D.M.

PAIS

HISTORY of PORTUGAL

ApriL Books

Index THE OLD DAYS ................................................ 5

The Iberian Peninsula .............................................. 5 By that time ............................................................. 10 The Tordesillas Treaty ........................................... 12 King John II ........................................................... 16 King Emmanuel I ................................................... 17 King John III ......................................................... 22 King Sebastian ........................................................ 24 Anthony, the Prior of Crato ................................... 28 The Great Armada .................................................. 34 The Philips from Spain ............................................40 Long live King John IV ! ........................................ 41 The Count of Castle Mellior .................................. 46 The Holly Infant ..................................................... 50 The Methuen Treaty ................................................. 50 King John V owns a hut in Paris! ............................ 53 King Joseph I ........................................................... 55 The Marquis of Pombal .......................................... 55 The French Invasions as the origin of Portugal today ................................. 67 The Ponte das Barcas disaster ................................. 71 After the French Invasions .................................... 72 PORTUGAL in MODERNTY.................................. 74 Salazar and the 'New State' ......................................74 The Carnation Revolution ...................................... 82 The Portuguese Socratacy ...................................... 83 The Treaty of Lisbon ............................................... 89 Economic Crisis ...................................................... 90 The Socratic Controversy ......................................... 91 Portugal Corrupted .................................................. 94 Appendix ................................................................ 95

THE OLD DAYS ...

The Iberian Peninsula was remotely populated by Keltic, Iberian and Lusitanian tribes, and also by Phoenician and Greek people in the role of settlers, the Greek to the South and Phoenician to the North. Subsequently, the country was invaded by the Carthaginian running away from the Romans but these last were the most successful. The Lusitanian were apparently the descendent of the Atlantes after the Great Flood ... The emperors of the Dominant Empire, by that time, were Vespasian and Caracalla. Strong signs of romanisation lingered, either in Language, whether in Architecture. After, the region was invaded by the Barbarians, falling much of it, under the dominion of the Swabians. Later, under the rule of the Visigoths, and so, until the end of the sixth century after Christ – the man of most important historic memoir of all Planet Blue. The Arabs, coming from another continent, ended the rule of the Visigoths. A tough guy named Pelagius, a Lusitanian, regained the Asturias. The feudal lords, including Ferdinand the Great, were holding the Arab attacker, causing him to retreat once more. The country had for many years been a fief Castile the Vechia. During Middle Ages, a religious institution called Roman Church, dominated part of the existing states by deliberately preventing, the scientific and philosophical development of Planet Blue in a period called the Dark Age. A new era, the Renaissance, was a time of inventions and discoveries on Planet Blue, many of them the result of adaptation and contacts with distant peoples. This happened with Gunpowder and as a result, the Paper and the Press. This last allowed to display books before a 5

wider audience than it was possible in the Middle Ages. Some important tools that were used by sailors on the seas, in their various travels throughout Planet Blue, were the Compass and the Astrolabe .... The fall of Constantinople, a city in the East, had blocked the way to the West. So, the Lusitanian started to build Caravels (very light high-sea boats), to find a way by sea to the East. In the most important of these trips, departed four caravels commanded by a sailor named Vasco da Gama. The boats were sailing to Mhozambique when the gods met in council to decide the success of the trip. Among the gods, Jupiter found himself surrounded by his daughter Venus, and Mars, both friends and protectors of the Lusitanian travellers. But there was as well Bacchus everytime drunk and who did not like the Lusitanian. The crew had spotted an island that appeared deserted; they came out to meet some locals sailing on small boats. Without noticing that they were from the kingdom of the Moors who the Lusitanian ever fought, these were entrusting them with the Moors' intentions. They promised the Lusitanian sailors a good guide that lead them to the desired destination, as well as food and water. Thinking that the Lusitanian were Turks, but not having the certainty of that, the locals wanted to inquire of their intentions. Vasco da Gama told them they were heading to far Indhia and, just in case, showing their weapons of war with which the vessels were equipped, but just as a gesture of friendship. The Moors were, nevertheless, not tranquillised and turned back plotting traps. In Olympus, home of the gods, Bacchus, not flattered by a rebuke coming from Mars at the end of the meeting, had decided to go aiding the Moors. For so much Bacchus transformed himself into one of those who accompanied the islands' Sheik. Inventing enough lies about the unknown sailors, he made the Sheik to panic, deciding the Sheik to make war to the Lusitanian. Bacchus knowing that the Lusitanian would come back in the morning in search of water, the Sheik was advised by Bachus that the 6

Lusitanians should be killed when they would be ashore. The trap, however, just got frustrated, being the brave sailors of Vasco da Gama unharmed, but leaving many dead among the Moors. These returned with new proposals of peace but Da Gama suspected again, accepting, however, aboard, the pilot that was offered by the Sheik. The pilot had orders to take the Lusitanian to another island where the Moors could pitch them a new trap. However, the goddess Venus, friend of the Lusitanian, made Aeolus, god of the air, blowing headwinds preventing he ships from reaching the island. The Moor pilot, however, would lead them to a city that the Moors claimed to be Christian, however not being. The city was called Mom Baça. When they arrived there, the king ordered to take aboard the ships, several barrels of fresh water and invited the crew to visit the city. Bacchus again works against the Lusitanian. He transformed himself this time into a priest, so, on seeing him, the sailors sent ashore, were convinced they'd seen a Christian priest, as well as the veracity of the statements made by the pilot. Venus, very atemptive to these moves, will, however, contradict the output of the Lusitanian to disembark at the city by triggering a new storm that caused the caravels departing away to the high sea. Thinking that the Lusitanian, had discovered the Moors' trap, some of them, still aboard the ships, thrown themselves into the sea water. From this point the journey continues for the best stops. But Venus, seeing the Lusitanean going once more through many risks, asked Jupiter her father to protect them. He ordered Mercury, his messenger, who appeared in dreams to Da Gama and made him looking for safer harbouring. Obedient to his dream, Vasco eventually reachs Melind, a town of Moors but not as malicious as the foregoing. Gama refused, however, that his sailors left the ships and the Melind's king came to welcome the special boat in which Vasco and a few Lusitanian were sailing. Both, Da Gama and Melind's king, each one on his small boat, richly dressed in silk and velvet, studded with gold and seed pearls. There after, the Moors and their king went to visit the main Lusitanian ship becoming very 7

astounded by what they saw. After sitting down to eat and drink, the king of Melind asked Vasco to tell him the story of the Lusitanian that he just vaguely knew. Vasco began to tell the most beautiful story in the History of Planet Blue. He told the Moors that his country was situated where Land ends and Sea begins. It all started when, in the Herminious hills, a shepherd named Viriato defeated the Romans. Later, a foreign prince named Henry, who was returning from the Crusades, went to Spain and married the daughter of the king of Castile – Dona Teresa. Her dowry was part of a kingdom that would transform into what currently Da Gamas' country was. Since her husband died, Dona Teresa remarried. But the new spouses, would not yield the right of succession to the son of Count Henry – a warrior called Dom Alphonse Enriched – and they began to make him a war. Having been besieged by the Castilian, Alphonse was freed due to the diplomacy of his tutor, Egas Moniz, who promised to rehabilitate his pupil. This one, however, returned to the fight and went on to win over the Five Kings of Castile! Crowned king, he began to expand his kingdom, conquering the cities of Leiridia, Abre Antes, Sam Tharem, Mha Phra, Sinthra, and Lisa Bone - this last, it seems, founded by a Greek navigator named Ulysses. The town, originally called Ulipseia, i.e. the town of Ulysses, went through a complicated linguistic trajectory to finally be called Lisa Bone. Conquered then the town of Ulysses by Dom Alphonse Enriched, other cities were also taken from the hands of the invading Saracens, both on the West Coast, as in the South. In an attempt to recover what was lost, the Moors surrounded Alphonse, in Saint Harem, when he was resting there, but their intentions were in vain. His son, Pancho, continued, winning the fight against Miralmumini, an emperor with thirteen kings at his orders. Other Lusitanian kings succeeded Henry until, in the reign of King Denis, this one built the celebre University in Coinbridge, where he began to cultivate the Arts and the Sciences. This king was also a fan of agricultural tasks, planting and seeding the pine forest of Lheiria and other arable fields. His son, Alphonse IV, also had to cope with the 8

Moors. They invaded Castile where the king was married to Princess Mary, daughter of Alphonse. The hosts of Alphonse of Castile and King Alphonse, all together, defeated the Moors in the Battle of the Salad. There followed what was considered the bluest of the realm: that of Peter. This king was fond of one of the queen's dames, named Agnes. She lived in Coinbridge, in a place called the Farm of Tears ( Quinta das Lágrimas ), in the most complete peace. As Prince Peter insisted on marrying her, despite the lady's blood being Castilian, the king that brought her to his presence, following which, she was imprisoned. Since then questioned and judged, the king, influenced by his councillors, ordered a death sentence on her. During his reign, King Peter I, crowned Agnes as Queen after her death and executed her murderers. It is thus known this King as the Punisher. The same can't be told of his son, King Ferdinand, who was very devoted to his wife, Leanor Telly, a traitor for the Castilian. After her husband's death, she urged the king of Castile to conquer the Porto Callis country. The Spaniards gathered the largest army ever seen in Spain and marched against the Portocalleese but they were defeated because the head of the Portocaleese, Dom Nuno Alvarez Pereira, with a small army, engaged an original tactic of war, called the Square Tactic. Forming with his men a large square, empty in the inside, he made the Spaniards, when they were charging against the Square, to enter it, and then getting corralled and driven back, running disorganized. So, this way, ended the biggest battle between the Spanish and the Portuguese ... Vasco interrupted his narrative at this point and took a sip of wine he had been offered. After that he continued: the one who first had the idea of looking for new lands in the East was King John II, named the Perfect Prince ... He was succeeded by King Emmanuel I that sent Vasco Da Gama to command the fleet that would land in far Indhia ... 9

By that time lived among the Portuguese a Genoese man called Christopher Columbus, who was a man of knowledge about sea tasks, and who also dealt on new land discovery. That was the reason he came to Portugal, because this country was the one where new lands were forged, so to speak, and all who were enthusiastic about those matters were heading to Portugal to find work in this business. Christopher Columbus had been in Madeira, where he heard of land signals to the sea side sunset, and began to think that by following the sun's traject, he would easily arrive in India. He spoke on the subject to John II, king of Portugal. The king consulted his ministers and other wise men of his court, who burst out laughing! Columbus went away and began offering his services to whoever was willing to give him a vessel for him to sail away to the sea. He was accepted by the king of Spain, after the Spaniards very hardly questioning him. When in posetion of three vessels, Columbus sailed to the sea, following to West and, finally, he saw a land populated by savages, that would be called America, a continent much larger than Europe. All these lands could have come to belong to king John II did he not fell into the mistake of not believing Columbus, as everyone knew he was a very intelligent man, and so the Portuguese king did not want to give him two or three ships to try his discovery assumption, despite having the Portuguese king loads of ships scattered throughout all the Portuguese ports! However, the mood in which Columbus made the proposal to the king was not the best kind. Imagine Christopher Columbus coming along to talk to king John II and telling him: 'Know Your Highness that somewhere, at the large of the Azores, there is a very rich country, with loads of gold, silver and many many diamonds, and if Your Highness wish, I'll get there in an instant ... '. Columbus himself did not even know if there was such a country. All his certitude was that Planet Blue was round, and about that he was right – ships sailing to the West, had to, at some moment, coming back 10

sailing from East. But he did not know that Planet Blue was much bigger than he could ever imagine; and if America never showed up, the man w'd find the travel very hard because he still w'd have to go through many more difficulties before he could ever get there, once, probably, he was not carrying in the ship's cellars enough flour, salted meat, biscuits and lemons. There is to take in consideraton that the Portuguese were, for about a couple of years, ruminating insisting in sailing along the coast of Affrica in search of Indhia. They persisted until they finally reached the end of Affrica, and realized that the coast suddenly deviated to the North, and was surely going ending in Indhia. And that's exactly when the Portuguese got what they had sought for so long, ( when they discovered the Cape of Good Hope, and were confident that they'd found the path to Indhia, an information that most rejoiced the king of Portugal ), precisely at that moment, there came Colombus and tell the king: 'Do please forget all that, sire, and begin again to seek Indhia through another way. The king, of course, told him to take a walk on the wild side. Although it was not a great idea to despite a man like Christopher Columbus. Finding Indhia through the East shouldn't prevent to find it by the West and the Portuguese had already made so many discoveries so far, that it was not the end of the world if some more ships departed to adventure to see what the sea could bring. But that was not what the Portuguese decided and the Spaniards kept America for them and started to rival with their neighbours in matters of discoveries, and began to challenge his rival with regard to discovery, so that it was necessary the Pope came dividing the Planet Blue in two halves, saying: ''To the left discoveries are to the Spanish, and to the right discoveries are to the Portuguese, which made the king of France saying later: So, now, I'd like to see the article in the will of father Adam, that states Planet Blue to be disputed solely between the Spanish and the Portuguese!'' ...

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The Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in 7 of July of 1494 at Tordesillas, (a Spanish city actually belonging to the Province of Valladolid in Spain), divided the lands newly discovered outside Europe, between Spain and Portugal along a meridian 370 leagues (2,061 kilometres) west of the islands of Cape Verde, beyond the Atlantic Ocean). This line of demarcation was situated midway between Cape Verde, already in possession of the Portuguese, and the islands discovered by Christopher Columbus on his first trip serving the king of Spain, known as the Treaty on the island of Antilles (Spanish Cuba) and Cipangu. The lands to the East of that line belonging to Portugal and the lands West of same line belonging to Spain. The Treaty was ratified by Spain (at that time by the Crown of Castile and Aragon), on July 2, 1494, and by Portugal on December 5, 1494. The other side of the world would be divided a few decades later by the Treaty of Zaragoza, signed on April 22, 1529, which specified the anti-meridian in respect to the line of demarcation in the Treaty of Tordesillas. Originals of both treaties are kept in the General Archives of the Indies, in Spain, and in the National Archives of the Tower of Tombo in Portugal. The Treaty of Tordesillas was established to resolve disputes that arose on the return of Christopher Columbus from America. In 1841, the Papal Bull 'Eternal Regulators' ensured that all the lands south of the Canary Islands belonged to Portugal. On May 4, 1493 Pope Alexander VI, of Spanish birth, decreed in his Bull 'And everything else ...' that all lands west and south of the line from pole to pole 100 leagues west and south of any of the Azores or Cape Verde islands, belonged to Spain, however territories under Christian law, since Christmas of 1492, would remain no man's land. The bull did not mention Portugal or, and then Portugal was unable to claim new discoveries even if they stay east of that line. Another leaflet, entitled 'Domain Extension in Apostolic Indies' dated September 25, 1493, gave Spain the main land and islands of India, even those located east of the line.

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The Portuguese king, John II, was not happy with the new arrangement, since it prevented the Portuguese to claim land in India when all the sea route was discovered as by this date the Portuguese explorers had just reached the east coast of Africa. The king opened negotiations with King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain to move westward to the line in order it was for him to be able to claim new lands east of the same line. Spain won the lands that included the Americas. The current western part of Brazil was secured membership of the Portuguese when Pedro Alvarez Cabrals anchored there by 'accident' while trying to sail to India. But some historians argue that the Portuguese were already aware of the existence of land in South America, it was not so 'accidental', the discovery of Brazil, after all. The Spanish did not oppose the Portuguese expansion in Brazil beyond the meridian of Tordesillas. The treaty would become obsolete between 1580 and 1640 while the Spanish king was also king of Portugal. It has been superseded by the Treaty of Madrid that granted Portugal to control over the occupied land in South America. However, this treaty was immediately rejected by Spain. With a new treaty called the First Treaty of Saint Ildefonso the problem was solved by acquiring the Spanish territories east of the Uruguay River and Portugal areas in the Bay of the Amazon River. The Treaty of Tordesilhas just specified the demarcation line to a number of sea miles off the coast of Cape Verde, to the west. Did not specify the line in degrees or value of each mile in length. The resolution of these specifications should be in accordance with the Treaty, and should constitute the objective of a joint trip performed by the Portuguese and Spanish all together ... This trip, however, never occurred. Upon request of the Catholic Kings, Jaime Ferrer, a Spanish geographer, established the demarcation line at 42º 25' west of Greenwich. However the globe where he operated the calculations was about 21% larger than it actually is. It also established the league for his calculations equivalent to the length of 32 Olympic Stadiums, about 6.152 km, what placed the Ferrer line at 2276.5 km distance corresponding to 47º37' on today's globe. The opinion of the Portuguese was based on 13

the Cantino planisphere dated 1502 and placed the line at 42 º 30 '. In 1518, another Spaniard, Martin Enciso, using a globe 7.7% smaller than the current one, calculated the line 47º 24' which resulted in Enciso's planisphere 45º 38' W. But by the confusing description Encino made of the contours where the line would pass, that Harrises estimated the line would pass near the Amazon River estuary, between 49 and 50 º W. Spanish sea riders in 1524 with the rank of captain, Thomas Duran, Sebastian Cabot (son of John Cabot) and Johan Vespucci (nephew of Amerigo Vespucci) expressed their opinion to the Board of Badajoz, which did not managed to solve the problem, originating the Treaty of Zaragossa. In this treaty was specified the line to be 22º, about 9 miles further to the west, when measured from the centre of the line further west of Cape Verde, on a globe 3.1% smaller than the Harrisse's globe which corresponded on this last one to 46º of 36 'W. In 1524 the Portuguese presented a globe to the Junta of Badajoz on which the line was 21° 30' west of St. Antao which corresponded to 26º36' on the more accurate globe. Initially, the Line did not fully circled Planet Blue. Thus, Spain and Portugal were able to conquer any new lands they were the first, to discover, even if they were locate on opposite side of the globe. But the discovery of valuable Moluccas Islands by the Portuguese in 1512, led Spain to argue in 1518, that the Treaty of Tordesillas divided Planet Blue in two equal hemispheres. After Magellan's surviving ships visited the Moluccas in 1521, Spain complained that these islands were within their own part of the hemisphere. In 1523, the Treaty of Victoria, called the Junta de Badajoz to reunite in 1524, during which both countries tried to reach an agreement on the anti-meridian, but failed. Ended up making a deal by the Treaty of Zaragossa in which Spain would be withdrawing his complaint about the ownership of Moluccas upon the payment of 350 thousand ducats paid by Portugal to Spain ... payment that did never came to check, instead, being established a most convenient position for both parts in which concerned the anti14

meridian. The Moluccas were the only known place in Planet Blue where Blueberries were growing, Northwest of Halmahera island, a spice known for its medicinal value, sold at the rate of gold weight. The Treaty of Zaragossa did not change or clarify the position of the demarcation of Tordesillas Treaty, or validated the claims of equality of the hemispheres, therefore, the lines dividing the globe relating to each antipodal lands on the globe were not drawn on the same meridian! The portion of Portugal was about 191 º and 169 º of Spain and both suffered from the uncertainty as to the exact draft of the original line of Tordesillas. Portugal gained control of all lands west of the line of Saragossa including throughout Asia and neighbouring islands even if still undiscovered and Spain gave up to claim land west of the New Line. Regardless, King Charles V decided to colonize the Philippines, judging that Portugal did not protest because it was no spicy islands. But in 1565, Philip II established a trading post in Manila. Besides Brazil and the Moluccas, Portugal would eventually control Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau and S. Tomé and Principe in Africa; Goa, Damon and Diu in India and East Timor and Macau in the Far East. The Treaty of Tordesillas was historically important on dividing Latin America and to establish Spain in the Pacific until 1898. However, it quickly became obsolete in North America and later in Asia and Africa. The treaty was ignored by other European nations and, even with the waning power of the Spanish and the Portuguese, they could not sustain most of their possessions of land claims that have turned into inefficiently explored areas. The Pope's role in the negotiations led to hostilities against the Papacy throughout Europe, which, combined with other dissidents, would eventually trigger the Protestant Reformation in the sixteenth century, in which many countries in northern Europe have cooled its relations with the Church in Rome. 15

