MINI PROJECT REPORT 2008

INFRARED HEADPHONE
DONE BY RE MY A .M.MENON RE SI I MA. I NX IKRISI I NAN SAJINI SASIKUMAR GUIDED BY:

ABSTRACT

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| i t | The circuit for INFRARED HEADPHONE is designed to demonstrate the transmission and reception of audio signal through ! infrared radiations. The infrared rays generated by the transmitter circuit are received by the receiver circuit after transmission through air. This communication is much more effective than ordinary communication. It helps to receive audio signals from any audio device like T.V,radio etc. i without disturbing others. It provides minimum transmission loss. It is a low cost project

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o INTRODUCTION

c BLOCK DIAGRAM o BLOCK DIAGRAM EXPLANATION o CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

o CIRCUIT DIAGRAM EXPLANATION o PCB DESIGNING AND FABRICATION o PCB LAYOUT o PCB SCHEMATIC o COMPONENTS LIST o CONCLUSION o REFERENCES o DATASHEETS

The Infrared region of the spectrum lies beyond the red end of the visible range. Range can be extended by using lenses and reflectors with IR sensors comprising transmitters and receivers.01 to 7. range. Adjust potmeter VR2 for max. Red LED1 in transmitter circuit functions as a zener diode (0. with wavelengths between 0. A 9-volt battery can be used with receiver for portable operation INFRARED RADIATIONS These rays were discovered in 1800 by William Herschel.INTRODUCTION INFRARED HEADPHONES Using this low-cost project one can reproduce audio from TV without disturbing others. Instruments for detecting infrared radiation include heat-sensitive devices such as thermocouple detectors. The first two transistors (T4 and T5) form audio signal amplifier while the third transistor T6 is used to drive a headphone. In place of a pair of wires. Without using any lens. and photoconductors. photovoltaic cells. It does not use any wire connection between TV and headphones.65V) as well as supply-on indicator. when he observed that a thermometer placed just outside the visible spectrum of sunlight shows a greater increase in temperature than one placed in the red region.5x10 5 cm. bolometers. This IR transmitter can be powered from a 9-volt mains adapter or battery. clarity. i Direct photo-transistor tow aids IR LEDs of transmitter for max. a British musician and astronomer. An audio output transfonner is used (in reverse) to couple audio output from TV to the IR transmitter. IR transmitter uses two-stage transistor amplifier to drive two series-connected IR LEDs. a range of up to 6 metres is possible. IR receiver uses 3-stage transistor amplifier. Transistors Tl and T2 amplify the audio signals received from TV through the audio transformer. it uses invisible infrared light to transmit audio signals from TV to headphones. . Low-impedance output windings (lower gauge or thicker wires) are used for connection to TV side while high-impedance windings are connected to IR transmitter.

with major portion of the rest being in the visible region. The infrared absorption and emission characteristics of materials yield important information about the size. most infrared astronomical observations are carried out at high altitudes. Physiotherapists use infrared radiation to warm damaged muscles and so speed up healing. Infrared spectroscopy is also used to examine archaeological specimens and for detecting forgeries of art and other objects. . Although invisible to the eye. Special films or sensors which have the property to 'see in the dark' are used to observe these rays. besides for identification. Infrared photography of distant objects from the air takes advantage of this phenomenon.g.. Infrared rays are also reflected off objects. which depend on atomic weight and other atomic properties. Shorter infrared rays are used in remote controls. infrared rays can also be used to determine the amount of a known material in a given substance. and chemical bonding of molecules. under visible light. Infrared rays emitted by a given substance indicate the difference of some of the internal energy states. whereas unexposed skin shows up brightly.Infrared radiation is absorbed and emitted by the movement (rotations and vibrations) of chemically bonded atoms or groups of atoms of many materials. Infrared photography is used to detect pathological tissue growths' (thermography) and defects in electronic systems and circuits (due to their increased emission of heat). which enhance different areas according to their heat emission. atoms and ions present in them. Atmospheric haze and certain pollutants that scatter visible light are nearly transparent to parts of the infrared spectrum (scattering efficiency increases with the fourth power of the frequency). G3 and C02 in the atmosphere absorb large parts of the infrared spectrum. Infrared radiation plays an important role in heat transfer and is integral to the greenhouse effect. resemble the original. to observe cosmic objects through large clouds of interstellar dust. which. longer infrared radiation can be detected as warmth by the skin. just as visible light. Infrared light can also be sent down optical fibres for cable television and phone links. shape. However. since water vapour. For e. blue sky and water appear nearly black. Infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool for determining the internal structure of molecules and for identifying the amounts of known species in a given sample. with the help of balloons. It forms nearly 50% of the Sun's radiant energy. water and also our atmosphere. One of the major uses of infrared rays is Infrared photography. rockets and space-crafts. Some of the materials that absorb infrared radiation are window glass. in an infrared photograph. They can also be used to detect heat leaks in houses and forest fires. Hence.

