer Working Slump range for Superplasticizer and Silica Fume added concrete 100 mm to 150 mm 150 mm to 200 mm

7.5.5.2

7.5.6 7.5.6.1

7.5.6.2 7.5.6.3 7.5.6.4

Slump shall be tested as per ASTM C-143. Concrete having a collapsed slump shall not be used. Concrete that has been rejected for failure to meet slump limits shall not be salvaged for use in the concrete work. Increased mixing time, addition of dry materials, or similar modifications of a rejected batch for the purpose of conforming to slump limits shall not be permitted. Unit Weight and Air Content of Fresh Concrete Unit weight of fresh concrete shall not be less than 2400 kg/m3 as determined by ASTM C-133 Air content of fresh concrete shall not exceed 2% as determined by ASTM C-173 Durability of Concrete To ensure durability of concrete, the following tests shall be performed

7.5.7 7.5.7.1 7.5.7.2 7.5.8

7.5.8.1

Total Salt Content a. Chlorides Maximum chloride Ion concentrations in hardened concrete at age 28 to 42 days contributed from all ingredients including water, aggregates, cement and admixtures, shall not exceed 0.10 percent water soluble as tested in accordance with AASHTO T-260 or 0.15 percent acid soluble as tested per ASTM C1152 by weight of dry cement (inclusive of pozzolan). b. Sulphates The total water soluble sulphate content in fresh concrete from all sources, expressed as SO4, when tested in accordance with BS 1881 shall not exceed four (4) percent by weight of dry cement (inclusive of pozzolan).

7.5.8.2

Additional Testing The following additional test results shall be submitted for RHIs approval as part of concrete mix qualification: a. Water absorption and volume of permeable voids in the hardened concrete at age 28-to-42 days shall not exceed three (3) and seven (7) percent respectively, as tested in accordance with ASTM C642. Chloride ion permeability of hardened concrete at age 28-to-42 days shall fall within the Very Low range, as defined in ASSHTO T-277. Alternatively, the amount of water soluble chloride ion penetrating into hardened concrete in a period of 90 days shall not exceed 0.02 percent by weight of concrete when tested in accordance with AASHTO T-259.

b.

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7.6 7.6.1 7.6.1.1

Trial Mix Design Concrete All concrete shall be central mixed in accordance with ASTM C-94 and as specified in this specification. The relative proportion of the fine and coarse aggregates the workabilities and strengths of the mixers shall be determined by production equipment trial mixes. Once the aggregate proportions have been accepted they shall not be changed without the agreement of RHI. The trial mix design shall be per ACI 318 and carried out in order to produce a concrete which can be properly placed and compacted so that a dense less permeable concrete can be produced which shall adequately resist the ingress of damaging salts. The required workability for large foundations will differ from that for tall thin sections of structural concrete cast above ground, and the trial mixes shall allow for both cases. No concrete pouring shall commence before trial mixes, including 28 days compressive strength test and all other tests required in this specification are completed and approved by RHI. Acceptance of Trial Mixes Acceptance of trial mix will be made by RHI when proportions, slump workability, consistency, Impermeability, watercementitious materials ratio and all other requirements of this specification have been met and when the strength test result for each of the concrete strength specified have shown a standard deviation less than 3.5 Mps as detailed below.

7.6.1.2

7.6.1.3

7.6.2

7.6.2.1

Six (6) separate test mixes shall be prepared for each proposed mix design required in paragraph 7.6.1.2 and six (6) test cylinders shall be made from each test mix for a total of 35 cylinders for each proposed mix design. The test cylinders shall be made and cured in accordance with ASTM C192 and tested in accordance with ASTM C39. Additionally, sufficient samples shall be prepared for all other test required by this specification. The 36 concrete cylinders shall be tested for compressive strength at 7 days and 28 days, 18 cylinders each. The main strength and standard deviations shall be established for each test. The test mixes shall demonstrate that;

7.6.2.2

7.6.2.3

a. b.

The standard deviations is 3.5 Mpa or less The mean concrete strength is equal to or higher than the strengths called for in paragraph 7.5.3 with no individual strength test falling below by more than 5%.

7.6.3

Submittal The contractor shall submit the following for RHI approval of trial mix design within thirty (30) days prior to the initial concrete pour.

7.6.3.1 7.6.3.2 7.6.3.3 7.6.3.4

Weights of all materials to be used in one cubic meter of concrete for each proposed mix. Water/Cementitious Materials ratios and slump range. Test results showing conformance with all the requirements of paragraph 7.6 of this specification. Strength test result at 7 and 28 days for each proposed mix including calculations of the mean and standard deviation. Approved Trial Mix Designs Trial mix designs shall not be changed after their acceptance without prior written approval by RHI.

76.4

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7.7 7.7.1 7.7.1.1 7.7.1.2

Concrete Production General Concrete production shall in a accordance with ACI-304 R A check list for concrete production shall be produced, such as that used by the National Ready-Mixed Concrete Association of U.S.A. or equal and approved. Batching Batching of materials shall be by weight All weighing equipment shall be calibrated and documentation shall be provided by the Contractor to establish that the accuracy is continuously maintained in accordance with the requirements of ACI-304R. Batching scale accuracy shall be in accordance with the Concrete Plant Standards of the Concrete Plant Manufacturers Bureau or approved equal. The Contractor shall furnish the necessary equipment and shall establish accurate procedures for determining the quantities of free-moisture in the aggregates. Moisture determination shall be made daily and whenever there is an apparent change in the moisture contents. The moisture content shall be recorded . The moisture of aggregates shall be utilized to adjust the weight aggregate added to the mix. The water added to the mix shall similarly be adjusted. Mixing Concrete shall be produced in a central batching and mixing plant which conforms to ACI-304R Mixing and the addition of water in truck mixers is not allowed. A backup plant to cover for the failure of the central batch plant during an important pour, shall be provided by the Contractor for RHIs approval prior to start of concrete construction.