The Treaty of Tordesillas was invoked by Chile in the Twentieth Century, to defend the principle of the Antarctic sector along the meridian to the South Pole, using the clause that it was Portuguese or belonging to Portugal all undiscovered lands to the South Pole. It was also invoked by Argentina in the Twentieth Century as part of their claim to the ownership of the Falkland Islands. * Great evidence of comon sense was shown by King John II, and we'd be happy if the kings that came after him had folowed his ideas. In Africa, he tried to attract black people and ordered to baptized them, all with good manners, and to built forts and fortresses in African areas to take controle of trading. In Europe an event occurred that shows that this King of Portugal was a clever one. The sovereigns of Spain, both catholic devotees, ordered to expell the Jews from their country, who were, as always they have been,a smart and industrious people, who enriched themselves and were enriching the countries where they lived. But the Queen of Spain, influenced by bevelled priests, didn't want the Jews to live in her kingdom, and served them with a letter of eviction, citing as reason that the Jews had crucified Jesus Christ!? But that was done, indeed, by some scoundrels in Jerusalem, nor their children were culprit for their parents' errors, and even parents of many of them were not in Jerusalem by the time - and also because they did not believe in the Christian Religion. Well, if one can't save people who are not Christians, in the after life they would pay the price, and it was not necessary, in this life, going neck-twisting them. Because they didn't like ham? Very suitable for Christians, once they could get cheaper pork meat! But, trying to say these kind of things in those days to the Alcoholic Monarchs, sorry, the Catholic Monarchs!, one could risk of ending up inside a bonfire. King John II laughed at the devotion of his neighbors and he received the Jews in his country, and took advantage of the case, forcing them, in exchange for 16

asylum, to make them pay the king a nice tribute. They all were with the rope in the neck, anyway, so they paid through their nose, even though it was hard for them, once they'd always have been very stingy. Everything is paid in this world, and a man can be perfect but when a Prince outrages God's laws, even if he is the Perfect Prince, spilling the blood of their brothers, he is to pay with tears which can also be sometimes made of blood. King John II, nicknamed the Perfect Prince, had a son named Alfonse. This one married the daughter of the king and queen of Spain, and the cerimonies with which they celebrated the marriage had been the most pompous. Alfonse died, in the consequence of an accident. Who can imagine the pain of his father? And then, in the heat of night, when the father was alone thinking about the son he lost, he might often see the ghosts of those who he sent to be killed with no mercy of the orphanhood of their children, as God also had no pity of the orphanage of his soul. He died four years later, in 1495, unable to leave the crown to his son, because in vain he wished to legitimize as king a bastard son of his, and so, who was to succeed him, and not just, who was to reap for himself the glory of accomplishing the conquest of India, John II had carefully prepared? Answer: A brother of the Duke of Viseu that king Jonn II ordered to murder – Emmanuel I, the Fortunate! This Fortunate King, as history called him, and rightly so, because not only he did stupid things, which does not mean that he was a fool or crazy person or that he was a not clever enough individual, but difference between him and the previous king, John II, was easy to distinguish such as an orange tree from an oak. He found his way as a ruler as a baby finds his food, tasty and well prepared by his momy. Ships and all other vessels were already prepared and standing by for the discovery of India, with Vasco Da Gama as their capitain, who arrived in India in 1497, which was a very rich country by that time. King Emmanuel I sent after him Pedro Alvares Cabrals, who navigated to the West substancially more 17

than innicially planned, and so 'by chance' discovering Brazil in 1500. King Emmanuel was ungreatful enough to get rid of those two important navigators and sent a squad to India, under command of Doarte Pat Checo Pears, the man who seemed to look like one of those heroes of antiquity, who were half men half gods, and from whom people tell often dodgy tales, which were anyway exceeded by the real tales of this last Portuguese Argonaut. In India, which later became subjected to the British, there were many kings as well. Vasco Da Gama reached a land called Calicut, where many Moors were residant, who were at that time the ones who were taking over the most part of business of India. Seeing their deals in jeopardy, the Moors did not rest until they put the king of Calicut in disagreement with the Portuguese. These last were enemies of the Moors right from the beginning, but there was a special Indian King, the King of Cochin, who was friendly with the Portuguese. Hence, hard discussions among the Moorish kings. As the king of Calicut was much more powerful, he waited for a moment when the portuguese vessels were away, and knowing that it had been just left Doarte Patcheco and, more or less, fifty Portuguese sailors with him, the king of Calicut said to himself: 'Now you are going to pay hard!'. So he assembled a strong army, and marched against the poor king friend of the Portuguese. King Cochim's soldiers were afraid and fled as soon as they could, but Doarte Patcheco, with his fifty men and their skill and bravery, managed to stepdown the Calicut's king, and beaten the moors monumentally. Half a dozen Portuguese soldiers sufficed to cope away with a very huge army! One can say this was just a matter of discipline and great knowledge of weaponnery, as also was the weakness of those idiot that the sun converted in Indian losers, although the Portuguese had themselves to be made of steel and iron, rather than flesh and blood, once these brave fifty men saw, without blinking, marching against them a formidable army! It was necessary that they were willing to 18

die and not letting be trodden under the enemy's feet the banner of Portugal! And, ultimately, very soft that the enemy could be, these always were over numbering at least ten to one, and certainly none of the Portuguese thought to survive alive after such a battle. But these actions were easy to understand not only because the Portuguese were pretty confident and felt able to take to the ropes on how many Indians were in India, but also because the natives feared the Portuguese, ever since the beginning, so what was Doarte Patcheco supposed to do? Well folks, do you realize that, at the end of the day, Doarte Pacheco was made governor of India, or obtained a title, or some big payoff? Answer: None at all! King Emmaanuel II no more thought of compensate the brave Doart, so fortunate this king was in soon finding someone appropriate to be the first viceroy of India, Francesco All Media, which was a fellow that, indeed, everywhere in the world, would be somebody worthy to exercise the most important places among rullers. With effect, King Emmanuel I, who at first wanted that the Portuguese ships would come unicly loaded with goods from India, which then the Portuguese would sell in Europe - soon understood that Portugal should take roots in India and instructed Francesco All Media to rule the Portuguese troops, everytime more, landing in India, founding and building simultaneously strongholds and fortresses. Francesco All Media understood, however, ( and he was not with no reason ), that Portugal was a very small country to be safe sending troops to India in large quantities, and what he really wanted was to be the sea ruller, in order nobody else could do business in India but the Portuguese. While the Indians were the only ones to deal with matters, everything was going fine, but the Turks, who saw their incomes decreasing with the new Portuguese sea path to India, began retaliating. Turkish troops, however, were not some kind of fandango, they were troops who often shooked up Europe in the past. Also, when the Turks first met the Portuguese, they led to victory and they even killed a son of Francesco, whom the Viceroy loved very much. It was the Turquish undoing this time, because the 19

Viceroy did not rest until he avenged the death of his beloved son Lawrence. The Turks took a first quality drubbing, and the Indians were taught once and for all what a caste of men the Portuguese were really made of. It seems that this time, king Emmanuel I, could happen to be very happy to have a man in the East such as Francesco All Media, who regimed the Indians to bread and orange juice, and gave such a scrub on the Turks that these did not dare to return so soon to India. Well, he was not! Immediately after Francesco finished his job, he was called back in Portugal, and of course the king would not be worried about him any more, even though he had not died on his way back. But the king was everytime so happy that he found to replace Francesco All Media, a man who, indeed, was worth even more than All Media himself, once this man was the great Afonso De Albuquerque. It's usual to appear, from time to time, in the world, men who are capable of turning Planet Blue into several colors, like Napoleons and other so, and Affonso De Albuquerque was one of the kind! With regard to Indian matters Albuquerque did not think at all like All Media, but it was not because he thought of Indian matters differently, but just because he found a different way to fix them. He knew that Portugal could not be filling India with Portuguese soldiers, but his desire was the Indians to mix with the Portuguese, and to achieve it, while he was cruel to the Moors, on the other hand, with the Indians he was gentle and so fair that, after his death, they'd go to his grave to pray, as if they were praying at the tomb of a saint. He chose three geographical points in which he set the Portuguese headquarters, and all very well chosen: Hormuz, close to Persia; Goa, in the middle of India, Malacca, to the sides of China and the islands that were called the Moluccas or Spicy Islands. First he took Goa and Malacca, after, Hormuz, and when he'd just done all this, Affonso De Albuquerque was fired by the king, knowing that the one to be appointed as his substitute, was, no more no less, than his own worst enemy! He died with this grief. 20

Also by this time the supply of great men was exhausted, and the last two governors of India, in king Emmanuel days, were not high achievers, but also did not spoil anything. What was making Indhia in full swing! The Portuguese were scattering everywhere around India, even to China, or Persia, the Moluccas, Cambay. It was a kind of rock and roll non-stop dance party, the Portuguese in India. Forts were built everywhere, they received the best cinnamon from Ceylon, the best clove from Moluccas, ground pepper from Indhia, nice horses from Persia, fine silks from China, fragrant incense from Arabia, beautiful diamonds from Golconda, and they brought all this wealth to Europe and came down to Lisbon, which was with its ports all the time full of Dutch and English ships, that came to buy all those merchandises to sell them around Planet Blue. About Brazil the Portuguese didn't simply care cos it was not worth; however in Africa they could go taking some fortresses, in order, in those constant wars with the Moors, they could exercise the nobility, who later went play tournaments in India. Anyway, when king Emanuel sent an embassy to the Pope with gifts from all his conquested places abroad, Rome was stunned, and all around the Planet Blue nobody talked about anything but about the greatness of Portugal. Those were good times, indeed, for the Portuguese, which didn't last too long, anyway. Back in his kingdom, King Emmanuel soon showed that if he was not a fool, also he didn't have the intelligence of his predecessor John II. He made the Jews departed; it is true that, later, when riots in Lisbon people attacked and killed some of the Jews that had remained in the country after they converted, the king manifested himself very angry and punished the city citizens involved in the carnage. Great was he not, but he found himself surrounded by people who did of him a great man indeed and he had the expertise of knowing how to distinguish them. May be, right after, he'd put them aside easily, and fathom them, just it's not possible to realize what could the king have said to Magellan, which, become angry upon the king, after a joke that the king told him, 21

which made him depart away to serve the king of Spain, and so letting the Portuguese without the glory of having been the first nation touring for the first time around Planet Blue as did the Spaniards led by Ferdinand Magellan. In any case, by that time, there was no wave in the sea where the portuguese were not sailing or floating, yet not drawning, anyway ... Portuguese Language was ever the first foreign language listened by people abroad wherever, and even in Codfish Lands, up to the North, where it's really very cold, Gaspar Corte Real, a Portuguese sailor, came to be the first to discover the New Found Land ( Greenland ). Having married three times, all the time with Spanish princesses, King Emmanuel I, died in 1521, and, on behalf of truth, one can say that the greatness of Portugal died together with this Venturous King. He was succeeded by his son, King John III, who was a blessed fool, that ever surged on Planet Blue. His father had his quirks, but when folks in Lisbon unleashed to kill the Jews, or rather to say the New Christians, the king stopped them. But his son, John III, didn't rest until he made effective the Inquisition in Portugal. The Pope didn't want, was begged to be, and John III was the one that urged him to send such a 'gift' to Porugal. He finished by spending loads of money to get the Inquisition in his own country! But really, to get a Court in the country that only by one forgetting attending Mass, they sent one to jail if not thrown and burn him into a bonfire, just king John III, could ever remind. Even foreigners were fleeing, and the rest of the Jews who were still around the country, ( and that for the sake of their lifes, had converted to Christianity, fearful of the Inquisition ), were running away as fast as they could. And, not content with this, the king also introduced the Company of Jesus, who was a new order of friars more disciplined than a regiment, who had sworn they were to be ruling on Planet Blue. 22

To preach to the heretics, the nations in India and the savages of Brazil, were the Jesuits very good, because they did never retreat when facing death, and there were some Jesuits like Francis Xavier, who could be compared with some of the twelve apostles. But in Portugal, the Jesuits were around everyplace in the country like a plague: they taught, they confessed, they mind-tortured. Now you see how the Portugueses' grand parents were obliged to live in those days: the Jesuits to shake them were squizing their neck! At the smallest outrage, bang, bonfires of the Inquisition. The poor Portuguese did themselves dull men, them who, hitherto, were cheerful people. One could not write anything that did not soon atract the Jesuits: 'Cut down this because it seems to be against Religion, stop representing plays in the theater because it makes fun of monks', and now this and now that. What is ascertain, my Lords, is that while in other countries abroad, citizens were walking forward, making inventions and studying the Nature, the Portuguese kept stagnating, and the evil that this situation brought to them, we shall see in due time. In India it seemed that everything was going fine, but anyone could see that it couldn't last long. Brave were the Portuguese, but instead of doing what Albuquerque wanted to do, instead of sleeping with the Indians, no sir, they start operanting cruelties that was something too horrible, and what the Portuguese wanted was to make money . They spent their time there, sometimes fighting the king of Calicut, other times with the king of Cambay, the same with the King of Aceh, later with the king of Bint, again with the king of Kandy, finally with them all at once. This was not life! They operated valuable prodigies, this may be true, for example in the two sieges of Diu, as Anthony Silvester and John Mascarenas defended themselves in a terrific way. But caused by the strength of slashing, the soldiers' arms got tired and the country was out of breath. There wasn't a moment of peace. If a governor appeared like John de Castro, or Pena Green of Cintra, who were very honest and righteous, others not like them did just think of stealing. They started teasing each other, as did Lopo Vaz 23

Sam Paio with Peter Mascarenas, and when King John III, the Pious, as the priest called him, died in 1557, everyone expected the situation to worsen. The eldest son of King John III died when his father was still alive, so, the king was succeeded the by his grandson, a child of five years of age, called Sebastian. The regent was his grandmother, a lady of great sagesse, who ruled the country cleverly, but in 1562 she had to cede the position to her brother in law, Cardinal Henry, who had his mind dominated by the Jesuits, and Cardinal Henry began surrounding Prince Sebastian with priests. What was the resulte, you may ask? Answer: It resulted that Sebastian, who was fond of wars and battles, became a sort of priest himself as well. He looked like one of those old monk soldiers who had contributed so much to expel the Moors from Portugal. He did not want to marry, and even women in the court used to vanish as he was aproaching. His constant thoughts were fighting the Moors to death which he started to do, dying in a battle against them, the batle of Alkacezar Kivir. So, if the Portuguese had already so much work in sustaining themselves in India, being that they had already been obliged to drop some headquarters in Africa, and had dispend a great effort to save Maze Gone, a plaza surrounded by the Moors, when the news that the Prince was broke dead, imagine the pain! Not the portuguese just lost their future king but also the crown was lost too, once there were no heirs at all left and who climbed to the throne was the old Cardinal Henry, great uncle of the late Prince Sebastian, who was never a clever bloke and was becoming pretty goofy. Although, some folks said that Prince Sebastian did not die in the battle, once nobody had seen him drop down dead, and the corpse that they found, was so disfigured that it was impossible to recognise the body. So, there was Cardinal Henry starting governing, but what for? Everyone knew that the crown was an inheritance not overdue. Who was to take the crown?

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The right to the crown belongged to the Duchess of Braganza, being the daughter of a brother of King John III, named Doarte. However who was more sympathetic to the people was Anthony, the bastard son of another brother of King John III named Louis. But who was in the best position of all was Felipe II, King of Spain, son of a sister of King John III, named Isobel. There were other pretenders who claimed to be heirs, but among these last three, the fight was to be serious. Intrigues boiled in the court. Felipe had an ambassador in Portugal, who, paradoxally was a Portuguese bloke, Christophen De Moura, who brobe all those who wanted to be brobe, and fools were those who didn't attend this new market. King Henry appealed to the High Court to decide the issue. But the Parliament ( the Cortes ) were already so little used to give their opinion on such issues, that they told the king to proceed as he whished, despite much claiming against this decision coming from a very rigtheous Portuguese, the Lisbon Procurer Phebo Moniz. Nevertheless, the king did not decided anything. He died in 1580, and left, at his headquarters in Abrantes, the matters unsolved. He appointed to the post of Governor of the Kingdom some less known blokes who had already been briben by the Spaniards, and that certainly were to chose Felipe II to the throne. But, as they were keeping to long in doing so, Felipe was not about to endure them anymore and sent an army to Portugal commanded by the Duke of Alba. At the sight of the Spaniards, the people turned to Anthony, the Prior of the Crato, bastard son of Prince Louis, and hailed Crato as King. Brave this new king was, but that was just, he was anything else! He wanted to resist the Spaniards with a handful of people that never took up arms. Beaten in Alcantara, at the gates of Lisbon, just after a few hours of fighting, he fled to Minho, a province in the North of Portugal, where he's been hiding, until he could escape abroad. Felipe II enter quietly in Lisbon, and the independence of Portugal was overdrawn.

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King John III took away the power of all the nobility and, thereafter, the noble men simply kept as being some kind of servants in the palace. The people helped the king to make this necessary work, but the king, once he found himself served, carry them down, and king Emmanuel began to say that the forals, which were laws followed by the councils, were not very clear, and to clarify them, he reformed them, meaning, he spoiled them. The Cortes' officials just gathered time to time. In the past, at least, to engage new taxes, the Cortes, gathered more often. King Emmanuel did not want to bother them for so little, and saving them from work, he began himself to arbitrate the taxes on his own behalf. This mesure is a fine one just when things are working together well. The king had his people, so far, meek as a tame lion, with its nails clipped and poor tired legs. To be more helpful, the Inquisition competed to hold people in little desire to move. The Jesuits, who could do so much about the matters, using their influence, did not care at all for anything. Friars as they were, much interconnected, and good servants of their general in Rome, the Pope, they had no homeland, their homeland was the Company of Jesus. Then the kingdom could not fail to be powerless. It was an exodus every year of people emmigrating to Africa, India and Brazil, as never seen before. In the midst of so much wealth, the country was becoming poor. There were many rich bitch, but there was no crop, no factories, nothing; the money was coming through one door to exit through the other. Further more, all the spree was far from end. The Portuguese came from the East to rest from their fatigues. They had slaves to serve them, passing their holidays in idleness love. There is nothing more appropriate than lazyness to get men's soul on the lose. So, Felipe II and his ambassador Christophen de Moura found Portugal a rotten country. Some may say: 'Well, then, just because a king died, and just because the Portuguese lost an army that, anyway, was not a much valuable one, has the Portugal been lost for good?' Answer: That's right! King is gonne, everything is gonne. This is because the people was lost themselves, and the Cortes, when there was none to rule, 26

didn't know either what to do. Portuguese soldiers, the good ones, were in India; those who had returned from Indhia back in the country didn't think but in revelry. Everything was crank in the Portuguese nation and after the battle of Alkacer Kibir everything went everytime more down and down. Portugal was getting prostrated. If the Portuguese, at least, had they turned into a strong nation, with real life and blood, something folks would have profited, but Spain was worse than Portugal! Apparently it seemed to be a very powerful kingdom but it was more than rotten inside. Indeed Spain was at war with all countries in Europe, and in those wars Spain wrapped Portugal, for its misfortune. Despite everything, not all were roses to the Portuguese King Felipe I, who was Felipe II in Spain. He came with sprigs of wool, promised to respect the freedom of the Portuguese, never give the portuguese except Portuguese governors and princes from the royal portuguese family, he swore everything the Portuguese wanted him to sware, but the people were not satisfied, and having no back to lean on, started thinking of Prince Sebastian, started calling him 'The Desired', meaning they were desiring the prince to be back, despite knowing that he was long death. Everytime a man who had some resemblance to the late king showed up, people started thinking that that man, or that other man, was the prince returning from battle, so the Spaniards were all the time in trepidation. The 'king' of Penamacor and the 'king' of Ericeira, were just some poor men the people tease up with and pout both as Sebastian, once these blokes took it very seriously, even causing riots, the worst being the one of Ericeira. Time passed, and even in Spain and Italy, other two men claimed to be King Sebastian, and many people were fooled, but these ones were real rogues that just thought of about living at the expense of customers. Such great love for prince Sebastian was getting to a point that a sect began to expand and last until not so long ago, the sect of the Sebastianist, the Sebastianist, who believed that Prince Sebastian 27

would show up in a foggy day to rule Portugal. If you go to Portugal, like to the Algarve, on holidays, you still may be able to find, by foggy mornings, the beloved Sebastian, Prince of Portugal, mounted on his royal horse, on a ship returning from Morocco, believe me. After the battle of Alkacer Kivir, the Portuguese kept waiting for King Sebastian. Looks like he got into a maze, holding two cups full of holy blood or may be of red wine, to springle over the Moors ... narrated the chronicles of the time ... But from Sebastian there is no harm to come to Planet Blue, nor there is good. Anthony also worked for his turn and, as the island of Terceira in the Azores, claimed him as king of Portugal, he went to the island and from there he got help from France, but the Spanish beat the French fleet and took over the island. Then he arranged some aid from the Queen of England, who sent a fleet to Lisbon, but the British were repulsed by the Spanish, and 'king' Anthony, absolutely discouraged, died in Paris in 1595. Anthony, the Prior of Crato, sometimes called 'The Determined' or 'The Wrestler', other times 'The Independent', was the grandson of King Manuel I of Portugal, claimant to the Portuguese throne during the dynastic crisis of 1580, and was king of Portugal for 33 days and after the coronation of Philip II of Spain as king of Portugal, was claimant to the throne until 1583 in the Azores. He was a disciple of Saint Bartholomew of the Martyrs. Anthony was born in Lisbon, illegitimate son of Prince Louis, Duke of Beja and Violante Gomez. (Some historians argue that their parents later got married, maybe in Evora. His mother was long been accused of being a Sephardic Jewish or New Christian (like many others who were forcibly converts to Christianity were originally Jews or Muslims during the Portuguese Inquisition ) but in fact she belonged to the small Portuguese nobility, daughter of Peter 28

Gomez De Evora. She died after having joined as a nun in Santarem on July 16, 1568. Through his father, Anthony was the grandson of King Manuel I (1495-1521). Due to his alleged status as illegitimate son, the application presented by him as heir to the throne was considered as invalid. Anyway, his father was also the Prior of Crato, which meant that he could marry without papal authorization or papal dispensation. Therefore the question of illegitimacy of Anthony may be a false issue, since his father may actually have been married to his mother because of his exemption of authorisation from the Pope. Anthony was educated in Coimbra and as placed in the order of St John, received the wealth priory of Crato as dowry. In 1571, he was appointed governor of the fortress of Tangier in Morocco. In any case, little is known of his life until 1578. This year, he accompanied King Sebastian (1557-78) during the invasion of Morocco, and was taken prisoner by the Moors in the Battle of Alkacesar Quivir in which young King Sebastian was dismembered by throwing himself for free initiative against the Moor soldiers' weapons after the battle completed, being king Sebastian's death a kind of suicide because, besides being the only Portuguese knight to refuse to lay down his weapons, he had ridden against the enemy's spears and so being unexpectedly and inevitably pierced by the Moors' pointyful weaponry. The conclusion it's possible to take out from king Sebastian's behaviour in the last seconds of Alkacer Quiver battle, is that the king passed through a suicidal impetuous of himself. The Moors, indeed, were in willingness to let returning, sooner or later, all the Portuguese back to Portugal, as seen from the release of Anthony. Anthony, is supposed to have had obtained his freedom through a short fiction that he, himself, invented and reported to the Moors. When they asked him the meaning of the Cross of St. John that he was wearing on his armour war, he said it represented a sign of small benefit that the Pope had given him which would be lost if he did not return to Portugal later that same 29

year. His captors, believed Anthony to be a poor knight and granted him his freedom by paying a small ransom. Upon returning to Portugal, Anthony made a complaint to the throne. But his application was rejected in favour of the one of his uncle Henry, the cardinal archbishop of Evora, one surviving brother of King John III of Portugal (1521 - 57), which became the new monarch. This cardinal-king found himself almost senile but was the one most legitimate representative of the male royal lineage. In January 1580, when the courts gathered in Almeirim (where the true heir of the Portuguese crown was chosen), the old cardinal died without nominating a successor. The regency of the kingdom was assumed by a Junta ( Council ) comprised of five members. At this time the Portuguese throne was being pursued by various candidates. Among them were Catherine the Duchess of Braganza, her nephew, Ranúncio Farnese, boy of eleven years, Duke of Parma, Felipe II of Spain, and Anthony the Prior of the Crato. The duchess was later considered a legitimate heir, when her descendants obtained the throne in 1640 (by King Joao IV), Although, in 1580, she was just one of the possible heirs. According to the feudal praxis, her sister, mother of little Italian Ranúncio should be the main heir followed by the very Duchess and King Felipe of Spain who was a descendant of king Emmanuel but through the uterine line. As regards to Anthony, the Prior of Crato, he was the grandson of King Emmanuel I on his paternal line but stigmatised by the illegitimacy … Anthony, relied on popular hostility towards the king of Spanish (though Felipe's mother was a Portuguese) and presented as an alternative candidate to the Spanish King. He endeavoured to prove that his father was indeed married to his mother, soon after his birth, but he never could find evidence of it and if even this marriage might have occurred is still subject of modern debate. The candidacy of Anthony was lower than the one of Felipe and the Duchess of 30