Some audio transformers do not have a center tap. Audio transformers improve sound quality by removing interference from audio signals. is caused by voltages from other devices and produces a humming or buzzing sound. and can be used in light radar systems and to modify chemical reactions. Virtually every object at the Earth's surface emits electromagnetic radiation primarily in the infrared region of the spectrum. This interference. components are mounted on printed circuit boards (PCBs) by inserting component leads through holes in the board and then soldering. dish. They also vary in terms of insertion loss. Other applications of infrared light include its use in remote controls. while other devices have a center tap in only the primary side. the resistance of windings as measured in DC current. have a hollow metallic conductor and are used in microwave systems. and direct current resistance. the measured loss through a device excluding the power division factor. protects the windings. AUDIO TRANSFORMERS There are many ways to package audio transformers. and rated DC current. or disk mounts. Audio transformers vary according to output power. the impedance ratio equals the square-of-the-turn ratio. or in both the primary and secondary sides. automatic self-focusing cameras. besides hot objects. or ground noise. which are used in some fibre-optic communication systems and light radar systems respectively. Man-made sources of infrared radiation include. infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers. 3-dB bandwidth is the frequency range over which the insertion loss is less than 3 dB for mid-band insertion loss. For audio transformers. and night-vision optical instruments. With through-hole technology (TUT). and prevents vibration of the core material. Hframe mounting is used in applications with high levels of shock or vibration. is the ratio of power output to power input.Powerful infrared radiations can be artificially prepared. operating frequency range. while components that have leads in four-sides use trays. components plug into PCBs by soldering component leads or terminals to the top surface of the board. Audio transformers that are distributed as individual parts are processed in bulk packs. Other ways to package audio transformers include chassis. security alarm systems. Insertion loss. by using gases like Carbon dioxide and Carbon mono-oxide. shipping. and in sound reinforcement applications. Manufacturers use several methods to pack audio transformers for automatic assembly. Flat packs are integrated circuit (IC) packages with gull wings or flat leads on two or four sides. Audio transformers are used in car radios and broadcast equipment. and handling. is often minimized in the design of audio transformers and specified as a maximum Waveguide assemblies. audio transformers are encased in a magnetic shielding which is filled with an epoxy resin that provides insulation. only the secondary side. Direct current resistance (DCR). Modidar jacks incorporate the RJ-45 form factor and ensure high common mode noise immunity while maintaining signal integrity. Typically. In terms of certifications. audio transformers are built and . In surface mount technology (SMI). 3-decibel (dB) bandwidth. The tape reel method packs components into a tape system and draws specified lengths or quantities into a reel. which may contain solid or gaseous dielectric materials. The stick magazine method packs components into a tube.

LEDs are often used as small indicator lights on electronic devices and increasingly in higher power applications such as flashlights and area lighting. Phototransistors also have slower response times. A phototransistor is in essence nothing more than a bipolar transistor that is encased in a transparent case so that light can reach the base-collector junction. Besides lighting. The electrons that are generated by photons in the base-collector junction are injected into the base. An LED is usually a small area light source. both Underwriters Laboratories (UL) and the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) provide marks.tested according to a variety of standards. PHOTOTRANSISTOR Phototransistors also consist of a photodiode with internal gain. as in the common LED circuit. For example. interesting applications include sterilization of water and disinfection of devices. often with optics added to the chip to shape its radiation pattern. is a semiconductor diode that emits incoherent narrow-spectrum light when electrically biased in the forward direction of the p-n junction. and can be infrared. This effect is a form of electroluminescence. visible. The color of the emitted light depends on the composition and condition of the semiconducting material used. PHOTODIODE Light-emitting diode. and this current is amplified by the transistor operation. LEDs can also be used as a regular household light source. . Note that although phototransistors have a higher responsivity for light they are unable to detect low levels of light any better than photodiodes. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) also publishes applicable standards. or ultraviolet. usually called an LED .