7.7.2 7.7.2.1 7.7.2.2

7.7.2.3

7.7.3 7.7.3.1

7.7.3.2 7.7.3.3

Measuring tolerances, and mixing capability and time shall be in accordance with ASTM C-94. Whenever mixing is to be suspended for half an hour or longer. The drum of the mixer shall be thoroughly washed out with potable water. The Contractor shall provide a competent operator who shall be in continuous control of the mixer. No retempering of concrete which has partially hardened by the addition of cement, aggregate or mixer shall be allowed. When powder silica fume is added to concrete, the mixing time shall be 50% greater than the requirement for concrete without silica fume. Extra time is not required if is used in an approved slurry form but maximum wataer/cementitious materials ratio shall not be violated. Hot Weathering Concreting Concrete placement shall be in accordance with ACI-305 R. The temperature of fresh concrete shall be maintained between 25 C to 30 C and at the time of placement shall not be exceed 30 oC. Any concrete with a temperature in excess of 30 oC Before concrete placement starts, maximum attention should be given to the combined effect of ambient temperature relative humidity and wind speed. The Contractor shall make adequate provision before normal production concrete commences for the means of keeping within this temperature limit taking into account the anticipated site temperatures during the period of concrete production. Normal provisions for reducing the concrete temperature are as follows; a. b. Shading of mixing plant and trucks Shading of aggregates, water tank and cement silo

7.7.3.4

7.7.3.5

7.7.4 7.7.4.1

7.7.4.2

7.7.4.3

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c. d. e.

Painting while the mixing plant, trucks, water tank and cement silo Insulating the water tank and supply piping Shading of the concrete placing area during pouring of concrete. This shading should continue for structures upto 48 hrs.

7.7.4.4

For summer concreting, ice shall be required as a replacement for mixing water and in certain places this will still not enable the concrete temperature to be reduced to the required levels and night-time concreting will be necessary. Whenever ice is used in the concrete, reinforcing steel and forms shall be cooled off by fog misting with potable water immediately before concrete placing. The ice making plant shall be sized to supply 100% percent of mixing water requirements as flaked ice. Testing Laboratory The Testing Laboratory shall be accredited by NAMAS or SASO. It shall meet the requirement of ASTM C-1077 and shall have a quality system in accordance with ANSI ASOC-091. The Contractor shall employ an independent testing laboratory approved by RHI to perform all testing of materials used in the concrete mixes & samples in accordance with applicable ASTM standards listed in paragraph 2.2. The testing laboratory shall furnish all equipment, facilities, and labor required for field sampling, curing, transporting test sampling, field and laboratory tests, recording of test results and preparing necessary reports. All necessary samples for the testing of concrete and concrete materials shall be furnished by the Contractor at his expense.

7.7.4.5

7.74.6 7.8

7.9 7.9.1

Testing Concrete When a concrete mix for each strength and workability through the trial mix has been established based on the requirements set in paragraph 6.1.2, 6.1.3m 6.1.4, and 7.5 the following ongoing testing of fresh concrete shall be performed by the Contractor as follows: Test Temperature Slump Unit Weight Air Content Per ASTM C-1064 C-143 C-136 C-173 Requirement of Paragraph 7.7.4 7.5.6 7.5.7 7.5.7

7.9.2

Temperature, slump, unit weight, and air content of fresh concrete shall be measured at the point of pour, prior to placement in forms. Concrete not conforming to the requirements of this specification shall be rejected. Testing Fresh Concrete The final approval of concrete shall be based upon the following.

7.10

7.10.1 7.10.1.1

Compressive Strength Tests Testing a. Samples of concrete for compression tests shall be taken each day concrete is poured for the Project. The concrete shall be sampled, cured, and tested for compressive strength in accordance with ASTM C-172, C-31 and C-39. There shall be seven (7) test cylinders per sample.

In the case of small pours, there shall be one (1) sample as a minimum. For large continous pours, no less than one (1) sample shall be taken for each 35 cubic meters (50 cubic yards) or portion of 38 cubic meters (50 cubic yards) of concrete placed. b. Six (6) test cylinders shall be cured under standard moisture and temperature conditions in accordance with ASTM C31. The seventh test cylinder shall be cured in the field under conditions similar to conditions for curing the main concrete for a minimum period of 28 days unless directed otherwise by RHI. Three (3) of the moisture cured samples shall be tested 7 days after the concrete is poured and the other three (3) shall be tested on the 28th day after the concrete is poured. The field cured 7 th sample shall be stoned and tested when directed by RHI.

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c.

Data to be included in the test report on the compressive strength of the concrete shall include, but not the limited to the following; Identification of test cylinder Location of concrete on the Job Quantity of concrete in this section (pour) Proportions of concrete mix Water cement ratio Design strength Maximum size of coarse aggregate Slump measurement Time of day and air temperature when sample where takes Date poured Required and actual age of specimen at time of test Name of person making cylinders Weight of sample in grams Density in kg/m3 Compression load in Newtons Compressive strength in Mpa Signature of person preparing cyclinder Signature of person crushing cylinder

7.10.1.2

Compliance The concrete will be deemed in compliance with the specified design strength, if the 7 th day and the 28th days tests meet the following conditions;

The average strength determined from all sets of three (3) consecutives tests is not less than the specified strength. a. 7.10.1.3 No individual strength test falls below the specified strength by more than five (5) percent.

