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By William D.

Hartung
with Christine Anderson
June 2012
ExEcutivE Summary
The battle over defcits and defense has focused attention on the costs of nuclear weapons. Estimates of the full
costs of nuclear weapons-related activities are hotly debated, but there is no question that they will reach hundreds
of billions of dollars over the next decade.
At a time of tight budgets, there is a real possibility that some of the systems and facilities described so far could
be reduced, delayed, or cancelled outright. For example, former Vice-Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
General James Cartwright noted in July 2011, The challenge here is that we have to re-capitalize all three legs
[of the nuclear triad], and we dont have the money to do it. That same month, General Robert Kehler, the head
of U.S. Strategic Command, asserted, Were not going to be able to go forward with weapon systems that cost
what weapon systems cost today.
This report provides a profle of the nuclear weapons lobby, noting along the way that in a constrained budget-
ary environment different parts of the lobby may either collaborate to promote higher nuclear weapons spend-
ing or compete for their share of a shrinking pie.
BOMBS VERSUS BUDGETS:
INSIDE THE NUCLEAR WEAPONS LOBBY
An Ohio-Class Ballistic Missile Submarine (SSBN), slated to be replaced by a Next Generation Sub.
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KEy FindingS
ThePentagonandtheDepartmentofEnergys
NationalNuclearSecurityAdministrationare
scheduledtospendhundredsofbillionsofdollars
onnuclearweaponsprojectsoverthenextdecade
andbeyond,including$68billiontodevelopand
purchaseanewgenerationofnuclearbombers;
$347billiontopurchaseandoperate12newballis-
ticmissilesubmarines;andbillionsmoreonnew
nuclearweaponsfacilities.
Inthe2012electioncycle,thetop14nuclear
weaponscontractorsgaveatotalof$2.9million
tokeymembersofCongresswithdecisionmak-
ingpowerovernuclearweaponsspending.These
frmshavedonated$18.7milliontothesesame
membersofCongressoverthecourseoftheir
careers.
Morethanhalfofthecontributionscitedabove
wenttomembersofthefourkeysubcommittees
withjurisdictionovernuclearweaponsspending
theStrategicForcesSubcommitteesoftheArmed
ServicesCommitteesineachhouseandtheEnergy
andWaterSubcommitteesoftheAppropriations
Committeesineachhouse.Totalcontributionsby
majornuclearweaponscontractorstomembers
ofthesefoursubcommitteeshavebeenover$1.6
millioninthe2012electioncyclethusfar,and
$11.7lifetimetothesesamemembers.
Ofthe14nuclearweaponscontractorstrackedin
thisreport,LockheedMartinhasbeenthebig-
gestcontributortokeymembersofCongresswith
infuenceovernuclearweaponsspending.Sofar
duringthe2012electioncycle,LockheedMartin
hasdonated$535,000tothesekeymembers;other
majordonorsincludeHoneywellInternational,
$464,582;NorthropGrumman,$464,000;and
Boeing,$336,750.
Leadingadvocatesofhighlevelsofnuclearweap-
onsspendinghavereceivedhundredsofthousands
ofdollarsincampaigncontributionsfrommajor
nuclearweaponscontractorsinthecourseoftheir
careers.TheseadvocatesincludeHouseArmed
ServicesCommitteeChairRep.HowardP.Buck
McKeon(R-CA),withcareerreceiptsof$809,150
fromthesecompanies;Rep.MichaelTurner
(R-OH),ChairoftheStrategicForcesSubcom-
mitteeoftheHouseArmedServicesCommittee,
with$144,400incareerreceipts;andSen.Jon
Kyl(R-AZ),with$250,875incareerreceipts.
Rep.DennyRehberg(R-MT),whosponsored
Policy rEcommEndationS
rEducE thE balliStic miSSilE SubmarinE ForcE
The ballistic missile submarine force should be reduced from 12 boats to eight, with additional war-
heads carried in each boat. This would save $18 billion over the next decade while sustaining the
capability to deploy the number of warheads called for under the New START treaty.
PoStPonE nEw nuclEar bombEr PlanS
Plans for a new nuclear bomber should be shelved, at a savings of $18 billion over the next decade.
At a minimum, the bomber should not be made nuclear-capable.
cancEl thE chEmical and mEtallurgy rESEarch rEPlacEmEnt Facility
There is no circumstance under which it will be necessary to build large numbers of new plutonium
pits or triggers for nuclear warheads. Therefore, the Chemical and Metallurgy Research Replace-
ment facility at Los Alamos National Laboratories should be cancelled, at a savings of $5 billion over
the next decade.
cancEl building thE mixEd oxidE (mox) Facility
Plutonium waste from nuclear warheads can be neutralized without building the multi-billion dollar
MOX facility. It too should be cancelled, at a savings of at least $4.9 billion in construction costs over
the next twenty years.

Forgoing or slowing these projects would save $46 billion over the next two decades, and hundreds of
billions more over the prospective lifetimes of the programs.
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anamendmentdesignedtoblockfundingforthe
implementationoftheNewSTARTarmsreduction
treatywithRussiaandprotectICBMsbasedinhis
homestate,hasreceived$118,990fromnuclear
weaponscontractorsinhiscareerinCongress.
Thetopthreerecipientsofcontributionsfromma-
jornuclearweaponscontractorsintheHousefor
the2012electioncycleareHouseArmedServices
CommitteeChairHowardP.BuckMcKeon,
$257,570;Rep.NormDicks(D-WA),theRanking
DemocratontheHouseDefenseAppropriations
Subcommittee,andamajorboosterofthebuilding
ofanewbomber,$110,000;andRep.MacThorn-
berry(R-TX),amemberoftheStrategicForces
SubcommitteeoftheHouseArmedServicesCom-
mittee,$87,250.
Thetopthreerecipientsofcontributionsfromma-
jornuclearweaponscontractorsintheSenatefor
the2012electioncycleareSen.DianneFeinstein
(D-CA),ChairoftheSubcommitteeonEnergy
andWateroftheSenateAppropriationsCommittee
(thecommitteethatoverseesthenuclearwarhead
complex),$74,500;Sen.KirstenGillibrand(D-
NY),amemberoftheSubcommitteeonStrategic
ForcesoftheSenateArmedServicesCommittee,
$54,916;andSen.JonTester(D-MT)amember
oftheSubcommitteeonEnergyandWaterofthe
SenateAppropriationsCommitteeandmemberof
theSenateICBMcoalition,$53,500.
Thetop14nuclearweaponscontractorsemploy
137lobbyistswhoformerlyworkedforkeynucle-
arweaponsdecisionmakers.Themajorityofthe
revolvingdoorlobbyists96workedforkey
membersofCongressorkeyCongressionalCom-
mittees;26revolvingdoorlobbyistsworkedfor
oneofthemilitaryservices;and24revolvingdoor
lobbyistsworkedfortheDepartmentofDefenseor
theDepartmentofEnergy.Somelobbyistsworked
foroneormoreCongressionaloffcesoragencies
beforeleavinggovernment,andmanynowwork
formorethanonemajornuclearweaponscontrac-
tor.
Thereare19revolvingdoorlobbyistsworking
formajornuclearweaponscontractorswhowere
staffersformembersoftheEnergyandWater
SubcommitteeoftheSenateAppropriationsCom-
mitteethecommitteethatcontrolsspendingon
thenuclearwarheadcomplex.
introduction: thE high coSt oF nuclEar
wEaPonS
Thebattleoverdefcitsanddefensehasfocusedat-
tentiononthecostsofnuclearweapons.Estimatesof
thefullcostsofnuclearweapons-relatedactivitiesare
hotlydebated,butthereisnoquestionthattheywill
reachhundredsofbillionsofdollarsoverthenextde-
cade.StephenI.SchwartzoftheMonterreyInstitute
forInternationalStudieshascalledforthefederalgov-
ernmenttoregularlypublishestimatesofthefullcosts
ofnuclearweapons,includingresearchanddevelop-
ment(R&D),procurement,operations,andsupport
functionslikecommand,controlandcommunications.
AsSchwartzhasnoted,Theresnoeasywaytodeter-
minewhatspendingwillbegoingforward,especially
becausetherehasneverbeenanoffcial,comprehen-
sivenuclearweaponsbudget.
1

Whatwedoknowisthatthereareoffcialestimatesof
thecostsofkeyelementsofthenuclearenterprise.If
pastexperienceisanyguide,theseestimatesarelikely
togrowovertime,butatthemomenttheyinclude:
Upto100newnuclearbombersatcostofatleast
$55billion;
2

Twelvenewnuclearsubmarinesatacostof$96
billionforprocurementandresearchanddevel-
opmentand$347billioninfulllife-cyclecosts
(includingoperationsandmaintenance)overthe
nextfvedecades;
3

Newnuclearwarhead-relatedfacilities,including
locationsfortheproductionofuranium,plutoni-
um,andnon-nuclearcomponents,atanestimated
costofwellover$13billion;
4

AfacilityfortheproductionofMixedOxide
(MOX),apotentialfuelfornuclearpowerplants
basedonexcessplutoniumgeneratedbythe
nuclearwarheadprogram,ataconstructioncostof
atleast$4.9billion.
5

Thisisnotanexhaustivelist.Otheritemsslatedfor
developmentbythePentagonandtheDepartmentof
EnergysNationalNuclearSecurityAdministration
(theagencychargedwithoverseeingthenuclearweap-
onscomplex)includeLifeExtensionPrograms(LEPs)
forexistingnuclearwarheads;possibleupgradesor
replacementsforexistingland-basedIntercontinental
BallisticMissiles(ICBMs);thepossibledevelopment
ofanewgenerationofnuclear-armedAir-Launched
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CruiseMissiles(ALCMS);andtheadaptationofsome
JointStrikeFighterstocarrynuclearweapons.An-
othermajorcostofnuclearweaponsdevelopmentand
maintenanceisenvironmentalcleanup,whichisesti-
matedtocosthundredsofbillionsofdollarsbasedon
pastandongoingactivitieswithinthenuclearwarhead
complex.
6

Atatimeoftightbudgets,thereisarealpossibility
thatsomeofthesystemsandfacilitiesdescribedsofar
couldbereduced,delayed,orcancelledoutright.For
example,formerVice-ChairmanoftheJointChiefs
ofStaffGeneralJamesCartwrightnotedinJuly2011
thechallengehereisthatwehavetore-capitalizeall
threelegs[ofthenucleartriad],andwedonthavethe
moneytodoit.Thatsamemonth,GeneralRobert
Kehler,theheadofU.S.StrategicCommand,asserted
werenotgoingtobeabletogoforwardwithweapon
systemsthatcostwhatweaponsystemscosttoday.
7

Anyefforttodownsizethenationsnuclearforceis
likelytobemetwithferceoppositionfromtheindi-
vidualsandinstitutionsthatbeneftfromthenuclear
statusquo,includingcorporationsinvolvedindesign-
ingandbuildingnucleardeliveryvehicles;companies
thatoperatenuclearwarhead-relatedfacilities;and
membersofCongresswithnuclearweapons-related
facilitiesordeploymentsintheirstatesordistricts.
TheObamaadministrationsFY2013budgetproposal
hasalreadysparkedanumberofmajorfghtsover
nuclearweaponsspending.Majorpointsofcontention
includewhethertofundanewfacilitydesignedtoin-
creasecapacityfortheproductionofplutoniumcom-
ponentsfornuclearwarheadsandwhethertodelay
productionofthefrstnext-generationballisticmis-
silesubmarine.Inaddition,HouseRepublicans,led
byRep.MichaelB.Turner(R-OH),chairmanofthe
HouseArmedServicesCommitteeStrategicForces
Subcommittee,haveintroducedlegislationaimedat
blockingimplementationoftheNewSTARTtreatyif
theadministrationdoesnotadheretonuclearweap-
onsspendingpledgesmadeinthecontextofthe2010
treatydebate.Supportersoftheadministrationhave
notedthatthosespendingpledgesweremadepriorto
thepassageoftheBudgetControlActinthesummer
of2011,andthatthepointisnottospendaguaranteed
amountbutrathertospendenoughtoensurethatthe
U.S.nucleararsenalremainssafe,effectiveandreli-
able.
8
Inarelatedmatter,inmid-MayRep.Denny
Rehberg(R-MT),whosestatehas150Intercontinental
BallisticMissiles(ICBMs)basedthere,atMaelstrom
AirForceBaseintroducedanamendmentdesigned
topreventtheObamaadministrationfromspending
fundstoimplementtheNewSTARTarmsreduc-
tionsortoeliminatealegofthenucleartriad.Rep.
RehbergspressreleasecelebratingHousepassageof
theamendmentsuggeststhatporkbarrelpoliticsmay
haveplayedalargerroleinhisthinkingthannuclear
strategy:RehbergAmendmenttoProtectMalmstrom
andStopNewSTARTPassesHouse.
9