Braganza and was neither approved by the nobles nor by the gentile. His supporters belonged to the smaller cleric, the peasantry and the class of artists and artisans. Felipe ensured the success of his application to the Portuguese crown using gold brought from America with which he managed to bribe the Portuguese upper classes who believed that the Spanish and Portuguese crowns reunited would bring enough benefits to Portugal that had its economy in decay but would maintain formal independence both in administrative autonomy in Europe and in its colonial Empire. Anthony tried to win the crown by joining simple minded people to his cause, against a diffuse identity of Spanish-Portuguese status, comparing the situation to the crisis of 1383-85. It was then that the king of Castile claimed arguments of consanguineous nature to inherit the Portuguese throne. But just as in 1380, the Master of Aviz, who had come out victorious after the Battle of Aljubarrota and the implementation of the Cortes in Coimbra in 1385, even being an illegitimate son of King Peter I, he claimed his right to the throne. Anthony proclaimed himself king of Portugal, on July 24, 1580 at Santarem in which he was followed by popular acclaim at several points throughout the country. However, he only ruled in Portugal mainland for 20 days, after which he was defeated at the Battle of Alcantara against the Spanish army of the Habsburg headed by Fernando Alvarez De Toledo, Duke of Alba, on August 25. After this event, Anthony tried to govern Portugal from the island of Terceira in the Azores, where he founded an opposition government that lasted until 1583, where he coined currency, which is a typical act of sovereignty and nobility. For these reasons some modern authors consider him the last monarch of the House of Aviz (instead of the cardinal-king Henry) and the 18th king of Portugal. The government on the island of Terceira was only recognized in the Azores. On the continent and in Madeira, the power was in Felipe's hands, who was officially recognized as king the following year by the Cortes of Tomar. 31

Early in the year 1581, the Prior of Crato fled to France taking with him the Portuguese crown jewels, including many diamonds of great value. He was welcome by Catherine de Medici who was also a candidate on her own to the crown of Portugal. She found in Anthony a convenient tool to use against Felipe II. Promising to offer the Portuguese colony of Brazil to Catherine de Medici and selling her some of his jewellery, the Prior of Crato assured way to assemble a fleet under the command of Portuguese exiles, and French and English adventurers. As the Habsburgs had not occupied the Azores, he went to meet the French adventurers under the command of Philip Strozzi, a Florentine exiled at the service of France, but he was defeated at sea by Alvaro de Bazan, 1st Marquis of Santa Cruz, at the Battle of Ponta Delgada, off the island of Sao Miguel on 25 and 26 July 1582. He then returned to France and lived for some time in the town of Ruel near Paris. Fearing that assassins paid by Felipe II atempted on his life, the Prior of Crato took to move from one hide out to another until he finally went to England. Queen Elizabeth I of England enjoyed him as much as had imagined Catherine de Medicis. In 1589, one year before the Invencible Armada was put together, he accompanied a British expedition led by Sir Francis Drake and John Norreys to the coast of Spain and Portugal. This force was consisting of queen of England's boats and other private boats that joined them. Anthony, with all the credibility of a person in exile, believed that his presence would provoke a general uprising of the population against Felipe II. However, nothing happened and the expedition was a costy failure. Soon Anthony fell in poverty. His last diamonds were disappearing from his hands. The last and most assessed one was purchased by Nicholas Harlai, Lord of Sancy, and subsequently acquired by Maximilien de Bethune, Duke of Sully. Later it was incorporated into the French crown jewels. In his last days he lived as a not-public person from a pension attributed to him by King 32

Henry IV of France. He died in Paris on August 26, 1595. He left six illegitimate children from two different women. Besides some notes he published in defense of his cause, Anthony was also the author of a 'Lusitanean Royal Afonsin Panegyric' (Coimbra 1550), and a hundred of 'Confessional Psalms' (Paris 1592), which were translated into English under the title 'The Royal Penitent' by Sir Francis Chamberleyn (London 1659). Anthony continued to fight for the restoration of a Portuguese royal dynasty until the end of his life. He didn't live long enough to see the end of the Felipes' dynasty and the end of the Iberian Union in 1640, when a Portuguese - grandson of his cousin the Duchess of Braganza - was acclaimed king after his successful push on December 1, 1640. The Portuguese, symbol of the irreducible Portugal's independence was King John IV, the Victorious. To this king the country of Portugal devotes eternal memory on a large tile panel displayed at the railway station of Sam Bento in Oporto city, the city of Porto, panel entitled "The entrance of King John IV in Oporto''. If you ever go to the north of Portugal this is a fantastic must see. Question: What did, after all, Portugal won with the fact of being under the Spanish rule? Answer: The British and the Dutch, who, meanwhile began to shake off Portugal from India and the deadly war that they were making to the Portuguese ships. Everything was going downhill, and for even more misfortune, Felipe remembered to send an immense fleet against England, he called the Invincible Fleet, that came out of the port of Lisbon. The fleet had been lost and, being part of it, there were the best portuguese ships. Felipe died in 1598, and succeeded him Philipe II in Portugal, III in Spain. If things had gone wrong up to this point, they became worse afterwards. Spain was going downhill and Portugal as well with it. The Spanish government, which barely could take care of itself, didn't care anything at all for the Portuguese neither. The British and the Dutch took the Portuguese almost everything they had in India, and later, the Dutch 33

also were teasing with the portuguese in Brazil. Great achievements were made yet, it is true, and in the Bahia case, for example, the Dutch were expelled, but when Philipe II died in 1621, the Portuguese power was not a shadow of what it had been once. The Spanish Armada, the Great and Felicissima Armada, as the Spaniards called it, was the fleet presented by Spain and commanded by the Duke of Medina Sidonia in 1588 with the intention to dethrone Queen Elizabeth I of England to end the English involvement in the Spanish Lowlands and English ships to transit the Atlantic. The mission of this fleet was to sail out to Gravelines in Flanders and transporting an army under the command of the Duke of Parma, via the Channel to England. The mission failed during the battle of Gravelines due to strategic errors of Medina Sidonia, and bad weather. This campaign was part of a war that lasted twenty years between England and Spain. Felipe II of Spain had been co-ruler of England until the death of his wife, Mary I. A devoted Roman Catholic, he considered his half-sister Elizabeth a heretic Protestant unworthy of the throne of England. He had previously supported a few hits in order to oust her from the throne in favour of her cousin and alleged Catholic heir, Mary, Queen of Scots, and was shocked when Elizabeth arrested and executed Mary in 1587. In addition, Queen Elizabeth, sought to extend the Protestant cause as far as it was possible and had supported the Dutch Revolt against Spain in Flanders, the Spanish colony of Netherlands. In retaliation Felipe planned an expedition to invade England in order to dethrone the Protestant regime of Elizabeth, and therefore also end up with the English material support to the United Provinces - part of the Lowlands that had successfully made independent of the Spanish administration - and also to end the English attacks on commercial shipping lines and other possessions in the New World.

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The king was supported by Pope Sistus V, who treated the invasion as if it was a Crusade, with the promise of giving a subsidy when the Armada landed in Flanders. The commander expected to take up initially the Armada was Alvarez De Bazán, highly experienced and reputed, but died in February 1588 and was substituted by Medina Sidonia, a courtier of the Spanish high nobility with no military experience at sea. The fleet sailed out to sea from Lisbon with 22 Royal Navy warships and 108 merchant Spanish ships adapted for this purpose with the intention of sailing to the Channel and anchor off the coast of Flanders, where the Duke of Parma with his army consisting of Tescos ( military units the size of a battalion, each ), expected to get ready for the invasion of southern England. The Armada reached its first goal and anchored off the coast of Gravelines in the area of coast between France and the Spanish Wonderlands. While awaiting communications from Parma's army, the Armada was diverted from the place where it was anchored by an onslaught of fire cannon from a few British ships and following the naval battle of Gravelines the Spanish were forced to abandon hopes of meeting the army of Parma. The Armada managed to regroup and sailed north, with the English fleet on it's tail who followed it from a distance, to the East coast of England. A return trip to Spain was planned and the Armada sailed further North close to Scotland and returned to the Atlantic coast passing by the Irish coast but was hit by several storms that disrupted the route of the boats. More than 24 ships were wrecked on the North and West coast of Ireland, and the survivors were forced to seek refuge in Scotland. The initial number of vessels, about 50, have sank during the return to Spain. This expedition was the largest enterprise-venture of the undeclared war between Spain and England. Before the project, Pope Sistus V authorized Felipe II to collect taxes, guaranteeing indulgences for his men. The blessing of the Navy flag that occurred in April 25, 1588, was similar to the blessing ceremony of the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. On May 28, 1588, the Armada sailed to Lisbon (during the Spanish occupation of 35

Portugal) towards the Channel. It was comprised of 151 ships, 8,000 sailors and 18,000 soldiers and carried 1500 bronze weapons and 100 iron weapons. It took about two days to leave the port of Lisbon. Twenty eight of the vessels had been built with characteristics of warships, 20 galleons, four galleys and 4 Neapolitan sea gondolas. Still other heavier boats like trawlers and other old war paunchy ships; 34 Portuguese light ships constituted the set of lighter boats. At the Spanish Netherlands, 30,000 soldiers awaited the arrival of the Armada and it was planned to transport the troops by boat to a landing place near London. In total it would have about 50,000 troops, a major army at the time. On the day the Armada moved out to sea, Elizabeth's ambassador in the Netherlands, Mr Valentine Dale, met with some representatives from Parma to carry out negotiations and the British tried in vain to intercept the Armada in the Bay of Biscay. On July 16 the negotiations were abandoned and the English fleet placed itself in a standing by position in Plymouth, awaiting news of the movement of Spanish boats. But the English fleet had a lot more boats than the Spanish Armada (about 200 boats against 150 Spaniard boats ), but the Spanish Armada was carrying fire weapons in a number that exceeded by 50% the fire-power of the English. The English fleet was composed of 34 vessels of which 21 were galleons from 200 to 400 tons carrying 42 guns each. Twelve of these were private boats belonging to Lord Howard of Effingham, Sir John Hawkins and Sir Francis Drake. The Spanish Armada was delayed by bad weather which forced four galleys and one galleon to abandon the fleet and did not appeared in England before July 19, when they were located off of Mount St. Michel Cornwall. Communications were obtained through clouds of smoke from fires lit on top of hills strategically scattered throughout the south coast of England. But Medina Sidonia declined to act because he had been expressly forbidden of doing so by Philip, and chose to sail to the island of White ... The small port of Grave lines was part of the Netherlands Spanish Flanders, near the border with France and was located at the point 36

nearest the mainland of England. Medina Sidónia tried to regroup his fleet in this port and was reluctant to sail further east due to the shoals off the coast of Flanders, from where the Dutch removed the buoys indicator of insufficient water depth. During these skirmishes in the English Channel, the British were learning the tricks of the Spanish Armada and concluded that they should have their ships placed of about 100 feet in order the fire of the guns of the English ships could penetrate the thick oak casks of Spanish boats. The British had spent enough gunpowder in the skirmishes with the British in the sea area of the Isle of White and were forced to retain the stronger powder charge remaining to be used in the attack near the Gravelines. During the initial skirmishes the Spanish were unable to reload their heavier weaponry because of the short distances between fleets and also the fact that their boats were crammed with provisions in the spaces between the decks, as Francis Drake observed after capturing the Spanish ship Rosary yet in the channel waters. The Spanish canons fired once initially and then stood on standby waiting the opportunity to approach the British ships. In fact the wrecks of Spanish ships off the coast of Ireland showed that they made little use of heavy munitions. The Spanish determination to get victorious through assault proved to be a bad strategy. It had proved to give good results in the battle of Lepanto and the Battle of Ponta Delgada in 1582, but the British were aware of the situation and preferred to avoid being tackled while keeping distances. With superior manoeuvrability, the English fleet led the Spaniards to open fire when the English were still out of reach of Spanish guns. Then the British came and fired repeatedly damaging the hulls of enemy ships. This also enabled the English fleet put itself downwind with the hulls of Spanish vessels exposed above waterline. Most of the Spanish gunners were wounded or killed and the Spanish boats ended up with more priests than gunners aboard the handling of the guns having passed into the hands of unskilled sailors that did not quite know how to operate such complex cannons. Marines positioned on the English and Spanish boats outdoor decks were in a position to exchange a few muskets shots 37

when the armies found themselves closer to one another. After eight hours of battle, the British ships began to run out of ammunition and some artillery men loaded their guns with various metal objects such as iron chains. Around 4 am the British fired their latest hot flushes and were forced to withdraw. In this confrontation five Spanish galleons sank. The galley Saint Lawrence went to Calais and was caught by Howard after a fierce fight between the crews, and the French came to plunder the wreckage. The galleons S. Matthew and S. Philip gone adrift and almost sank as well, although arriving the next day to the island of Walcheren where they were surrounded by the Dutch. One of the trawlers anchored near Blankenberge. Many Spanish ships were severely damaged, especially the first class Spanish and Portuguese offshore ships who had to endure the most bitter fighting during the first hours in individual desperate actions against British ship groups attacking. Most of the Spanish squad that planned to meet with the Duke of Parma in the Gravelines were prematurely defeated, allowing the British breath of relief. But even so, the diminished presence of the Invincible Armada continued to constitute a threat to the British. The day after the battle of Gravelines, the wind began to blow from the south, allowing Medina Sidonia to move his fleet away from the coast of France. Although with its bunkers nearly empty, the English pursued them in an attempt to prevent the Spanish Armada to join the troops of Parma. On August 2, Howard gave high pursuits beyond the latitude of Scotland. In this step the events were the Spaniards to suffer from thirst and exhaustion, and the only option left to deal with Medina Sidonia was to return to Spain via a very random route. The British remained alert concentrating at the mouth of the Thames estuary. On August 8, Queen Elizabeth was at Tilbury to encourage her armed forces with a stirring speech. However, the Spaniards surrounded the North of Scotland and Ireland across the Atlantic. The vessels showed signs of great declining after so long at sea and just some could stay aloft tied together with ropes. Provisions of 38

food and water were nearly exhausted and the horses that were on board had fallen overboard. The intention was to keep route far enough of Scotland and Ireland coasts to the west on the safer high seas. But by this time there wasn't yet an accurate way to determine Longitude. The Spaniards did not know that the Gulf Stream was pushing them as they tried to go west and eventually headed south west thinking they were enough to the west. The return trip that followed, already in such poor conditions, was suddenly hit by storms of hail, which turned many of the damaged ship to seek shelter in nearby ports. Because many anchors had been abandoned as they fled from the British ships at Calais, many of the Spanish ships were unable to find safe harbour, and came to the coast of Ireland where they were thrown by the sea waves and wind against the cliffs. The XVI century was a century, _(especially in the year 1588), marked by unusual storms in the Atlantic, perhaps associated with a greater accumulation of polar ice off the coast of Iceland, a characteristic phenomenon known as modern 'Micro Ice Age' . So that, as a result of these hardshipness, most of the Armada ships were lost due to frost, cold and rebellious sea, than due to fighting. Following those hail storms, 5,000 men died by drowning or starvation or because they were slaughtered at the hands of the English after having tried inadvertently land. Only half of the boats of the Armada returned to Spain. Testimonials abound about the passing of Ireland coasts full of strange accounts of brutality and survivability of Spanish sailors. Some survivors were welcomed by the Irish, but few ships have survived the wreck in order to stay in the service of the Irish. In the aftermath, 67 ships and about 10,000 men survived, most nearly killed by diseases caused by lack of food and water. Many died in Spain or hospital ships in Spanish ports. When Philip II knew the outcome of the expedition said: 'I sent the Armada against men, not against the winds and the waves of God'. " On the English side are estimated at 50 to one hundred casualties and 400 injured men. None of the British ships were sunk. But after the victory, typhus, hunger and dysentery quelled 6 to 8 thousand men. Most survivors were exempted from paying taxes but 39

no other benefits were given, contrasting with the Spanish government which has helped all his men with dignity. Although the English had failed to wireframe efficiently the Spanish Armada prevented it to reunite the earl of Parma in the Gravelines, this battle reflects a balance in favour of the English, partly due to differences in weaponry and technology between both countries continued to be present in the following century. The English national pride prevailed for many years and the legend of Queen Elizabeth hovered until many years after her death. The repulsion of the Spaniards gave impetus to the Protestant cause, did not achieved the Pope's original purpose, that was to end the Protestant belief and also to end the belief that God supported the Protestant cause in preference to the Catholic, as also stated on the commemorative medals and coins British naval battles, 'God made the wind blow and they ( the Spanish ) were scattered. ' Other numismatic legends parodied the Caesar slogan of 'Veni, Vidi, Vinci' that became into something like 'Venit, Vidit, Fugit' ... They arrived, they saw and they fled ... * Felipe I died in 1598, and succeeded him Felipe II in Portugal, III in Spain. If things had gone wrong up this point, so they became worse afterwards. Spain was going downhill and the Portugal with it. The Spanish government, which barely could take care of itself, didn't care anything at all for the Portuguese neither. The British and the Dutch took the Portuguese almost everything they had in India, and later, the Dutch also were teasing with the Portuguese in Brazil. Great achievements were made yet, it is true, and in Bahia case, for example, the Dutch were expelled, but when Filipe II died in 1621, the Portuguese power was not a shadow of what it had been. Filipe III succeeded him, and made his Prime Minister a man called Count-Duke of Olivares, who imagined that he would 40

end the privileges of the provinces, especially with those of Portugal. Not think of anything else, so he started letting loose the Portuguese colonies, and in Brazil the Dutch had already taken root, and were masters of Pernambuco. But the Portuguese began to feel heavy and cranky with the play of Olivares. In 1637 a revolt broke out in Evora was soon extinguished but at the cost of much blood. The nobles, who were also damaged, began to talk to the Duke of Braganza, John of Braganza, and poke him to investigate if he w'd like to wear the Portuguese crown. The Duke did not say no, neither yes. But in Catalonia, a Spanish province that also did not forgive Olivares the lake of ceremony with which he wanted to suspend their old privileges, started a rebelion. The nobles, in Lisbon, felt increasingly willing to send the Spanish away to the devil. Olivares did nothing but despair them and stoke them. He had given the Portuguese as a governor the Duchess of Mantua, and as for the Portuguese government's secretary, some Portuguese bloke, a man called Miguel De Vasconcelos, who was more damaging towards his countrymen than if he was a Spaniard. While letting loose the Portuguese colonies, Olivares led the nobility and the Portuguese soldiers for the wars in Flanders and Catalonia. He finally remembered ordering the Duke of Braganza to go to Madrid. The Portuguese noblemen then told the Duke of Braganza: Either you accept the portuguese crown, or we proclaim the Republic. The Duke finally accepted. It was a handful of men, who were thus conspiring, they did not know whether they could count on the people, or could not, and even conspired so clearly that everyone knew in Lisbon of such conspiracy but the Spaniards; the conspirors gathered sometimes in the John Pinto Ribeiro's home, sometimes in the Anthony Almada's home, in the garden. On 1st ot December 1640, they all burst out to the middle of the road. They were forty men in total, more or less. Arriving at the palace, they killed Miguel De Vasconcellos, grabed the Duchess of Mantua and encarcerated her, disarmed the guard, opened the windows, and told whoever was passing by, "Long live the Duke of Braganza, King of 41

Portugal! Long live John IV! People replied them from below in the street: Viva! Hurra! Long live, and live, our King John IV! And once up on a time for the Spanish, and soon everything was so quiet as if nothing special hapened, and the Spaniards just disappeared, vanished, and there you see how revolutions are made when the Revolution is in everyone's mind. I tell you guys, the 1st of December of 1640 was a consolation for every person in Portugal. It seemed that the country had just awaken from a nightmare. It was just jumping out of bed, and there the people stood, all strident as in other times before. And you know why this was? It was because the nations are like swords, they just aquire temper on the anvil. Such a kind of Revolution just repeated itself once again on April 25, 2074 when Portugal superceded a even worse dictatorship. Back in the XVII century, what hapened in the capital, repercuted through the whole kingdom. As soon as everyone aknowleged what hapened in Lisbon, moments later the Spaniards just disappeared, and sudenly Portugal was alive again. The Portuguese saved the Spaniards a lot of spending on mail, because as soon as they heard that Lisbon had revolted, had won the push, that who reigned in Portugal was King John IV, and that Spain, from the province of Minho southwards and from the river Caya to the West, didn't possess an inch of land in this country. Do you want you to know how the Count-Duke of Olivares broke the news to the king of Spain? It was this way: "I congratulate you, Your Majesty, you just saved a few millions into your pockets." How so? - the king asked while he was playing the dyce and did not like to be interrupted for no good reason. 'Because the Duke of Braganza - replied the minister - lead a revolt, and make himself king of Portugal and, as we have to take away his goods and cut his head, Your Majesty is richer, now'. The king did not like so much to enrich that way, and even looked to his dice partners to see if anyone of them would give a penny for such an inheritance. None fell for it. But Portugal did not live from dreams. Spain was then still bigger than is today, and if the Spaniards fell upon the portuguese, these were made. What did the 42

portuguese need immediately? Answer: Money, troops and alliances. Everything was instantly ready. The High Portuguese Court ( the Cortes ) voted the necessary money; to get soldiers became a fine piece of work that no one had hitherto done, and that it was about to get everybody armed. And how? The kingdom was divided into three lines, the first line made of soldiers who called themselves paidsoldiers; the second, of militiamen, and the third, was filled with the old guys' ordinances. Some went to war, others helped as it was needed, hanging out, the least that they could from their places and, finally, defending their lands, once, hiden behind a wall, everybody can be a hero. These procedures were useful too in the Peninsula's War and that was what helped the Portuguese. Everybody was already acostumed, and when a war was coming, everyone jumped into the middle of the road, and look at it!, a man inside his house, a rifle in his hands, it's something, you know?! And as for alliances, the Portuguese were also not lacking; it is true that the alliances did not help that much, because everyone was taking care of oneself. France was ready, what the French just wanted was lowering the angle to Spain, but as they were at war with the Spaniards, the most they did was to allow French officers to come to Portugal paid with portuguese money; as for England, likewise, they were happy with the result, but as they were wrapped in civil wars, they didn't send troops or ships. And the Netherlands were still worse. They received the Portuguese ambassador with open arms, they put luminaries, thought the Portuguese had done very well, but when the ambassador replied, 'Well, now that we are friends, let's have back our colonies, which are ours and don't belong to the Spaniards, Holland exclaimed: The colonies!? Ho, of course, we like them very much! We are quite accustomed with them, you know? We w'd be sorry to let them go away ... ha, ha, ha! Then the Portuguese ambassador replied: 'But, then, the hell with it, at least don´t take from us any other else, if you don´t mind. - We will not!, said the Dutch officials, never again!! Well, now you know? colonies are like cherries. The case is starting catching them. So, that's the 43

game?, the Portuguese thought. So let's have them. And, bang, a revolt blew up in Pernambuco, the Brazilians yelling: 'Long live King John IV! Holand then called again the portuguese ambassador: 'So, what the hell is that? We're friends of yours and you bring us such a deception. - 'Pirates! - said the portuguese ambassador – the sun in Brazil, has just warm your heads to much, and now you just throw sticks and stones on us. But if people in Brazil was saying: Long live King John IV, should we go and tell them: Let king John IV die!, should we? - No, of course not!, and tell the Dutch to be quiet, that's what we say! And King John IV sent weapons and officers to Brazil telling them: That it goes, for you to be happy. And in a few years the Portuguese were masters of Pernambuco again, and the Dutch went back to their country. -------------------After some time, Salvador Correia De Sá went to Angola and swap out the Dutch who had taken the colony from the Portuguese. -Then this is it? The Dutch shouted . Then you come away from Brazil to Angola to shake us outas well? "Who did that? wondered the Portuguese embassador - Salvador Correia de Sá -Yes! But you can rest, you'll have to ask by mail, what the hell was this reminder. As soon we get a response we mail it back to you. And by the way, Miss Holand, you took us Ceylon, do you remenber? - We took Ceylon, but in defense! Antonio De Sousa Coutinho defended himself beautifully. Our generals are all in agreement that never met so desperate resistance! When writing him, send our congratulations to Mr Antonio De Sousa Coutinho and recommendations to his friends'. And that's how the Portuguese were with the Dutch: Huging themselves together in Europe and punching themselves together out there abroad. There were only two countries that would never recognize the independence of Portugal. Rome, dominated by the Spaniards, and the Germany, whose emperor was of the same family as king Felipe III. And they did it in disorder: first because we were apparently excommunicated, secondly by a rogueness that the German emperor practiced ordering to arrest with no delay the prince Doarte of Braganza, brother of King John IV, who was out in the war 44