The transmitter has 5 parts 1) Audio Device ' 2) Audio Interface 3) Audio Amplifier 4) IR Driver 5) IR LED Audio device is as explained before. I ■ | I 1 | . The IR driver has a Iiigh current transistor which is used to drive IR LED connected to emitter. —p. AUDIO INTERF ACE HEAD PHONE 2. TRANSMITTER IR INTERFA CE AUDIO AMPLI FIER. The audio output is given to an audio interface circuit which is a transformer connected in stepupmode. RECEIVER I " BLOCK DIAGRAM EXPLANATION TRANSMITTER Infrared headphone has a transmitter connected to audio output from anv audio source like TV. The IR LED generate the infrared radiation corresponding to audio Input.AUDIO AUDIO \ i I 1 AUDIO DEVICE INTERFAC E AMPLIFIE R IR [ DRIVE R 1 1 i t 1. radio etc.The output is given to an audio amplifier mainly RC coupled amplifier where it is amplified to drive the IR driver.

..... *..... 1) IR Interface 2) Audio Amplifier 3) Audio Interface 4) Headphone The IR interface is photo diode or transistor..J . . 14......... i >.....•:' ■:j'|# T-....• ■.: W i a ill p. A II ( i * 4. This is given to audio amplifier where it is amplified and given to audio interface circuit........ The receiver section has 4 points. x< : £ it cf te fl...viy*«-S i iljftl ..... St ...........RECEIVER The receiver section is what the user carries with him. i" I Hi ... ■ . . I S.. Then receives the IR radiations and produce corresponding electrical signals.. It give the input to the headphone where the transmitted audio signal is received.....

: CIR CUI T' DIA GR AM .S « - J * J .

CUIT D I A G R . The signal is then given to an audio amplifier. Tliis is given to base of IS and it becomes OFF and its collector voltage increases.. The low voltage makes the BD 140 transistor off and its collector voltage increases and the LED emits radiations. One is the transmitter and the other is the receiver TRANSMITTER The transmitter has an audio input from tv. When base voltage of T4 increases making it ON and thus collector voltage decreases. This is amplified by audio amplifier comprising of T4 and T5. an audio transformer. radio etc. EXPLANATIO N An IR headphone has two parts. an amplifier and IR driver AND IR LED's. When base voltage increases the transistor is ON and the collector voltage decreases simultaneously. RECEIVER The transmitted IR rays are received by a photo transmitter and converted to corresponding electrical signals. It is a high current transistor with collector current of up to I amphers.The red LED connected to its collector glows when collector voltage decreases. This amplified signal is given to audio interface where it is given to head set and the audio signal is received PCB FABRICATION PCB Artwork (Dip Trace) PCB Artwork on tracing sheet HI i ^7 Screen printing (Poly blue) . The transformer is connected in inverse so as to amplify signals and offer impedence matching.■ I R . The voltage is given to the base of transistor BD 140.A 9v battery or adapter provides voltage supply.