Unsatisfactory Concrete If any test results fail to comply paragraph 7.10.1.2 above, the quality of concrete represented by the results shall be removed and replaced with concrete meeting the requirement of this specification at no additional expense to RHI. Additionally, an investigation shall be performed by the Contractor to identify the cause of noncompliance and specify corrective measures. The extent of the investigation and the Contractor proposed corrective measures shall be subject to RHI approval.

7.10.1.4

Standard Deviation a. The 28th day cylinder compression results shall be grouped consecutively in groups of 40 and each group shall have a standard deviation less than 3.5 MPa.

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b.

If the standard deviation is greater than 3.5 Mpa, then the concrete production will be investigated by RHI and further tests and trial mixes shall be required.

7.10.2

Measurement of Concrete Temperature The temperature of the concrete at the point of and prior to placement shall be measured 50 mm below the surface in accordance with ASTM C-1054 and recorded on the Concrete Placement Card (Table 3B) for each pour. The temperature of the concrete shall meet the requirements of paragraph 7.7.4 otherwise concrete shall be disposed off by the Contractor and concreting shall cease until the requirements can be met.

7.10.3

Cement Content and Water/Cementitious Materials Ratio Samples of freshly mixed concrete shall be randomly chosen by RHI and tested to determine the cement content and water/cementitious materials ratio in accordance with BS 1881. If the cement content is less than the requirements given in paragraph 7.5.1 or the water/cementitious materials ratio is greater than the requirement given in paragraph 7.5.2 the cast concrete for the pour from which the samples were taken shall be removed and replaced with concrete meeting the requirement of this specification at the Contractor expense.

7.10.4

Salt Content The total concentration of sulphates and chlorides in fresh concrete shall be measured by the Testing Laboratory at least once per week. Tests shall be in accordance with BS 1861 and AAS+ITOT-260 for sulfate and chloride, respectively, Concentration of either ions shall not exceed the limits given in paragraph 7.5.8.1. Should there limits be exceeded, the concrete pour from which the samples were taken shall be removed and replaced with concrete meeting the requirement of this specification at Contractors expense. Further tests shall be performed on cast concrete to determine the total extent of the problem, as described in paragraph 7.11.

7.10.5

Water Absorption and Chloride Permeability Water Absorption and Chloride Ion Permeability tests as described in paragraph 7.5.8.2 shall be performed at least once per week. Acceptable results shall be as described in paragraph 7.5.8.2 concrete represented by unacceptable results shall be replaced at the Contractors expense.

7.10.6

Records Records shall be kept of design mix supplied, position in the works of all batches of concrete and of all samples taken for cylinders, and other specimens. These records shall include, but not be limited to the Following and as shown in Concrete Pour Card (Table 3A) and Concrete Placement Record (Table 33) a. b. c. d. Cement type and manufacture Aggregate type and source Admixture details Water/cementitious materials ratio

7.11 7.11.1

Testing Hardened Concrete General RHI shall on occasion have the right to call for samples to be taken and tests carried out on any hardened concrete as described below. Should the tests indicate that the concrete does not meet the requirements of this Specification, the cost of tests shall be paid by the Contractor. RHI shall have the right to ask for the removal and replacement of concrete at no additional expense to RHI. Should the tests confirm that the concrete meets the requirements of this Specification,then the cost of testing the samples will be paid by RHI.

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7.11.2

Concrete Cover RHI shall on occasion check the concrete cover to the reinforcement with a cover meter. Any indication that the cover is less than the requirements given in paragraph 7.1.10 then it shall be checked by limited surface concrete removal. If it is confirmed that the actual cover is less than specified, the concrete shall be considered not in compliance with the specification and shall be removed and replaced with concrete meeting the requirements of this specification at the Contractors expense.

7.11.3 7.11.3.1

Water Absorption and Chloride Permeability. A sample of three (3) 75 mm diameter cores, 75 mm long shall be taken from the hardened concrete it directed by RHI. Core shall be taken in accordance with ASTM C-42. Water absorption and chloride permeability test shall be performed in accordance with the paragraph 7.5.8.2. Should the absorption and chloride permeability of any core exceed the limits specified in paragraph 7.5.8.2 the concrete from which the core was taken shall be considered not in compliance with this specification and shall be removed and replaced with concrete meeting the requirements of this specification at the Contractors expense. Salt Content RHI shall on occasion call for samples to be taken and tested for sulphate and chloride content in accordance with BS 1681 and AASHTO T-260, respectively. Should the result show that the limits specified in paragraph 7.5.8.1 are exceeded, then the concrete shall be considered not in compliance with the specification and shall be removed and replaced with concrete meeting the requirements of this specification at Contractors expense.

7.11.3.2 7.11.3.3

7.11.4

7.11.5

Restoration of Cored Holes Whether the tests on cored samples pass or fail, the Contractor shall repair/restore the cored holes by approved materials/procedure by RHI at the Contractors expense.

7.12

Reinforcement This section covers the requirement for providing, fabricating, delivering and placing of reinforcement steal for all types of concrete construction.