against the Turks, and that would make graet deal if he could be back to Portugal so if he was not in Turkey fighting the Turks. He died for the Portuguese in jail because the poor boy became enroled in the treacheries of the German emperor. In Portugal, at first, everything was going well, but once they passed that first fire, there were many who began to think it over and said to themselves: 'This was a very huge blunder. If the Spaniards come again, we are done. The best thing to do is to put our back safe, and before they come to seek for us, we go to meet them, may be we'll catch them first. And suddenly some unleashed started conspiring against D. John IV. They were cruelly punished. Many died with his head cut off, and not all were guilty. But what could King John do? The craze of King John IV was that nobody would take him seriously in Madrid, while he didn't send some of the unleashed to chop off their heads. Well, first of all he should see better those who he was killing, and secondly it is known that kings, are really kings when they forgive. And besides, the Spaniards, when they took king John IV seriously was not when he cut off the head of some Portuguese noblemen colaborators for the Spanish, but when the Portuguese soldiers began to rub the back to the Spanish for real. Conspirators had reason to be afraid, once it seemed quite impossible for Portugal to resist. Also what helped was the blunder of the Spaniards, who in the first two years did nothing but giving false alarm in a plaza and attack another, skirmish here and shoot a few shots there. It seemed they were empowered by D. John IV for making the Portuguese soldiers to march for nothing. In 1644 it was the first time, they made more serious moves, but the Portuguese already had by then old good soldiers, commanded by a good general, Mathias De Albuquerque, and, folks, the Spaniards took the first beating in there own land, in Montijo; in 1646, a new battle in Teleno but in which the Portuguese lost more than have profits, although the Spaniards gained nothing from it too, because they backed to the ancient customary. Anyway, to shorten reasons, when D. John IV died in 1656, the Portuguese and the Spaniards were 45

playing the same game over sixteen years. This time the Portuguese went to Spain and chased Spanish cattle, tomorrow the Spanish came to Portugal and took the Portuguese cattle to their own country. But who profited from it? Answer: The Portuguese, for their militian and their ordinances also started being accustomed to war, and every time Portugal was becoming harder for Spain to chew. King John IV died in 1656, and was succeeded by his son King Alfonse VI, who was called the Victorious, as they called king John IV the Restorer, but ultimately this one with more reason. King Alfonse VI was not the eldest son of king John IV. His eldest was a much hopeful boy, Theodosius that died in 1653. King Alfonse VI had been very ill since his childhood and had never been able to learn anything once he had a very sloppy education. His taste was playing with street boys that were passing by the palace's windows, and, when he reached adulthood he walked on carousing around town, with a gang of thugs who did everything they wanted behind his shadow, even to the point that there were deaths on the streets of Lisbon! As he was still a boy when his father died, to govern the kingdom came his mother, Dona Luisa of Gus Man, a very decided Spanish woman, said to be the one who compete more than everyone for her husband to accept the crown. This queenregent did in effect rightly ruling, while her young boy walked with such a vagrancy man, Antonio Conti, who had aquanted the boy-king just to win his friendship. The queen-regent decided one day about Antonio Conti, and screwed him exiled in Brazil. The young kingboy got angry, and when the Count of Castle Melior said it was good for him to begin to govern by himself, once he'd already reach the age, Alfonse, to play a prank on his mother, agreed; nobody did praise the Count of Castle Melior for having advised this action, but the truth is that king Alfonse VI was indeed old enough to govern, and that if he could not make business rightly, the best he could do was that businesses were driven by a man like the Count of Castle Melior, who had more intelligence than the queen-regent, who, 46

despite being a smart one, was always a honorable lady and, therefore, less able to govern the kingdom in time of war. May be Alfonse VI was a joke of a king, who had no opinion, that he indulged in lewd and criminal entertainments, but a quality he had, he realized that he knew perfectly he was unable to take care of the kingdom, and let Castle Melior do whatever he found right. But Castle Melior was indeed one of the best minds that have ruled the country, so far. Soon after the death of king John IV, a Portuguese general, John Mendes De Vasconcelos, had a huge blunder. Seeing that the Spaniards went just playing games, said to himself: 'The Spanish will not be able to win, and it we'll be the Portuguese that will conquer them, instead. He then gathered a magnificent army, and went surrounding Badajoz. Once there, the Portuguese won the battle, which was called the Fort of St. Miguel batle, but ultimately had they to lift the siege, after having lost needlessly the master piece of their soldiers. The following year, in 1659, the Spaniards, minced with the Portuguese boldness, sorted out of their apathy, gathered a formidable army commanded by the Spanish King's minister, Dom Louis of Haro, came over and surrounded the Portuguese in Elvas. The happening was phosphoric, because the Portuguese best soldiers had been knock down in Badajoz fields, and rode it around very unsettled. But for something were to serve the last nineteen years of war. First Elvas, governed by Dom Sancho Manuel, who was at the time the Earl of Villa Flor, defended himself admirably, second the Earl of Canterburned, after the famous Marquis of Marialva, as he didn't have nobody else, he gathered an army nearly all of it composed of militian men, jumped onto the Spanish that were sieging Elvas. It was on 14th of January of 1659 that the battle, occurred, known as the battle of the Lines of Elvas, and the Spaniards never had such a defeat. The prisoners were in the thousands, artillery, baggage, everything fell into the hands of the Portuguese, and even Dom Louis de Haro escaped by a needle. Also he never forgave the Portuguese, grueling that same year when he 47

went to make peace with France, gave the French all they wanted, with only one condition - to say nothing of Portugal. It was big shots rascality of the French minister, Cardinal Mazarin, the beatings we gave the Spaniards had done a lot of consideration to the French. But Mazarin was just picking up what he could, and it mattered little to him to send the Portuguese to the beans. When the war with Spain started, the Spaniards were also at war with almost all the countries in Europe, which was not bad for the Portuguese. In 1648 the Portuguese made peace with many nations, and that was not the very best, however, as France went to war, and France alone gave more trouble to Spain than all others countries combined, yet the thing was not going so badly, but now what? France made peace, and almost it nearly allied with the Spaniards, for the king of France, Louis XIV, had married a Spanish princess, and the Portuguese were once again with Spain at their back. Spain, for about the two next years, did try to touch the Portuguese, but in 1662 they fired with a manifest soul. The Spaniards put one of their best generals, Dom John of Austria, the king's bastard son, ahead of their hosts, and fell upon the portuguese with all their weight. Although, it was precisely in 1662 that came into power the Count of Castle Melior and it was about this time that everything collapsed on him. Portugal never turned in such dire straits. Dom John of Austria took some Portuguese plazas, and the campaign of the following year, 1663, almost reached the gates of Lisbon. But the portuguese minister made the devil, it seems that even from stones he made soldiers. Then, as Mazarin was a dodgy one, not that he disliked playing with double-edged sword, while Spain was content, he sent to the Portuguese, several officials, among them the Count of Schomberg, who was a handful of a general . He never commanded in chief, because that would be of the Portuguese dislike, and the Portuguese were right for they had already given evidence that they did not need tutors, but, indeed, Shomberg was an excellent 48

commander. What's certain, my good old felows, is that in three successive years, in which the Spaniards have made every effort to do away with the portuguese, they took three master beatings, the first in 1663 by the Count of Villa Flor at the Battle of Ameixial, the second in 1664 by Peter Jacques of Majalen in the Battle of Castle Roderic, the third in 1665 at the Battle of Montes Claros by the Marquis of Marialva. Thereafter the Spaniards never raised their head and did not think anymore to take account of Portugal. But the Count of Castle Melior had a great idea, he said to himself: so, the Spaniards took a pounding, then if we make peace with them, leaving us with just what we had at the beginning, we can say we were cheated. Portugal is the most too small country compared to Spain which is greater; in any uproar that we're with the Spaniards, we are in a bad party. It is necessary to make Portugal larger and Spain smaller. And all his thought was to force the Spaniards to give Gallicia to the Portuguese. And what has he done? Answer: Leaned against Louis XIV, king of France, who was dating the Spanish cos of their provinces in Flanders. King Alfonse VI married with a French princess, and said to himself: Sooner or later, Louis XIV teases with Spain. We are to go with him. France gets the provinces that they want to, even Flanders, if this gives them way, and the Portuguese with Galicia, and anything else it can be. However often set up great intrigue in the Palace. The Portuguese consort queen, was a very beautiful princess and all accustomed to the fashions of the court of Louis XIV, finding herself married to a man who only got on well with young horsemen from the stables, and for the most of the rest was so sick that not even for her husband was worth, began to dislike herself and at the same time, pleasing to the Prince Peter, a pretty smart boy who also liked the beautiful French girl. They both together thought of being boy and girl friend and run the country! They began the intrigues. Both have managed to thrown out the Count of Castle Melior. Helpless, the poor king Alfonse VI was soon expelled from the throne, and even they got to unmarry him, poor guy! It was necessary for this a 49

shameless court process, and really no one can understand how a queen let herself drop into people's mouths, so easely! ... Anyway, what's ascertain is that the poor banished king Alfonse VI, was sent to the island of Terceira, in the Azores, then imprisoned in Cintra, where he died, and the Princess married her brother in law, and this was to rule the kingdom, but the poor king who was really a simple-minded who was not cared for nothing in politics, who had the fortune to have a good prime minister who governed and ruled by him as well, did not deserved similar destiny! It was a shame because he did not know how to defend himself, and there he was a simple minded boy between witches' hands. And his brother, who took the crown, and who took his woman, neither gave him the freedom, nor did consent him to breath fresh air. He was sent to a room in Cintra, and there they left him to die of boredom and disgust, since he had never done harm to anyone but his silly jokes! This happened in 1667, and soon the next year of 1668 was made a separate peace with Spain, without any profit for the Portuguese, because not even the Portuguese recapture the plaza in Africa, Ceuta, which was a Portuguese possession, because of which died in captivity the Holly Infant, and who in 1640 failed to get rid of the Spanish. So, intent on ruling the kingdom, Peter II, who, from 1667 until 1683, the year that died king Alfonso VI, only took the title of regent for himself, and ultimately did nothing but nonsense. Further more, some good things that he consent in doing, he broke them right after. He had a minister, the Count of Ericeira, who wanted to try to found some factories in Portugal but, in 1703, a treaty with England, known as Treaty of Methwen so this was the name of the ambassador who signed the contract, ended up with the Portuguese industry. The Methuen Treaty was a defensive military and trade treaty established between Portugal and England signed in 1703 as 50

part of the Spanish Succession War. This treaty stipulated that these two countries were exempted from paying customs or taxes on wines exported to England and the English textile exports to Portugal were also exempted from paying fees. ''It is stipulated that His Royal Majesty and the Holy Commonwealth in her own name and that of her successors will be forever bound in Britain to admit the wines of the Portuguese production so, that at any time ( independently of peace or war between the kingdoms of France and England ), it cannot require Customs duties on these wines, or under any other title, directly or indirectly, or be transported to England in Casks, Barrels or any other vessel that is in use for measuring an equal amount, or any other measure of French wine, reducing or abating a third part of customary law ''. By the syntax used in this short paragraph of the Treaty we can see that both parties should be quite bottled up before they began to write it ... Some authors consider that the Treaty was to negative to Portugal once this country could not develop their industrial infrastructure (and therefore be defeated in the industrial race ) and as well on other types of agriculture products . This view, however, is subject to debate, because after the treaty, one saw the emergence of industries in Portugal, such as the manufacture of porcelain. Some of the factories that turned up in Portugal, by the time, are still active today. Thanks to this treaty, Portugal took a strong political position, a platform that has proven key in preserving the integrity of its most important colony – Brazil. At the beginning of the Spanish Succession War, Portugal was allied with France. As part of this Treaty, the French assured Portuguese naval protection in 1702, but the British Navy sailing near Lisbon on the way to Cadiz, proved the Portuguese that France might not keep their-promise. The Methuen Treaty was negotiated by John Methuen (16501706) as Member of the English Parliament, the Lord Chancellor of 51

Ireland as the Ambassador Extraordinary of Portugal. The treaty cemented alliances in the Spanish Succession War. Earlier this war, negotiations took place in Flanders without giving any result. The Tory English Party was concerned about the cost of war and engaged in naval power as a strategy for success. Portugal offered the advantage of being a country with deep ports near the coast and close to the Mediterranean sea, from where the English could attack the French naval squadron at Toulon. There were three main elements in the Treaty of Methuen. The first was the statement of the objectives established in the Grand Alliance. The second agreement meant that Spain would be the new theater of war. Finally, it regulated trade relations, especially between Portugal and England. Until 1703 the Grand Alliance had never set any targets of war. The Methuen Treaty has modified this situation by confirming that the Alliance would try to hold the throne of Spain to the Austrich claimant heir, Archduke Charles, later Charles VI of Austria. The Treaty also established the number of troops that each country contribute to the campaign in Spain. Portugal insisted that the Archduke would come to Portugal to command the country's military forces and to ensure a full commitment in the war. Additionally, the treaty would help to establish trade relations between England and Portugal. Under the treaty, the British would send wool fabrics to Portugal exempt from taxes. In return, Portuguese wines imported into England would obtain payment of taxes three times less than the French wines. This was particularly useful in developing the industry of Port wine. As England was at war with France, it began to be increasingly difficult to acquire French wine and port wine began to be a good substitute for regular wine in England. They nicknamed King Jonh VI the Pacific King, but at the end of his reignship he engaged in the War of Spanish Succession, favoring Dom Carlos Filipe from the house of Austria against the house of the Bourbons. As the Portuguese had an excellent general, 52

the Marquis of Mines, he gave the Portuguese the satisfaction to enter victorious in Madrid, and there he proclaimed Dom Carlos as King of Spain, but this was soon a bitter taste for the Portuguese, because dying the Portuguese King Peter II, on 1st December of 1706, there after, on 25th of April of 1707, the Marquis of Mines engaged at the Battle of Almanza with serious losses for the Portuguese, so, that by the end of this war it could be said that the Portuguese never again raised their heads. King John V ascended the throne, and still one can not perceive how can some historians boast for this king. One can say he was one of the worst kings the Portuguese had had. He had some qualities that were not at all bad, but it was the same as if he had anything at all, and he thought exclusively about women, and magnificent buildings, that most of the time were good for nothing. Soon, fortunately, were arriving to his kingdom, ships and arches full of gold from the mines in Brazil, and everything was little to this king that just took care of himself and nothing about his kingdom. For example, he found himself embroiled with Spain and with France in a war that in his time was nothing but disastrous. French privateers raided Rio de Janeiro and took from the Portuguese hands some amazing richesses. So, this king couldn't he just simply had built some few ships to attack as well the French colonies, or to protect the Portuguese colonies?! If no ships could have not been found, patience! But, shortly afterwards, a great squad left Lisbon to rescue the Pope, commanded by the Earl of Rio Grande, who's navy went to hit the Turks at Cape Matapan! Years later, because of a few insults made by the Portuguese ambassador in Madrid, a war broke out with Spain. Preparations were made, and it was found that the Portuguese had no army or navy. What do you think, King John V did? To buy some wepons and prepare an army to defend his country? No, sir! He just ordered to be built in Paris for himself, a very rich tent , and so luxurious that everybody traveled to Paris just to stare at the giant tent the womaniser king built in Paris!! 53

The Portuguese had no roads, no channeling rivers, had empty ports with no ships, had nothing of what they could find necessary, but had that monstrousity of some convent, built by king John V in Mafra which cost 120 million pounds, and was never useful for anything, or serve for something neither, not even in actual days and that is not even agreeable to look at, so the Portuguese call this munster 'the Big Stone Monster'! King John V liked to imitate Louis XIV, but as said some French engineer who lived in Belas town, the point was that Louis XIV called scientists and other wise men to go to France and gave some pensions to foreign scholars. But this loser Portuguese king who gave money to churches, and ordered from Rome expensive Papal documents know as Bulas, and other crap, he was all the time importing from Rome. Some historians say he never let foreign nations put the Portuguese standing on thin ice but who took care of this were his diplomats, so, never they had been so good in Portugal, and also the fact that this king was so proud of himself that he could not suport the idea that other people could be mocking of him. Does anyone knows something more unworthy for a man to do, than to go to Lisbon, to the once called Field of Wool, as they called the large square, where the Inquisitors were burning good people tied to stakes, just because they didn't like to eat pork meet, or because they did not always go to the church to assist mass, and afterwards, riding his horse, to travel to Odivelas to the cell of a nun, his mistress, and spend the night with her!? So we say, it real seemed something like a mischief and misconduit the kind of behaviour king Jonh V performed during his life. He died in 1750, a king that did not do any good to Portugal, unless the Free-waters-viaduct ( the Aquaduct of the Aquas Livres ). Little money he spent one could say it was well spent. If one looks at the Country at that time one just can feel sorry. The nobility had became nothing but simple Palace servents, the huge and corrupt clergy filled the kingdom with their priests and their convents, and 54

kept in complete ignorance the poor people; the miserable, the poor, loafed ships in order to emigrated to Brazil, or begged for coins at the convents' doors, or just sat in the sun. The Portuguese had arrived at the lowest condition they could get. Fortunately, when a nation goes down to such a point someone uses to show up and start to raise up the nation ... Around the year 1500 the kings made themselves absolute masters because they terminate the privileges of nobility and people's assemblies as well. Who contributed to it? The people themselves, who helped the king to terminate the nobles. In modern days people are moving towards freedom and equality. But who was the one in Portugal that competed for such a thing? Answer: The Marquis of Pombal! Was the Marquis of Pombal a liberal? Answer: He rather was a tyrant than a liberal and the most fierce of all, but unintentionally and unknowingly, he was a person that, more than any one, worked for the freedom and the reconstruction of Portugal. King Joseph I, who ascended the throne following the death of his father king John V, hardly knew the Marquis of Pombal, who already was a man in his fifties, and had been abroad as an ambassador, in London and in Vienna of Austria, where he married the daughter of a bigwig Austrian. Who influenced him to be minister was the mother of king Joseph, Dona Marianna, Archduchess of Austria, and for that reason a friend of the Marquis's wife, which was then called by his own name: Sebastian Joseph of Carvalio and Melo, the future Marquis of Pombal. He was a minister lookalike the other ministers, no more no less, and the king did not make his case more noticeble than the others, when suddenly a great misfortune happened in Lisbon, which was the earthquake of November the 1st, 1755. The city of Lisbon was almost completely destroyed, many thousands of people died, others were begging and, above all, terror grew a size that no one knew what they were doing or where they were turning. The minister Sebastian Carvallio did not lose composure. He took the direction of everything, got support, 55

hung outside the city skirts, by the neck, how many thieves and rapist he could catch, and also once the plague was starting spreading, dealt with the removal of rubble, and soon he came to rebuild the city with energy, with a clearance, that king Joseph said to himself: Great Minister! Thereafter, who became the ruler was the Marquis himself, and one amazes when contemplating the things he did. So far, to tell the truth, the governments, just acted in their own benefit, disregarding people and country. The money from the state only served to the nobles to do whatever they pleased, and happy could the people consider themselves, when money was employed to the whim of useful things they could profit. Sebastian Joseph of Carvalho and Melo dealt with the country and nothing else. Now, which were the country's needs? First of all, the country needed to end the costs of amusements that used to make the taste of king John V, who was a loser giving money away to build roman churches and palaces for the nobility. Sebastian Joseph felt he needed the power to think and study, without being always under the ferule of the friars and the Jesuits. He needed as well to end the Inquisition in Portugal, because it was a shame the Inquisitors were continuously burning people in Portugal just because some of them were not in the mood of attending Mass. He needed to have the Army and Navy organised and to have the Industry renewed. He needed to dinamise Agriculture, as well. And none of this was present in Portugal. Sebastian Joseph noticed this state of things and said to himself: "Let's get to work! When somebody arrives to a farm that one bought and sees everything broken: the sparrows wiping out the fruits, the crops dying of thirst, loose ground due to lack of manure, weeds drowning down badly the wheat, what's that one usually should do? Roll up the sleeves and say: Here we go! And weeding the herbs, without mercy, and shooting the sparrows, and throwning manure to the lands and taking water for the irrigation of lands, and rebuilding shattered walls and chase out the pigs that had been shweing the potatoes, tossing the chiken that were becking the vegetables, and would laugh if 56

someone accused him of cruelty, because he killed the sparrows, or because he ripped off and lay out the bad herbs and roots. For Sebastian Joseph treated Portugal exactly like a person would treated such a farm. He looked around and said to himself: Hey! Damn it, what the * is this? In the palace there is a flock of sparrows that wastes the best fruit from the orchards of the nation; so he began to chase the sparrows and, as the sparrows refilled, were ran again down by the shot! The harvest of intelligence, which also gives the bread wheat of the spirit, could not thrive because everywhere was drowning down the chaff from the Jesuits. It was necessary to expel the Jesuits. The farm's walls were devastated, to say, the borders were bare, and instead of having strong defense Portugal had churches, and the Marquis of Pombal, he had the Fort of Grace in Elvas, and gave the army the right thing it needed, having provided for it a foreign military, the Prince of Lippe, from the school of the Prussian king who was the first military of his time. There were no crop, there was no industry or agriculture because no one gave the country any kind of irrigation and fertilizer, and Pombal gave the country all the fashion of his time, but he also could not be a guesser of the future. He reformed schools and the university, founded companies and factories, broke the teeth to the Inquisition, thrown out the Jesuits, lift the censorship on priests' books, ended with distinctions between New Christians and Old Christians and, in India and Brazil, he also finished with all the foolish racist ideas; grinned to Rome, kept the Pope quite in his position, beat his foot to Spain, became respected in England, ended up with minor propriators that were obstructing good farming, didn't let priests and friars to enter to convents as many as they wanted to enter, because if things continued like this, eventually everybody would end up with a shaved head in Portugal, and finally, one is simply amazed to stare at what this rightous man, who was rebuilding Lisbon a new town and implanting a statue to his king in Terreiro do Paço, main square in the capital, put his hand in everything, everything he has improved, all administration had been 57