The solder side of the Mylar sheet is placed on the shiny side of the fivestar sheet and is placed in a frame. 7. The sheet is then touched with black ink. Then it is put in hot water and shook till unexposed region becomes transparent. It is then transferred to a Mylar sheet. 5.PCB Artwork on Cu plate using paint Etching (FerricChloride) Removal of paint from Copper plate by scrubbing T Drying Drilling (0. Lift up the PCB and check. 4. whether all the unwanted copper is removed. The track layout of the electronic circuit should be made in such a manner that the paths are in easy routes.9mm Bit) and Cleaning Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is a piece of art. After that the etched sheet is dried. A Copper clad sheet is cut to the size and cleaned. A PCB mechanically supports and connects components by conductive pathways. The exposed five-star sheet is put in Hydrogen Peroxide solution. Then it is exposed to sunlight with Mylar sheet facing the sunlight. PCB's are used to route electrical currents and signals tlirough copper tracks which are firmly bonded to an insulating base. Etching is done by immersing the marked Copper clad in Ferric Chloride solution. This is put in cold water and then the rough side is stuck on to the silk screen. The performance of an electronic circuit depends on the layout and desien of PCB. Drawing the layout of the PCB in a paper. It is then dried. 2. This is placed under the screen. PCB Fabrication involves the following steps: - 1. . This is then pressed and dried well. Acid resistant ink is spread on the screen so that a pattern of tracks and a pad is obtained on the Copper clad sheet. Swish the board to keep the etch fluid moving. 6. 3. 8. The dried sheet is then etched using Ferric chloride solution(32Baume) till all the unwanted copper is etched away. The plastic sheet of the five-star sheet is removed leaving the pattern on the screen. etched from copper sheets laminated on to insulated substrate.

They are intended for plumbing or non-electronics assembly work. is recommended) 2. The unwanted resist ink is removed using Sodium Hydroxide solution. Silver: . • Paste solders: These solders are used in field applications or in specialized manufacturing applications.Through Hole size . .il (1mm ^ 39.86mil Pad shape .0.25mil On board . Rosin core: . PCB PARAMETERS Copper thickness .Silver solders are typically used for low resistance connections but they have a higher melting point and are more expensive than Sn/Pb solders.Lead free solders are used as more environmental friendly substitutes for leaded solder. Types: 1.60m.9mm (36mil) Base . The popularly used solders are alloys of tin (Sn) and lead (Pb) that melts below the melting point of tin.Paper phenolic.60/40 Sn/Pb and 63/67 Sn/'Pb solders are the most common types used for electronics assembly.02"-0. 5. hylam PCB quality . SOLDER Solder is the joining material that melts below 427 degree connections between components.60niil Pad width . 4. These solders are available in various diameters and are most appropriate for small electronics work (0.37 mils) Track width . Other special solders: • Various melting point eutetics: These special solders are typically used for non-electronics assembly of difficult to construct mechanical items that mist be assembled in a particular sequence. Holes are then drilled. 3.72m. but they are typically not as easy to use mainly because of their higher melting point and poorer wetting properties.9.Oval Pad hole size .Acid-core solders should not be used for electronics.05" dia.FRC4 SOLDERING Soldering is the process of joining metals by using lower melting point to weld or alloy with joining surfaces. The acid-core flux will cause corrosion of circuitry and can damage components.il Clearance . Lead free: . Acid-Core: .86mil Pad height .

The most common flux used in hand soldering of electronic components is rosin. • It should be easily displaced from the metal by the molten soldering operation. The 50W and 25W soldering irons are commonly used for soldering of electronic circuits. the components terminals should be free oxides and other obstructing films. This process is called tinning. B) Good. These are available in petroleum jelly as paste flux. Soldering must be done in minimum time to avoid dry soldering and heating up of the components. Soldering Steps 1. o Qualities of a good solder joint: A) Shim surface. Straighten and clean the components leads using a blade or a knife. 2. . The desirable properties of flux are:• It should provide a liquid cover over the materials and exclude air gap up to the soldering temperature. • It should dissolve any oxide on the metal surface. Flux is a medium used to remove the degree of wetting. Zinc chloride or Ammonium chloride separately or in combination is mostly used as fluxes. 3. Small amount of lead coating can be done on the portion of the leads using soldering iron. components. smooth fillet. 5. Apply flux on the joints and solder the joints. • Residues should be removable after completing soldering operation. 6. Soldering Iron It is Hie tool used to melt the solder and apply it at the joint in the circuit. Care must be taken to avoid the components getting heated up. Make the layout of the components in the circuit. Use nose pliers. The iron bit at the tip gets heated while few minutes. 4. The lead should be cleaned chemically or by abrasion using blades or knives. Mount the components on the PCB by bending the leads of the . Plug in the chord of the soldering iron into the mains to get heated. It operates in 230V supply. Wash the residue using water and brush. Apply a little flux on the leads. Solder joints should be inspected when completed to determine if they have been properly made.Flux In order to make the surface accept the solder readily. a combination of mild organic acids extracted from pine trees..