7.12.1

Grade for Coated (FBECR) and Uncoated Rebars Reinforcement shall be new and to the following grades

7.12.1.1

General reinforcement shall be deformed billet steel conforming to the requirements of ASTM A515/A615M, Grade 60, with a specified yield strength of 414 Mpa Welded steel wire fabric shall conform to ASTM A-185 for plain fabric and to ASTM A497 for deformed fabric. Testing of tensile strength, bending and elongation in accordance with ASTM A370 for each diameter of reinforcing bars shall be done for every 200 tons of site delivered steel. Reinforcement the wire shall not be smaller than 15 and shall conduct to ASTM A82 Reinforcing steel bars and fabric shall be either epoxy coated with Fusion Bonded Epoxy in accordance with GES013-57 uncoated depending upon exposure conditions as follows; a. Use of epoxy coated reinforcement is mandatory for a.1 Structure exposed to sea water, brackish water or spray from these sources. a.2 Structures exposed to severe chemical environments such as acids and sulfates a.3 Structures in marine areas a.4 All Structure within five kilometers from the shore lines (Arabian Gulf and Red Sea). The foundations of these structures and any underground structure up to half meter above grade level except the superstructure as which shall be uncoated.

7.12.1.2 7.12.1.3

7.12.1.4 7.12.1.5

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a.5 Environmental structures such as Sewage Treatment Plants. a.6 Critical Foundations of Equipment which are subject to large static loads a.7 Substructure that are going below watertable Uncoated reinforcement may be used for b.1 Inland plant sites. Structures specifically mentioned above in paragraph (a) shall use epoxy-coated reinforcement. b.2 As pedestrian sidewalks and other walkways. b.3 All plant paving and other outdoor slabs on grade not exposed to sea water. b.4 All reinforced concrete used for underground duct banks or trenches to protect pipes, conduit, and communication cables.

b.

b.5 All reinforced concrete used as a cover for erosion protection such as tank farm dikes. 7.12.1.6 Manufacture, fabrication, handling, placement and storage and epoxy-coated reinforcement shall be in accordance with this section and Appendix A. Certification The following shall be submitted to RHI for review prior to start of delivery of reinforcement. 7.12.2.1 A copy of the Manufacturers mill test certificate for ultimate strength, elongation and cold bending together with the chemical analysis of the steel shall be submitted to RHI site inspector for each consignment of reinforcing steel delivered to site. Only new material shall be furnished, and on receipt and at the time of installation shall be free of loose rust or loose mill scale, deleterious amount of salts or coatings which reduce or destroy bond. Tight rust and mill scale or surface irregularities will b acceptable, provided the weight and the dimensions including height of deformations and tensile properties of a test specimen which has been wire-brushed by hand are not less than those required by the applicable standards. A copy of shop drawing showing all fabrication, bending and placement details for reinforcement shall be submitted to RHI for review and acceptance when not shown on contract drawing. Shipping and Storage Reinforcement shall be handled and shipped in a manner to avoid bending or other damage to the bars. Bars shall be bundled preferably for one (1) placement in accordance with the placement schedule and as specified below. 7.12.3.1 Bars for separate building or large structures shall not be bundled together. Bars for small structures may be bundled together, but each bar or group of bars which have the same piece mark shall be tagged and coded. Metal tags or approved equal shall be provided and labeled with legible marks. All bundles shall be tagged at each end. Tags shall show piece marks corresponding to mark numbers on the placement drawings and on the bar list. Bars shall be bundled in the largest size practical for handling and shipping. Reinforcement shall be stored above ground on platforms, skids or other approved supports. Contact with the soil shall be avoided. Proper drainage and protection shall be provided to minimize corrosion. Fabrication Reinforcement shall be accurately bent, cut or formed to the dimensions and configurations shown on the drawings and within the tolerances specified in ACI 315 and ACI 117. Reinforcement shall be bent cold using pin (or mandrel) sizes in accordance with ACI 316. Bars may be preheated only if prior approval has been requested and received. Reinforcement shall not be rebent or straightened without prior approval.

7.12.2

7.12.2.2

7.12.2.3

7.12.3

7.12.3.2 7.12.3.3

7.12.3.4

7.12.4 7.12.4.1

7.12.4.2

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7.12.4.3

Reinforcement having a reduced section, kinks, visible transverse cracks at bends, or otherwise damaged in any way shall not be used. Reinforcement shall not be welded, unless specifically shown on the drawings Placement Reinforcement shall b accurately placed in accordance with the drawings and shall be adequately secured and held in position. Ties at intersections shall be made with 1.5 mm diameter annealed wire; the wire ends shall be bent so that they do not protrude into the concrete cover zone. Particular attention shall be paid to the positioning of reinforcement so that adequate concrete cover can be achieved (All as described in paragraph 7.1.10 as lack of cover can be the cause of premature chloride access to the reinforcement. Lap splices shall be in accordance with the drawings or ACI 318. Welded wire fabric shall be tapped 1-1/2 mesh plus the extension of the wires, unless shown otherwise on the contract drawings. When mechanical splice is required, prior RHI approval is required and the full mechanical splice connection shall be able to develop in tension or compression as required, at least 125% of the specific yield strength Fy of the bar. Reinforcement shall be supported on concrete blocks of a site to give the correct cover to the reinforcement. Concrete spacers blocks shall be made of the same materials, to the same specification and have the same inherent properties as the parent material, but with the exception that the maximum aggregate size shall be appropriate for the thickness of cover to the reinforcement. Chairs made of reinforcement shall be used to support the top mats of stab reinforcement and they shall be so dimensioned as to be stable during concreting operations. The chairs shall be supported on concrete blocks as described above. Plastic spacers may be used where required after RHI Approval. Construction All concrete shall be placed in forms. Casting of concrete against soil shall not be permitted. All concrete construction shall conform to the requirements of ACI 301, ACI 302.1R and ACI 201.2R as applicable unless noted otherwise herein. Where liquid tight construction is to contain a liquid, the completed construction shall be hydrostatically tested before being placed in service. Concrete Transportation, Placement and Compaction. Transportation Concrete, after being discharged from the mixer shall be transported as rapidly as possible to its final position in the works by agitator trucks which shall prevent adulteration, segregation, loss of workability or contamination of the Ingredients. The containers that convey the concrete shall at all times be kept clean and free from hardened or partially hardened concrete. The addition of water at the point of discharge is prohibited and trucks shall have the water tank completely disconnected from the drum. The use of chutes, spouts, skips and pumps shall be permitted if approval is obtained, but under no circumstances shall any aluminum pipe or other conveying equipment containing aluminum be allowed to be in contact with fresh concrete when it is conveyed to the point of placement. Inspection of Formwork, Reinforcement and Embedded items Concrete shall not be placed unless the positioning, fixing and condition of the reinforcement and other items to be embedded the cleanliness, alignment and suitability of the containing surfaces have all been previously examined and approved. Aluminum conduit shall not be installed in concrete except for penetration of floor & walls. All such