reformed, all assets had been assembled, and one can say that the nation did turn inside out and outside in! One can immediatly see that he done all this, following his favorite motto, "I have the power, and I command you to do what I want." But to whom did these actual services rendered? It was to Freedom, because he put away people from misery and ignorance in which they lived, because he got people freed from the Jesuits as their tutors, and thus encouraged people to take care of their rights, and prepared to some day reclaim their freedom. It was cruel, one can agree, not least to say. He treated the men as sparrows, and committed atrocities even unnecessary, but what the hell! I do not know what sin is this: Big shots in Reform without sheding any blood, there seems no way to be, sometimes there are reformers who shed their own blood, then it is as if the reform comes from God; as in Christianity, other reformers often spill the blood of others, and then we say that the reform comes from men, as happened in the French Revolution. Because of watering the trees with the blood of our own veins, God teaches us that men alone are not able to come to so much. As we all know the Távoras, the Duke of Aveiro and many of the aristocratic, suffered torments of hell in the square of Bethlehem in Lisbon, in the Wool Field. Even if it was necessary to give them away, it's not thinkable it was necessary to finished them that way, hanging them, and, in those matters, the Marquis of Pombal had been a despot. Although, these noblemen were executed for offences against the king's life. They also wanted to get rid of the minister Carvalio, the king would not let the minister be apart, on the contrary, grabing him everytime stronger, as shown later, making him the Count of Oeiras and the Marquis of Pombal. But the Távoras and the Earl of Aveiro just had to come up witn the idea of attempting on the life of King Joseph. In France, shortly before, a man tryed to kill King Louis XIV. He was tortured and cast boiling lead into the open wounds and finally tied to the tails of four horses, 58

and quartered into pieces. And yet, no one says that Louis XV had been a despot. Things were thus at that time, it was not the Marquis who just invented them. It was a pitty the Marquis has forgotten to built roads across the country connecting to Lisbon, thus he restored Lisbon but the city was, as someone said boxed, so the Marquis of Pombal did nothing but a crate, so it seems. Had he the idea of trying to open up some wider roads as though, by the time time, people traveled in carriages, there were certain points where the roads were so tight that not even the transit of carriages let drain well. If the Marquis just had such an idea, he would have hit the equation entirely. But one single person can not most of the times recall everything. Sebastian José De Carvalho e Melo, 1st Count of Oeiras, 1st Marquis of Pombal (1668-1782) was a XVIII century Portuguese statesman. He was a Minister of the Portuguese Kingdom, the equivalent of a Prime Minister of today, in the government of king Joseph of Portugal from 1750 to 1777. Undoubtedly the most prominent minister in the kingdom, he is considered the first government figure of the time. Pombal was a remarkable and competent leader in the aftermath of the Lisbon earthquake in 1775. He implemented an imperative cleansing policy to regulate the trade in Portugal and standardize the quality of products across the country. The word 'Pombaleen' is used to designate not only just his department but also the architecture style reborned after the earthquake. Pombal introduced reforms in administration, education, economics and other clerical reforms justified in the name of advancing secularization. However, some historians argue that Pombal's Iluminism was primarily a mechanism to sustain the aristocracy at the expense of individual freedom with the use of apparatus designed to crush the opposition, eliminate freedom of speak and consolidate the state's power and profit. Born in Lisbon, the son of Manuel de Carvalho Ataide with 59

properties in the region of Leiria, and his wife Teresa Lisa Mendoza Melo. During his youth he studied at Coimbra University after what he served briefly in the army. Then he moved to Lisbon and ecstatic to be in love with Teresa de Mendoza Almada, niece of Count Sebastian Arches. The marriage was very turbulent once his wife married against the family wishes. Marriage laws created an unbearable wedding for young spouses. Yet, as recently married eventually they, moved to the Melos' properties near Pombal. In 1783, the Marquis received his first public task as Ambassador of Portugal in Britain. In 1745, he was ambassador in Austria. The queen-consort of Portugal, Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (1683-1754), was very proud of the Marquis. After the death of his first wife, she arranged he marry the daughter of Austrian Field Marshal Leopold Josef, Count Von Daun. This was in the time of King John V who didn't feel happy. But king John V died the following year and was succeeded by king Joseph I of Portugal, his son. King Joseph was also very proud of our Marquis. With the approval of the Queen-consort, Melo was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs. As the confidence of the king in the new minister raised, the king gave him more control of the state. In 1755, the king appointed him to be the 1st minister. Impressed by the English economic success, of which he had been witnessing when holding the post of ambassador, he started successively implementing economic similar measures in Portugal. He abolished slavery in Portugal and in its colonies, reorganized the army and navy, abolished the 'Autos de Fe' and ended with the policy of racial cleansing indiscriminately going against the NewChristians who were Muslims and Jews who had converted to Christianity and their descendants as well, whatever their genealogical distance, to put them apart from the Portuguese Inquisition clutches. The reforms of Pombal operated were a series of reforms aiming to make Portugal a country economically self-sufficient through an expansion of the Brazilian territory, accompanied by an equivalent colonial administration of Brazil, and economical tax reforms both in the colony and Portugal. 60

During the ages of Iluminism, Portugal was a small and decrepit country. It was a country with three million people in 1750, two hundred thousand of whom were gathered in as many as 538 monasteries in the country. Portugal's economy before those reforms was relatively stable, although he had become dependent on the colony of Brazil, and England with regard to support for the manufacturing industry, based on the Treaty of Methuen in 1703. Portuguese exports were processed through foreign merchants and exporters such as Jacome Ratton Port Wine exporters, whose memories narrate in harsh criticism the efficiency of the Portuguese in this field. The need to develop a manufacturing sector in Portugal has become more imperative upon the excessive spending of the Portuguese crown, the Lisbon earthquake of 1755, the expenses on the wars with Spain in Brazil and the exhaustion of gold mines and diamonds in Brazil. His largest reforms were, however, economically and financially, consolidating in the creation of various partnerships and companies to regulate commercial activity. Melo created the Company of Port Wine, the demarcated Douro wine region, to ensure the quality of wines. It was the first attempt to control the quality of wines created in Europe. He ruled with a heavy hand, imposing strict laws upon all classes of Portuguese society, from the high nobility to the poorest of the working classes, held up his mind-flung as regards to the tax system in the country. These reforms have created him many enemies in the higher classes, especially the nobility, which did not recognize his value. Important reforms were later brought to light in the field of Education, by this very estimable Marquis. He expelled the Jesuits from the country in 1759, which monopolized education, creating the foundations of a secular Public Elementary School and introducing vocational training in secondary schools. He created hundreds of jobs for teachers. He added the departments of Mathematics and Natural Sciences at Coimbra University, inputting, obviously, new taxes to support these reforms. Having lived in Vienna and London, this last one of the main Iluminism centres, Melo began increasingly to believe that the 61

Society of Jesus, also known as 'Jesuits', with its claw placed on education and science would become an obstacle to free development of Iluminist ideas in Portugal. He had become particularly familiar with anti-Jewish tradition in Britain and in Vienna and became friends with Gerrhard van Swieten, a confident of Maria Teresa of Austria and a strong opponent of Jesuit influence in Austria. The anti-Jesuit policy followed by the Marquis was not, therefore, more than a reflection of anti-Jesuit followed by other major countries in Europe. His anti-Jesuit propaganda consisted on the propagation of conspiracy theories regarding their desire for power grab by the Jesuit Order. The Society of Jesus was accused of treason and involvement in the attempt of assassination of the king, in relation with their main mentors - the Távoras family and the Earl of Aveiro crimes compounded by the fact that they arose in the days of Absolutism, both in Portugal and rest of Europe. The Jesuits valued the role of his Order due to the effort of protecting the Native Americans in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies, and still because of the limitations to which the Order was submitted have resulted in the Guarani War, where the Guarani tribesmen were decimated by Portuguese and Spanish troops. However, in the time these events took place, the friction between colonial and native troops, had much less weigh on the list of accusations against the Jesuits than the charges against them expressed by their activities in Europe. Due also to the fact that the Jesuits were the leaders of the Inquisition in Portugal in the XVIII century, the efforts of Pombal against the Jesuit Order was instrumental in determining the relevance of the weakening grip of the Inquisition on various countries. Pombal was thus an important precursor across Europe and the colonies, in suppressing the action of the Jesuits, an action that culminated in 1773 when Pope Clement XIV abolished the Order. Unexpectedly, on the morning of November 1, 1755, Lisbon fell upon the misfortune of an earthquake measuring a magnitude estimated grade 9 on the Richter scale. The city was devastated by 62

the Earthquake which was followed by several tsunamis and fires. Fortunately, the Marquis escaped unharmed, immediately starting to rebuild the city, under the aegis of his famous slogan: So, what now? Now we need to bury the casualties and heal the wounded ! Despite the calamity, there were no epidemics in Lisbon and, in less than a year, the city was almost entirely rebuilt. The new central area of Lisbon was constructed to withstand future earthquakes. Architectonic models were built and tested before moving to its final building, having the effect of an earthquake simulation that was obtained by circulating troops around the models. The buildings and the main Pombaline squares, down town Lisbon, would become a major tourist attraction in the country. They are still the best constructed buildings against earthquakes, ever. The Great Marquis and his technicians have contributed in a final form to the study of seismology, to conceive a kind of vigil that was sent to all the main towns in the country. The questionnaire inquired whether certain animals like dogs behaving strangely before an earthquake, had had been noticed difference in water levels in wells, how many buildings had been destroyed and the type of damage they suffered. The answers to these questionnaires allowed the modern Portuguese scientists to have the opportunity of making the earthquake reconstitution accurately. Following the earthquake, king Joseph gave his first Minister an increasing authority and the Marquis of Pombal exercised full powers as the person of a dictator. As his power increased, also increased the number of its enemies and bitter disputes within the high nobility became frequent. In 1758, king Joseph I was wounded in an assassination attempt against him, during his return home from his girlfriend, the young Marquise of the Távoras. The Portuguese aristocracy and the high nobles Távoras represented, along with the Jesuits, a very conservative part of the Portuguese Catholicism wing, which could be compared to stagnated waters and Portuguese old ideologies which did not adapted to the messages conveyed by Iluminist thinkers across Europe, like Jean Jacques Rousseau and Voltaire, immediately to the French Revolution. 63

They have been prooved involved, the Duke of Aveiro and the Távoras family, all having been executed after a brief trial. Sebastian José did not wait to show mercy whatsoever, suing everyone involved even in the case of women or children. This was the final blow in the power of Portuguese aristocracy who rebelled against the king, assuring the Prime Minister's victory over his enemies. As a way to reward him, the king appointed him the Count of Oeiras in 1759. After the Távoras case the Count of Oeiras became the Marquis of Pombal in 1770, and ruled the country until the king's death in 1777. We've already defended king John II, and we now defend the Marquis of Pombal. Though living in that time, you would have to claim against the barbarities processed in those days, but by far, looking evenments calmly, one can see that nobody is perfect, and that all men have, as said the French engineer who lived in Belas, defects and qualities. Did the reader ever find an officer enough tough and that at the same time burst into tears when he had to punish some swish soldiers? These men, who broke all the abuse, that put a knee on top of an iron of all revolutions, are men who play with other folks like if they were playing with objects, and the duty of those who tell their story is to understand it, and not being shouting against those who did service to his country, just because they did not always stopped where it would be better if they had stopped. King Joseph died in 1777, and, as he just closed his eyes, the hatred against the great minister broke, nobody liked to think of the good things he had done, and everyone cried out against his atrocities. Further more, who happened to succed to king Joseph was his daughter Queen Mary I, a very religious person, very pout with the Marquis because she suspected that he would wish to pass the throne to her son, a very smart boy named Joseph, and so the king dying today and the minister to be fired the next day. There was no maliciousness that they didn't apply to the Marquis. They sent him to 64

his farm in Pombal, and while he was already sick and embittered, ground him with questions and pitched a court of law process on him. If they could undo everything he did, they would, but being him sick and crumbled, in the end, they just released the prisoners, because they remainded they were afraid to wipe the late king who, after all, was the one responsible for the acts of his minister, because it was the late king who signed the orders. They removed the Marquis' portrait from Terreiro do Paço, ( which just in 1834 they became to repost again, as it was fair ) and, instead of his picture, they posted the Lisbon's weapons which are a sailing vessel and some canons, so, it hapened when the Marquis knew about their realese, as he was listening to the case, he sorted out his celebre comment : Oh, my poor Portugal, they are sending you sailing on the high seas?! ... Well, Queen Mary I, she indeed would like to admit again the Jesuits back in the country, but she was not able to do so, because the Marquis not only just expelled them from Portugal, but built up a league against them throughout Europe, and succeeded that Pope Clement XIV overdrown the Jesuit Order for good. The Tavoras relatives they did work a lot to get a sentence that could declare that were just lies what was said about them, and undo the sentence which condemned them, but they gave up about it because they realized that the Queen, in dooming the Marquis de Pombal, was simoultaneously, condemning his own father, the late king. In most, everything went backwards, except in the Navy, which had a good minister, Martin de Melo, and some schools that always have well developed. There were also two men who brought progress to Lisbon and Porto, namely, the police superintendent Pina Manique and the mayor of Oporto, Francis Almeida. The case was, one could not stop caring of upgrades and improvements, but what reallly wasted and tantrumed the Portuguese, was their stuborness in uproar against the French Republic. To have discussions in Portugal about the Iluminist new ideas, would be taken as talking about the devil, and Queen Mary I, instead of dealing with her own life, followed the path of 65

king John V. This king was inclined in going to mess with the Turks, that did not hurt him at all, and Queen Mary I was about messing with the French Republic, which was so far away and had nothing to do with Portugal. What resulted from this, is that the Portuguese sent a division to Russilion to help the Spaniards, and a fleet to Toulon to help the British. The division of Russilion was well succeeded, but then what? Spain made peace with France, and the Portuguese stood watching ghosts. England call the Portuguese to the terrace, while stooding at the podium. The Portuguese had to plead for peace to the French Republic, almost on their knees, and Napoleon, the Monster, as the English called him, who, by that time began to govern France, had sworn on the Portuguese skin and had the ability to incite Spain against the Portuguese, resulting in the war of 1801. It was a shameful war. The Portuguese army, for a change, was disorganised, it did take the thwack, and to achieve peace, the Portuguese had to pay good money, and had to give the Spaniards, Olivença, a village that was forever lost. Anything earned in humiliations. In 1807, Napoleon, who was already emperor, and who walked in a death struggle with England, wanted to close the Portuguese ports to the Portuguese former allies. The Portuguese hesitated, and Napoleon, who did not like to waste time, states that the House of Braganza had ceased to reign in Portugal, and sent an army to Portugal under the command of Junot. The royal family had no time but to pack and leave to Brazil, on British advice. Queen Mary had gone mad along the time, and who ruled in her name, as prince-regent, since 1792, was Prince John, his eldest son, because Joseph, we've already spoke about and who gave so much hope, had died in 1788. Imagine how the people came to this match, when knowing about the royal family being departuring to Brazil. Abandoned by the royal family, the Portuguese saw Junot taking over the country's government, how he grab the Portuguese army, who had orders of not resisting , and send them to France to 66

serve in Napoleon's army, layed heavy contributions, and finally treat Portugal as conquered land. And, for greater shame, Junot invaded the country in the heart of winter, with half a dozen of soldiers, and entered in Lisbon ahead of four maimed and tattered soldiers! The shame of all these humiliations began to boil the blood of the Portuguese, and one day the revolt broke out in Oporto. It was as if to say a wildfire. Since Minho to Algarve provinces, there was not a piece land that was not sublevated in arms against the French. Junot ordered his troops to crush the revolt, and then the French did horrible things: killed, robbed, burned, raped ...
The French invasions of Portugal as the source of Portugal today: Early in the nineteenth Century, Europe was at war. The two

major European powers were strugling for the hegemony of the Old World. France controlled the European continent and Britain controlled the seas. In late 1806, Napoleon began the Continental Blockade: the ports in the mainland of Europe remain closed to British ships, as well as all comercial and trading through these ports, thus undermining the sphere of British trade. Most European countries upon which Napoleon could have dominion, joined the blockade. Only two countries have disobeyed the decree founded at Berlin: Russia and Portugal. After the defeat at Eylau and Friedland, the Russians were forced to sign the Treaty of Tilsit. Only Portugal had escaped Napoleon. The Portuguese coast, Madeira, the Azores and Cape Verde, the colonies of Angola and Brazil were crucial to the strategic weakness of the British, allies of Portugal for many years. As a result Napoleon decided to invade Portugal. First, he sent Junot in November 1, 1807 who ruled Portugal for five months. At first, everything seemed to go well but over time, some unpopular measures have generated discontent and led to popular uprisings. With the arrival of British troops commanded by General Arthur Wellesley, the Luso-English army inflicted a defeat over the French in Roliça and Vimeiro and Junot was forced to 67

accept the Convention of Sintra on August 30,1808, based upon which he was allowed to evacuate Portugal. Then, in March 1809, Soult began the Second Invasion of Portugal. After coming out victorious in La Corunna, Spain, Soult captured the port, but shortly after, the British returned with the Anglo-Portuguese troops and quickly drove the French army out of Portugal. The Second French Invasion lasted less than two months. Finally, in the spring of 1810, Napoleon reinvaded Portugal with an army under Massena's command, Marshal of France, Duke of Rivoli and Prince of Essling. Massena entered Portugal through the Portuguese province of Beira, conquered the town of Almeida and went bumping against the Luso-English army in the battle of Bussàco. Although defeated, Massena siding the Allied troops managed to escape to the south. Near Lisbon, Massena found the Lines of Torres Vedras. Unable to penetrate the Lines and with problems of insurgency among his officers, and soldiers' hunger and disease, cold and rain, Massena was forced to withdraw. Pursued by the Allied troops left Portugal on April 5, 1811. The Lines of Torres Vedras were a series of small fortifications that stretched from the banks of the Tagus River to the Atlantic and were built to defend Lisbon antecipately of new invasions. The first line about 60 miles long, stretching from Alhambra to the estuary of the river Sizandro. The second with 40 km of Santa Iria of Azóia connected with the estuary of the river in Ericeira at Sarafujo. The third line consisted of a defensive perimeter of 3 km, from Algés to S. Julian da Barra. The headquarters of Wellington were located in Pero Negro, near Mount Socorro where there was a system of communications between signals transmitters, operated by experts, in order to allow the Army sending messages to one another every seven minutes. The Lines of Torres Vedras were a strategy designed by the Duke of Wellington and are considered by many historians as the most effective field fortifications in military history. 68

It can be argued that the seeds of Napoleon's defeat and his abdication in 1814 were released by himself when he usurpated the throne of Spain to his brother Joseph and thus alienating the Spanish nation. The myth of Napoleon's Invincibility was exposed in early French defeats with Junot and Dupont at Bailéin and Vimeiro in 1808. Despite the riots of La Coruna, England, through their sea mastery, was able to obtain advantage from their alliance with Portugal and Spain in order to hold ground in continental Europe. Between 1810-13, about 300,000 French troops were sucked into the peninsula, but only 70 000 men ended up in a position to face Wellington. The rest had been decimated somewhere in their way by the action of both insurrections, and by the action of guerrillas. With the French unable to concentrate their forces against the AngloPortuguese army, Wellington was able to move his offensive. The result of the invasion of Russia by the French had been independent of developments on the Iberian Peninsula, but the results during the German campaign of 1813 were not independent of general events. Not only 200,000 French soldiers had been trapped on the Peninsula, also Wellington's victory at Victoria served to give a new moral to the Prusso -Russian Alliance that was fainting after some adversity at Lutzen and Bautzen. Napoleon had exclaimed that it was absurd that 40 thousand English soldiers had come to ruin his business in Spain! In fact, the strategies operated by the Portuguese and the Spaniards together were not of less value! The Monster was stoped after all. There was a Frenchman people called the Maneta, he was the devil himself. He was General Loison, who just had one arm. In Evora he played the devil, but he failed to end the revolt. The revolters were poor and ordinary people, with no leader, no discipline, no boss, who thus rose up against the French that were easely beating the portuguese, but folks surendered in Belas, next time rioted in Cintra. Further more, each one makes the war as one 69

can. In battle technics the Portuguese could never rival with Napoleon's soldiers. So, what did they do? They face the French using guerrilla forces; in picking the French apart, they attack them by surprise using battons, stones, shooting blunderbusses, using knives and catanas, whatever they could find for weapon, why people is like a person, when they feel they are under the enemy's feet, they defend themselves by all means. But this is what the British, who were expecting to come over to see if they could leave their island and disembark at any site where they could disturb Napoleon's troops, so as they saw Portugal was in revolt, the English arrived with an army commanded by General Wellington, who, if not was as good as Napoleon, at least, ended happier than him. So, Junot, who was just playing a bully, was beaten by the British in battles of Roliça and Vimeiro, where the Portuguese, also fought alongside the red uniforms, which are the standard English uniforms, and to get away from Portugal, had to capitulate. It is true that the rascal accepted capitulating, which he could not have better if it was he who had defeated the English. He took with him everything he had stolen from the Portuguese, not to speak of the Portuguese soldiers who went to France, against their will, to serve in Napoleon's army. Napoleon kidnapped the Spanish's Royal family, and made his brother Joseph king of Spain, so that when the Portuguese rebel, the Spaniards also rebel themselves, and started to fight the French. However the portuguese arranged a government; this government organized one army, still in the 1640 fashion, and that just needed a general like Prince of Lippe to perform rightly. This general showed up, an Englishman named Beresford, who in the twinkling of an eye put everything right. What is certain, beloved folks, is that in the Peninsula's war, which lasted six years, Portuguese soldiers, fighting alongside British troops showed to be as good as the English. As we can see that many of the officers had had to come from English regiments, because the Portuguese officers were all dispersed, some had gone to France, others to Brazil, and others, to tell the truth, were 70

good for nothing. The French were very bad, but the English were perhaps even worse than the French. The British they came to help Portugal but the British are like beasts both as friends and as enemies ... The British soldiers were always abrupt, especially in drinking wine. They never came to Portugal but to help the Portuguese, that's a fact, and also never came to Portugal in a way that everyone did not complain about them. In Dom Fernando's time, coming the British fighting alongside the Portuguese against the Spaniards, they did what the devil did not. Junot was trown out of Portugal in 1808, the British then turned against the French who were in Spain, and they came inside Galicia, but Soult, barring the English there, faught the English giving them formidable battle, and then Portugal advanced too, entering in Oporto. So entering Porto, while escaping from the French, people got across a bridge made of small boats, in Douro River, to pass to the other side of the city. Then the bridge broke and killed hundreds of people drowned due to strong river streams. This was remembered as the Ponte das Barcas disaster and all because the English were unable to stop the French at the skirts of Oporto So the French stopped at Porto in the other side of river, cos the solely bridge was broken, but the Portuguese and the British quickly fumace the French and soon thrown them out. Napoleon, infuriated with the case, sent an army commanded by Marshal Massena, one of his best generals, with orders to thrown Wellington overboard, but Wellington, a man who was all the time antecipatly warned and did not like taking showers abruptly, profited time to organise the celebrated Lines of Torres Vedras, in the rear of which they entrenched. So, Massena troops hit with their noses in the Lines, saw they could do nothing, went away, and the Portuguese were in thrall to them. 71

To shorten reasons, in four years' campaign, they went, little by little, pushing the French out through Spain to France. In 1814 the Portuguese entered in France and, as the Russians, Austrians and Prussians also entering by the east side, taking Napoleon before them, fell out all that Frenchy soup and Napoleon had to ask for resignation from the position of emperor, and the Portuguese were freed from the French. After the French invasions: In 1820 there was a revolution in Portugal. At that time King John VI was still in Brazil. In his absence a group of armed officers seized the power and Constitutional Courts were reunited to write a new constitution. However this new constitution was not pleasing to everyone. Land owners and the conservative clergy were not pleased with anything about the new liberal regime. In 1821 the Courts called king John VI. He returned from Brazil and agreed to accept the new constitution but the queen consort refused to do so much. However his son Dom Pedro remained in Brazil. Under the command of Peter, Brazil became independent. King John VI died in 1826. The heir to the Portuguese throne became emperor of Brazil and was not on his agenda to be governor of Portugal. He abdicated in favour of his daughter, 7 years old, Maria da Gloria. As she was just a child, his uncle Dom Miguel became regent. Peter also developed a document to replace the liberal constitution. This document, even limiting the king's powers was not as liberal as the previous one. The Regent Michael initially accepted the document but it took little time to tear it up and establish himself as absolute ruler. In 1928, with the support of conservative forces from Portugal, he crowned himself king. However, a rebellion against his absolute power began to take shape in Azores. It also happened that in 1831, Pedro, emperor of Brazil, fell from power. He fled to Europe and self-declared himself Regent of Portugal instead of his brother. The 72

rebels were prepared to support Peter and in July 1832, a rebel army, backed by various English factions, arrived in Portugal to fight for Dom Peter. The fight lasted until 1834, when Peter took the throne of Portugal and Miguel went to exile. After these fights, Portugal was divided between those who wanted a strong traditional monarchy and those who wanted a liberal constitution. Nobody was able to find a compromise that satisfied both parties. In 1838, following demands from the Liberal Party, a new constitution was introduced. However, the Conservatives were very opponents to it, and in 1846-47, a civil war broke out between the two contentions. It just finished by the action and influence of foreign governments ... In the nineteenth century, some European countries were transformed by the Industrial Revolution. However, Portugal was an almost exclusively poor agricultural country, with an almost total lack of literacy, which in other words, is known as analphabetism ... Meanwhile, the popularity of Monarchy faded and the Republican feeling rose up. A republican revolution occurred in 1891 but was defeated. But the assassination of King Carlos I took place. Finally, in 1910, a new Republican revolution occurred under Army and Navy control . The last king of Portugal, King Emmanuel II had to take refuge in England.