Dull or crystallized surfaces: . but they should be avoided since they are precursors to voids. Air pockets: . Balls: . 4. Boards should be clean and dry prior to soldering. These black spots usually result from overheated (burnt) Rosin or other contaminants such as burnt wire insulation. allowing air to be in contact with the connecting metals. Maintaining a clean tip will help to avoid these problems. This prevents proper wetting of both surfaces and results in solder being attached to only one surface (Component or trace). Blowholes can occur due to vaporization of the moisture on the surface of the board and exiting through the molten solder.Air pockets (voids) result from incomplete wetting of surfaces.o Qualities of a poor solder joint: 1. Cold solder joints result from moving the components after the soldering has been removed but before the solder has hardened. 6. Excess solder: .Excess solder usage can cover up other potential problems and should be avoided. It can also lead to solder bridges.This is an indicator of a cold solder joint. In addition. spherical solder joints can result from the application of too much solder. 2. This will cause oxidation of the joint and eventual failure. Cold solder joints may work at first but will eventually fail. Dimples: .Black spots "floating" in the soldering fillet should be avoided because they indicate contamination and a potential for failure as in the case of voids. Floaters: . 5.A solder ball. instead of a fillet can occur if the trace was heated but the lead was not (vice-versa). . 3. Ethanol (100%) can be used as a moisture chaser if boards are wet prior to soldering.Dimples in the surface do not always indicate a serious problem.

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It does not use any wire .PCB SCHEMATIC TRANSMITTER RECEIVE R in <X> CV J ta <3> CO r 01 C3 O RU o DOOO cho go «—» C3 This project INFRARED HEADPHONE was designed to reproduce audio from TV without disturbing others .

In place of a pair of wires it uses invisible IR radiations . . Range of upto 5 mtrs is possible.connection between TV and headphone. Range can be extended using lenses and reflectors.

7K 22K 2.01 UF .COMPONENTS LIST S.1 UF 100 UF 47 P BATTERY 9 V HEAD PHONE 3 1 1 1 1 2 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 9 10 ESTIMATE .NO COMPONENTS QTY 1 AUDIO TRANSFORMER 1 2 TRANSISTOR BC548 BEL 187 BD140 IR PHOTO TRANSISTOR LED IR LED RESISTER 4.2K 470K 12 OHM 100 OHM 10 K POTENTIOMETER 100K CAPACITOR .

700 =Rs.244 = Rs.COST OF COMPONENTS =Rs.944 PCB FABRICATION TOTAL COST .

REFERENCE Basic Radio & Television by SP S harm a Electronics maker Audio and Video System s.by RG Guptha Electronics Zone .

0 6.VBE = 0) (VCE = 50V.0 — V — Collector Cutoff Current (VCE = 70V. Junction to Case Symbol v CEO VCBO v EBO <C PD BC 546 65 80 BC 547 45 50 6. STYLE (TO-226AA) 17 TO-92 625 5. IC = 0) BC546 BC547 BC548. C BASE Rating Collector-Emitter Voltage Collector-Base Voltage Emitter-Base Voltage Collector Current — Continuous Total Device Dissipation @ T/\ = 25°C Derate above 25°C Total Device Dissipation @ = 250C Derate above 25°C Operating and Storage Junction Temperature Range THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS Characteristic Thermal Resistance.VBE = 0) (VCE = 30V.Tstg Symbol R 0JA R 0JC Max 200 83.2 0.MOTOROLA SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNICAL DATA Order this document by BC54G/D Amplifier Transistors N P N Silicon EMIT TER MAXIMUM RATINGS BC546. B . A.0 1.IB = 0) Collector-Base Breakdown Voltage (lc = 100|iAdc) BC547 BC548 BC546 BC547 BC548 v — — (BR)CBO 80 50 30 — — —■ V — -—- Emitter-Base Breakdown Voltage (lE = 10r.TA= 125X) BC546 BC547 BC548 BC546/547/548 'CES — — — 0. B BC547.VBE = 0) (VCE = 35V.2 0. B. v (BR)EBO 6. C BC548. A.A.3 Unit °C/W °c/w Symbol v ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS A = 25°C unless otherwise noted) Characteristic OFF CHARACTERISTICS Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage BC546 (T Min 65 45 30 Typ Max - Unit V (BR)CEO 0c = 1. Junction to Ambient Thermal Resistance.0 nA MA REV 1 ------------------------------------------------------------.— © Motorola.0 6.5 12 -55 to+150 1q Pd T J. Inc 1996 f^) MOTOFiOLA .2 — 15 15 15 4.0 100 BC 548 30 30 Unit Vdc Vdc Vdc mAdc mW rnWrC Watt mW/"C °C CASE 29-04.0 mA.