7.12.4.4 7.12.5 7.12.5.1

7.12.5.2

7.12.5.3

7.12.5.4

7.12.5.5

7.12.5.6

7.12.5.7 7.13 7.13.1 7.13.2

7.13.3

7.14 7.14.1 7.14.1.1

7.14.1.2

7.14.1.3

7.14.2

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penetrations shall be taped to prevent contact with the concrete. Adequate time shall be allowed for inspection when concrete pours are scheduled but not less than one day. 7.14.3 Placement Placement of concrete shall be in accordance with ACI-301 and 304R unless shown otherwise below. 7.14.3.1 7.14.3.2 The temperature of concrete at the time of placement shall be in accordance with paragraph 7.7.4. The concrete shall be compacted in its final position within two (2) hours from the time of introduction of the cement into the aggregate, but in all cases atleast thirty (30) minutes less than the certified initial set time of the cement. Concrete shall not be dropped into place from a height exceeding two (2) meters nor shall it be dropped through dense reinforcing steel which could cause segregation of the coarse aggregate, or displacement of the reinforcement or formwork. Spouts or flexible drop chutes shall be employed subject to the conditions in paragraph 7.14.1. The concrete shall be deposited in regular courses or layers not exceeding 600 mm thickness unless otherwise directed. Every precaution shall be taken to prevent the formwork and reinforcement moving during the placing or setting of the concrete and any remedial work that is necessary shall be executed promptly. Where concrete is placed by pumping the following requirements shall apply: Minimum I.D. Pumpline Maximum Size Aggregate

7.14.3.3

7.14.3.4

7.14.3.5

7.14.3.6 7.14.3.7 7.14.4

150 mm 40 mm 100 mm 20 mm Structural concreting against open excavation will not be permitted as the concrete cannot be coated afterwards. Concrete shall not be placed when the work will be affected by wind blown sand conditions. Compaction and Vibration Concrete shall be consolidated as per ACI-309 R unless noted herein.

7.14.4.1

Full compaction of the concrete shall be achieved throughout the entire depth of the layer. It shall be thoroughly worked against the formwork and around the reinforcement and successive layers shall be thoroughly bonded together. Air bubbles formed during the mixing and casting shall be expelled and particular care shall be taken where sloping soffits occur. Unless directed otherwise approved power driven poker vibrator shall be used for compaction. They shall be inserted vertically at such distances apart, or applied in such a manner, as will ensure that the concrete is satisfactorily and uniformly compacted immersion vibrators shall penetrate the full depth of the layer, and when the underfying layer is fresh concrete shall enter and revibrate that layer to ensure that successive layers are bonded together. Over-vibration causing segregation, surface distance or leakage through formwork shall be avoided. Immersion vibrators shall be withdrawn slowly to prevent the formation of voids. Vibrators shall not be used to work the concrete along the forms, or in such a way as to segregate the mix damage formwork or other parts of the works, or displace the reinforcement. External vibrators shall not be used without approval being obtained for the formwork design and the configuration of the vibrators. Concreting should not be started without the stand-by arrangement for compaction and vibration. Unformed Surface Finishes Finished surfaces shall be true plane surfaces. Surfaces shall be pitched to drains as required. Finish to be provided shall be as called for on the drawings and shall conform to the following requirements:

7.14.4.2

7.14.4.3 7.14.5

7.14.5.1

All exposed concrete surfaces shall receive the following treatment before receiving the final surface finish: a. Struck off to bring the top surface of all concrete to the proper contour, grade, and elevation.

b. c.

Darbied and wood floated with wooded tools so as to correct any unevenness. Steel troweled to produce a dense surface.

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d.

At no time shall dry cement be used to absorb excess water.

7.14.5.2

Exposed concrete surfaces shall receive the following final surface finish: Building Floors: a.1 Building floors receiving a floor covering shall be finished in accordance with recommendations of the manufacturer of the covering. a.2 Building floors not receiving a floor covering shall receive a mechanical steel trowel finish to provide a smooth even hand surface. b. Roadway surfaces shall receive a wood float treatment and then a broom finish by drawing a wire broom perpendicular to the direction of normal vehicle travel. Outdoor surfaces subject to pedestrian traffic only shall be roughened using a wood float to provide a nonslip, smooth even textured surface. Remaining surfaces not previously described shall be roughened using a wood float to provide a smooth even textured surface.

c.

d.