Theultimatedecisionsonhowmuchtospendon
nuclearweaponsshouldbemadebasedonwhatis
neededtodefendthecountry,notontheimpactof
thatspendingoncertaincompaniesorCongressional
districts.And,asisappropriate,muchofthedebate
onwhethertocutthenucleararsenalwillcenteron
strategicarguments.Butmakingsensiblecutsinthe
U.S.nucleararsenalwillalsorequirepolicymakersto
takeonthemoney,powerandinfuenceofthenuclear
weaponslobby.
Thisreportprovidesaprofleofthenuclearweapons
lobby,notingalongthewaythatinaconstrainedbud-
getaryenvironmentdifferentpartsofthelobbymay
eithercollaboratetopromotehighernuclearweapons
spendingorcompetefortheirshareofashrinkingpie.
who bEnEFitS From nuclEar wEaPonS
SPEnding: thE corPoratE connEction
Ahandfulofcompaniesaretheprimarybenefciaries
ofnuclearweaponsspending,backedupbyanexten-
sivenetworkofsubcontractors.Thekeyplayersare
identifedbelow,organizedaccordingtothesystemor
facilitywithwhichtheyaremostinvolved.
The Bomber Complex
ThissectorisdominatedbyBoeing,NorthropGrum-
man,andLockheedMartin,eachofwhichwouldbe
acandidatetoserveasprimecontractorforanew
bomber.
10

Boeingisamajorairframeproducer,buildingorup-
gradingeverythingfrombomberstofghterplanesto
tankeraircrafttocommercialairliners.Itdesignedand
builttheB-52,andinthe1990sitboughtRockwellIn-
ternational,thecompanythatwastheprimecontractor
fortheB-1bomberduringtheaircraftspeakproduc-
tionyearsinthe1980s.
NorthropGrummanistheproduceroftheB-2stealth
bomber,amainstayofthebombingcampaignsinIraq
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andAfghanistanthatwasproducedinrelativelysmall
numbers(21planesinall)duringthe1990sandisthe
youngestaircraftinthecurrentbomberfeet.
LockheedMartinhasbeenasubcontractoronmajor
bomberprograms,butitsmainworkintheaircraft
sectorhasbeenastheproducerofmajorfghterplanes
liketheF-16,F-22(withBoeingasamajorsubcon-
tractor),andthelatestgenerationfghter,theF-35
JointStrikeFighter(withNorthropGrummanasa
majorsubcontractor).
Otherpossiblebenefciariesofanewbomberprogram
arethecountrystwomakersofaircraftengines,Gen-
eralElectricandPratt&Whitney(adivisionofUnited
Technologies).GeneralElectricproducedtheengines
forthetwomostrecentbombers,theB-1andtheB-2,
whiletheolderB-52runsonPratt&Whitneyengines.
Becauseofthelimitednumberofaircraftbeingbuilt
bytheU.S.militaryinrecentyears,thefrmstendto
compete,notcooperate.
ThemostrecentexampleofthiswasGEslongbattle
toforcethePentagontoprocureasecondenginefor
theJointStrikeFighter,themainU.S.combataircraft
ofthenextgeneration.ThefghtinCongresspitted
theConnecticutdelegation(Pratt&Whitney)versus
theMassachusettsandOhiodelegations(General
Electric).AfteryearsofpoliticalwranglingtheObama
administrationandtheCongressfnallykilledtheGE
secondengineprojectin2011,butnotbeforeeach
frmhadspentmillionsincampaigncontributionsand
advertisingonbehalfofitssystem.
11
Submarine Production
Currentplanscallfortheprocurementof12newbal-
listicmissilesubmarinesbetweennowand2033.
12

DesignworkonthesubswillbedoneatGeneralDy-
namicsElectricBoatfacilityinGroton,Connecticut,
withHuntingtonIngallsIndustriesNewportNews,
Virginiashipbuildingfacilityservingasamajorsub-
contractor.Itislikelythattheprimecontractforcon-
structionofthesubmarineswillbeawardedtoElectric
Boataswell.Thetwocompaniesrelationshiponthe
ballisticmissilesubmarineprogramisdescribedin
HuntingtonIngallsmostrecentannualreport,which
notesthatthecompanywillperform,throughan
agreementwithElectricBoat,asdesignsubcontractor
fortheSSBN(X)Ohio-classreplacementboats.The
reportfurthernotesthatAlthoughthecontractisnot
yetnegotiated,weexpecttoparticipateinthedesign
effort,andwebelieveourexperienceandqualifed
workforcepositionusforapotentialroleinthecon-
structioneffort.
13
AnothermajorbenefciaryofanewSSBNwouldbe
thecompanythatwilldevelopthenuclearreactor
thatpowerstheship.TheU.S.governmentsnaval
nuclearreactorprogramiscarriedoutbytwolabora-
toriesthatarerunfortheU.S.DepartmentofEnergy
(DOE)byBechtelMarinePropulsion.Thefrstlab
isKnollsAtomicLaboratory,whichhasmajorfacili-
tiesinNiskayunaandWestMilton,NewYork.The
Knollswebsiteindicatesthatitdesignstheworlds
mosttechnologicallyadvancednuclearreactorplants
forU.S.Navysubmarines.
14
Bechtelalsorunsthe
DOEsBettisAtomicLaboratoryinPittsburgh,Penn-
sylvania,whichisinvolvedinresearch,design,testing
andmaintenanceofnavalnuclearreactorsandhas
additionalfacilitiesinCharleston,SouthCarolinaand
IdahoFalls,Idaho.
15

Thesubmarineindustrystradeassociation,TheSub-
marineIndustrialBaseCouncil(SIBC),claimsthat
thereare5,000U.S.companiesthatprovidecriti-
calmaterialsfortheVirginia-classsubmarine.
16
It
shouldbenotedthatthecouncilisastrongadvocateof
buildingmoresubmarines,soitsfguresonthenum-
berofcompaniesinvolvedshouldbeviewedskepti-
cally.Nosimilarestimates,howeverexaggeratedthey
maybe,arecurrentlyavailableforballisticmissile
submarines,butpresumablyanewSSBNprogram
woulddrawonasimilarsupplierbase.TheSIBCwill
bedescribedinmoredetailbelow.
The Nuclear-Capable F-35 Joint Strike Fighter
TheUnitedStatescurrentlyhasabout200tactical
(short-range)nuclearweaponsinEurope.Planscall
foradaptinganumberofF-35JointStrikeFighters
tomakethemcapableofcarryingtheseweapons,at
acostcurrentlyestimatedatabout$340million.
17

LockheedMartinistheprimecontractorontheF-35.
Other Delivery Vehicles
Thereareothernucleardeliveryvehiclesthatarenot
currentlyscheduledforreplacement,includingthe
nuclearversionoftheAir-LaunchedCruiseMissile
(ALCM);theMinutemanIntercontinentalBallistic
Missile(ICBM);andtheTridentSubmarineLaunched
BallisticMissile.Whetherornotnewsystemsare
produced,therewillbealobbyingbattleoverkeeping
themintheforce.Forexample,thereisanICBMco-
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alitionbuiltaroundsenatorsfromMontana,Wyoming
andNorthDakota,wherethenations450Minuteman
IIIICBMsarebased.
18
ThetwoSenatorsfromUtah
arealsomembers,basedinpartonsignifcantICBM
maintenanceandproductionworkintheirstate(see
morebelow).Thesedeploymentscouldbeindangerif
therewereamovetoreducethecurrentnuclearforce
ofbombers,nuclearsubmarinesandICBMsfroma
triadtoadyad,apossibilitythatmaycomeinto
playduetocostissues.
thE nuclEar wEaPonS comPlEx
Thissector,whichdealswithnuclearwarheads,is
administeredbytheDepartmentofEnergysNational
NuclearSecurityAdministration(NNSA).Eachmajor
facilityismanagedbyoneormoreinstitutions,rang-
ingfromtheUniversityofCaliforniasystemtoBab-
cockandWilcoxtoLockheedMartin.Thecompanies
involvedinrunningmajorfacilitieswithinthecom-
plexarelistedbelow,organizedbyfacility.
Chemical and Metallurgy Research Replacement
Nuclear Facility (CMRR-NF)
Theprimarypurposeofthisfacility,basedinNew
MexicoatLosAlamosNationalLaboratories(LANL)
istohelpincreasecapacitytoproduceplutonium
pits,thetriggersthatstartthenuclearreactionina
thermonuclear(hydrogen)bomb.Thecurrentestimate
fortheconstructionofthefacilityisover$5.8billion,
morethan10timestheoriginalestimate.
19
Criticsoftheprojecthavequestionedwhetherthe
CMRRisneededatall,giventhattherearemorethan
enoughpitsavailabletosupportthecurrentnuclear
stockpilefordecadestocome,includingcapacity
tobuild20moreperyearifneeded.Astudybythe
well-respectedscientifcadvisorygroup,theJASON
group,estimatedthattheplutoniumpitsincurrent
warheadswillremainpotentfor85to100years.
20

TheoperatorofLANL,LosAlamosNationalSecurity
CompanyLLC,isaconsortiumledbytheUniversity
ofCaliforniaandincludingtheBechtelCorporation,
BabcockandWilcox,andURSCorporation.
ThereisreasontothinkthattheCMRRprojectcould
bereduced,restructuredorevencanceledinthelight
ofupcomingpressuresonthebudgetoftheDepart-
mentofEnergysNationalNuclearSecurityAdmin-
istration(NNSA),thebodythatoverseesthenuclear
weaponscomplex.Asnotedinarecentreportonthe
CMRRprojectbytheWashington-basedProjecton
GovernmentOversight(POGO),thesubcommitteeof
theHouseAppropriationsCommitteethatdealswith
thenuclearweaponscomplexhasindicatedthat[m]
anygapsremainintheplanningefforts[fortheUrani-
umProcessingFacilityandCMRRProject],andbasic
capabilityrequirementsandacquisitionstrategies
continuetobere-evaluated.Congressscaledbackthe
administrationsfundingrequestforCMRRfrom$300
millionto$200millionintheFY2012budget.There
wasnofundingrequestedforCMRRintheObama
administrationsFY2013budget.
21
Thezeroingoutof
theprojectsbudgetwasjustifedonthegroundsthat
itwouldbetooexpensivetobuildtheCMRRanda
newUraniumProcessingFacility
(UPF)simultaneously.
The Uranium Processing
Facility (UPF)
TheUPFisbeingbuiltatthe
Y-12NationalSecurityComplex
inOakRidge,Tennessee.
22
The
principalpurposeofthefacility
willbetomanufacturesecondar-
ies,theuranium-basedcompo-
nentsofanuclearwarhead.Esti-
matesforconstructionoftheplant
havejumpedfrom$600million
to$1.5billionin2005tobetween
$6and$6.5billioncurrently.
23

Theprojectwasoriginallysched-
uledtocomeonlinein2018,buttheschedule
Proposed construction of the Chemical and Metallurgy Research Replacement
facility at Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico.
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hasnowslippedto2022.Ifcarriedforward,
theUPFwillbethemostexpensivebombplant
inhistory.InanApril2011report,theAlliance
forNuclearAccountabilityquestionedwhether
thefacilitywasneededatall:
Withnonewnuclearwarheadsonthedrawingboard
and the demands for life extension programs dimin-
ishing, the UPF is fast becoming a project without
a need. The cost savings, security footprint reduc-
tions, and manufacturing effciencies advertised as
benefts of the UPF can all be realized in existing
facilities if they are consolidated, downsized and
upgradedatafractionofthecostofanewfacility.
24

