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INTERMOLECULAR FORCES OF ATTRACTION (IMFA) explains

are compounds between outside and weak attraction due to

physical properties

partial charges

solubility farther distance

physical states

KINDS OF IMFAS KINDS OF IMFA electrostatic Ion dipole H bond Dipole-dipole Ion-induced dipole Dipole induced diploe Dispersion COMPOUNDS THAT FORMED THEM Ionic with ionic Ion with polar Polar H terminal with lone pairs of small electronegative atoms Polar with polar Ion with non polar Dipole with non polar Non polar with non polar

Examples
electrostatic NaCl NaCl

Na

H2O

ion dipole

CH 3 C = O
H- bond

CH 3

CH3 C=O
H 2O H 2O

CH3

dipole-dipole

ion induced dipole O = O e' movement O = O e' movement Cl


-

Na

dipole induced dipole O= O H2O

dispersion O = O O = O

IMFA and Solubility For dissolving to happen, 3 processes must occur 1. Dissolved substance (solute) must separate (IMFA breaking- endothermic heat) 2. Dissolving substance (solvent) must separate (IMFA breaking-endothermic heat) 3. Solute and solvent must mix (IMFA forming-exothermic heat)

IMFA between solute and solvent > IMFA among solute and or IMFA among solvent _

Summarized as : LIKE DISSOLVES LIKE ; polar solvent dissolves polar solute Non polar solvent dissolves non polar solute

IMFA and Physical State


Physical State interplay between IMFA Kinetice Energy

draws molecules together

separates molelcules apart

Kinds Solid IMFA >>> Gas liquid IMFA <<< IMFA is continuously being formed and continuously being broken

KE

KE

Phase Changes are

MELTING is s >>>> l when temp > IMFA

EVAPORATION is l >>>> g when

CONDENSATION is g >>>> l when

FREEZING is l >>>> s when temp << IMFA

temp >> IMFA are

temp < IMFA

are exothermic heat makes warm sorrounding

endothermic heat makes cold sorrounding

ENERGY CURVE DURING PHASE CHANGE (OF WATER)

g 100

l - g 540 cal/g

TEMP 25 0 s -4 80 cal/g

s - l

ENERGY

LATENT HEATS Heat of Fusion- amount of energy needed to melt 1 gram of a substance at its melting point H fusion water = 80 cal/g Q= mass X H fusion Heat of Freezing = energy released to change 1 gram of liquid to solid Heat of Fusion (endo) = Heat of Freezing (exo)

Heat of Vaporization amount of energy needed to evaporate 1 gram of a substance at its boiling point H vap water = 540 cal/g Q = mass X H vap Heat of Condensation= energy released to convert 1 gram of gas to liquid

Heat of Vaporization (endo) = Heat of Condensation(exo)

SPECIFIC HEATS= Energy needed to change the temperature of 1 gram of a substance 10Celsius For water: Sp. Heat = 1 cal/g-0C

UNIQUE PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS

1. Surface Tension 2. Capillarity 3. Viscosity