7.14.5.3

Immediately after forms are removed, exposed surfaces shall be inspected and small holes and minor honeycombing, which do not impair strength, shall be filled with mortar. Mortar shall be of essentially the same composition as the surrounding concrete. Members having extensive defects, bulging, warping, honeycombing, etc. shall be repaired or replaced as RHI directs. Curing General All concrete shall be moist cured in accordance with ACI 308, ACI 308 R and as specified herein. Curing shall commence immediately after finishing (flatwork) or within two (2) hours after consolidation and continue for a minimum of 14 days. The use of curing compounds is not permitted for concrete mixes containing admixtures or concrete surfaces receiving subsequent finishes. The Contractors attention is drawn to the importance of curing. Regular frequent inspection shall be made on concrete being cured to establish whether or not curing is being performed in accordance with this specification. Horizontal Surfaces Immediately after finishing, surface shall be covered with white polyethylene sheeting in contact with concrete surface with the edges lapped or lied down to exclude air circulation. After the concrete has stiffened but no longer than 2 hours, the sheeting shall be removed and replaced with a hessian soaked with potable water. The white polyethylene sheeting shall be placed over the hessian immediately to prevent evaporation from the hessian. For the duration of the curing period prescribed, all the concrete surfaces covered with hessian should be visibly wet. Throughout the curing period the hessian shall be maintained in a permanently wet condition using potable water. The water used for curing shall be of the quality specified in paragraph 6.1 and shall be at the same temperature as the concrete being cured.

7.15 7.15.1 7.15.1.1

7.15.1.2

7.15.1.3

7.15.2

7.15.3

Vertical Surfaces Vertical timber formwork shall be draped with wet hessian as soon as concrete is placed. As soon as formwork is removed, all surfaces shall be draped with wet hessian, covered with white impervious sheeting held firmly in place along all edges and kept continuously wet for the duration of the curing period. For the duration of the curing period prescribed, all the concrete surfaces covered with hessian should be visibly wet. Care shall be taken to avoid drying winds caused by a wind tunnel arrangement of the covering or formwork which has been slackened from the concrete.

7.15.4

The curing method for hot weather concreting shall be per ACI 305 R. The increase of curing period and of thermal protection is recommended.

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7.16 7.16.1

Remedial Work Concrete exposed by the removal of formwork shall be inspected by the inspector before any remedial work, subsequent coating or any other treatment is carried out, which would hinder the proper inspection of the concrete. Any concrete which has had remedial work carried out on it prior to being inspected shall be liable for rejection. It inspection of exposed surfaces reveal small holes and minor honeycombing which do not impair strength with a maximum size of 10 mm x 10 mm shall be filled with mortar. Mortar shall be of essentially the same composition as the surrounding concrete. Members having extensive defects, bulging, warping, tie holes and honeycombing with greater size than the above etc. shall be repaired or replaced as RHI directs. Concrete which does not meet the requirements of this specification, shall be removed and rebuilt without delay unless RHI agrees that a repair may be satisfactorily accomplished. This agreement shall not preclude the subsequent rejection of the repaired work. The repair method to be used in the removal and replacement of defective work shall be submitted to RHI for approval for each concrete placement before the removal commences. All repairs shall be carried out by a contractor specializing in the repair of concrete in the Middle East and prepared to guarantee the work. Any repair method submitted for approval shall produce a result which is a impermeable as the original concrete. Subsequent tests on the repaired concrete shall be carried out at the discretion of RHI in order to establish the quality of the repair. Particular care shall be given to the joint between the original and repair concrete as this is an additional potential weakness for the ingress of chlorides. Protection to Concrete Surfaces General All concrete having any surface holes shall be investigate and if they are small and formed by air bubbles caught against formwork, they shall be filled with a filler compatible with the coating to be applied. If that coating stone cannot fill the holes. For surface holes having any dimension greater than 10 mm, reference shall be made to Paragraph 7.16.

7.16.2

7.16.3

7.16.4

7.16.5

7.17 7.17.1

7.17.2

Mudmat Concrete and Waterproof Barrier All below grade concrete shall be installed on a layer of mudmat (structural plain concrete as per Table 2) that is 75 mm to 100 mm (3 in. to 4 in.) thick and on a liner in the form of polyethylene sheet conforming to ASTM D-2103 with a minimum thickness of 0.25 mm (10 mils). The liner shall be installed between the concrete bottom and the top of mudmat. The mudmat layer shall extend a minimum of 100 mm (4 in) beyond all concrete edges. Liner overlap shall be a minimum of 300 mm (1 ft). The liner shall extend a minimum of 150 mm (6 in.) beyond all concrete edges.

7.17.3 7.17.3.1

Surfaces below Ground A waterpool barrier with minimum two coats providing a thickness of minimum 0.4 mm shall be applied to the vertical sides of all concrete surfaces exposed to soil. Waterproofing barrier shall be in the form of 100 percent solid liquid membrane conforming to BS5493 (Reference RF 3B) and approved by RHI. The Contractor shall submit manufacturer catalogs and technical specifications for approval by RHI prior to installation. The waterproofing barrier shall be capable of a. b. Preventing direct contact between concrete and surrounding soil Preventing moisture ingress and impeding chloride diffusion through concrete surface

7.17.3.2

7.17.3.3

7.17.3.4

Waterproofing barrier shall be applied after the curing is complete and the surface is dry for atleast 48 hours. Surface preparation and method of application shall be in accordance with manufacturers instruction. Exposed External Surfaces at Ground

7.17.4

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Exposed external concrete surfaces, 300 mm above ground level or up to the underside of baseplates, whichever is the lowest shall be primed with a low viscosity primer and coated with two coats of a light gray colored epoxy paint with a minimum thickness of 125 microns per coat. a. Pain brand shall be RHI approved. Application trials shall be carried out on the chosen coating. Concrete surface preparation and application shall be strictly in accordance with the Manufacturers recommendations.

7.17.5

External Surface Exposed to Saline Water External surface in the sea splash zone or in the tidal zone, or the internal faces of structures containing saline water, shall be coated as described in paragraph 7.17.4.