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PORTUGAL IN MODERNITY Many poor Portuguese had high hopes in the revolution but they could never see their desire improvements to materialize or their living conditions ameliorated. Finally, in 1926, the army seized power. In 1928, António de Oliveira Salazar, a reader at the University of Coimbra, became Minister of Finance. In 1932 Salazar became Prime Minister and drafted a new constitution that was accepted in a referendum. Salazar became virtually a dictator. A secret police institutionalised, the PIDE (International Police for the Defence of the State ). The press began to be censored and political parties were banned. Salazar applied capital in public investment, such as roads, bridges and public buildings. The Portuguese industry grew in stability and the urban population has increased. But poverty remained scattered throughout the country. To aggravate the situation during the 60's a guerilla war started in the Portuguese African colonies. Attempting to combat this new type of rebels proved fatal for the Portuguese economy and resources. In 1968, Salazar, old and sick, was forced to resign. He was replaced by Marcelo Caetano. Salazar was the founder of the New State (Estado Novo), a rightwing authoritarian government which presided in Portugal between 1932 and 1974. The New State can be described as a regime of extreme-right Fascist inspired. The Fascism is a radical, authoritarian nationalist political ideology. The Fascists seek to organize a nation according to corporatist perspectives, values and systems, including the political system and the economy According to some conventional Portuguese scholars the first reforms and policies of Salazar allowed the existence of political and financial stability and, consequently, social order and economic growth after political instability and financial chaos of the Portuguese First Republic (1910-1926). Other scholars believe that the policies of Salazar led the country into social and economic stagnation that has opened the floodgate of emigration, Portugal converting one of the most uneducated and impoverished countries 74

of Europe, the streaks of almost total illiteracy. The Salazar program was opposed to all communist, socialist and liberalist currents. It was clerical in nature, conservative and nationalist. The politics of Salazar had as goal the perpetuation of Portugal as an multi continental empire with Angola and Mozambique as major colonies and as a source of civilization and stability for companies overseas in Africa and the Asian possessions. The Salazar regime and its secret police, the PIDE, restrained the political and civil liberties in order to maintain political control over Portugal. Salazar was born in Vimeiro, near Santa Comba Dao, within a modest family. His father, a small landowner, started his life as a farm worker and became the head of a distinguished family of small landowners in the region of Santa Comba Dao, the Perestrelo family, who owned land and other properties scattered around the area between Coimbra and Viseu . He had four older sisters and was the only boy of the family. António Oliveira (1839-1932) ( Salazar's father ) and his wife Maria do Resgate Salazar (1845-1926) was a granddaughter of noble origin. Despite knowing his noble origin, Salazar had always preferred to claim being descent from humble origins. His older sisters were, Maria do Resgate Salazar de Oliveira, Maria Leopoldina de Oliveira Salazar and Laura de Oliveira Salazar. This last, married in 1887 with Abel Pais de Sousa, whose brother, Mario Pais de Sousa would become the Minister of Internal Affairs of the of Salazar government. Both were sons of a family also of Santa Comba Dao. Salazar, studied at the Seminary of Viseu between 1900-14. During his seminary studies he considered a career as a priest, but changed his mind. Went to the University of Coimbra where he studied law, during the first years of the Republican regime. As a youth, his involvement in politics stemmed from his Catholic perspective, in contrast to the anti-clerical ideas in the 1st Republic of Portugal. Writing in Catholic newspapers and fighting in the streets for his ideas and his peers, were the first steps of Salazar in public life. During the brief dictatorship between 191718, of Sidonius Pais, Salazar was invited to be Prime Minister, but he 75

rejected the offer. Formally he entered politics in subsequent years, linked to the Catholic Conservative Center Party and was elected to the Parliament that he quit in just one session. Then he went to teach Economical Politics in the University of Coimbra. After the coup of May 28, 1926, he joined the Mendes Cabessadas government as 71st Minister of Finance shortly after resigning, justifying his withdrawal by the existence of disputes and social disorder within the government that prevented it from performing his function with prestige. Later took up the position as 81º Ministry of Finances, on 26 April 1928, after the National Dictatorship have consolidated, paving the way to being named the 101º Prime Minister in 1932 but remained Minister of Finances until 1940 when the Second World War took his time completely. His elevation to power is due to his image as an honest and effective Minister of Finance, that gave great support to President Carmona and appropriate political positioning. The already existing authoritarianism government, consisted of a right wing coalition, and Salazar was able to capture the moderate faction of each policy, fighting the extremists using censorship and repression. The conservative Catholics were his latest acquisition and loyal adherent to his ideas. The conservative Republicans who were not offered a position to be captured within Salazar's sphere, became his biggest enemy during this initial period. They tried several coups but never presented an united front, being easily beaten. Never, however, being a real royalist he quickly won the support of most of monarchist, insofar the son of the murdered king, D. Manuel II, in exile, was awarded a state funeral upon his death. The National Unionists were divided between supporting the the regime or denouncing it as a bourgeois. Some of them were attributed tokens and other concessions by the state, in order to bring to the moderate political field and the rest were repressed by police. They have been completely silenced after 1933 when Salazar eliminated them to effectively combat the rising of National 76

Socialism in Portugal. Salazar also gave support to Francisco Franco and the Nationalists in their fight against the left-wing groups of the Republic of Spain. The Spanish Nationalists had no control of most of the Spanish ports, and Salazar helped them to receive arms and ammunition through the port of Lisbon, which became known as the Port of Castile! In 1933, Salazar has introduced a new constitution that gave him wide powers, establishing a parliamentary anti-authoritarian rule that last for four decades! Inside primary schools of the New State, walls were decorated with the portrait of the dictator, a crucifix and a portrait of the president of the republic Américo Tomás. Salazar developed the Estado Novo. The basis of his regime was a platform for political stability. The first reforms of Salazar allowed the existence of financial stability and economic growth. This was known as 'The lesson of Salazar'! Although Portugal manifested a high degree of illiteracy, Salazar regime did not consider education as having paramount importance and, for many years, he did not spend much capital in this area, however granting primary education for all citizens. However, in the late years of his government, and within six years after its inability to govern, until the fall of the 'Estado Novo' in 1974, educational priority measures have been implemented and there were substantial investments in educational infrastructure. At this stage, the secondary vocational and technical education, and university education, registered a record of applications. Many of the schools established by the Salazar regime were still working decades after the fall of the same in 1974.

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Salazar regime was rigid and authoritarian. He based his political philosophy around a sui generis interpretation of the Catholic Doctrine, as under the regime of Engelbert Dolfussas in Austria, a contemporary of the Salazar regime. The economic current system was Corporatism, based on a similar interpretation of the Catholic Encyclical 'Rerum Novarum' of Leo XIII, 1891, and 'Quadragesimo-Annum', by Pius XI, 1931, which were supposedly written to prevent both the class struggle and economic supremacy. Salazar Party labelled as being a National Socialist party was more truly a Fascist Party. The personal party of Salazar was the National Union, formed as a subservient umbrella to support the scheme. In that time many European countries feared the potential destructiveness of Communism. Salazar not only forbade the formation of Marxist revolutionary parties as well as fascist-unionists factions. Salazar relied on his secret police, first called PVDE (Police for Surveillance and Defence of the State), established in 1933 and modelled on the Gestapo Hitler's Police; later called PIDE, established in 1945 and lasting until 1969, going to be called DGS (Direction of General Security), when under the government of Marcello Caetano. The workload of the police was not only to constitute a state security in the true sense of the term, was also destined to outright suppression of Salazar's opponents, especially those that related to international communist movements or assigned to the USSR, which was seen as a threat to Portugal. The PIDE was an efficient police force, however, generally speaking, less brutal than its predecessor PVDA, popularly known as 'Pevide', which means 'pumpkin seeds', and foreign polices that served as a model for it's creation. A considerable number of prisons were built by the regime, after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War (1936), where opponents of the Estado Novo were sent. The Prison of Tarrafal in Cape Verde was one of the most known.

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Anarchists, Communists, captured guerilla soldiers belonging to the liberation movements in the colonies or their bosses, and other opponents of Salazar's regime were sent there and died or remained there for many years in these prisons. Salazar was able to sustain himself so long in power, also because the rigidity of the political structure in power favoured similar types of schemes. During World War II, Salazar placed Portugal among both parties contenders but nevertheless supporting the Allied troops: naval bases on Portuguese territory were open to the English, within the usual treaty of mutual aid, and the United States, leaving them to use the military base on the island of Terceira in Azores. But only agreed to this after being alerted by the British if he did not so, the Americans would take the base of the Azores by force. Portugal, particularly the city of Lisbon, became a point of departure from Europe to the U.S., and a large number of refugees have found shelter in Portugal, with some help from the general consul Portuguese at Bordeaux, Aristides de Sousa Mendes, who was issuing visas disobeying Salazar's orders. If Salazar remained opponent to allied forces, would have the British as enemy that would begin to threaten the Portuguese colonies, while being keeping at the side of the Allies could pose a threat to Portugal itself. It was a dilemma. Therefore Portugal had to continue export tungsten and other goods to both sides of the dispute ; to the German Axis (partly via Switzerland) and to the Allied countries. Large numbers of Jews and other political dissidents, including persons of Abwehr after the coup of July 20, 1944, sought refuge in Portugal, although to the end of 1942, immigration was restricted. The Portuguese colonies became disorganized after the war. In 1945, Portugal maintained its extensive colonial empire, including Cape Verde, Sao Tome and Principe, Angola (including Cabinda), Portuguese Guinea and Mozambique in Africa; Goa, Damon (including Dadra and Nagar Haveli), and Diu in India (the Portuguese India), Macao in China and Portuguese Timor in South79

East Asia. Salazar, a persistent integrationist, was determined to retain total control of the colonies. The provinces were overseas while a continuing source of concern and wealth for Portugal, especially during the Colonial War. Portugal quickly became isolated in the world's stage as other European nations would guarantee independence to their colonies. Salazar wanted Portugal to be a country of international significance and the Portuguese colonies were making it possible, but Salazar refused to be under American's concessions. Portugal was the only NATO non-democratic country in 1949, among its founding members, which reflected the role of Portugal as an ally against communism during the Cold War. All European countries accepted the postwar Marshall Plan, the aid given therein, but Portugal refused initially to be helped with the plan, only coming afterwards to accept. During the 50's, Salazar maintained the same economic policy that guaranteed the neutrality during the war. The dawn of the 'new technology' in the early 60's, however, led to a period of economic openy, in which Portugal was seen as an attractive country to foreign capital investment. Industrial development and economic growth in Portugal continued throughout the sixties. During the Salazar government Portugal participated in OECD and EFTA foundation. Possessions in India were the first to be lost in 1961. After the independence of India on August 15, 1947, the British and the French gave up of their colonies in India. Indian nationalists in Goa have launched an ultimatum to leave the territory of Portugal, supported by a series of strikes and civil disobedience movement against the Portuguese administration which were ruthlessly suppressed by Portugal. India made numerous offers of negotiation for the delivery of the colonies. Faced with imminent military moves by the India, Salazar repeatedly refused the delivery. With an impending Indian military operation Salazar ordered the Governor of Portugal in India, General Manuel Antonio Vassallo e Silva to fight to the last man, and adopted a scorched earth policy. Eventually, India launched Operation Vijay in December 1961, to eradicate 80

Portugal from Goa, Damon and Diu. Thirty one Portuguese soldiers died in combat and the Portuguese frigate NRP Alfonso de Albuquerque was destroyed, before the General Vassallo e Silva surrendered. Salazar sent him into exile for having disobeyed fighting to the last man and surrendered to the Indian Army. In the 60s, armed revolutionary movements spread guerilla activity in Mozambique, Angola and Portuguese Guinea. Except in Guinea, the Portuguese army and naval power were successful in suppressing most of the insurgency, through a well planned counterguerilla warfare, making use of light infantry, special forces and militia attacks. Most countries in the world voted to ostracism the government of Portugal by their type of colonial policy, especially the newly formed independent African nations. At home, Mr. Salazar's regime remained unmistakably authoritarian. He was able to hold the power using the memories of the time of instability that characterized the Portuguese political life before 1926, like trying to remember the Portuguese that had been him who had saved Portugal at that time. But these tactics were decreasingly successful because a new generation had born without a collective memory of those instability times. In the 60's, Salazar's opposition to decolonization and gradual increase in press freedom, went on to create friction with the Franco dictatorship. However, discontent intensified in the Portuguese armed forces which led to the union of its officers to form the Armed Forces Movement (MFA). In April 1974 the Army led coup. The country's population showed their approval to the perpetrated coup, carrying red carnations in their lapels and the soldiers in their gun barrels.

So, the coup went down in history as the Carnation Revolution. With this revolution, Democracy was restored in Portugal. And in 1975, Mozambique and Angola became independent. In 1986, Portugal was held in the EEC, now known as the European Union. As a result of becoming a member of the European Union, Portugal received large sums of money contributing to the country's poverty reduction at the point where it was. In 1999, Portugal adopted the Euro as currency. In 2006, Animal Cavaco Silva became President of the Portuguese Republic. Today Portugal is known for its production of olives, wine and cork and its tourism industry. Its current population is 10 million and seven thousand inhabitants.

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THE PORTUGUESE SOCRATACY and the XVII CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT

We decided to end this Funny History of Portugal with a brief biography of the most mediatic of all Portuguese Prime Ministers since the times of the Great Marquis of Pombal, the great, if not the greatest of all, Mr José Sócrates. After attending high school in Covington, ( Covilhã ), Socrates was studying for Civil Engineering Technician as a Bachelor in Coimbra, at the Higher Institute of Engineering. Between 1987 and 1993 he attended at the Lusíada University, the course of law which he never finished. In 1994-95, already a well known politician, Socrates went to the Institute of Engineering of Lisbon where he completed some professorships in order to obtain the CESE Diploma, as to complete the bachelor's degree once the Portuguese Institutes of Engineering did never offered Licenciateships. Came to obtain the degree from the Independent University in Lisbon, which was eventually closed by the government, shortly afterwards. The question of the degree of Socrates earned forums of controversy that had no substantive reason to even exist since the positions of the Prime Minister and President of the Republic can be assumed in Portugal for any fool who just holds a fourth grade in Primary School or equivalent position, a situation naturally inherited from the former New State regime. Soon one could understood what was the usefulness of such heated discussions about the Prime Minister's degree. Even if the man had not completed the fourth grade in modern Primary School, the argument would stand, but how the hell one knows how much one needs to study to be at-will in governmental positions or even in 83

councillor positions in today's world? One of the founders of JSD, (Socialist Democratic Youth) Socrates became a member of the PSP ( Socialist Portuguese Party ), in 1981. He worked as a technical engineer in the Council of Covillion ( Covilhã ), and was elected MP since 1987, representing the electoral district of Castle Blanc. He was dismissed from his duties after council authorities have been repeatedly warned about the poor quality of his construction projects and poor supervision during their implementation. He was subjected to disciplinary action for mistakes made during these verifications, but nonetheless was never penalized. Moreover, as a member of the Portuguese Parliament (PP) he was not even allowed to work as an engineer. Between 1991-95 he was the spokesperson of the Socialist Party on matters related to the environment. In 1995, he assumed the duties of Secretary of State to the Environment Ministry, during the second mandate of Prime Minister Gutierrez. Two years later Socrates had become member of the Youth and Sports and an organizer of the Euro Cup 2004 in Portugal. He became Minister of the Environment in the second Gutierrez government in 1999. Following the 2002 elections, won by Barroso, Socrates became a member of the opposition. However, he arranged a program of policy analysis with Santana Lopes in RTP. After the resignation of Ferro Rodrigues as the Party president in 2004, Socrates won the contest for the post of General Party Secretary against Manuel Alegre and John Soares, with 80% of votes in September 2004. After the victory of his Party in 2005, Socrates was called by President Jorge Sampaio to form the 17th Constitutional Government. After the legislative elections in 2009, José Socrates was elected to a second term as Prime Minister of Portugal. The XVII Constitutional Government, headed by Socrates, as Prime Minister, Socrates tried to create new rules and implement reforms endeavouring better efficiency and streamlining the public sector, combat the existing surplus of state servants and cutting bureaucracy for both citizens and for companies (e.g. Easy 84

commercial establishment, the PRACE, the restructuring program for central administration of the state, the SIMPLEX program to simplify administrative and legislative, among others. Since the XVII Constitutional Government ( CG ) (with José Socrates as Prime Minister and Teixeira dos Santos as Minister of Finance) the Portuguese tax system has improved with an increasing number of taxpayers and increase in Tax Revenue. But these actions had little effect and the country's Public Debt and its deficit were both uncontrolled by 2010, along with an unemployment record. John Bilhim, in 2005, headed the committee responsible for PRACE, but appeared to have been disappointed with the results. Various reforms and measures implemented in 2006-07 by the government headed by Socrates, XVII CG, resulted in an improvement of financial system but has reduced expectations of future pensioners by 40%. Additionally, the economically active population would have to work a greater number of years before reaching retirement, than they had previously. A support factor was also introduced, giving employees, the option of working more years, yet receiving pensions slightly more modest, as the maximum life expectancy increases. After the regionalization referendum in 1998, ( where he voted against the regionalization of the country into seven regions ), was approved, the XVII CG, in January 2009, announced their intention to start again the process of regionalization in Portugal. According to this government project, the Portuguese mainland will be regionalized into five regions in law with a large autonomous administrative power, using the established dichotomy: Alentejo, Algarve, Centro, Lisboa and North, also called NUTS 2 division, meaning the 'Crazy Plan 2' or 'O Plano Chanfrado 2' or, to hence, the Second Pill ( A Segunda Pilula ). This means that the first pill administrated didn't produce great effect. Let's wait for the second dose, to see what happens ... A major policy of the XVII Constitutional Government was the Technological Plan, endeavouring to increase the competitiveness of Portugal through the modernization of its economy. The plan 85

consists of three Master areas: Wisdom, Technology and Innovation. The government aim was to modernize Portuguese economy by the concentration of Effort and Investment in three main points: A Intel's project not too expensive to be used by children was announced by the office of Socrates, called Magellan and formatted for children of school age and for the Portuguese low/medium Portuguese income per capita, was designed and conducted by the Portuguese company JP Sá Couto, based in Matosinhos, in the North. This project was among the innovations of the government under the policy of the Technological Plan, as above. Other government efforts towards fulfillment of the technology plan of the government consisted of the support given by the state to a Portuguese Company of German formation, the semiconductor manufacture company, Qimonda AG, in Vila do Conde in the north, at the moment the parent company went bankrupt in Germany in Munich in early 2009. Qimonda of Portugal was by then one of the largest portuguese technology exporters companies. The XVII CG established more resources to their educational policy and reorganized the sector overseeing more choice and better quality in technical oriented education. Raised and improved technical education programs implemented in 2007 in an effort to revitalize the sector which was broken since the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Other reforms included greater educational support for students at all educational levels, systematic teaching and assessment in education, the compulsory order of a few problems and little worthy of trust universities such as the Modern Independent University and the Minister of Higher Education Science and Technology, Mariano Gago, and also the desire to enlist and evaluate the institutions of higher education through a new system created by the state, directed by the Agency for Assessment and Accreditation for Higher Education. During the XVII CG, the pan-European Bologna process was adopted in Portugal. Moreover, the government created a policy of certification and equivalence of qualifications for adults with low levels of education, through a process called 'New Opportunities' for adults 86

from 18 years of age. The Curriculum is exempt from classic examination or any other classic examination process. These diplomas are awarded based on a vague system of learning through experience ... Some critics argue that this policy was an effort to offset the statistical indicators of education in the country that were just going down ... anyway, with little impact on the quality of the qualified workforce in Portugal, towards the European context ... According to PISA (International Programme for Students Evaluation), GCEC programs have been for years with no cover in Literature, Mathematics and Science components, closely following the Italian model and only surpassing countries like Greece, Turkey and Mexico. However, since 2010, the PISA results for Portuguese students improved unexpectedly. The 2009 report of Pisa, explains that 15 years of age students' knowledge, in terms of knowledge of Reading, Maths and Science, suddenly finds itself at the same level of the students in the United States, Sweden, Germany, Ireland, France, Denmark, United Kingdom, Hungary and Teipei!, with 489 points, or 3 points above the average. However, two weeks later, the Minister of Education announced a report published in 2010 by his office for evaluation of his ministry, the GAVE, which criticized the findings of PISA 2009. In the report, GAVE claims that teenager population had loads of difficulties in verbal expression, communication and logic, and low capacity for problem resolving, when called upon to settle any questions of theoretical or practical nature, even when related to everyday life. No wonder, Prime Minister Jose Socrates and his team, implemented the government decision to build a new superstructure of transport such as a new Lisbon airport and a TGV network! For months the government of Socrates insisted that the only option would be for a new airport at Ota region, north of Lisbon. But a powerful lobby, headed by business chiefs, sanctioned by President Hannibal Cavaco Silva, forced Socrates Government to change their 87

mind as to where build the new airport - which would be in Alcochete in the area of the Portuguese Air Force, FAP. A study conducted by a group of businessmen, estimated that the Alcochete Project would save 3 billion Euro in construction costs, and would have less impact on the environment. The government argued that Ota was a key place in their overall strategy to include TGV lines (High Speed Transport) with the construction of high speed rail lines toward Spain! Note that naive Portuguese people believed that the new train lines from the north, were of great speed already, due to the introduction of new wagons in the trains, when the highest speed that the new trains hit in the northern lines is at the most 140 km/h. People simply were not understanding that a TGV train runs at speeds surpassing 400 km/h, on lines without any kind of level crossings either pedestrian or traffic. This near serves to demonstrate the ingenuity of the vast majority of the Portuguese and also of their rulers who were dreaming of once upon a time TGVs. Finally, the TGV megalomania ended, with rulers recognizing that they had to increase debate on the pros and cons of both projects, Airport and TGV. Not content with the expectations they ordered an opinion from the Portuguese Civil Engineering Laboratory, to say, one of the best in the world. The study's findings were announced on January 10, 2008 by Socrates: it was, after all, better to stay by the new airport project that would be in Alcochete! In 2007, Socrates government, legalized abortion after a referendum. Voters were questioned as to whether legalize abortion in the first ten days of pregnancy when performed at the request of the mother in a legal clinic. Despite the outcome of the referendum, voting was exiguous (40% when 50% would have been necessary) to have a quorum, Socrates said: 'Our interest is to fight clandestine abortion and for that we need to establish a law that respects the outcome of the referendum. Socrates office also announced their intention to legalize same-sex marriages within. This type of marriage was legalized in May 17, 2010. 88