InkeepingwiththeNationalNuclearSecurity
Administrations(NNSA)plantostaggerpro-
ductionoftheCMRRandtheUPF,funding
fortheUraniumProcessingFacilityactuallyincreased
inNNSAsFY2013budgetrequest,from$160million
to$340million.
25
Asnotedabove,theUPFispartoftheY-12National
SecurityComplexatOakRidge,agroupoffacilities
operatedbyapartnershipofBabcockandWilcoxand
theBechtelCorporation.
The Mixed Oxide (MOX) Facility
TheMOXfacilityisbeingbuiltattheSavannah
RiverSiteinAiken,SouthCarolina.Itspurposeisto
takeplutoniumwastegeneratedbythenuclearbomb
programandtransformitintofuelthatcanbeusedto
powerciviliannuclearreactors.Thecurrentestimate
forconstructionoftheplantis$4.9billion,upfroman
estimateof$1.6billionin2004.
26
Requestsforcon-
structionfundingfortheprojecttotaled$505million
inFY2011,$385millioninFY2012,and$569million
inFY2013.
27

TheMOXfacilitywasoriginallyenvisionedasan
economicalwaytodisposeofexcessplutoniumgener-
atedbytheU.S.andRussianbombprograms,thereby
servingthedualpurposeofgeneratingciviliannuclear
fuelwhilealsoreducingtherisksthatweaponsgrade
plutoniummightfallintothehandsofterroristgroups
orothersseekingtobuildanuclearweapon.Thefrst
partoftheequationhasbeencalledintoquestionby
thefactthattherehasbeenlittleornointerestamong
U.S.utilitycompaniesinusingMOXfuel,asitua-
tionthatwillonlybemadeworsebythefactthatthe
FukushimareactorthatmelteddowninJapanwasin
partpoweredbyMOXfuel.
28
Thereisarealpossibil-
itythattheMOXplantwillhavenocustomerswhen
itcomesonlinein2016.Meanwhile,analternative
existsfordealingwiththeproliferationrisksentailed
instoringweaponsgradeplutonium.Itcanbeimmo-
bilizedandstoredintheformofceramicpucksin
canistersofliquefedwaste.Thetechnologyfordoing
soalreadyexists.
29
TheMOXprojectisbeingrunbyShawArevaMOX
ServicesLLC,apartnershipoftheShawGroupand
AREVA,aFrenchcorporationwithextensiveopera-
tionsintheUnitedStatesandCanada.
The Kansas City Plant (KCP)
TheKansasCityPlant(KCP)producesnonnuclear
componentsfornuclearweapons.About85%ofthe
contentofanuclearweaponisbuiltatthisfacility.
30

AnewplantisintheprocessofbeingbuiltinKansas
City,Missouri,atanestimatedcostof$500million.
31

Itiscurrentlyscheduledtobecomefullyoperational
in2014.Inanunorthodoxprocedureneverbefore
usedinthedevelopmentofanuclearweaponsfacility,
constructionisbeingfnancedthroughtheissuanceof
municipalbondsbyKansasCity.
ThenewKCPisbeingbuiltandoperatedbythepri-
vatedeveloperCenterPointZimmer(CPZ),alimited
liabilitycorporationcomposedofZimmerRealEstate
ServicesandChicago-basedCenterPointProperty
Trust.Constructionisbeingfnancedwithbonds
issuedbytheKansasCityPlannedIndustrialExpan-
sionAuthority(PIEA).CPZisslatedtoreceive$1.2
billioninleasepaymentsoverthenext20years.The
facilitywillbesub-leasedtotheGeneralServices
Administration,buttheincometomakethesepay-
mentswillultimatelybeprovidedbytheNational
NuclearSecurityAdministration(NNSA),thefederal
The Kansas City Plant, a Nuclear Weapons Facility in Kansas City, Missouri.
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agencythatoverseesthenuclearweaponscomplex.
Thisroundaboutfnancingmechanismwillmeanthat
thefundingfortheplantwillbeoffthebooksasfar
NNSAsannualbudgetrequestisconcerned,therefore
makingitharderforCongresstooverseeandscruti-
nizetheproject.
32
TheHoneywellCorporationhasthe
contracttooperatethefacility.
Life Extension Programs (LEPs)
TheNNSAspendsbillionsofdollarsperyeartore-
furbishandupgradeexistingnuclearwarheadsunder
LifeExtensionPrograms(LEPs).Twomajorprojects
nowunderwayincludeworkontheW78andB-61-12
warheads.
TheW78isslottedtoreplacecurrentwarheadson
MinutemanIIIICBMs,ofwhichtherewillbe420un-
derthetermsoftheNewSTARTnucleararmsreduc-
tionprogram.Thefullcostoftheprogramisestimat-
edatroughly$5billionthrough2025.Criticsofthe
W78programassertthatitisunnecessarybecause200
ofthewarheadsdeployedonMinutemanIIIICBMs
haverecentlybeenreplacedbytheW87,theproduct
ofanotherLEP.Inaddition,theypointout,thereare
about550W87sinthestockpilethatcouldbeused
toreplacethewarheadsontheremainingMinuteman
ICBMsintheU.S.arsenal.
33

TheB-61-12isprimarilyaimedatproducingmodern-
izedversionsof200tactical(short-range)U.S.nuclear
weaponsnowdeployedinEurope.AswiththeW78,
areportbytheAllianceforNuclearAccountability
questionstheneedfortheB-61-12:
NATOisintheprocessofreevaluatingitspolicyregarding
nuclearweaponsdeployment.Theoutcomeofthisdebateis
uncertain.Moreover,theB-61-12isbeingre-designedtofton
thenewF-35JointStrikeFighterandwillnolongerftonthe
planesNATOcountiespresentlyusetocarrycurrentB-61s.
34
Theestimatedcostoftheprogramis$6billion.
35
The
mainworkontheB-61-12programisbeingdoneat
SandiaNationalLaboratoriesinAlbuquerque,New
Mexico.LockheedMartinhastheoperatingcontract
forSandia.
Other Nuclear Weapons Facilities
Thereareanumberofothermajorfacilitiesthatform
partofthenuclearweaponscomplex.Theyinclude
theLawrenceLivermorenuclearweaponslaboratory,
runbyLawrenceLivermoreNationalSecurityLLC,
whichiscomposedofBechtelNational,theUniversity
ofCalifornia,BabcockandWilcox,theWashington
DivisionofURSCorporation,andBattelle(thepart-
nershipalsohasanaffliationwiththeTexasA&M
University);theNevadaNationalSecuritySite(for-
merlyknownastheNevadaTestSite),whichisoper-
atedbyNationalSecurityTechnologiesLLC(NTSec)
ajointventurebetweenNorthropGrummanCorpora-
tion,AECOM,CH2MHill,andBabcock&Wilcox;
andthePantexPlant,afacilityprimarilyinvolvedin
theassemblyanddisassemblyofnuclearweapons,run
byBabcock&WilcoxTechnicalServicesPantex,LLC
(B&WPantex),anindependentcompanyformedsole-
lytomanagethePantexplantthatinvolvesBabcock
andWilcoxTechnicalServicesGroup,Inc.,BWX
Technologies,HoneywellandBechtelNational.
36
Companies with Multiple Roles in the Nuclear
Weapons Industry
Asillustratedabove,anumberofcompaniesare
involvedinmorethanonemajornuclearweapons-re-
latedproject.Forexample,BabcockandWilcoxplays
aroleinoperatingfvefacilities,includingLawrence
LivermoreandLosAlamoslaboratories,theY-12Na-
tionalSecurityComplex,theNevadaNationalSecu-
ritysite,andthePantexPlant.Bechtelisinvolvedin
runningfourfacilities--LosAlamos,LawrenceLiver-
more,theNevadaNationalSecuritySite,andthePan-
texPlant.HoneywellplaysaroleatboththeKansas
CityPlantandthePantexfacility.NorthropGrumman
willbebiddingonthenext-generationnuclearbomber,
andisalsoinvolvedintheconsortiumthatrunsthe
NevadaNationalSecuritysite.AndLockheedMartin,
whichwillalsobidonthebomberproject,runsSandia
NationalLaboratories.
nuclEar wEaPonS contractS and
dEFEnSE dEPEndEncy
Itisdiffculttogatherprecisedataonthevalueof
contractsrelatedtothenuclearweaponsprojects
describedthusfar.Thebomberandsubmarineproj-
ectsarestillinearlydevelopment,anddisaggregated
dataoncontractsforworkatspecifcsiteswithinthe
NationalNuclearSecurityAdministrationsnuclear
weaponscomplexishardtocomeby.Evenso,there
isvalueinlookingatthelevelofDepartmentofEn-
ergyandDepartmentofDefensecontractsreceivedby
thecompaniesinvolvedindevelopingnucleardelivery
vehiclesandrunningnuclearweaponsfacilities,to
givesomesenseofhowimportantnewnuclearweap-
onsprojectsmaybetothesecompanies.
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Bomber contractors
LockheedMartin,Boeing,andNorthropGrum-
manareamongthenationslargestmilitary
contractors,receivingtensofbillionsofdol-
larsannuallyinPentagoncontractawards(see
Table1).
Asseeninthetable,eachfrmdependssubstan-
tiallyongovernmentcontractsforitsbusiness,
inthecaseofNorthropGrummanalmostex-
clusivelyso.Boeingislessdependentduetoits
roleintheproductionofcommercialairliners.
LockheedMartinsmilitary-relatedcontracts
top$38billiononceits$2.4billionfeeforrun-
ningSandiaNationalLaboratoriesistakeninto
account.
37

Whatthismeans,particularlyatatimewhen
Pentagonprocurementspendingwillbelevel-
ingoffordecreasing,isthatnewgovernment
projectslikethenuclearbomberareofparticu-
larinteresttothesefrms.Inaperiodoflevel
ordecliningweaponsspending,landingadeal
forupto100bombersat$550millionormore
percopywouldbeamajorwinforanyofthe
threecompaniesdiscussedinthissection.
38
Submarine contractors
Thereareonlytwocompaniescapableofpro-
ducinganext-generationballisticmissilesub-
marine,GeneralDynamicsandHuntington
IngallsShipbuilding.Table2providesdata
ontheirrevenueandgovernmentcontractsfor
2011.
GeneralDynamicsElectricBoatdivisionwill
mostlikelyserveastheprimecontractorfor
thenextgenerationballisticmissilesubmarine,
withHuntingtonIngallsinvolvedasamajor
subcontractor.At$5to$8billionperboatand
aplantobuild12ships,thisprogramcouldbe
acentralsourceofrevenueforbothfrmsifit
goesforwardasplanned.
Nuclear Weapons Complex
Nuclearweaponscontractsareamongthelargest
outlaysintheDepartmentofEnergybudget.The
majorityofcontractdollarsareawardedtofrmslike
LockheedMartin,Bechtel,BabcockandWilcox,and
LosAlamosNationalSecurityLLCthatareintegrally
involvedinthenuclearweaponscomplex(seetable3,
below).Somefrms,suchasSavannahRiverSolu-
tions,LLCandUT-Batelle,LLCreceivecontracts
primarilyfornuclearcleanupwork,butthemajor-
ityoffrmslistedinTable3(below)receivethebulk
oftheirfundsforresearch,development,designand
maintenanceofnuclearwarheads.
tablE 1:
Pentagon Contracts and Federal Contract
Dependency of Potential Contractors for the
Next-Generation Bomber Project, FY 2011
Company
DoD Prime
Contracts,
FY2011
Govt Contracts
as % of Revenue
LockheedMartin $35.6billion 82%
Boeing $20.2billion 38%
NorthropGrumman $13.8billion 90%