8. 8.1

READY MIX CONCRETE Ready-mix concrete (referred to as off-site mixed concrete) shall comply with the following: a. b. c. d. This Specification It is centrally mixed off-site in accordance with ASTM C-94 It is transported in an agitator truck. Truck mixing shall not be permitted. The plant and trucks are certified to meet the requirements of the NRMCA check list, or equal and approved.

8.2

Before discharging the concrete at the paint of delivery, the Contractors shall provide the inspector with a delivery ticket for each batch of concrete on which is printed, stamped or written the following minimum information: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o. p. q. Contract Number Name and location of Batch Plant Serial number of ticket Date Plate number of Delivery Truck Name of Purchaser Mix description and design strength of concrete Type of cement Cement content Water/cementitious materials ratio Source of aggregate Nominal maximum size of aggregate Weight of line and coarse aggregate Type, name and amount of admixture, if included Quantity of concrete in cubic meters Time loaded Temperature of concrete at loading

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9. 9.1

WATER RETAINING CONSTRUCTION General Water retaining construction shall comply with this Specifications and ACI 350R. Where the water to be retained is saline then the internal faces of the structure shall be coated as described in paragraph 7.17.4. Waterproof through-tie System should be employed in the formwork of Water Retaining Construction.

9.2 9.2.1

Joints Joints shall be designed and constructed in accordance with ACI 504 R. Details and the positioning of these joints, together with the materials to be used, shall be shown on the construction drawings. Where waterstops are called for on the drawings for joints, they shall be fabricated from PVC in accordance with CE-CRD-C572. Joining of waterstops shall be by welding in an approved fashion. The lapping of waterstops at joints and the use of adhesives for jointing purposes will not be permitted unless specifically authorized . Care shall be taken at all times to ensure that waterstops are not perforated or damaged in anyway, and concrete shall be carefully placed and compacted to ensure dense impervious concrete. Particular attention shall be paid to the placing and vibration of the concrete to ensure well compacted concrete around the ribs of the waterstops. At all joints the concrete shall be placed up to the center line of the waterstops. Protective Coating The inside faces of structure shall be coated as described in paragraph 7.17.4 unless otherwise shown on the construction drawings. The outside faces of structures which are above ground, shall be coated as described in paragraph 7.17.4. Testing In addition to the testing required in paragraph 7.11 particularly absorption tests, further test to determine the overall water lightness of the structure and particularly the joints shall be carried out per ACI 350R. The structure under test shall be filled to the designed level with potable water and left for a 7-day period to allow for absorption of water. The exposed faces shall be inspected for leaks over this period. Any defect shall be corrected by an approved method. This could involve demolition and rebuilding, or lining of the structure in case of leaks at the joints. PRECAST CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION General The precast concentrate shall meet the requirements of this specification and chapter 16 of ACI 318 in addition to those indicated on the drawings and the following relating to precast work in particular.

9.2.2

9.3 9.3.1

9.3.2 9.4 9.4.1

9.4.2

10. 10.1.

10.2

Identification of Precast Units All units shall be marked with the date of manufacture, mark number with the distinguishing letters or number to identify to work on a face which will not be exposed in the permanent works.

10.3 10.3.1 10.3.2

Curing, Maturing and Stacking The production schedule shall allow for curing precast concrete in accordance with this specification. Slinging, transporting, stacking and installation may take place when concrete strengths designed for these purposes have been attained. Cement/Sand Mortar Cement/sand mortar for bedding and jointing precast members shall be of equivalent strength quality and color to that of the concrete member being bedded or jointed. Cement / sand mortar shall be mixed in small quantities and used immediately. Particular attention shall be paid to compacting the cement/sand mortar to prevent the formation of voids and air pockets.

10.4

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10.5

Concrete cover The concrete cover shall be per paragraph 7.1.10.

11.

SAFETY The Contractor shall prepare a Safety Program which shall comply with all applicable site specific-requirements of RHI, and all safety requirements specified in the Contract Documents. The Safety Program shall be approved by RHI. In Royal Commission areas, the Safety Program shall comply with Royal Commission requirements.

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TABLE 1 DATA AND DOCUMENTS REQUIRED All Submittals shall be made to RHI Type of Submittal When Receipt by client Required Within 30 days prior to Pour 30 Days prior to Installation 30 Days Prior to Fabrication Within 30 days after notice To Proceed

Frequency ( If Applicable)

For Acceptance

For Review

For Record

Description of Data Required

Remarks

Bar Bending Schedule ( Reinforcing Steel Shop Drawing) Testing Agency Qualifications Material Certification and Test Reports Concrete Supplier Q.C. Program Concrete Mix Design Data on Formwork Release Agent Proposed for use Plan of Resharing Procedures and operations Contractor Q.C. Program Contractor Q.A. Program Contractor Safety Program

X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

one time one time X X X one time one time As per site requirement As per site requirement one time one time one time

For each structure

for each mix design

* As required by RHI and/or per specification

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TABLE 2 Minimum Cementitious Materials Contents And Maximum Water-Cementitious Materials Ratio

Type of Concrete

7 Day Compressive strength MPa (PSI)

28 Day Compressive Strength MPa(PSI)

Minimum Cementitious Materials Contents (kg/m3)

Maximum WaterCementitious Materials Ratio (By Wt.)

