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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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. ultimate source of the dynamic stresses which lead to accretion: magnetic elds Fluid equations Continuity (vi ) + =0 t xi Momentum pij G (vi ) + (vi vj ) = t xj xj xi ij G p + = xi xj xi ij : viscous stress tensor dimension of kinetic viscosity = length velocity. (1)

(2)

Turbulent viscosity t lt vt lt : appropriate turbulent length scale. vt : appropriate turbulent velocity scale. Kinematic viscosity Dynamic viscosity Molecular viscosity Viscous dissipation (5)

1. Continuity

vi + =0 t xi Momentum vi vi vj + t xj pij G xj xj p ij G = + xj xj xj =

(6)

(7)

ij : viscous tensor

1.1. 2.

Viscosity

0 vt : turbulent velocity in the largest eddy of size L0

L0 0 vt

(8)

2/3

(9)

Velocity relation: arbitrary eddy vs. largest eddy Volume rate of eddie energy dissipation with eddie turnover time: (energy per unit time per unit volume.)

0 0 1 (vt )2 1 (vt )3 t 0 2 (L0 /vt ) 2 (L0 ) 1 (vt )3 2 (L)

The volume rate of energy dissipation is constant all over the uid.

0 1 (vt )3 1 (vt )3 2 (L) 2 (L0 )

vt

0 vt

L L0

2/3

(11)

Energy dissipation

Energy dissipation: ij vi,j vt L [coecients of viscosity have the same order of magnitude] ij 2Sij + vk,k ij (12)

0 vt L0

vt L

0 vt L0

L L0

4/3

(13)

L L0

4/3

0 1 (vt )3 2 (L)

(14)

4/3

1 Rt

(15)

1 TKE =< v 2 > 2 Equation for TKE Step 1: Scalar product of velocity and momentum equations Step 2: Use continuity equation to get 1 v 2 form 2 Step 3: Averaging [Averaged energy equation] Step 4: Scalar product of velocity and averaged momentum equations [eqn2] Step 5: Averaged energy equation - eqn2

(16)

1 < v 2 > t 2

1 1 < v 2 > vj + < v 2 vi > xj 2 2 p ij = < vi > + < vi > < vi vj > vi,j xi xi +

(17) (18)

1 v 2 : 2

TKE

< vi vj > vi : Rate of work dony by turbulent stresses on mean velocity < 1 v 2 >: Flux of TKE due to mean velocity 2 < 1 v 2 vi >: Turbulent ux of TKE 2

p < vi xi > + < vi xij >: Work done by pressure and viscous stresses on turbulent i

Index continuity, 2 dynamic viscosity, 2 eddie kinetic energy density, 3 eddie turnover time, 3 energy dissipation, 3 Equation for TKE, 4 uid equations, 1 kinematic viscosity, 2 molecular viscosity, 2 momentum, 2 reynolds number, 1 turbulent kinetic energy, 4 turbulent viscosity, 2 velocity relation: arbitrary eddy vs. largest eddy, 3 viscous dissipation, 2

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