SOURCE:FederalProcurementDataSystem,Top100Contractors
Report,FY2011andcompany10Kreportsfortheir2011fscalyears.
Dataongovernmentcontractsasapercentageofrevenue(displayedin
column2)includebothprimeandsubcontracts.
tablE 2:
Pentagon Contracts and Federal Contract
Dependency of Major Contractors for the
Next Generation Ballistic Missile Submarines, FY2011
Company DoD Prime
Contracts,
FY2011
Govt Contracts
as % of Revenue
General
Dynamics
$19.4billion 72%
Huntington
Ingalls
$4.0billion 100%*
*Inits201110Kreport,HuntingtonIngallsindicatesthatsubstantially
allofitsbusinessiswiththeU.S.government.
SOURCES:FederalProcurementDataSystem,Top100Contractors
ReportforFY2011andcompany10Kreportsfor2011.
9
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10
thE nuclEar wEaPonS lobby:
a ProliFEration oF organizationS
Thenuclearweaponslobbyisnotamonolithicentity.
Itconsistsofanetworkofoverlappingorganizations
thatincludemembersofCongress,retiredmilitary
personnel,andweaponsproducingcorporationsin
variouscombinations.Somerelevantlobbyinggroups
aredescribedbelow,withafocusonbombersand
submarines.
The Submarine Lobby
Thelargestorganizationwithasubmarine-specifc
focusasopposedtoaninterestinshipbuildingmore
generallyistheSubmarineIndustrialBaseCoun-
cil,abodywhichclaimstospeakforthemorethan
5,000businessesacrossall50statesthatmakeupthe
nationssubmarineindustrialbase.Theorganiza-
tionsgoalistoeducatepolicymakersandthepublic
aboutthenationsabilitytodesign,buildandmaintain
submarinesahighlyspecializedanduniquework
force.
39
Thenotionthatthenationneedstokeepalargecadre
ofcompaniesandworkersinplacetomaintainthe
abilitytoproducenuclearsubmarinesnowandinthe
futureisacentraltenetoftheorganization.Taken
toanextreme,itimpliesthatwecannevercutback
signifcantlyonsubmarineprocurement.Todoso
wouldbetolosethetechnologyandskillbaseneeded
tobuildthemincasetheyareneededatsomepoint
downtheroad,orsothecouncilclaims.Infact,
thereisevidencetosuggestthattheuniqueskillsand
equipmentneededtomaintainorreviveasubmarine
productioncapabilityarefairlynarrow.Theseessen-
tialskillscanbemaintainedbybuildingprototypes
orstretchingoutexistingprograms.
40
Asformer
UnderSecretaryofDefensePaulKaminskynoted,
Weneednotprocurenewsystemstomaintainmany
ofourmilitary-uniquecapabilities.
41
TheSubmarineIndustrialBaseCouncilsWebsite
includesaCongressionalPacketthatconsistsof
concisefactsheets,quotesfromvalidatorssuchas
keymembersofCongressandretiredadmirals,and,
notsurprisingly,anarticlefromtheindustry-backed
LexingtonInstitute.Oneofthegroupsmainac-
tivitiesisanannualCongressionallobbyingevent
dubbedsupplierdays,anddescribedasfollows:
SupplierDaysisagreatopportunityforyoutoper-
sonallyconveytheimportantmessagesofthesub-
marineindustrialbasetoyourmembersofCongress
andtomeetwithElectricBoatandNewportNews
Shipbuildingmanagement,USNavyoffcials,the
SubmarineIndustrialBaseCouncilleadershipand
fellowsuppliers.
42
InMarchof2012,300representativesofthecouncil
descendedonCapitolHilltopressfor$150million
forlonglead-timecomponentsforanewballistic
missilesubmarine,fundsthatwouldbeallocated
inadditiontheNavys$585millionFY2013re-
questforR&Dontheship.Wereallywanttoget
toCongressandmakecertaintheyunderstandthe
signifcanceofthestrategicdeterrentanewballis-
ticmissilesubwouldprovide,saidDanDePompei
tablE 3:
Department of Energy Contractors Involved in
Nuclear Weapons-Related Work, FY2011
Company Contracts ($ mil-
lions)
LockheedMartin 2,716.0
LosAlamosNationalSecu-
rityLLC
2,504.9
BabcockandWilcox 2,057.4
BechtelGroup,Inc. 2,009.3
BattelleMemorial
Institute
1,619.8
LawrenceLivermoreNa-
tionalSecurityLLC
1,574.8
URSCorporation 1,465.8
UT-BatelleLLC 1,287.7
StateofCalifornia 795.5
SavannahRiver
SolutionsLLC
764.5
HoneywellInternational 652.8
CH2MHillCompaniesLtd. 635.3
ShawGroup 516.9
NationalSecurity
Technologies
510.9
SOURCE:FederalProcurementDataSystem,Top100Contrac-
torReport,FY2011.
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11
ofDresser-Randindustries,theco-chairmanofthe
council.
43
Therearenoduestojointhecouncil.Operating
expensesarepaidforbytheElectricBoatDivisionof
GeneralDynamics,thecompanymostlikelytobuild
thenextgenerationballistic-missilefringsubmarine.
WorkingparalleltotheSubmarineIndustrialBase
CouncilistheNavalSubmarineLeague,whichde-
scribesitselfastheprofessionalorganizationfor
submarineadvocates.Itisfnancedby58corporate
benefactors,rangingfromAdvancedAcousticCon-
cepts,LLC,toGeneralDynamics,toNorthropGrum-
man,toOceaneeringInternational.Thegroupsboard
ofdirectorsincludesanimpressivearrayofformerad-
mirals,vice-admirals,andothernavaloffcers.Main
activitiesincludeannualsymposiaonthehistory,
technology,andcurrentstatusoftheU.S.submarine
force;puttingoutitsownpublication,The Submarine
Review;andholdingCorporateBenefactorsRecogni-
tionDaysthatbringtogethercompaniesinvolvedin
submarineproductionwithkeyNavyoffcials.
TheNavyLeagueisanothermajoradvocateofbuild-
ingthenextgenerationofballisticmissilesubmarines
(SSBNs).With60,000membersand250chapters
mostlycomposedofretiredpersonnelfromtheNavy,
Marines,orCoastGuardtheNavyLeagueiswell
positionedtobringpressuretobearonCongressand
theExecutiveBranchonbehalfofitsagenda.Likeall
oftheorganizationsthatformpartofthesubmarine
lobby,ithasgenerouscorporatesupport,with247cor-
poratepartners,including25CorporateGoldmem-
berswhoarethelargestfnancialcontributorstothe
organization.Sevenofthe25corporategoldmembers
areamongthemajornuclearweaponscontractorspro-
fledinthisreport:Boeing,FluorCorporation,Gen-
eralElectricMarine,GeneralDynamics,Honeywell,
LockheedMartin,andNorthropGrumman.Eachgold
membermakesanannualcontributionof$15,000to
theNavyLeague.
Asitsnamesuggests,theNavyLeagueisconcerned
withthefullrangeofgovernmentshipbuildinginitia-
tives,notjustSSBNs.Itsoptimumgoalistomove
towardsa307-shipNavy,upfromthecurrentinven-
toryof285ships.
44
Theleaguealsoproposestoraise
theannualshipbuildingbudgettoover$20billion
peryear,aone-thirdincreasefromthecurrentlevel
ofroughly$15billionperyear.
45
Thesegoalsare
unlikelytobemetinthecurrentfscalclimate,butthe
NavyLeaguespushforthesespendinglevelsmay
resultinannualshipbuildingbudgetsthatarehigher
thanthosecurrentlyenvisioned.
OntheissueoftheSSBN,theNavyLeaguehasvery
specifcobjectives.
Initsmaritimepolicystatement,theleagueasserts
thattheballistic-missilesubmarineprogrammust
berecapitalizedinatimelymannerandfunded as a
national program outside of the Navys SCN account.
[emphasisadded].
46
ThereasontheNavyLeague
supportsaseparatebudgetlinefortheSSBNsisclear
theirenormouscost:
TheOhioSSBNreplacementisunderdesign,witheffortsto
restrainthecostsyettomeettheexpectedoperationaldemands.
Thisdevelopmentandconstructionprogram,ifallowedtore-
mainintheNavysSCNfundingaccounts,willcreatehavoc
withothervitalconstructionprograms.Thesecostsshouldbe
anationalstrategicprogramofftheNavysfundingbooks.
47

Inadditiontotheseoutsideorganizations,thereare
twocaucuseswithintheCongressthatattempttoexert
leverageonbehalfofhighershipbuildingbudgets
ingeneralandspendingonballisticmissilesubma-
rinesinparticular.TheCongressionalShipbuilding
Caucusisthelargerandmoreinfuentialofthetwo.
Itisco-chairedbyRep.RobWittman(R-VA),who
hasastronginterestinthewelfareoftheNewport
News,Virginiashipyard,whichisoneoftwomain
constructionsitesforanext-generationSSBN.The
otherco-chairisRep.JoeCourtney(D-CT),whohas
theGeneralDynamicsElectricBoatsubmarineplant
inhisdistrict.Accordingtoitswebsite,thecaucus
has74membersrepresenting29states.
48
Tenof
themembersarefromVirginia,homeofHuntington
IngallsNewportNewsshipyard.Givenitsnumbers,
thecaucusoffersausefulcoreforeffortstosustainor
expandfundingforballisticmissilesubmarines.This
presumesthatthecaucusisnotsplitintheeventofa
battlewithintheshipbuildingbudgetbetweensurface
shipsandsubmarinesafghtthatislikelytooccur
iftheballisticmissilesubmarinedoesntgetitsown
budgetline.
Finally,thereistheSubmarineCaucus,forwhichthe
SSBNisobviouslyatoppriority.Itdoesnthaveits
ownWebsite,andat16membersitismuchsmaller
thantheshipbuildingcaucus.Ithasfourco-chairs,
includingRepresentativesWittmanandCourtney
theco-chairsoftheShipbuildingCaucusaswellas
Rep.RandyForbes(R-VA)andJimLangevin(D-RI).
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12
Forbes,whosedistrictisclosetotheNewportNews
shipbuildingfacility,hasalsobeenamajoradvocate
ofhighermilitarybudgetsgenerally,alongsideHouse
ArmedServicesCommitteeChairmanHowardP.
BuckMcKeon(R-CA).Inparticular,Forbeshas
helpedspearheadeffortstoholdofftheso-calledse-
questertheover$500billioninadditionalreductions
inPentagonspendingplansover10yearsthatwould
betriggeredifCongressdoesnotcomeupwithan
adequatedefcitreductionpackage.
49
Ifthesequester
orsomeversionthereofisimplemented,itwillputthat
muchmorepressureontheshipbuildingbudgetand
makeanext-generationSSBNevenlessaffordable.
The Bomber Lobby
Thebomberlobbydoesnotinvolveasmanydistinct
organizationsasthesubmarinelobby,butithasone
crucialadvantage:theAirForceAssociation.Itisan
$18millionperyearoperationwithnearly100,000
members.Althoughtechnicallya501(c)3,nonproft
organization,theAFAisoneofthemosteffective
advocacygroupsinWashington.Asitnotesinits
annualreport,undertheheadingEducatingLawmak-
ersandTheirStaffs,AFAscongressionaloutreach
programsincludebriefngs,targetedmeetings,
andSecretary/ChiefofStaffoftheAirForcerecep-
tionsreachinghundredsofCongressionalstaffersand
members,withattendanceincreasingatvirtuallyevery
event.Itstopissuesfor2012includefeld[ing]a
newbomberwellbeforecurrentB-52andB-1bomber
feetsgooutofservice.ButtheAFAalsospeaksout
onissuesrelatedtothenuclearwarheadcomplex,call-
ing,forexample,forfundingformulti-billiondollar
lifeextensionprogramsforexistingwarheadsand
billionsmoreforwhatitdescribesasaresponsive
infrastructuretodeter,assure,andprovidestability.
50

Asnotedabove,independentanalystshavequestioned
theneedfortheseexpenditures.
AFAsPresidentandCEOMichaelM.Dunnisa
formerSecretaryoftheAirForceandhasbeenanag-
gressiveadvocateofincreasingspendingoncombat
aircraft,includinglong-rangebombers.Theorganiza-
tionreceiveshundredsofthousandsofdollarsperyear
incorporatedonations,withthetopdonorsincluding
Boeing(over$200,000peryear),NorthropGrumman
(inthe$100,000to$199,000rangeperyear),Lock-
heedMartin(between$50,000and$99,000peryear),
andHoneywell($50,000to$99,000).
51