Also in 2009, the Decree-Law 91/2009, regulates the rights of mothers and fathers to be made equal before the law. After a sharp escalation of violent crime in Portugal, during the XVII CG, in 2005-07, the Minister of Home Affairs, Rui Pereira, announced in February 2009, to expand the Police force by recruiting 2,000 new police, new weapons from the last 7000 generation, 1000 bullet proof vests, among other measures. By 2010, the shares represented in banking scores for more than twelve months were exempt from fees. The gain of the shares secured by shorter periods was taxable at 10%. Since 2010, for residents in the country, all the capital invested in shares or in property, above 500 Euro, was taxed at 20%. Investment funds, banks and corporations are generally exempt from tax due to capital increase. José Socrates, as Prime Minister of Portugal, presided over the rotating presidency of the European Union County during the period July to December 2007. In this post, Socrates and his team have focused their attention at EU-Brazil and EU-African Union as well as in the LISBON TREATY. The Portuguese parliament voted to ratify the Treaty of Lisbon on April 23, 2008. After the Irish referendum on June 12, 2008, Prime Minister Jose Socrates argued that, the Irish, by voting against the Treaty, made it a personal defeat for him, after the Treaty having been signed by EU leaders in the Portuguese capital. A second referendum in 2009 took shape in Ireland, and the result was the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty by all EU members, including Ireland! Eureka, Mr Socrates!

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ECONOMIC CRISIS From 2005 to 2010, the cabinet of José Socrates was confronting increasing challenges due to an economic and financial crisis that settle in Portugal. The economic crisis of the sovereign countries of Europe and the fogy Portuguese economy led to huge deficits and marked the rise in unemployment in Portugal that, like other countries of Europe, had to radically change its economic policy. Since September 2010, the Portuguese government announced a drastic austerity package, like their partners in the Euro zone, on seeing halving the deficit in 2011 with a series of wage cuts and a policy of grabbing the rate of servants of the state. In 2008 the deficit was 9.4%, one of the largest in the Euro zone to exceed the 3% limit of the Agreement on Growth and Stability of the European Union. The limit of 5.1%, set initially, tried to 2011 was tried not to be exceeded, but a growing crisis struck hit with an unpredictable radius of public spending, massive debt and deficit problems forced Portugal to take even more drastic measures! In September, the pressure from the IMF, Ecofin, OECD and the opposition party, forced Socrates and his cabinet to take successive sets of measures increasing austerity, contrary to what had been promised during election campaigns. A report published by the newspaper Diario de Noticias, a popular Portuguese newspaper, showed that, between the date of the Carnation Revolution in 1974 and 2010, the democratic governments of the Portuguese Republic, encouraged the creation of bubbles and investment expenditures by public associations, unclear and private sectors, establishing many types of queries and unnecessary foreign firms without committees and efficiency which, ultimately, inflated the bonuses and salaries of corporate managers and head offices, with a persistent policy of recruitment which has increased the number of redundant civil servants - all this in parallel with the creation of risk credit, debt and poor management of funds from the Community, over four decades! which Socrates and his office, early in time, failed to predict and 90

prevent in order they could remedy the situation when the country went in an anachronistic vertigo of bankruptcy ...
SOCRATES DISPUTES

In March 2007, the Independent University (UnI), a private university in Lisbon, was placed under investigation for alleged irregularities in several fields. That same month, a degree in civil engineering from that university attributed to Socrates, was put under public scrutiny. The reporters found that the academic qualification of Socrates were not in accordance to the academic custom, and four of the five academic subjects at that university were related to the same teacher, Nuno António José Morales, a member of Socialist Party. The fifth academic professorship, Technical English, was attributed to Socrates by the university's Rector. A Court of law process was raised against Socrates for fake declarations regarding his level of educational attainment and how he obtained them. Among other matters, the degree of independent civil engineering was not a credible degree because there was not even an engineering department at that university, the diploma was issued and faxed on a Sunday, a day on which the university is closed. Some professionals of the Portuguese Press testified that Socrates or members of his team and several phone calls, threatened to raise a lawsuit against the journalists involved in challenging the qualifications of Socrates and tried to eliminate the criticisms of his degree awarded by this university. On April 9, 2007, the Independent University was shot down by the government after an investigation revealed irregularities in its management. Under great pressure, Socrates unveiled its own version of events on April 11, 2007 in a live report for Channel One and Radio One. The prime minister defended himself saying that his level of education had not been falsely attributed by the UnI, and that he was being the target of false accusations, however assuming that he was not a civil engineer completely cleared. In his official biography on 91

the government official website appeared that Socrates was really quite having a complete degree in civil engineering. But he admitted that this was an oversight and that the governmental site had already corrected such a gap in his CV by replacing the term civil engineer for another one called 'degree in civil engineering'. Therefore he was an engineer afterall but just with a degree in Civil Engineering. He presented himself as an Engineer, when he was just a Technical Engineer, a Bachelor Engineer, the most, never a Licenciatship Engineer. But after getting his degree, he used the title Engineer in several official documents, although his degree was not credible because it had been awarded by an university that did not have this branch of engineering. In addition to the fact that the engineering profession is regulated by the Order of the Engineers. Therefore Socrates would be, at most, a technical engineer at his initial training in engineering, with a diploma awarded by an Institute of Engineering, an Engineering graduate and therefore not a Licensed Engineer, but what the hell, for all purposes, an engineer who should sign as technical support engineer in civil engineering, that should be registered in order to carry professionally and assign projects, which could be (or not) when completed, backed by a Licensed Engineer, anyway. The fact is that, if the Bachelor title of Socrates was not a complete one, then he would just be a Projectist and not an Engineer. Many Projectists, meaning, Civil Project Drawners, in Portugal, consider themselves as Engineers, even not being, what can we do? José Socrates was hardly criticized by all sectors of the opposition in Parliament either about his proven skills as for those unproven. A television journalist, Nicholas Santos, criticized the conclusions of the newspaper Publico on the issue, because in their view, they were not definitive conclusions, and may even be linked with another order of factors such as the fact that Sonae is the sponsor newspaper and have failed in competition with Portugal Telecom, which have led to state intervention in the matter using its department called The Authority for Competition. It was discovered that a close friend of Socrates, Armando Vara, had 92

also been awarded a diploma from the Independent University, UnI, days before reaching the high official title of bank manager in CGD, the Major State Bank in Portugal, that was open only to candidates with a degree. The case was investigated by state officials who filed it because the suspicions of fraud and other irregularities allegedly attributed to Socrates were factually unfounded. But UnI was forcibly closed due to lack of administrative discipline and lack of educational quality, together with the fact of the existence of chaos in that university management at all levels. Also related to the Prime Minister and his friend Armando Vara it happens both being involved in the Face Oculta ( Hidden Face ) case. On January 28, 2009, police investigated a group of businessmen stationed in Ovar. Vara would have allegedly had some suspicious conversations with Socrates. A low-cost computer for school children's use was launched by the Socrates office, the Magellan computer, manufactured by Sá Couto, that was suspected to have escaped the tax 5 million Euro. Another controversy concerning the Magellan computer was related with the legality of contractual procedures between the government and Sá Couto company. Socrates was also criticized for using bad language proficiency in speaking both English and Spanish. A newspaper ( Expresso ) article accusing him of mixing Portuguese and Spanish languages in his speech, using Spanish accent during an official meeting in Madrid, instead of plain speaking his native language or at least to speak Spanish in a little more accurate way. Jose Socrates was photographed during his jogging morning in places like the Red Square in Moscow, Rio de Janeiro, Copacabana, and Lisbon. In January 2008, a ban on smoking in public buildings and public transport came reinforced in Portugal, but Socrates was accused of having smoked cigarettes in May, during a private flight 93

to Venezuela, in order to meet Hugo Chavez, so, he apologized and promised never doing it again. He further explained that he was not aware of the smocking ban, so, it seems, he was undermining the laws of his own country for the simple reason of not knowing them! ... With this XVII Constitutional Government Super Distracted Prime Minister, we finish this Brief and Funny History Portugal. In another book we expose the details related with the 'Cases of Corruption in Portugal', ''Folhetim de casos de Corrupção e Cambalachos em Portugal'', we will soon translate into English.

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APPENDIX

Scientific Caracther of the Portuguese discoveries: Far from being a solely enterprise supported by the courage and indomitable spiritual Portuguese strength and the Portuguese discoveries are really the triumph of intelligence and knowledge put at the service of a noble cause. Henry the Navigator was not a visionary who let himself be dominated by dreams and fantasies unfulfilled or unconsidered or some one who was about to waste the life of his servers for the achievement of an impossible idea. Henry the Navigator searched surrounding the Portuguese expansion of all the conditions enabling to foresee the success he wanted. The character of scientific discoveries, ie, the slow preparing methodical scientific enterprise was an early effort of all effort methodologically prepared for the conquest of interplanetary space today. Still causes amazement today the accuracy of the portuguese findings. Each return of the Portuguese Armada was not normally more than the confirmation of everything that had been previously predicted. Once settled in Sagres, the Saint Infant, Henry the Navigator, devoted to the study of ancient writers, gathered geographical information confronting the news transmitted by the Muslims over the lands south of Morocco; conducting educational trips, creating a new type of boat capable of confronting the sea furies; preparing men for the management of the new instruments of navigation and guidance, initiates a navigation technique away from the coast; studing winds, tides, currents that lifted so many obstacles, especially in the doldrums area, creating a new type of sail that would let the Portuguese navigate with wind coming from all directions. The scientific character of the Portuguese discoveries is summarized in this statement of Pedro Nunes: It's Evident that the Portuguese Discoveries were not made at random, but the Portuguese sailors journeyed very taughtful and provided with instruments and rules of astronomy and geometry, which are the things that constitute the cosmographers knowjedge.

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The influence of the Portuguese discoveries on European civilization and in Portuguese culture: The Portuguese discoveries, uncovering more than half of the world unknown, changed the face of the world and had a decisive influence on the history of civilization. This influence manifested itself in all fields of human activity. The economic revolution completely changed the living conditions of European man, from the feeding movement of richess, provoked by the appearance of new products and expanding new markets. The Portuguese discoveries also exerted profound influences on the vast and universal culture in the areas of: Firstly, the discovery of vast oceans, land and skies, before totally ignored, brought upon by a multitude of human knowledge and new realities led to the immediate destruction of medieval science and bookish science for the benefit of the facts. To head off the ships at sea and settle the lands discovered, the Portuguese seamen (pilots, cartographers and cosmographers) 'kept very taught and provided with instruments and rules of astrology and geometry', and had necessarily to use the safest methods of observation and experience. This same was witnessed by scientists at the time, saying and repeating that the 'experience makes us live without mistakes of abuse and fables of the ancients' ... and 'as experience is the mother of things, for it we are able to know radically the truth'. In this way the Portuguese destroyed the old errors and the prejudice - such as the instability of the Torrid Zone, the false dimensions of Earth, the fantastic islands, earthquakes and sea monsters, aso - and thus they were the forerunners of the modern scientific spirit, contributing decisively to the great movement of the Renaissance. In the field of Geography and related sciences (Astronomy, Cosmography and Cartography), the Portuguese discoveries had a major role once a single pilot, 'with no more literacy than a speculative doctrine practiced on the deck of a ship', knew more than Aristotle and Ptolemy, the highest authority on traditional science. In the natural sciences, the discovery of numerous plants and animals from exotic lands brought a wealth of rich new evidence, so much came to develop Zoology and Botany. Also, the Medicine has been enriched with the emergence of new therapeutic products, and contact with new cultures and foreign people has yet to develop Antopology, Ethnography and Linguistics. More than any other, the Portuguese nautical science has spread widely around Europe, playing notable and direct influence, 96

especially in Spain, France, England and Holland. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, every culture appears strongly impregnated by Portuguese scientific discoveries on environment, and the same applies to the fields of Literary and Artistic culture. In literature assume paramount importance the works of historiography, travel books and epic poetry, reflecting all the effort, enthusiasm and pride in the navigations achievements and dilation of the Faith and the Empire. More than any other, Camões translated and rejoiced in 'The Lusíadas' that feeling of pride and confidence in the Portuguese superhuman struggle against the adversities of Nature. Besides, however, this epic enthusiasm, the hard work and the suffering during long absences from the home-country, created the elegy of nostalgy, and the painfully home-sickeness, apparent in many works of the time and, more intensely, in the Portuguese História Tragíco-Marítima (The Portuguese Tragic History in he High Seas ). In Art - from Architecture to illuminated manuscripts - the sea, the ships, shipboard cables, exotic flora were thoroughly exploited as decorative elements.The exuberance of maritime and oriental motifs culminated in King Emmanuel I times, resulting in the formation of the socalled Manueline Style. Similarly, all the 'minor arts' such as jewelry, tapestries and ceramics in particular, employed on large scale, and for a long time, the decorations of the kind brought from eastern India, Persia and China. The impact of the Portuguese Discoveries and Overseas action was as large as in the arts, that even precious screens appear in Japan with ships and Portuguese grounds and, in Rome, in the Sistine Chapel, the great Michelangelo painted the 'Doomsday Allegory': a Portuguese man sustaining the sky, a blackman and an Amerindian. Types of colonization: 1 - The English colonization: The British overseas policy took an essentially practical goal, in the double sense of ensuring their political power and its economic expansion. Therefore, the Brithish just put aside vague and abstract formulas, so many times, attained to the pragmatism of interest and the conveniences. 97

The fundamental characteristic of the English colonization is undoubtedly a tendency to seek to adapt the forms of government and administration to the special conditions of each territory, aiming at - as has been said before - the concern to ensure their political power and their economic expansion. Under the constitutional point of view, the British overseas territories were structured in domains, protectorates and colonies. The domains were somehow a legal fiction designed to serve the Commonwealth's unity. In fact, the domains with the most silly governments systems, bind to tenuous political bonds to England in the person of the King strictly speaking. They were or could be completely independent. They were more like a legal artifice prepared in order to England not to lose all it's influence over the territories that became independent. The protectorate has inherent in itself the idea of a legal relationship between two states characterized by the fact that one of them (protected state) is possibly depending on the other (the guardian state) for the exercise of certain essential faculties, both internally and externally. The Covenant of the League of Nations created three types of mandates: The first type of mandate reflected the political phenomenon of the protectorate and Britain received in accordance with that advice, Palestine and Iraq. The colonies showed, more than the protectorates and further that the domains, an emphasis on the Metropole's policy. The British overseas policy, even though admiting various shades, is based on decentralization and autonomy policies: decentralization to the colonies and protectorates, and autonomy for those areas. The policy of England learned to mold itself to the specific conditions of the various territories. 2 – The French Colonization: The French practiced a policy of adaptation, seeking to penetrate the core of institutions and psychology of the natives. The French colonization translates over time, a certain cyclical evolution of the systems of liability, autonomy and assimilation. The outbreak of World War I changed completely the constitutional organization of the French colonies. France, founded on the principle that the Indians were also French, mobilized its colonial troops, leading them to fight in front. The more immediate consequences of this fact were the granting of naturalization to the Indians and the French representation of native elements in the local administration. Thus came the French policy of assimilation, a policy for decentralization. Because of the victory over Germany in the war of 1914-18, France received mandates for Syria and Lebanon, French Togo, French Cameroon. On the eve of World War II, the 98

French colonial empire consisted of Indochina, Cochin China, Tonkin, Laos, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, French West Africa, Equatorial Africa and Madagascar, West Indies, Guyana and New Caledonia. The constitution of 1946 which established the French Union, and reflected the principle stated by De Gaulle on 15 October 1944: 'The French policy is to take each of these people to a development that allows them to administer themselves and, later, govern themselves by themselves ... The French Union was formed by France and by state and territory members. The first were the former Mandates, the following were former Protectorates. The Republic covered the French Metropolis, the overseas departments (Martinique, Guadeloupe, Guyana and Reunion), Algeria and the overseas territories (former colonies). The 1958 Constitution provided for the creation of the French Community: 'Within the Federation, the Confederation and the states can be forming a community of free people to link and develop their civilizations'. De Gaulle wanted to present the text of the constitutional referendum of the French colonies. Only Guinea voted for separation from the French Community. The remaining colonies voted in favor. But by this vote were not bound to remain forever dependent on France. Could leave the community when they wanted. And that's what happened ... 3 - The Dutch colonization: The Netherlands has reached a gigantic island empire in Asia. More than any other nation, it should call the Dutch East India Company. This Company was founded in 1602 and lasted until 1800. It served as a model for almost all companies built by other nations. To it was entrusted the task of the Dutch colonization until near the end of XIX century. Commercial company as it was, it could not translate the utilitarian nature that had been built. Their action was at first moderate. Putting aside thoughts of conquest, not by building forts and shooting down some of the existing, they earned the respect and esteem of the natives. So it was until the beginning of the XVIII century. Then, to get the most consumed products with the exclusion of all traders rushed to the conquest of territories to exercise sovereign rights over them. Such was the Dutch colonization in the beginning. As they dissolved the Company of the West Indies in 1800, the Dutch government became to operate direct colonization. Colonies have become an integral part of the national territory. Until 1848, the King exercised, exclusively, the sovereignty over them. Then he started to have to listen to the representatives of the people on certain colonial subjects. The decisive importance in the conduct of the Dutch colonial 99

action was undoubtedly the so-called People's Council (Volksraad), established in 1916. It was suppopsed to be consulted on certain matters of national interest. In it had seat certain parties or political currents and native elements, which greatly influenced the speed of the colonial order of the Netherlands. Moreover, several provinces or parts of provinces began to have local committees charged with the administration and financial management. And this sui generis system of undirect administration contributed much to hasten the end of Dutch colonial action. In 1947 the Netherlands experienced the federal formula, promised by the queen Wilhelmina. Lindgdjati by agreement, created the Indonesia – Netherlands Union, comprising the Kingdom of the Netherlands (including the Netherland Western Isles, under the direct control of the Metropolis) and the United States of Indonesia, including the Republic of Indonesia (Java, Sumatra and Madura) and Eastern Indonesia (Celebes, Moluccas and Sunda Islands) The federal system established early termination of the Dutch colonization. 4 - The Italian colonization: The Italian colonization in Africa was hungry for expansion, perhaps by imperialist tradition inherited from ancient Rome. Italy was established in 1886 in Massau and the Red Sea coast founded the colony of Eritrea. In 1889-90, for diplomatic negotiations, the Italien were considered themselves the Lord Ethiopia's protectorate. But Negus opposed, and the Italien were forced to recognize the Abyssinian independence in 1896. They turned then to North Africa, and by the agreements of 1896 and 1900 with France, Italy won 'as a sphere of influence, the Turkish province of Tripolitania, in exchange for recognition of French control over Tunisia where, however, the Italian people started enjoying privileged treatment'. In 1911, after the Italo-Turkish war, Italy annexed Tripolitania and Cyrenaica but had to fight the resistance that the Arabs opposed it. In 1943, after the expulsion of Axis troops, these two colonies were placed under British administration. After the war, were administered by a UN commission, assisted by advisory board composed of several nations. In 1950, the Emir Idris el Snoussi, was proclaimed King of Libya, country to which these settlements were part, and in 1952, it was recognized the independence of the country. After the Second World War, Somalia remained under Italian administration in Italy, but as a trust territory and independence scheduled for 1960. Indeed, on July 1, this year, the former Italian Somaliland became independent. 100

Thus ended, in Africa, the colonial action in Italy, always jealous of further expansion and political power. 5 - The Spanish colonization: The Spanish colonization in Africa did not had the scope of the action taken by Spain in America. Also the character of militarism that characterized its colonial activity in South America was not so pronounced in Africa. Recently, the promise of independence for Guinea gave to many people the idea that Spain has radically changed its colonial policy. However, autonomy is not something but administrative decentralization, so peculiar to the Portuguese system.
ATTACKS ON THE PORTUGUESE OVERSEAS