Portland Cement 16 (2300) 18 (2600) 24 (3500) 12 (1750) 25 (3500) 30 (4000) 35 (5000) 17 (2500) 354 350

Silica Fume 35 35 0.40 0.40

Structural Structural Structural

354 275

35 0

0.40 0.45

Plain

Structural Plain or lean Concrete

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TABLE 3A CONCRETE POUR CARD

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TABLE 3B CONCRETE PLACEMENT RECORD

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APPENDIX A ADDITIONAL PROVISIONS FOR EPOXY-COATED REINFORCING BARS


1.0 1.1 REINFORCEMENT Reinforcing steel bars shall be epoxy-coated per ASTM A775/A775M shall be used as the base reference document. Manufacturer shall furnish at the time of shipment when certification that coated reinforcement meets the requirement of this specification. The reinforcement shall include identification of coating batch, material, quality, date of process, name and address of manufacturer. Epoxy-coated reinforcing bars shall be inspected for damaged coating when the bars are received at the jobsite and just before the pouring of the concrete. All visible damage to the epoxy-coating due to shipping, handling, bending, cutting or placing shall be repaired with coating manufacturers recommended epoxy repair kit. Repair shall be performed strictly in accordance with manufacturers instruction. The maximum amount of coating damage excluding sheared edge, cut ends, shall not exceed 1% of the total surface area of each 0.3m of the bar. The bar shall be rejected if the damage exceeds the above amount. bend tests, for coating adhesion shall be carried out at the site by bending the bars through 180 O round circular parallel mandrel having six times the nominal diameter of the bar. The bends shall be performed at a uniform rate, but must be completed within 15 seconds. No cracking or disbondment of the coating shall be visible to the unaided eye on the outside radius of the bent bar. The frequency of the test shall be as specified in ASTM A775/A775M. All reinforcement accessories (spacer, chairs, etc.) required for spacing, assembling and supporting reinforcement in place shall be epoxy/plastic coated or plastic accessories and shall be subject to approval. Tie wires shall be plastic-coated. Coating thickness shall be minimum of 5 mills. Bar mats shall be fabricated from epoxy-coated reinforcing bars. Metal clips shall be epoxy-coated. Non-metallic clips may be used. Coating damage at the clipped or welded intersection shall be repaired in accordance with section 1.3. DETAILING AND FABRICATION The development length shall be as per sections 12.2 and 12.5 of ACI 316 2.1 The mandrel (or pin) around which the rebar is bent shall be fabricated from (or covered with a collar of) nylon or other non-abrasive material which will not damage the epoxy-coating.

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7 1.8

2.0

2.2 Minimum bend diameter (Mandrel size) for fusion bonded epoxy-coated rebar (FBECR) and uncoated rebar size shall be as follows: Rebar Diameter (mm) 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 25 28 32 35 40 45 50 Bend Diameter (Mandrel size) (mm) 48 64 80 95 112 128 144 160 176 200 224 256 285 400 450 500

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2.3

After bending, all bars shall be tested with an electrical flaw detector in order to detect holidays (pin holes). Hairfine cracking and other defects in the coating. The electrical flaw detector shall be of approved type delivering approximately 1,000 volts at low amperage. Defects found, i.e. where arcing occurs shall be repaired and re-tested. As permissible damage shall be repaired per ASTM A775/A775M. TAGGING REINFORCING STEEL Each bundle of bars, straight or bent shall be non-metallic tagged to identify the design drawing number, the structure, mark number, bar quantity and size. Random-length straight bars shall be tagged to show number of bars, size, and length. All bundling bands shall be padded or a suitable banding shall be used to prevent damage to the coating. STORAGE Reinforcing bars shall be handled with care, using nylon type spacers and nylon slings for lifting. Direct metal to coating contact shall be avoided. Padded contact areas shall be used on all equipment handing epoxy coated bars. Reinforcing bars shall be stored in accordance with the requirements of inspection an acceptance of epoxy-coated reinforcing bars by MSP-1 of CRSI (Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute) of U.S.A. and this specification. PLACING Handling of epoxy-coated rebar shall conform to ASTM A 775 Section 14.1 Guideline for inspection and Acceptance of Epoxy-Coated Reinforcing bars by MSP-1 of CRSI and as specified herein. Care must be exercised when handling epoxy-coated rebar to minimize scraping of the bundles or bar-to-bar abrasion from sags in the bundles. Coated bars or bundles of coated bars shall not be dropped or dragged. All equipment for handling coated bars shall have padded contact areas. Epoxy-coated reinforcing bars supported from the ground, or form work shall rest on coated wire bar supports, or on bar supports made of dielectric material or other acceptable materials. Reinforcing bars used as support bars shall be epoxy-coated. In walls having epoxy-coated reinforcing bars, spreader bars shall be epoxy coated. Proprietary combination bars clips and spreaders used in walls with epoxycoated reinforcing bars shall be of corrosion resistant material. The use of pre-cast concrete (or mortar) blocks as bar supports and spacers, shall be prohibited. Reinforcing bars partially embedded in concrete shall not be field bent. When epoxy-coated reinforcing bars are cut in the field, the ends of the bars shall be coated as soon as the bar cutting process is finished with the same material used for repair of coating damage per paragraph 1.3 above. All epoxy coated reinforcement, at the time concrete is placed, shall be free of mud, oil or other materials that may adversely affect or reduce the bond. Concrete shall not be placed until the epoxy-coated rebar has been inspected and approved. In the bent portion of a fabricated bar, repair is required if only hairline cracking is present and there is no discernible loss of bond (loss of adhesion) of the coating to the bar. When disbondment of the coating exists, the disbanded bar shall be rejected. Plastic sleeves shall be used with vibrators to avoid damage to epoxy-coated rebar.

3.0 3.1

3.2 3.3 4.0 4.1

4.2

5.0 5.1

5.2

5.3 5.4

5.5 5.6 5.7

5.8

5.9

5.10

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