InparalleltotheAFA,thereisaCongressionalLong-
RangeStrikeCaucusthatadvocatesforfundingnot
onlyfornuclearandconventionalbombersbutforIn-
tercontinentalBallisticMissilesandcruisemissilesas
well.Similartothesubmarinecaucus,thelong-range
strikecaucushasnoWebsite.Itdoesnotevenposta
formallistofmembers.However,inquirieswithkey
CongressionaloffcesandreviewsofkeyCongres-
sionalstatementssuggestthatthecaucushashadas
manyas15membersinrecentyears,althoughfourof
thesewereeitherdefeatedorchosetoleaveCongress
afterthe2010elections.Theco-chairsofthecaucus
areRep.JohnC.Fleming(R-LA),aHouseArmed
ServicesCommitteememberwhosedistricthoststhe
newGlobalStrikeCommandatBarksdale,Louisiana
AirForceBase;andDelegateMadeleineZ.Bordallo
ofGuam,thesiteofamajorB-52bomberbase.Four
otherRepublicanrepresentativesfromLouisianaare
alsomembersofthecaucusSteveScalise,Rodney
Alexander,CharlesW.Boustany,andBillCassidy.
Missouri,homeofWhitemanAirForceBase,which
hoststheB-2bomber,isrepresentedinthecaucusby
RepublicanrepresentativesToddAkinandBlaineLu-
etkemeyer.Byfarthemostimportantmemberofthe
LongRangeStrikeCaucusisHouseArmedServices
CommitteeChairmanRep.HowardP.BuckMcKe-
on,whohasNorthropGrummansB-2stealthbomber
facilityinhisdistrict,andwhohasbeentherecipient
ofover$800,000fromthemajornuclearweapons
contractorsprofledinthisstudyoverthecourseof
hiscareer.LockheedMartinandBoeingcompetitors
forthenewnuclearbomberprojecthavealsomade
contributionstothecampaignofBuckMcKeons
wife,Patricia,whoisrunningfortheCaliforniaState
Assembly.
52
The ICBM Coalition
ThereisalsoaCongressionalnetworkthatadvocates
forthethirdlegofthenucleartriad,Intercontinental
BallisticMissiles(ICBMs).Thegroupconsistsof
membersoftheSenatewhosestateseitherhousebases
whereMinutemanIIIICBMsarelocatedorhavesig-
nifcant-ICBMrelatedworkintheirstate.TheICBM
basesarelocatedinMontana,NorthDakotaandWyo-
ming.Asaresult,caucusmembersincludeSenator
JonTester(D-MT);Sen.MaxBaucus(D-MT);Sen.
KentConrad(D-ND);Sen.JohnHoeven(R-ND);
Sen.JohnBarrasso(R-WY);andSen.MikeEnzi
(R-WY).MaintenanceonMinutemanIIIsisdoneat
HillAirForceBaseinUtah,andAlliantTechsystems
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(alsoknownasATK)producesMinutemanIIIStage1
motorsaspartofitsMinutemanSolidRocketMotor
WarmLine(SRMWL)programatATKstestfacility
inPromontory,Utah.
53
Thisworkhelpsaccountfor
themembershipofUtahRepublicanSenatorsOrrin
HatchandMikeLee.Sen.ConradandSen.Enziare
co-chairsoftheICBMcoalition.
Thecoalitionisvigilantinitsoppositiontoanychang-
esthatmightreducethenumberofICBMsintheU.S
arsenaltolevelsthatmightthreatentheexistenceof
currentICBMbases.Forexample,aFebruary2012
pressreleasefromSen.JonTestersoffcelistsaseries
ofletterstotheObamaadministrationandmeetings
withkeyadministrationoffcialssuchasSecretaries
ofDefenseLeonPanettaandRobertGatesandVice
PresidentJoeBidendesignedtoensureICBMfund-
ingismaintainedthroughoutthebudgetprocess.
Thisincludesadvocatingforthehighestpossiblelev-
elsofICBMsintheU.S.arsenalevenafterreductions
indeployedwarheadsrequiredbytheNewSTART
nucleararmsreductiontreaty.Currentplanscallfora
modestdecreaseindeployedICBMsfrom450to420
aspartoftheimplementationofNewSTART.The
ICBMcoalitionhasurgedthattheremaining30silos
stayinawarmstatus,readytodeployICBMsif
requiredatsomefuturedate.Thispolicywouldmean
thatnoICBMsiloswouldbedestroyed.
54
BaucusandTesterhavearguedthatiftherearetobe
additionalcutsinnucleardeliveryvehicles,thePenta-
gonshouldgoaftertheotherlegsofthenucleartriad,
bombersorballisticmissilesubmarines:
ICBMsarebyfarthemostcost-effcientlegofthenuclear
triad. The ICBM fleet provides a critical deterrent be-
cause of its considerable survivability. Unlike an attack
on the submarine or bomber leg of the triad, an enemy
would be required to strike deep within the continental
United States in order effectively eliminate ICBM strike
capability. Such a visible, highly dispersed force creates a
powerful disincentive for any adversary while also provid-
ing clear reassurance to our allies, many o f whom have
chosen not to pursue their own nuclear arsenal because
of the security provided byAmericas nuclear umbrella.
55

Thissuggeststhepossibilitythatifacombinationof
policyandbudgetaryandpolicychangesresultinsig-
nifcantcutsintheU.S.nucleararsenalbeyondNew
STARTlevels,thelobbiesforeachlegofthenuclear
triadmightspendasmuchormoretimefghtingeach
otherastheywouldfghtingforastatusquointhe
levelsofU.S.nuclearweaponsoverall.
buying inFluEncE: camPaign contributionS
and thE rEvolving door
Campaign Contributions by Nuclear Weapons
Contractors
TherearedozensofmembersofCongresswhoplay
majorrolesindecidinghowmuchfundinggoesto
specifcnuclearweapons-relatedprojects,butsome
havefarmoreinfuencethanothers.Thekeycommit-
teesthatdealwithnuclearweapons-relatedfunding
aretheEnergyandWaterSubcommitteesoftheHouse
andSenateAppropriationsCommittees;andtheStra-
tegicForcesSubcommitteesoftheHouseandSenate
ArmedServicesCommittees.
TheEnergyandWaterSubcommitteesdealwiththe
nuclearweaponscomplex,includingprojectssuchas
theUraniumProcessingFacility(UPF),theChemi-
calandMetallurgyReplacementNuclearFacility
(CMRR-NF),andtheMixedOxide(MOX)facility,
allmentionedabove.OntheSenatesidethesubcom-
mitteechairisSen.DianneFeinstein(D-CA),andthe
rankingRepublicanisSen.LamarAlexander(R-TN).
Sen.FeinsteinsstateishometotheLawrenceLiver-
morenuclearweaponslaboratory,andSen.Alexan-
dersstateishometotheOakRidgeNationalSecurity
site,whichincludestheUPFproject.OntheHouse
sidetheEnergyandWaterSubcommitteeischaired
byRep.RodneyFrelinghuysen(R-NJ).Theranking
DemocratisRep.PeteVisclosky(D-IN).
TheStrategicForcesSubcommitteesdealwithnuclear
deliveryvehiclessuchassubmarine-launchedballistic
missiles(SLBMs)andintercontinentalballisticmis-
siles(ICBMs),alongwithrelatedprogramssuchas
missiledefense.OntheSenatesidethesubcommittee
ischairedbySen.BenNelson(D-NE),whosestate
ishometotheStrategicCommand(Stratcom),and
therankingRepublicanisSen.JeffSessions(R-AL),
whosestatehostsalargeclusterofmissiledefense
contractorsinandaroundHuntsville.OntheHouse
sidethesubcommitteeischairedbyRep.Michael
Turner(R-OH),oneofthemostaggressiveadvocates
ofincreasedspendingfornuclearprojectsofallsorts,
whethertheyrelatetowarheadsordeliveryvehicles.
TherankingDemocratisRep.LorettaSanchez(D-
CA).
Othermajorplayerswithdecisionmakingpower
overnuclearweaponsspendingincludeHouseArmed
ServicesCommitteeChairRep.HowardP.Buck
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McKeon,whohasfacilitiesofallthethreecompeti-
torsforanewnuclearbomberinhisdistrictBoe-
ing,NorthropGrumman,andLockheedMartin;and
Rep.NormDicks(D-WA),whohasonoccasionbeen
calledtheRepresentativefromBoeingduetohisre-
lentlessadvocacyforhishomestatefrm.Rep.Dicks
istherankingDemocratontheDefenseSubcommit-
teeoftheHouseAppropriationsCommittee.Last
butnotleastisSen.JonKyl(R-AZ),acentralplayer
inopposingmajorarmscontroltreatiesliketheNew
StrategicArmsReductionTreaty(NewSTART)and
insupportingincreasedspendingonnuclearweapons.
Althoughhedoesnotserveonanynationalsecurity-
relatedcommittees,overtheyearshehasbecomethe
keypointpersonforSenateRepublicansonnuclear
weaponsissues.Forexample,heledthesuccessful
1999efforttoblockratifcationoftheComprehensive
TestBanTreaty.Hewasnotabletomaintainasolid
blockofRepublicanoppositiontotheNewSTART
treaty,however.ItwasratifedinDecember2010with
13Republicanvotesinfavor.
56
Itshouldbenotedthatthreekeyplayersinthenuclear
weaponsdebateareleavingCongressin2012:Senate
StrategicForcesSubcommitteeChairSen.BenNelson
(D-NE),Sen.JonKyl(R-AZ),andDefenseAppropri-
ationsrankingDemocratRep.NormDicks(D-WA).
Itwillbeinterestingtoseehowtheirabsenceimpacts
theeffectivenessofthenuclearweaponslobbyin
Congress.
Inadditiontothekeyplayersmentionedthusfar,the
projecttrackedcampaigncontributionstomembersof
Congresswhoftoneormoreofthefollowingcatego-
ries:1)membersoftheEnergyandWaterorStrategic
ForcesSubcommittees;2)membersof
relevantcaucusesliketheLong-Range
StrikeCaucus,theSubmarineCaucus,
ortheICBMcoalition;and3)Members
withmajornuclearweapons-relatedfa-
cilitiesintheirstatesordistrictsorwho
havebeenvocaladvocatesofhigher
nuclearweaponsspending.These
categoriesaddupto92members,more
thanoneoutofeverysixmembersof
Congress.
Theprojectthentrackedcampaigncon-
tributionstothesekeymembersfrom14
majornuclearweaponscontractors,includ-
ingBabcockandWilcox,Bechtel,Boeing,
Honeywell,LockheedMartin,Northrop
Grumman,Shaw-ArevaServices,andURSCorpora-
tion.TheresultsaresummarizedinTables4,5and6.
AsnotedinTable4,duringthe2012electioncycle
thetop14nuclearweaponscontractorsdonatedover
$2.9milliontokeymembersofCongresswithlever-
ageovernuclearweaponsspendingdecisions.During
theirentireCongressionalcareers,thesesamemem-
bersreceivedover$18.7millionincampaigncon-
tributionsfromthetopnuclearweaponscontractors.
Thebulkofthesecontributionswenttomembersof
thekeysubcommitteeshighlightedabovetheStra-
tegicForcesSubcommitteesoftheArmedServices
CommitteesineachhouseandtheEnergyandWater
SubcommitteesoftheAppropriationsCommittees
ineachhouse.Totalcontributionsbymajornuclear
weaponscontractorstomembersofthesefoursub-
committeeshavebeenover$1.6millioninthe2012
electioncyclethusfar,and$11.7lifetime.
Themajorityofthemembersinthetop20recipients
listforcontributionsbymajornuclearweaponscon-
tractorsareonkeycommitteesand/orhavenuclear
weaponscontractorsinorneartheirdistricts.Sixof
thetop20areontheStrategicForcesSubcommit-
teeoftheHouseArmedServicesCommittee:Rep.
MoBrooks(R-AL);Rep.RickLarsen(D-WA);Rep.
ScottRigell(R-VA);Rep.MikeRogers(R-AL);Rep.
C.A.DutchRuppersberger(D-MD);andRep.Mac
Thornberry(R-TX).ThechairoftheHouseArmed
ServicesCommittee,Rep.HowardP.BuckMcKe-
on,headsthelist,andtherankingDemocratRep.
NormDicks,(D-WA)comesinsecond.Asnotedear-
lier,Rep.Dicksisnotrunningforre-electionin2012.
Rep. Michael Turner (R-OH), Chair of the Strategic Forces Subcommittee of
the House Armed Services Committee and Howard P. Buck McKeon (R-CA),
Chair of the House Armed Services Committee.
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A Publication of the Center for International Policy A Publication of the Center for International Policy A Publication of the Center for International Policy
AsfortheStrategicForcesSubcommitteeasawhole,
topnuclearweaponscontractorshavegiven$558,532
tomembersofthesubcommitteeinthe2012cycleso
far,and$2.2millionlifetimetothesesamemembers.
MembersoftheEnergyandWaterSubcommitteeof
theHouseAppropriationsCommitteewhichhas
jurisdictionovertheNationalNuclearSecurityAd-
ministration,theagencythatrunsthenuclearweapons
complexarealsowell-representedontheTop20
list,withfvemembersinall.SubcommitteeChair
RodneyFrelinghuysen(R-NJ)ranksffthonthelist,
andSubcommitteerankingDemocratPeteVisclosky
rankstenth.Othersubcommitteemembersinthetop
20includeRep.JerryLewis(R-CA),Rep.EdPastor
(D-AZ),andRep.MikeSimpson(R-ID).
AsfortheEnergyandWaterSubcommitteeasa
whole,topnuclearweaponscontractorshavegiven
$338,530tomembersofthesubcommitteeinthe2012
cyclesofar,and$2.5millionlifetimetothesesame
members.
TherearefourmembersoftheSeapowerandForce
ProjectionsubcommitteeoftheHouseArmedServices
Committeeamongthetop20recipientsofcampaign
tablE 4:
Campaign Contributions by Major Nuclear Weapons Contractors to Key Members of Congress,
2012 Election Cycle and Career