Attacks on the Portuguese overseas: The attacks on the lands discovered by the Portuguese are part of a procedure we call History. Already in 1506 did the Portuguese saw to be operated the first attack on the Lands of Santa Cruz, a procedure which is continued through the XVI Century and reached great intensity after the reunion of the Iberian crowns in the person of Philip II. England claiming that Portugal had been annexed to Spain, took advantage of circumstances and began a systematic campaign against the Portuguese territories overseas. The Anglo-Lusitanian Alliance, according to the reasoning of the English hierarchical domes of the time, had ceased to be valid because Portugal had lost its independence and, therefore, England's attacks were not directed against Portugal but against Spain. So after the 1st of December 1640, when king John IV sent ambassadors to friendly nations, the great obstacle raised in London against the recognition of the independence of Portugal resided precisely in the transfer of the lands which the British had gained during the Philippine government. Only when the Portuguese ambassador withdrew this clause the independence was recognized! Admiration? Yes, admiration for Portugal over the centuries, had remained coherent with the arrangements and treaties, although this represents losses, sacrifices, sacred homeland invasion by foreign troops, for example, in 1806 when the Napoleonic invasions. Portugal also in relation to these political circumstances, was governed by a hierarchical scale of values, which subordinate the matter values to the spirit values. Admiration? No! How did England managed to put together their vast empire, which culminated in the Victorian era, in the XIX Century? Was it by ''winning wars and dangerous hard-working?'' Answer: No! If England 101

didn't discover any new lands at all how was it possible to build such an empire? Intent of England on the following territories : 1 - The territories of Molembo, Cabinda and Ambriz; 2 - The island of Bolama. 3 - The Bay of Lourenço Marques. The claiming process is the same: British warships show up in target places object of the English pretensions; treaties with the native chiefs are made; the English banner is put to fly on land and acts of sovereignty are practice. It follows the diplomatic arguments: Portugal had abandoned the territory; on the other hand, Portugal practice slavery on those territories. 1 – The Molembo, Cabinda and Ambriz cases: The Portuguese government has found that there was no permanent authority in the territory; time to time, a cruiser, surrounded waters, in a sovereignty mission. En suite, an occupation military expedition is sent on land, on May 15, 1855, by the Portuguese. Britain protested vehemently. It begins thus a hot diplomatic dispute. England eventually recognizes the Portuguese authority, admitting the points invoked by Portugal, which are: 1 - Priority in discovery; 2 - Possession for centuries; 3 - Introduction of civilization by Catholicism; 4 - Conquest by arms; 5 - Recognition of the Portuguese government's by the Indian chiefs. The island of Bolama case: England wished to draw to itself the possession of the island of Bolama, founded in its purchase, made in 1792, to the region's ruler (from Canabac). Portugal neither obeys revindication and takes over the island by militarily means (1830). Britain protests and hostilities are lit up. Britain, in 1860, simply incorporates Bolama in the colony of Sierra Leone. Portugal protested and, given the impossibility of an immediate understanding between both parties, they resort to international arbitration. This is entrusted to the satisfaction of both parties in dispute, to the President of the United States of America, Ulysses Grant. The conclusions of the memorandum of 1860, displays the reasons of the Government of Portugal versus the English: 'The evidence of Portugal to the property and sovereignty of the island, its solemn take over in 1753, without the slightest opposition, and the actual and effective occupation since 1830. 102

The titles of Britain were the purchase of the island in 1792, to whom had no authority to sell at all, purchase followed by abandonment of that territory in 1793 and acts of aggression and devastation committed from 1838 onwards, against the Portuguese colony established there since 1830, acts that in vain the British intended to qualify as acts of possession '. The sentence was handed down on April 21, 1830, giving full reason to Portugal. The reasons for the decision are: 1 – Discovery; 2 - Occupation prior to 1792 (Bissau) and, subsequently, the coast line until Guimalaia; 3 - The island of Bolama is adjacent to the coast claimed and occupied from 1792, by Portugal. The Portuguese had established a settlement there and resisted the English attacks and hostilities. The Bay of Lorenzo Marques case: England relied, to require the possession of the Bay, in the acts of sovereignty practised from 1823 to 1825, by Captain Owen: treaty with the chiefs; flag hoisting, the site of the fortress-prison. In 1860 the Mozambican authorities were notified by the English authorities, for the possession of the territory. The following year England demand effect to the possession with the argument for the abolition of slavery trafficking. In 1869, Portugal and the Transvaal Republic conclude a treaty under which the latter recognized the Lusitanian area on the Bay. England, once again protested diplomatically. Two years later (1871) resort to arbitration by the President of France, Marshal Mac-Mahon. The ruling given on 24 July 1875, was again in favour of Portugal. The arguments put forward by Portugal were: 1 – Discovery; 2 - Occupation and effective possession; 3 - Being the Bay area for access to the Portuguese territories; 4 - Donation from territory lords, in some cases, and recognition of our authority, among other, from the countries of Europe and England itself. Out of curiosity, and finally, we reproduce a step from the report of the Portuguese ambassador in London, Count of Lavradio, concerning discussions with Lord Russell, English Foreign Minister, February 21, 1862: 'The British government knows that Portugal, by its location and 103

other circumstances well known, is an isolated state, whose solely ally is Britain, and this last, taking advantage of these circumstances, the superiority of its military and trusting the Portuguese would not give notice to the other countries of the world as oppressive alliance exercises over the Portuguese real tyranny, a genre that I know of other examples in history of nations. But in this world everything has a term, and if one day Europe knows the history of the alliance of Portugal with England, they will be admire by the patience of the Portuguese and will horrify by the abuse coming from the England counter-part. The of Count Lavradio also declared having personally said to Lord Russell, before the conversation ended: 'J'aime et j'admire l'Angleterre mais quand j'examine sa conduit envers le Portugal, mon admiration et mon amour se convertissent en haine '., meaning, 'I love and admire England but when I examine its behaviour towards Portugal my love and admiration are tranformed in hate.' The myth of the black people inferiority: The study of the African character has been constantly undermined by the fact that the vast majority of European observers transport with them the prejudice that the values of our civilization are absolute standards and the conviction that the absence of such values characterizes the pure animality. This bias is, in itself an obstacle to good understanding of what is being studied. In the case of evaluating the qualities of the black African people, is not strictly logical to measure them by our canons, hoping the natives get impressed as we do facing the same facts and are subordinate to the same scale of values, both moral and material. What we do often is to compare black people with us, taking as a background chosen for comparison, certain qualities, sometimes arbitrary and not impartial. After that, we require those qualities to manifest themselves in the same way they manifest among us and therefore show the same aspects. In the relatively recent past, 'tests' were carried in some countries, designed to compare the natives intelligence with the European one. Many of these 'tests' have been criticized as excessively partial and ill-chosen, often focusing on issues that does not equal experience of both races. Once there was a certain vogue and still it's not completely extinguished the statement that black people were like big children. This statement expresses one of those misconceptions that has been said and 104

accepted without critical reflection, and forcibly by being repeated was taken as a sure forum that is not to be ever discussed. Today, thanks to much greater contact between white and black people, those began, in ever greater numbers, to question the old concept, which is nothing more than a symbol of misunderstanding tough and dogged, but that, in any case, tends to disappear with no doubt. The reason that takes a superficial observer to consider the mentality of the African as equivalent to the European child, lies, as already hinted, in the fact that black people are somewhat refractory to the knowledge of the prestige of the capital values of our civilization. If the native despise lobar and money in many cases leave him indifferent, and superstition and unbelief replaces the calculated reason, it seems reasonable, for some people, to consider him as a child who does not yet understand what he likes. Now, all this things that had been attributed to black people, has an explanation that we will attempt to present in a very abbreviated way. The fact that the native does not die of love for Labour, we have no doubt; but it is fair to acknowledge that the major stimulus that leads to work is the existence of needs to be met, which the African lack . That this is well proved by the fact that all those Africans who have assimilated our civilization, to whom we have managed to create needs, we see them working. Moreover, as for the preceding reason, the African has not had regular habits of work, it is necessary that work is presented to them in an attractive appearance as much as possible. Finally, we must not forget that the climate is not conducive to violent efforts, and that the health of native finds himself, as a rule, greatly diminished by disease. The indifference of some black people for money, has also as well the lack of needs cited above, and in some cases, the condition of never having possessed it in sufficient quantity to buy some items that attract more of his attention. The indigenous black people that have reasonably paid jobs (carpenter, mason, sawyer, etc..) have an attachment to money other than black people farming the land, obviously have. The reason for this is not the difference in rates of civilization but in the great inequality of wages of them both. The first one gets enough money to buy some things that he enjoys and that makes him to give importance to money. The other, who wages not so much, fails to realize its value, and the 105

little they have, they spent it anyway, if they don't lose it by ants attack. Of course the difference between two indigenous civilization, that in the beginning was almost non-existent, will over time be increasing, because, while the first progresses, provided they can acquire, every time more new needs, the latter remains stationary. The aversion of the least developed African, through work, and his indifference for money, we can mitigate by using some imagination and justice, and what has already been achieved is the full assurance that the problem is not insoluble. Black men sincerely admire some of the Europeans accomplishments, although there are aspects of their life that excite them less. They will participate in the civilization game as they grow their confidence in white men, and that confidence will be achieved through a policy of understanding. The question that black people is improvident remains a fact, but one should not exaggerate its significance. It should be noted that black men don't suffer from many of the terrors of civilized men, who, more than anything else, require this last to be prescient. Black African people, don't fear unemployment, no bankruptcy, situations that they ignore at all. They don't worry about their children's education, with housing problems and sometimes even clothes. Only, truly, they fear lack of food, and it is through this aspect that we can put the question of foresight. For a long time was said that it was very easy for black men to get food and the famines, that often plague and so devastating tropical Africa, were the inconceivable result of short-sightedness and laziness of black people. Today, however, we are no longer so sure of this statement ... Finally, what about the superstitions of Africa? First of all they are very poorly known. From the psychological point of view, we and black people live in different worlds. Some plays that seem low superstition have a meaning that eludes us. We simply don't cease to try to explain them and for this we interpret them our way. No doubt superstition and magical practice frequently exist and exert considerable upward pressure on the native life which should not surprise us, once witches and vidents still govern well their life in the most civilized capitals of Europe. The necessity of wonder which makes the African a believer, born of an illdefined dissatisfaction that is common to all men and all races. So, the 106

ardent imagination of Black men can not be taken as a sign of inferiority. However, we draw attention to a fact that can be proved by anyone who has dealt closely with the traditional African societies: it is rare to find a town where old people don't leave us surprised by his physical poise and his lofty dignity. It can be seen without effort that the men feel respected and believe in the value of their experience. As they look so confident and with serenity, we put in doubt that they have ever live their lives tormented by the horror of the most unwise superstitions. * I - Anthropologists may establish a racial classification just when based on physical and physiological characters. II - In the current state of knowledge, no one can prove the basis for the argument that human groups differ from each other by psychologically innate traits, whether of intelligence or temperament. The investigation shows that the level of mental skills is much the same in all ethnic groups. III - The historical and sociological studies corroborate the view that genetic differences are unimportant in determining the social and cultural differences in the middle of different groups were, overall, independent of changes in its inherited constitution. There happened significant social changes that do not agree at all with changes in racial type. IV - There is no evidence that miscegenation, by itself, produce bad results on the biological level. In social terms, the good or bad results, which it leads to, are due to social factors. V - Any normal individual is able to participate in common life, to understand the nature of reciprocal duties and to respect the obligations and mutual commitments. Biological differences that exist between members of different ethnic groups do not affect in any way the social or political organization, moral life and social relationships. Man is by nature a social being who does not achieve the full development of his personality, but through exchanges with his peers. Any refusal to recognize this social bond among men is the cause of disintegration. It is in this sense that every man is his brother's keeper. Every human being is not more than one portion of humanity, to which he is inextricably linked. 107 Observation and intelligence: The black Africans have a

remarkable spirit of observation and demonstrate it every day with the gracious and appropriated nicknames that they put to the Europeans that deal with them. Nobody escapes being recognized by a special name (nickname) that could be due to any physical defect, sometimes almost unperceived, or some peculiarity of character. And nobody can change that name because it will work in vain. Black people argue sometimes in strange and picturesque way, but it's always worth to carefully follow their reasoning, so one should not forget that their instinct, once they live so close to Nature, is their most valuable guide. Black people are of an amazing loquacity, live telling stories to one each other and enjoy freedom. The best way to make understand an African, even if he is a peasant, some story, is by using the process of making comparisons with things, people or events, from the environment that surrounds him, a process commonly called 'examples of everyday life'. Using expressions and suitable images, there's no narration that black people does not understand. Sense of justice: No European that has ever been in Africa denies the indigenous having a marked sense of justice. In fact black people are for justice, even when it brings losses. And never an European loses so much his importance than when practising as an unjust act. Black people is not at all resentful if ever he is rightly punished, but their grief is huge if they suffer some penalty, however minimal, in the conditions that they, in our language, mean to punish for nothing. And there's nothing more valuable to an African than the discussion of a court of law issue, be it great or small importance. You see him take an exceptional warmth and enthusiasm when dealing with very simple cases like the theft of a chicken. We assume that the material value of the question, interest them less rather than a triumphant principle of justice itself. In defence of their reasons, black people give a so copious eloquence that it will not be easily stopped. But there is no doubt that the processes they use to support their cause are usually right inside the edge of decency. In the discussion of any gentile matter, the native readily admits the truth against even their interests. The Africans' sense of justice is manifested in two ways, because not only they wish that innocence is recognized as also hate that the guilty one be left unpunished. 108 Excessive benevolence is not appreciated by them, even deserving

censure, because excess of benevolence is simply regarded as weakness. The feeling of solidarity among members on traditional societies: Several common examples in very varied regions of Bantu Africa can demonstrate that the native has quite developed the sense of solidarity. In this respect there is no danger of exaggerating if we say that in traditional communities their members are bound by ties much closer than those between members of civilized communities. We can see a clear manifestation of solidarity, by observing the natives helping each other in some farming operations. It is common that when wanting to prepare their ground or sow it, or cropping up lands, the African farmer invite his neighbours and friends to help him. The pretext is, sometimes, just enjoying a few drinks prepared by the developer ... And singing, eating, drinking and drumming, they do all their work in the certainty that, days later, similar works will be held to benefit those who helped before. Does hospitality exists in a more impressive way than in traditional Africa? Answer: There the native does not need to know who he's holding under the roof of their hut. A stranger comes in and, after a few words, is invited to rest and feed. This happens everywhere and with everyone so black African people don't not need to have money for sightseeing or touristing ... He is a tireless traveller who is always visiting his relatives and friends in the intervals of their agricultural labours. But when these friends live in remote areas, he does not bother to establish any steps in the homes of strangers and so on making new relationships. They unite with ease when it comes to making a hunt at any beast that has dogged the region, although not always with success given the meagre resources available to them. Help with promptness in repairing the harm caused by any calamity. The informer is rare among Africans, because they generally prefer to be punished for having a companion report, unless the fault is considered as repulsive by their usage. Caring for children and respect for old people: all the Africans detractors should see the way they treat their children and the elderly. One fact that just struck us later, but that really surprised us, was that, taking into consideration years of contact with the native masses, we never saw them beat a black child. Indigenous women we have seen, once or twice, a little abruptly pull their children, but men do not so. 109 In a constituency in Zambesia from where important numbers of

workers were hired for various agricultural enterprises in the province, some of them hundreds of miles away, where many children 8 to 12 years often showed up, asking to give them transport to accompany their parents. From the beginning we questioned the boys, asking them if they had no fear of going wrong in the workplace where their parents could not care for them, and mainly, our question was whether the parents, even in their spare time, give them the attention that as a rule, only mothers know how to lavish. The the boys' response reassured me. Parents knew very well how to treat them, as they slept and walked with them in their spare time. They looked so happy, either departing or returning, that we have just convinced us entirely. Now, if black people did not feel quite capable of dealing with their children and these were not accustomed to their parents caring, neither one or the others would have done the referred request. Besides all Europeans were living in Africa, having small children in their company, sure turned to the service of a black boy to take care of their children, and recognise with no doubt, the care and dedication and the good skill the African shows in such services. With the elderly, natives have no less attention. Everyone knows that the elders enjoy special authority in the villages. This comes from the respect with which old people are treated, not only the amount that is taken in his experience, but also for the carefulness that habitually extreme weakness that accompanies ageing inspires. It is common that in rural lands from Portugal and in Europe, the elder are treated as 'uncle'. Africans use a form of treatment that is more caring treating the elder by 'father'. What better proof of goodness and nobility of certain feelings that we want from an ethnic that in such a way treat their children and the elderly, so, the weakest members of society? We could cite more qualities that commonly contribute in Africa and among them we recall how joyful the Africans are and how very easily they communicate with the Europeans. All that was said means that the elements of traditional African societies do have no faults? Obviously not. The qualities we have outlined are mixed with the defects that they have, the same way it happens in the more civilized societies. After all, humanity has everywhere the same sensibility, both in their magnitude and in their miseries. .............................................................................................................. 110 The island of Ghoa was divided into villages whose inhabitants had

no private land, owning just common land, prevailing a system of administration which included the distribution of costs and profits of the farm. The social organization was comprised of gão-cárias, councils and communities. Gão-cária, from the etymon word Gao meaning (village) and Cária (administration), belong to the the natives. The Councils were used between 1500 and 1542. The Communities were introduced by the Jesuits. The gão-cares (the villagers), were responsible for the administration. Families who could vote were called Vangores. The Tax was called Khushi-vrata (voluntary contribution). The staff and artists were paid by gão-cares, among whom were the village chiefs, the clerk, the guard, the Brahmin, the carpenter, the potter, the fuller, the goldsmith, the physician, the poet, the musician, and the dancer. Rents were collected by a Tanadar. The rules governing the administration of these populations were compiled in the 'Provincial Habits and Customs' book from Alfonso de Mexia in 1526. The African family is composed by a simple aggregation of families and has a very different organization from ours. Each individual is yrats by 'father' all his mother's brothers, wherever people is subject to the uterine line system. In contrast, the 'father' will also be each one of the father's brothers. These extended families live at a considerable distance from each other and so their kids always keep next to their homes. The whole family lives in community of property. Even people with a long stay in Africa are often unaware of these features. We didn't address the African and it was thought, by contrast, it was possible to bring him to us. Also ethnologists studying the African family and community just surprised to find communities with no bosses! Until 1940 these companies were never mentioned ... ''A few years ago I was approached by an African who came to complain about a decision of the administrative authority of its location, about a matter concerning him. It happened that a family member headed by the claimant died of disaster in the mines of the Transvaal and the compensation paid by the employer was given to the decease's wife, this, against the plaintiff's opinion, despite his vehement protest. 111 This man, assuming that the family organization was known to us,

he argued simply: I lost my son, who helped me a lot, if I have not the money that was paid for his death, how will I sustain my family and its elderly? Actually this African was right. The extended family lives in a regime of community of property, being the family's head the family administrator. The valid members are required to work for the community. In return this will protect them when they are hit by illness and disability. For that reason the beggar in the African hinterland is something that doesn't exist. Women can not manage the property, and the one in this case, handed the money from her original family. She can, in sequence, to refuse to marry any of his relatives when she arrives at her estate where she lived when she was single. As it so, happened, there should be a lobola refund - amount paid by the groom's family to the bride, in the act of marriage - but it is understood the pleasure with which the head of the woman's family would pay two thousand ecus when he improperly received nineteen thousand. In ethnic groups, each individual does not inherit from his father but of his maternal uncle. I still have in memory the image of large baobab trees whose trunks were positioned along the long stairs. The natives exploiting the fact that the wood from those trees to be quite soft and easy to work, drew the inside of the stems, operating up and down from a height of ten meters to the ground, thereby achieving large water tanks whose capacity exceeded ten cubic meters. When it rained, they picked up a liquid from the incredibly muddy puddles and poured it in the dug trunks, having, to do this, to painfully climb the stairs. After a few days the mud deposited on the bottom and the liquid was a little thinner.'' Outline of education in the province of Macau: A) school Occupation: The province has Macau the following schools: A school, a seminary high and low, an industrial school, 12 schools Arts & Crafts, 1 nursing school, a school practice of telecommunications, 205 primary schools and child care. B) Degrees and areas of education, courses and qualifications: a) Primary education in national and foreign plot. b) Vocational Education Elementary Arts and Crafts for primary education and professional certification in carpentry, woodworking, 112 blacksmithing, tailoring, shoemaking and training women. Teaching staff

training for public service with technical expertise of professional qualification in postal telegraph operator, radio operator, mechanic electrician, nurse and midwife. Secondary education secondary school, the official plan, as in other provinces. e) Secondary Technical Schools, for qualification and specialization courses and in the following categories: Commercial: General Commercial, Industrial, mechanical fitter, and sections targeted at the industrial institutes and schools of painting and sculpture and fine arts. f) Teaching Ecclesiastic for training Catholic priests. In Macau exists for primary schools for nationals, called teaching with its own plan, and foreign teaching for foreign populations. Students of Macau benefit, as any others, from a scholarship bursary system and travels either in the overseas Province and in Metropolis. In 1963 they embarked for Hangonia 4529 settlers in the settlement system of subsidized or facilitated, resulting in a charge of around 12,000,000 ecus, this sum entirely covered by the Metropolis' budget. Some are called to be with their families settled there, others were developing their business, called by reputable employers and job security certificate. Before entering the utterance of some examples of the Portuguese Directed Colonization is due duty of eternal respect and admiration upon the work of free colonization carried out. They have real relevance, the core Cahcuso where the main business is tobacco and agricultural products. The core of Chicuhma based on coffee and livestock. The core of Cathofe, livestock based. In Huila, Humpata and Palanca cereal based, in Angola. The core of Chimoio with agricultural base in Mozambique. The core of Cacuso and Chimuca where rich agriculture is practice, and where the farmer prospers. However, in Catofe, the daily milk production is operated by primitive and deficient methods. In Palanca Humpata, income derived from any culture are very low given the soil's nature, so, the European population established there is poor and socially and culturally backward, all motivated by the lack of technical assistance, guidance and exploration coupled with shaky markets . With regard to colonisation, the settlements of Cunene, and Cela Limpopo based on family business self-sufficient in lobar. The settlements of Revué and Bengo, where the settler has to rely on indigenous labour, from that extension of that area. In the settlement of Revue they cultivate and prepare tobacco, corn, rapeseed and Keraf. 113 State intervention in the rural reorganization entails among other

things: 1 - Measures needed to enhance the education of populations, in view of their professional education, especially in the agricultural aspect. 2 - Action in order to stimulate the interest of people at work, in order to form the largest possible number of eligible owners and farm workers. 3 - Efforts aimed the population centres to be located in convenient and easy access places and good sanitary conditions, especially tending to approach fertile land to the fittest.

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114 About the Autor

David Manuel Pais was born in Portugal in 1950. He frequented the University of Coimbra where he obtained a degree in Science in 1975. Later, in 1980, he started working as a Secondary Teacher until the year 2000 but had to immigrate to England in 2002. In England he took several jobs including those of a factory worker. He went to Scotland where he frequented a 'Returning to Teaching Course' in 2004. Back in England, he worked as a 'General Cover Supply Teacher' for Select Education, in several Secondary Schools scattered around Cambridge area, ( Suffolk and Norfolk ), such us, PARK HIGH ACADEMY in King's Lynn, THURSTON
COMMUNITY COLLEGE, NEWMARKET COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE ARTS AND SCIENCE SCHOOL, ORTON LONGVILLE COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOL, COMBERTON VILLAGE COLLEGE, DOWNHAM MARKET HIGH SCHOOL, BURY ST EDMUNDS UPPER SCHOOL, KENSTIMPSON HIGH SCHOOL.

His work is based on History, Fiction and Fantasy. Some of his books written in English Language: History of Portugal ( History ) Planet Blue ( Soft Science Fiction ) The Mistery of the House of Paisher ( Fiction ) Not English Tales ( Fiction ) He actually lives in England.

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