VCE = 5.0 2.0 = 5.7 -0. Af= 200 Hz) CE (lc = 0.5 mA) SMALL-SIGNAL CHARACTERISTICS Base-Emitter On Voltage Current-Gain — Bandwidth Product (lc = 2. FETs and Diodes Device Data . f = 1.0 V.0 mA) (lc = 10 mA.0V) (IC = 10 mA. = 0. B.0V) BC546 BC547 BC548 BC547A/548A BC546B/547B/548B BC547C/BC548C — — — 110 180 200 290 .0 mA. Rs = 2 f = 1.09 — Collector-Emitter Saturation Voltage (lc = 10 mA.5 V.0 2.0 MHz) Input Capacitance (VEB = 0.BC546.0 V) BE(sat) — (lc l v BE(on) 0.7 — v Base-Emitter Saturation Voltage = 10 mA.0 MHz) Small-Signal Current Gain (IC = 2. B = 0. VCE = 5. V ce = 5. A. l = 0.0 V.6 0. C BC540. f = 1.2 0. f = 1. V = 5. f = 100 MHz) = 10mA. lB = 5.55 150 150 150 —300 300 300 1. A.6 — V 0.0 mA.0 kHz) BC546 BC547/548 BC547A/548A BC546B/547B/548B BC547C/548C Noise Figure value for which I Note 1: lB is V.5 - V 0. BC546 BC547 BC548 — — — 2.0 V.0 kHz. V kQ. B BC547.25 0.77 H BC546 BC547 BC548 MHz (IC ce Output Capacitance (VCB = 10 V. C ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (TA = 25°C unless otherwise noted) (Continued) Characteristic ON CHARACTERISTICS DC Current Gain (! c = 10 Symbol hFE BC547A/548A BC546B/547B/548B BC548C Min Typ Max Unit _ — — 110 110 110 90 150 270 mA .0 10 10 10 22 Motorola Small-Signal Transistors. B. c obo — — pF lc c ibo 10 — I'F lc hfe 125 125 125 240 450 NF 220 330 600 — — — 500 900 260 500 900 dB q = 11 mA at VcE = 1. Ib = See Note 1) B 0.7 4.0V) BC547A/548A BC546B/547B/548B BC548C ___ v 120 — 180 — 300 CE(sat) — 0.V CE = 5.2 mA. VCE = 5.0 mA. = 0.5 mA) (lc= 100 mA.3 0. VCE = 5.0V ) — — 450 800 800 220 450 800 — — — V (lc = 2. 420 520 (lc = 100 mA.

6 £ 0. C BC548.0 2.4 -3. B. REVERSE VOLTAGE (VOLTS) lc.4 VBE@VCE = 5. Base-Emitter Temperature Coefficient BC546 VR.0 TA = 25'C " T 1 08 VBE(sat) 10 § Ic'lB = < w 1.2 0.2 0. COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA) 0.0 10 20 50 100 200 lrj.0 50 10 20 l B. B. B BC547.0 UJ o 0. COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA) Figure 11.Bandwidth Product 4 Motorola Small-Signal Transistors. FETs and Diodes Device Data . COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA) CURRENT (mA) Figure 9.0 10 20 50 100 200 l c.0V 0.5 1.2 1 5 for F J j 5" . A.0 VCE = 5V - [j 1.2 1.0 £ -1. Capacitance Figure 12.5 1. Collector Saturation Region Figure 10.6 0.5 1.2 0. A.0 10 100 IC.0 2.2 0 "ft -4■ VcE(sal) @ 'C/'B = 10 I I i I HI i ' rz±: I — "1 t t V 0.1 -2.t 1 C o 2 5 C C S -2. C BC547/BC548 I 2.0 5.2 o I I 0.1 0. Current-Gain .02 0. BASE 0.0 2.5 OOO ILJ 0.05 0. DC Current Gain a- -10 -1.BC546.0 5. COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA) Figure 8. "On" Voltage Figure 7.1 0.