Company 2012 Contributions Total Contributions


1 LockheedMartin $535,000 $2,764,949
2 HoneywellInternational $464,582 $2,199,431
3 NorthropGrumman $464,000 $2,568,748
4 BoeingCo $336,750 $2,272,551
5 GeneralDynamics $293,850 $2,183,461
6 GeneralElectric $231,450 $2,097,720
7 UnitedTechnologies $158,000 $1,065,350
8 FluorCorp $103,150 $652,149
9 BechtelGroup $98,500 $769,550
10 Babcock&Wilcox $92,000 $449,749
11 CH2MHILL $67,730 $573,459
12 ShawGroup $38,466 $365,715
13 AECOMTechnologyCorp $18,200 $87,966
14
URSCorp/Washington
Group
$11,900 $669,086
Total $2,913,578 $18,719,88
SOURCE:DataisfromtheCenterforResponsivePolitics,analyzedbytheCenterforInternationalPolicy.
Note:DataforBabcockandWilcoxincludesperiodwhenitwaspartofMcDermottInternational.
15
A Publication of the Center for International Policy A Publication of the Center for International Policy A Publication of the Center for International Policy
16
tablE 5:
Top 20 Recipients of Campaign Contributions from Nuclear Weapons Contractors,
U.S. House of Representatives, Ranked by Donations Received During 2011/2012
Member Affl. FY 2012 Lifetime Top Lifetime Contributor
1 McKeon,Howard(Buck) R-CA $257,750 $809,150 NorthropGrumman
2 Dicks,Norm D-WA $110,000 $797,200 BoeingCo
3 Thornberry,Mac R-TX $87,250 $329,249 LockheedMartin
4 Ruppersberger,Dutch D-MD $74,400 $308,600 NorthropGrumman
5 Lewis,Jerry R-CA $69,500 $807,449 GeneralDynamics
6 Granger,Kay R-TX $62,750 $421,900 LockheedMartin
7 Akin,Todd R-MO $62,250 $222,850 BoeingCo
8 Clyburn,James D-SC $61,500 $345,527 LockheedMartin
9 Frelinghuysen,Rodney R-NJ $59,050 $405,200 LockheedMartin
10 Larsen,Rick D-WA $53,000 $252,000 BoeingCo
11 Hunter,DuncanD R-CA $51,950 $131,300 GeneralDynamics
12 Kingston,Jack R-GA $48,500 $331,500 GeneralDynamics
13 Simpson,Mike R-ID $46,980 $285,519 CH2MHILL
14 Courtney,Joe D-CT $46,250 $162,750 UnitedTechnologies
15 Rogers,MikeD R-AL $43,500 $243,949 GeneralDynamics
16 Visciosky,Pete D-IN $42,500 $384,900 NorthropGrumman
17 Brooks,Mo R-AL $40,500 $56,750 HoneywellInternational
18 Rigell,Scott R-VA $35,999 $35,999 HoneywellInternational
19 Pastor,Ed D-AZ $35,000 $263,700 GeneralDynamics
20 Wittman,Rob R-VA $33,450 $128,350 NorthrupGrumman
SOURCE:DatageneratedbytheCenterforResponsivePoliticsandanalyzedbytheCenterforInternationalPolicy.
A Publication of the Center for International Policy A Publication of the Center for International Policy A Publication of the Center for International Policy
17
tablE 6:
Top 20 Recipients of Campaign Contributions from Nuclear Weapons Contractors, U.S. Senate,
Ranked by Donations Received During 2011/2012
Member Affl. FY 2012 Lifetime Top Lifetime Contributor
1 Feinstein,Dianne D-CA $74,500 $421,747 NorthropGrumman
2 Gillibrand,Kirsten D-NY $54,916 $154,907 HoneywellInternational
3 Tester,Jon D-MT $53,500 $66,600 GeneralElectric
4 Barrasso,John R-WY $48,500 $124,00 HoneywellInternational
5 Hatch,Orrin R-UT $47,500 $234,616 GeneralElectric
6 Collins,SusanM R-ME $44,000 $341,600 GeneralDynamics
7 Graham,Lindsey R-SC $44,000 $434,660 FluorCorp
8 Landrieu,MaryL D-LA $40,350 $369,298 ShawGroup
9 Cornyn,John R-TX $39,500 $265,250 LockheedMartin
10 McConnell,Mitch R-KY $39,500 $433,925 GeneralElectric
11 Baucus,Max D-MT $39,500 $417,240 GeneralElectric
12 Corker,Bob R-TN $36,500 $106,450 HoneywellInternational
13 Udall,Mark D-CO $36,500 $190,899 LockheedMartin
14 Wicker,Roger R-MS $34,500 $193,500 NorthropGrumman
15 Inhofe,JamesM R-OK $34,000 $285,310 LockheedMartin
16 Thune,John R-SD $30,000 $175,900 NorthropGrumman
17 Nelson,Ben D-NE $28,500 $178,750 LockheedMartin
18 Shelby,RichardC R-AL $27,500 $485,750 NorthropGrumman
19 Cochran,Thad R-MS $24,000 $357,650 NorthropGrumman
20 Begich,Mark D-AK $23,000 $63,900 BoeingCo
SOURCE:DatageneratedbytheCenterforResponsivePoliticsandanalyzedbytheCenterforInternationalPolicy.
A Publication of the Center for International Policy A Publication of the Center for International Policy A Publication of the Center for International Policy
18
contributionsfrommajornuclearweaponscontractors:
SubcommitteeChairToddAkin,(R-MO),Rep.Rob
Wittman(R-VA),Rep.JoeCourtney(D-CT),andRep.
DuncanHunter(R-CA).
Rep.MichaelTurner(R-OH),oneofthemostasser-
tiveadvocatesforhighlevelsofspendingonnuclear
weaponsfacilitiesandnucleardeliveryvehicles,is
alsoasignifcantrecipientofcampaigncontributions
fromnuclearweaponscontractors.Hehasreceived
over$144,500lifetimefrommajornuclearweapons
contractors,and$19,000forthecurrentelectioncycle.
Hislargestlifetimedonoramongnuclearweapons
contractorsisGeneralDynamics,at$31,500.Rep.
DennyRehberg(R-MT),sponsorofarecentHouse
amendmentdesignedtoblockfundingfortheimple-
mentationoftheNewSTARTarmsreductiontreaty
withRussiaandprotectfundingforICBMsbasedin
hishomestate,hasreceived$118,990frommajor
nuclearweaponscontractorsduringhiscareerinCon-
gress.
ThetopSenaterecipientsofcontributionsfromnu-
clearweaponscontractorswerealsoconcentratedin
keysubcommittees.Nineofthe17membersofthe
EnergyandWaterSubcommitteeoftheSenateAp-
propriationsCommitteewereinthetop20recipients
ofcampaigndonationsfromnuclearweaponscon-
tractors,includingSubcommitteeChairSen.Dianne
Feinstein(D-CA),Sen.JonTester(D-MT),Sen.Patty
Murray(D-WA),Sen.SusanCollins(R-ME),Sen.
LindseyGraham(R-SC),Sen.MaryLandrieu(D-LA),
SenateMinorityLeaderMitchMcConnell(R-KY),
Sen.RichardShelby(R-AL),andSen.ThadCochran
(R-MS).
AsfortheEnergyandWatersubcommitteeasawhole,
topnuclearweaponscontractorshavegiven$455,100
tomembersofthesubcommitteeinthe2012cycleso
far,and$4.6millionlifetimetothesesamemembers.
Similarly,alargeproportionofthemembersofthe
SenateArmedServicesCommitteesSubcommittee
onStrategicForcessevenoutof13wereamong
thetop20recipientsofdonationsfrommajornuclear
weaponscontractors.RecipientsincludedSubcom-
mitteeChairSen.BenNelson(D-NE),Sen.Roger
Wicker(R-MS),Sen.KirstenGillibrand(D-NY),Sen.
JohnCornyn(R-TX),Sen.MarkBegich(D-AK),Sen.
JamesInhofe(R-OK),andSen.MarkUdall(D-CO).
AsfortheSenateStrategicForcesSubcommitteeas
awhole,topnuclearweaponscontractorshavegiven
$272,816tomembersofthesubcommitteeinthe2012
cyclesofar,and$2.4millionlifetimetothesesame
members.
OthermembersoftheTop20whoarenotononeof
thekeycommitteesstillhaveconnectionstonuclear
weaponsorotherstrategicfacilities.Sen.BobCorker
(R-TN),twelfthonthelist,representsthehomestate
oftheOakRidgeNationalSecuritysite,wherethe
newUraniumProcessingFacility(UPF)isbeingbuilt.
Sen.RichardShelby(R-AL)representsHuntsville,
Alabama,hometothelargestclusterofmissilede-
fensecontractorsinthecountry.
Othermajorrecipientsofnuclearweaponscontractor
politicalcontributionsinincludeSen.JeffSessions
(R-AL),therankingRepublicanontheSubcommit-
teeonStrategicForcesoftheSenateArmedServices
Committee,whohasreceived$143,275duringhis
politicalcareerfromtopnuclearweaponscontrac-
tors,withLockheedMartinhistopdonorat$35,150;
SenateArmedServicesCommitteememberSen.Joe
Lieberman(ID-CT),whohasreceived$466,435in
lifetimecontributionsfromthesefrms,withUnited
Technologiesashislargestcontributorwith$172,050
indonations;andSen.JonKyl(R-AZ),whohasre-
ceived$250,875frommajornuclearweaponscontrac-
torsinhiscareer,withGeneralDynamicsashislargest
donorat$45,100.
Itshouldbenotedthatwhiledonationstokeydeci-
sionmakersareasignthatcontractorsareseeking
infuenceoverandaccesstothesemembersofCon-
gress,theseeffortsarenotalwayssuccessful.For
example,Sen.DianneFeinstein(D-CA)hasbeenone
ofthekeenestcriticsoftheNationalNuclearSecurity
Administration(NNSA).SheopposedtheNNSAs
proposedReliableReplacementWarhead(RRW),and
hasraisedquestionsaboutthecostsandscopeofkey
facilitiesliketheplutonium-producingChemicaland
MetallurgyReplacementFacility(CMRR)andthe
UraniumProcessingFacility.
57

