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Click to edit Master subtitle style Ashley Woodfin

Rachel Nass James (Sung-Taek) Oh Patrick Mateas

Evol i Pr uton esent i aton: Antbi i U sage i otc Q uestons 19 i 11


I r ntoducton i

E.coli rectal samples taken and analyzed Compared with attributes that individuals

exhibit that could influence antibiotic resistance

Survey Questions (11-19)


Antbi i R esi ance i otc st

Big Picture: Mutant Bacteria are becoming more and more common
Dangerous Very hard to treat

Why is this happening?

Human may be too frequent We may be causing this But how?


Antbi i U sage i otc

Common antibiotics
Penicillin Streptomycin Tetracycline

Importance of finishing all Too much exposure to common antibiotics


M ol arLevel ecul

How cells become antibiotic resistant Once bacteria is antibiotic resistant, the bacteria reproduces, and can spread
Bacteria growth curve


Peni li ciln

Group of antibiotics derived from Penicllium fungus

Includes amoxicillin and ampicillin

Kills bacteria by weakening the cell wall Used against gram-positive strains of bacteria such as streptococci


Stept yci r om n

An amino glycoside derived from Streptomyces genus Protein synthesis inhibitor Used in treatment of tuberculosis and the plague Usually taken as an injection in the muscles


Tetacyclne r i

Broad spectrum polyketide antibiotic Protein synthesis inhibitor Commonly used as treatment for acne, urinary tract infections, gonorrhea, and chlamydia.


H ypot hesi s

Questions 11-13: We hypothesize that if you are currently taking the antibiotic you will be more resistant and have more growth. Question 14-16: We hypothesize that if you have taken the antibiotic for a prolonged time then you will be more resistant and have more growth.


H ypot hesi C ont s .

Question 17: We hypothesize that if you stop taking antibiotics as soon as you feel better you will have more resistance and more growth. Question 18-19: We hypothesize that if you answer yes to these questions you will have more resistance and more growth.


Pl es at

Eosin-methylene blue [EMB]

Used in part one for E-coli swab Supports growth of gram negative organisms E-coli shows as a metallic green sheath and is

easy to distinguish from other colonies


Pl es ont at C .

Streptomycin Ampicillin Tetracycline

3 Antibiotic Resistance

L Plate

1 Control


M et hods
Part 1:

Swab anus or mouth to attain E-coli sample Transfer to agar surface of plate and use wire loop to streak surface [this isolates colonies] Incubate plate at 37C


M et hods ont C .
Part 2:

Testing fro antibiotic resistance

Look for green colonies on plates from

previous week

Use a toothpick to transfer up to 25 separate

colonies onto 1 amp, 1 strep, 1 tet, and 1 L plate

The L plate needs to be the last plate used New toothpick for each new colonies used

M et hods ont C .

Testing for loss of resistance

Assume culture density is 2 * 10^6 Plate 100 L of this density onto each

antibiotic plate and one plate with no antibiotic [repeat for density one above and below target]


M et hods ont C .
Part 3:

For both antibiotic resistance and loss of resistance plates count number of colonies grown and record data for GSI


R esuls:Am p at t Pl es
Row # of individual Answer to Q11 # of Colonies grown on Amp Plate 25 6 17 25 25 25 25 5 Answer to Q14

6 21 51 145 374 435 537 554




Am p i D scussi on

Amp Q11
No correlation that people currently taking

the drug, or that recently took it, have more antibiotic resistance to that drug


Am p i D scussi C ontnued on i

Amp Q14
No correlation between sample of plates

with high antibiotic resistance and history of taking drug for a prolonged period


Stept yci R esi ance r om n st

Question 12
Describe your use of Streptomycin

Question 17
Length of use


Stept yci R esi ance r om n st

R ow G row th on Pl ate 21 U se of W hen taki an ng anti oti bi c, do you. . . Sometimes the full course, but sometimes not Stop after feeling better Take full prescribed course, until pills run out Take full prescribed course, until pills N um ber S treptom yci n S treptom yci n 2 >1 year

148 633

27 0

>1 year <12 months



Stept yci R esi ance r om n st

Greatest Resistance
Current, within 12 months Leftover pills

Least Resistance
Never used Use full prescribed dosage


R esuls:Tetacyclne t r i Answ er 1o 13 Q 16 ed t Q &

Number 122 155 159 171 241 TetR 25 25 25 19 4 L plate 25 25 25 19 4


Di scussi r on:Tetacyclne i

Question 16
Continued use of antibiotics for more than a

month made the bacteria more resistant

Question 13
Antibiotics currently in the system and the

bacteria left would be resistant to the antibiotics


Lengt ofPr h escrpton i i

if a person doesnt take the full course of antibiotics, StrR AmpR TetR L plate more likely to develop 24 theyd be 23 25 25 resistance to antibiotics.
25 0 25 0 People who save left overthat the We hypothesized pills

The bacteria that wasnt killed is able to 23 0 25 develop resistance.

25 15 0 19 25 16





U sage ihouta wt Pr escrpton i i

people who take antibiotics without prescriptions are StrR AmpR TetR develop resistance. more likely to L plate
0 1 0 1 0

People who take antibiotics We hypothesized that without prescriptions

They may9overuse the drugs which 15 16 allows the bacteria to evolve and 25 25 25 develop resistance.
25 25 17 0 0 0 25 25 25

H ospialzaton t i i and R esi ance st

people who were hospitalized for more than a week StrR AmpR TetR Lresistance. developed more plate
0 24 25 16 24

People who were hospitalized We hypothesized that for more than a week

While in the hospital, they may have 10 0 10 received greater amounts of antibiotics 0 4 which may have25 to the development led 2 0 of resistance. 25
15 25 16 25 25 25

C oncl on usi

Error Most data points show increased exposure to antibiotics results in increased resistance Hospitalization


Bi Pi ur g ct e

Knowledge is power! Reduce antibiotic use Otherwise..evolution = problematic