0 3.0 10 20 50 100 (sat) @ 'C"B 10 = 2.7 0. B BC547. "Saturation" and "On" Voltages 12 o I 12 \ II I I I Tft = 25°0 \1 1. Base-Emitter Temperature Coefficient BC547/BC548 10 7.7 1.0 10 • 20 30 50 IC.0 10 20 30 50 70 100 IC. 0 200 0.0 2. COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA) lB.6 0 8 1.2 0. A.0 8.0 5.0 3.5 0.BC546.0 2.0 % 5.4 0.0 I LU \ | 0.9 0. B. C BC548.0 UJ o< t 3.0 7.1 VCE 1.0 co t 4.0 COLLECTOR CURRENT (mAdc) COLLECTOR CURRENT (mAdc) | | It Figure 1. V BE at) (< <2 /lB = 10 _ — @ 'C Votr/n«\ \ E = 1 o v lc.0 0.0 1.02 1.0 10 20 VR. A.6 o LL LL.3 0. Collector Saturation Region Figure 4.0 10 20 0 2 1.0 o o> 'c = ic = 2A 1 3 A 2 O lA r UJ Q_n r £ 2.1 \ S M . 2.6 0.0 5.3 0.0 7. 0.1 0.8 y 1. BASE CURRENT (mA) 100 Figure 3.0 5.7 1.5 0. C 1.8 1 I I 11 V lc = 100 mA \ \ \ 0.0 6.- I 1.0 10 lc. FETs and Diodes Device Data 3 . LL) o UJ 8 UJ \ IC = 50 mA \ I I 1 1 1 1II _ scop in inwr 2.0 0. REVERSE VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 400 300 200 COLLECTOR CURRENT (mAdc) 100 80 60 40 30 20 Motorola Small-Signal Transistors.0 0.0 2.8 0.2 0. Normalized DC Current Gain Figure 2.4 0. B.5 0.0 ta = 25° C \ 'CE = 10 V < o r .6 2.

DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER ANSI Y14.100 — 2. 4.105 0. 3.060 MILLIMETERS MIN MAX 4. Capacitances Figure 6.020 — — 0. C Figure 5.39 0.125 D 0.BC546. 1982.43 — — — — CASE 029-04 (TO-226AA) ISSUE AD STYLE 17: PIN 1.35 2.42 2.41 0.175 B 0.18 4. Current-Gain .055 0.66 0.55 0. 0. CONTROLLING DIMENSION: INCH. CONTOUR OF PACKAGE BEYOND DIMENSION R IS UNCONTROLLED.500 L N P R V 0. A. C BC548. A.205 0210 0.022 0. B.045 H 0.0)6 G 0.33 3.70 — 6.04 SECTION X-X MAX 0.93 3.019 0.5M.250 0.015 K 0.45 5.54 — 0.20 4.19 0. FETs and Diodes Device Data 3 . B BC547.105 0.15 1. BASE 3 EMITTER Motorola Small-Signal Transistors.32 5.50 12. COLLECTOR 2. 2.095 J 0.39 2.66 2. DIMENSION F APPLIES BETWEEN P AND L.165 0. DIMENSION D AND J APPLY BETWEEN L AND K MINIMUM.115 0.48 1.170 C 0.135 — 2. B.Bandwidth Product PACKAGE DIMENSIONS MOTES: 1. LEAD DIMENSION IS UNCONTROLLED IN P AND BEYOND DIMENSION K MINIMUM DIM INCHES MIN A 0.016 F.41 0.