Through the Revolving Door


Inadditiontomakingcampaigncontributions,another
techniqueforattemptingtoinfuencegovernment
decisionmakersistheuseoftherevolvingdoor.The
revolvingdoorreferstotheprocessthroughwhich
publicoffcialsleavegovernmentservicetoworkfor
companiestheyhadbeeninchargeoffundingand/or
regulating.Therearetwopotentialproblemswiththe
A Publication of the Center for International Policy A Publication of the Center for International Policy
revolvingdoor.First,itraisesthedangerthatcompa-
nylobbyistswhousedtoworkingovernmentcanget
specialtreatmentfortheirfrmfromformercolleagues
inkeydecisionmakingpositionsingovernment.Sec-
ond,offcialsmaynotstrikeashardabargainasthey
shouldwithfrmsiftheyseethemaspotentialfuture
employers.
Morethanfortyyearsago,thelateSen.William
Proxmire(D-WI)eloquentlysummarizedthepotential
problemposedbytherevolvingdoor:
Theeasymovementofhighrankingmilitaryoffcers
intojobswithmajordefensecontractorsandthereverse
movementoftopexecutivesinmajordefensecontractors
intohighPentagonjobsissolidevidenceofthemilitary-
industrial-complexinoperation.Itisarealthreattothe
publicinterestbecauseitincreasesthechancesofabuse..
.Howhardabargainwilloffcersinvolvedinprocurement
planningorspecifcationsdrivewhentheyareoneortwo
yearsfromretirementandhavetheexampletolookatof
over2,000fellowoffcersdoingwellontheoutsideafter
retirement?
58

Insomeinstances,therevolvingdoorstartsatthetop.
Forexample,untilrecently,formerSecretaryofEn-
ergySpencerAbrahamwaspresidentofMOXAreva
Services,thejointventureoftheFrenchfrmAreva
andtheU.S.contractorTheShawGroupInc.that
isresponsibleforthetroubledMixedOxide(MOX)
plantinAiken,SouthCarolina.
59
AndEveretBeck-
ner,aformerexecutiveatLockheedMartin,spenta
stintastheheadofnuclearweaponsfacilitiesatthe
NationalNuclearSecurityAdministration(NNSA).
60
Butforeverytopexecutivewhomakestheleapfrom
governmenttoindustryorthereverse,therearedozens
ofhigh-andmid-leveloffcialsdoingthesamething.
Forexample,the14nuclearweaponscontractors
coveredbythisstudyemploy137lobbyistswhoare
formeremployeesofkeymembersofCongress,Con-
gressionalCommittees,orexecutivebranchagencies
liketheDepartmentofDefenseandtheDepartment
ofEnergy(ofwhichtheNNSAisapart)oroneof
themilitaryservices.Anumberoflobbyistsworkfor
morethanoneofthenuclearweaponscontractors.
61

Thebreakdownofmajorrevolvingdoorlobbyistsisas
follows(seeTables7and8):
Thedistributionofrevolvingdoorhiresamongcom-
paniesdifferssubstantially(seeTable8,below).
AsdemonstratedinTable7,themajorityofrelevant
revolvingdoorhiresnowworkingaslobbyistsforkey
nuclearweaponscontractorscamefromCongress,
A Publication of the Center for International Policy
19
atotalof96inall.Nextinlineweretheuniformed
military,with26,andtheexecutivebranch(DoDand
DOE),with25.Tocitejustoneexampleofthepo-
tentialinfuenceofferedbytheseconnections,adozen
oftherevolvingdoorlobbyistslistedhereareformer
chiefsofstaffforkeymembersofCongress,includ-
ingSen.JonKyl(R-AZ),Sen.RobPortman(R-OH),
SenateMinorityLeaderMitchMcConnell(R-KY),
Rep.JerryLewis(R-CA),Sen.RogerWicker(R-MS),
Sen.DianneFeinstein(D-CA),andRep.KayGranger
(R-TX).Inaddition,19revolvingdoorlobbyistsare
formerstaffersofmembersoftheEnergyandWater
SubcommitteeoftheSenateAppropriationsCom-
mitteethecommitteethatcontrolsspendingonthe
nuclearwarheadcomplex.Subcommitteemembers
withformerstaffersnowworkingfornuclearweapons
contractorsincludeRep.PattyMurray(D-WA),four;
Sen.DianneFeinstein(D-CA),4;Sen.SusanCollins
(R-ME),4;andoneformerstaffereachfromtheof-
fcesofThadCochran(R-MS);Sen.RichardShelby
(R-AL);Sen.MaryLandrieu(D-LA);Sen.Lindsey
Graham(R-SC);Sen.JackReed(D-RI);Sen.Kay
BaileyHutchinson(R-TX);andSen.MitchMcCon-
nell(R-KY).
Table8showsthatthelargestfrmshavefarandaway
themostrevolvingdoorlobbyists,dominatedbyBoe-
ing(39),GeneralDynamics(32),GeneralElectric
(29),andLockheedMartin(20).
thE bottom linE: bombS vErSuS budgEtS
AsCongressandthepresidentwrangleovertheap-
propriatelevelofspendingondefenseinaneraof
defcitreduction,militarycontractorsincluding
thoseinvolvedinnuclearweapons-relatedwork
havebecomeincreasinglyvocalintheiropposition
torealreductionsinmilitaryspending.Althoughit
hasbeendescribedinsomecirclesasaplanfordeep
cutsinPentagonspending,theObamaadministra-
tionscurrentplanwouldinvolvecutsofonly1.6%in
realtermsoverthenextfveyears.
62
Thelargerfgure
oftencited$487billionincutsoveradecadeis
measuredrelativetothePentagonsprior,unrealistic
plans,notrelativetocurrentspendinglevels.
63
But
afteroveradecadeofsteadyincreasesinmilitary
spending,eventhelevelingoffentailedincurrent
Pentagonplanswillposeproblemsformajorprocure-
mentprograms.
64
Thereissimplynotenoughmoney
inproposedbudgetstopayforballisticmissilesub-
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20
tablE 8:
Revolving Door Lobbyists, Major Nuclear Weapons Contractors, as of December 2011
Company Number of Revolving Door Lobbyists*
Boeing 39
General Dynamics 32
General Electric 29
Lockheed Martin 20
Northrop Grumman 17
United Technologies 11
Honeywell 10
Babcock and Wilcox 9
URS/ Washington Group 4
Shaw Group 3
Fluor Corp. 3
AECOM 1
SOURCE: Analysis by the Center for International Policy based on data in the Center for Responsive Politics Open
Secrets data base.
*Revolving door hires counted for purposes of this table include only those who worked for the military services, the
Pentagon, the Department of Energy, a key member of Congress, or a key Congressional committee. An accounting
of all revolving door lobbyists working for these frms would yield substantially higher numbers.
tablE 7:
Breakdown of Major Revolving Door Lobbyists Employed by the Nuclear Weapons
Industry
Organization Worked For Number - Revolving Door
MemberofCongress 57
KeyCongressionalCmte 39
DepartmentofDefense 16
DepartmentofEnergy 8
UniformedMilitary 26
SOURCE:DataanalyzedbytheCenterforInternationalPolicybasedoninformationcontainedintheCenterforResponsivePolitics
OpenSecretsdatabase.Totalsrefectthefactthatsomelobbyistsworkedforoneormoreoftherelevantagencies/offces.
A Publication of the Center for International Policy A Publication of the Center for International Policy A Publication of the Center for International Policy
21
marinesandafullcomplementofnewsurfaceships;a
newbomberand over2,000F-35fghtersplusanew
generationofaerialrefuelingtankers;orthreemajor
newnuclearweaponsfacilities.
Butevengiventhepotentialimpactsonkeyprograms
oftheObamaadministrationsmodestbelttightening,
theindustryanditsalliesinCongresshavereserved
theirharshestrhetoricalfreforthemuchfearedpros-
pectofsequestrationtheautomaticspendingcuts
thatwillbetriggeredifCongressfailstocomeupwith
anadequatedefcitreductionplan.
65
Ifsequestration
weretooccur,Pentagonplanswouldbescaledback
byroughly$1trillionoverthenextdecadetwice
thelevelofreductionscalledforinthecurrentObama
plan.Thiswouldputconsiderableadditionalpres-
sureonweaponsprocurementbudgets,makingitthat
muchlesslikelythatcostlyprojectslikeanewnuclear
bomberoranewballisticmissilesubmarinewillbe
fullyfundedorfundedatall.
Itshouldalsobenotedthatreductionsinnuclear
weaponsspendingcanandshouldbemadeatwhat-
everlevelofPentagonexpendituresemergesfrom
currentdebates.Atatimewhenasfewas300nuclear
weaponswouldbemorethanadequatetodeterany
countryfromattackingtheUnitedStateswithits
nucleararsenalcomparedtothethousandsthe
UnitedStatescurrentlypossessesitisnotpossibleto
arguethatspendingreductionsinthisareawouldleave
uswithahollowmilitaryorunderminesupportfor
militarypersonnel,orotherwiseundermineourde-
fenses,assuggestedbythepro-nuclearlobby.
66
And
theObamaadministrationscurrentnuclearpolicyre-
view,whileitmaysetthestageforfurtherreductions
intheU.S.arsenal,isunlikelytogoanywherenearas
lowas300deployedwarheads.
Infact,signifcantsavingsinnuclearweaponsspend-
ingarepossibleevenwithoutamajorpolicyshift.
Andsomechangessuchasreducingtheballistic
missilesubmarineforcefrom12toeightwhilein-
creasingthenumberofwarheadsthatcanbelaunched
bytheremainingboatscouldbecarriedoutwithout
evenreducingthelevelsofdeployedwarheadsal-
lowedundertheNewSTARTnucleararmsreduction
treaty.
67
Strongcasescanalsobemadefordelaying
theconstructionofanewnuclear-capablebomberor
endingplansforafacilitythatwillallowtheDepart-
mentofEnergytostepupitscapacitytomakepluto-
niumpitsfornuclearwarheads.
68

ReductionsinPentagonspendingcouldincreasethe
prospectsofasplitinthenuclearweaponslobby,with
keycontractorsandtheiralliesfghtingoverashrink-
ingbudgetarypie.Wehavealreadyseenexamples
ofthisintheactionsoftheICBMCoalition,which
hasmadethecasethatICBMsaresuperiortobomb-
ersinthecapabilitiesofferedaspartofanemerging
U.S.nucleardeterrent.Discussionsoverwhetherto
setupaseparatebudgetcategoryforballisticmissile
submarinessothatspendingonthemdoesntdirectly
impingeontheNavysbudgetareaimedatheadingoff
budgetarytradeoffsbetweensurfaceshipsandballistic
missilesubs.
Thebottomlineisthatthelevelofnuclearweapons
spendingandthesizeoftheU.S.nucleararsenal
shouldbedeterminedbasedonstrategicdecisions
abouthowbesttodefendthecountry,notonpork
barrelpolitics.Inordertomoveinthatdirection,the
followingpolicyoptionsshouldbeimplemented:
1. Theballisticmissilesubmarineforceshouldbe
reducedfrom12boatstoeight,withadditional
warheadscarriedineachboat.Thiswouldsave
$18billionoverthenextdecadewhilesustaining
thecapabilitytodeploythenumberofwarheads
calledforundertheNewSTARTtreaty.
2. Plansforanewnuclearbombershouldbeshelved,
atasavingsof$18billionoverthenextdecade.
Ataminimum,thebombershouldnotbemade
nuclear-capable.
3. Thereisnocircumstanceunderwhichitwillbe
necessarytobuildlargenumbersofnewplutonium
pitsortriggersfornuclearwarheads.Therefore,
theChemicalandMetallurgyResearchReplace-
mentfacilityatLosAlamosNationalLaboratories
shouldbecancelled,atasavingsof$5billionover
thenextdecade.
4. Plutoniumwastefromnuclearwarheadscanbe
neutralizedwithoutbuildingthemulti-billiondol-
larMixedOxide(MOX)facility.Ittooshouldbe
cancelled,atasavingsofatleast$4.9billionin
constructioncostsoverthenexttenyears.
69

Whilethesestepswillhavesomeimpactonthenucle-
arweaponsindustry,theyaremanageableinthecon-
textofa$14trillioneconomy.Thereistoomuchat
staketoletnarrowspecialintereststrumpthenational
interestwhenitcomestomakingdecisionsonnuclear
weaponsspendingandpolicy.
A Publication of the Center for International Policy A Publication of the Center for International Policy A Publication of the Center for International Policy
22
About the author: William Hartung is a senior policy analyst at CIP, where he directs the Arms & Se-
curity project. Hartung specializes in national security issues, and has authored numerous articles that
have appeared in the New York Times, the Washington Post, and the World Policy Journal. His most
recent book is Prophets of War: Lockheed Martin and the Making of the Military-Industrial Complexx
(Nation Books, 2011).
rEFErEncES
1
AaronMehtaandR.JeffreySmith,PossibleNuclearWeaponsCutsWorryRepublicanLawmakers,iWatch News,CenterforPublic
Integrity,March5,2012,availableathttp://www.iwatchnews.org/2012/03/05/8313/possible-nuclear-weapons-cuts-worry-republican-
lawmakers
2
DavidAxe,BombsAway:HowtheAirForceSoldItsRiskyNew$55BillionPlane,The Danger Room,March26,2012,available
athttp://www.iwatchnews.org/2012/03/05/8313/possible-nuclear-weapons-cuts-worry-republican-lawmakersForthe$68billion
estimate,whichincludesresearchanddevelopment,seeLetterfromSecretaryofDefenseLeonPanettatoSenatorJohnMcCainonthe
budgetaryeffectsofsequestration,November14,2011.TheletteriscitedinTomZ.CollinaandKelseyDavenport,FactSheet:U.S.
NuclearModernizationPrograms,ArmsControlAssociation,April9,2012.
3
ChristopherCastelli,NewNuclearSubsWillCost$347BilliontoAcquire,OperateDefenseNews,February16,2011,availableat
http://defensenewsstand.com/NewsStand-General/The-INSIDER-Free-Article/dod-new-nuclear-subs-will-cost-347-billion-to-acquire-
operate/menu-id-720.htmlArticlecitedinTomZ.CollinaandKelseyDavenport,FactSheet:U.S.NuclearModernizationPrograms,
op.cit.OncostsforprocurementandR&Dofnewballisticmissilesubmarines,seeCongressionalBudgetOffce,An Analysis of the
Navys 2011 Shipbuilding Plan,June2011,p.17.
4
AllianceforNuclearAccountability,Nuclear Reality Checks: the U.S. Department of Energys Most Dangerous Budget-Busting
Projects,April2011,availableathttp://www.ananuclear.org/Portals/0/documents/high_risk_report.pdf
5
Ibid.,p.17.
6
Asof1996,theDepartmentofEnergyhadestimatedthecostsofcleaningupthenuclearwarheadcomplexat$227billion,afgure
thatisconsideredtobeconservative.SeeStephenI.Schwartz,ed.,AtomicAudit:TheCostsandConsequencesofU.S.Nuclear
WeaponsSince1940,(Washington:BrookingsInstitutionPress,1998),p.355.
7
AmyF.Woolf,ModernizingtheTriadonaTightBudget,Arms Control Today,January/February2012,availableathttp://www.
armscontrol.org/act/2012_01-02/Modernizing_the_Triad_on_a_Tight_Budget
8
TomZ.Collina,GOPRapsObamaonNuclearBudget,ArmsControlToday,April2012.
9
OffceofRep.DennyRehberg(R-MT),RehbergAmendmenttoProtectMalmstromandStopNewSTARTPassesHouse,May18,
2012.
10
W.J.Hennigan,PentagonWeaponsBuyerQuietlyVisitsCaliforniatoDiscussBomberPlans,Los Angeles Times,May22,2011.
11
CraigWhitlockandDanaHedgpeth,CongressPursuesF-35EngineThatSecretaryofDefenseRobertGatesDoesntWant,
Washington Post,May28,2010.
12
OffceofNavalOperations,AnnualReporttoCongressonLong-RangePlanforConstructionofNavalVesselsforFY2013,April
2012,p.6.
13
HuntingtonIngallsindustries,10KReportforFiscalYearEndingDecember31,2011,p.57.
14
QuotedpassageisfromtheKnollsAtomicPowerLaboratorywebsite,athttp://www.knollslab.com/whatwedo.html
15
SeeBettiswebsiteathttp://www.bettislab.com/whatwedo.html
16
NumberlistedonthefrontpageofthewebsiteoftheSubmarineIndustrialBaseCouncil,athttp://www.submarinesuppliers.org/
17
HansKristensen,B61NuclearBombCostsEscalating,FASStrategicSecurityblog,FederationofAmericanScientists,May9,
2012.
18
TaskForces,U.S.StrategicCommand(USSTRATCOM),athttp://www.stratcom.mil/task_forces/
19
AllianceforNuclearAccountability, Nuclear Reality Check$,op.cit.,p.5.
A Publication of the Center for International Policy A Publication of the Center for International Policy A Publication of the Center for International Policy
23
20
PitLifetime,theMitreCorporation,November20,2006.Onpageonethereportnotesthatwithrespecttoplutoniumpitsthat
serveasthetriggersforcurrentnuclearweapons,Mostprimarytypeshavecredibleminimumlifetimesinexcessof100yearsas
regardsagingofplutonium.
21
RealityCheck:NuclearWeaponsSpendingandNewSTART,ArmsControlAssociation,armscontrol.org,March19,2012.
22
FurtherdetailsabouttheY-12complexareavailableathttp://www.y12.doe.gov/about/
23
AllianceforNuclearAccountability,op.cit.,p.7.
24
Ibid.
25
ArmsControlAssociation,armscontrol.org,op.cit.
26
NuclearRealityCheck$,pp.17-18.
27
StatementontheFY2013PresidentsBudgetRequestbeforetheHouseAppropriationsCommitteeSubcommitteeonEnergyand
WaterDevelopmentMarch6,2012,ThomasDAgostino,administrator,NationalNuclearSecurityAdministration.
28
JohnMatson,MOXBattle:MixedOxideNuclearFuelRaisesSafetyQuestions,Scientifc American,March25,2011.
29
ArjunMakhijani,Plutonium End Game: Managing Global Stocks of Separated Weapons-Usable Commercial and Surplus Nuclear
Weapons Plutonium,Chapter5:AlternativeDispositionOptions,InstituteforEnvironmentalandEnergyResearch,January2001.
30
GreaterKansasCityChapterofPhysiciansforSocialResponsibilityandNuclearWatchNewMexico,TheKansasCityPlant(KCP)
forNuclearWeaponsComponents:BackgroundonKCPandtheNuclearWeaponsComplex,availableathttp://nukewatch.org/
KCNukePlant/
31
WilliamD.HartungToBuildorNottoBuild?TheRoleoftheKansasCityPlantintheDepartmentofEnergysPlansfor
ModernizingtheNuclearWeaponsComplex,ArmsandSecurityInitiative,NewAmericaFoundation,October18,2007.
32
AllianceforNuclearAccountability,op.cit.,p.9.
33
Ibid.,pp.13-14.
34
Ibid.,pp.15-16.
35
HansKristensen,B-61NuclearBombCostsEscalating,FASStrategicSecurityBlog,FederationofAmericanScientists,May9,
2012.
36
Informationoncompaniesinvolvedinrunningeachfacilityareavailableeitheronthefacilitywebsiteoronseparatesitessetup
forthecorporatepartnershipsinvolved,includingLawrenceLivermoreNationalSecurityLLC,athttp://www.llnsllc.com/;Sandia
NationalLaboratories,atwww.sandia.gov;NationalSecurityTechnologiesLLC,atwww.nstec.com;andBabcockandWilcox
TechnicalServicesPantexLLC(B&WPantex),athttp://www.babcock.com/services/nuclear_operations_management/mo_of_doe_
sites.html
37
FederalProcurementDataSystem,Top100ContractorsReport,FY2011.
38
Referstoprocurementcostsonly;seeDavidAxe,op.cit.
39
SeehomepageoftheSubmarineIndustrialBaseCouncil,athttp://www.submarinesuppliers.org/
40
RANDCorporation,NationalDefenseResearchInstitute,Sustaining U.S. Nuclear Submarine Design Capabilities,May2007.
41
PreparedRemarksofPaulG.Kaminsky,UndersecretaryofDefenseforAcquisitionandTechnology,attheU.S.StrategicCommand
StrategicSystemsIndustrialSymposium,OffuttAirForceBase,Nebraska,August30,1995.
42
SubmarineIndustrialBaseCouncilhomepage,op.cit.
43
RoxanaTiron,SubmarineContractorsLeadLobbyingMarchAmidU.S.DefenseCuts,Bloomberg News,March7,2012.
44
NavyLeagueoftheUnitedStates,Maritime Primacy and Economic Prosperity: Maritime Policy 2012-13,Washington,DC,2012,p.
2;andOffceoftheChiefofNavalOperations,Annual Report to Congress on Long-Range Plan for the Construction of Naval Vessels
for FY2013,April2012,p.5.
45
NavyLeague,p.2;andChiefofNavalOperations,p.6.
46
NavyLeague,p.5.
47
NavyLeagueoftheUnitedStates,Internationally Engage: Ensuring Freedom of the Seas Maritime Policy Statement 2011-12,
A Publication of the Center for International Policy A Publication of the Center for International Policy A Publication of the Center for International Policy
24
Washington,DC,2011,p.21.
48
TheShipbuildingCaucuswebsiteisathttp://shipbuilding.wittman.house.gov/
49
ForanexcellentprimeroncurrenttrendsinPentagonspending,seeNationalPrioritiesProjectandProjectonDefenseAlternatives,
TalkingAboutMilitarySpendingandthePentagonBudget,FY2013andBeyond,February8,2012,availableathttp://
nationalpriorities.org/analysis/2012/talking-about-military-spending-and-the-pentagon-budget/
50
AirForceAssociation,AnnualReportfor2011,p.11.
51
SeesectiononAFACorporateSponsors,AirForceAssociationAnnualReportfor2011,p.28.
52
RichardSimonandJeanMerl,APoliticalTwistAsRep.McKeonsWifeSeeksAssemblySeat,Los Angeles Times,April8,2012.
53
GlobalNewswire,NorthropGrummanandATKSuccessfullyTestMinutemanStage1forU.S.AirForce,October24,2011.
54
Baucus,TesterSecureICBMFundinginAirForceBudgetAtSenatorsUrging,BudgetMaintainsFullFundingforMalmstrom
ICBMForce,Jobs,PressRelease,OffceofSen.JonTester(D-MT),February13,2012.
55
LetterfromSenatorsMaxBaucusandJonTestertoSecretaryofDefenseLeonPanetta,December7,2011.
56
JamesOliphantandMichaelMuskal,SenatePassesNewSTARTTreaty,Los Angeles Times,December22,2010.
57
OpeningStatement,ChairmanDianneFeinstein,DepartmentofEnergyBudgetHearings,NationalNuclearSecurityAdministration
FiscalYear2013BudgetRequest,March21,2012.
58
RobertH.Phelps,Ex-MilitaryMenGaininIndustry,New York Times,March23,1969.
59
JosephTrento,SpencerAbrahamCashesIn,NaturalResourceNewsService,February2,2012.
60
ResourcesforthePresidentsTeam,GeorgeW.BushWhiteHousearchives,availableathttp://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.
gov/results/leadership/bio_33.html
61
DataanalyzedbytheCenterforInternationalPolicybasedoninformationintheCenterforResponsivePoliticsOpenSecretsdata
base.
62
U.S.DepartmentofDefense,FactSheet:TheDefenseBudget,February2012.
63
CraigWhitlock,PentagonBudgetSettoShrinkNextYear,Washington Post,January26,2012.
64
OnrecentgrowthinPentagonspendingseeLawrenceKorb,TimetoReinintheDefenseBudget,Politico,March7,2012.
65
See,forexample,PressureBuildstoStopSequestration,statementofMarionBlakey,PresidentandCEO,AerospaceIndustries
Association,March29,2012.
66
Onnuclearsuffciency,seeGarySchaub,Jr.andJamesForsyth,Jr.,AnArsenalWeCanAllLiveWith,New York Times,May23,
2010.
67
KelseyDavenportandTomZ.Collina,op.cit.,note8.
68
NuclearRealityCheck$,op.cit.,p.5-6.
69
Operating,maintenanceandrelatedcostsbringthetotalpriceoftheMOXplanttoroughly$20billionoverthenexttwodecades.
SeeTomClements,TVAShouldJettisonPlutoniumProject,Knoxville News-Sentinel,May19,2012.
Acknowledgments
The author would like to thank the Center for Responsive Politics for generating data on campaign contributions by major nuclear
weaponscontractors.InadditiontoChristineAnderson,citedabove,thereportbeneftedfromresearchassistancesuppliedbyKelsy
GreenwaldandAlexMette.
WewouldalsoliketothankthePloughsharesFundforitsgeneroussupportofthisproject.
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