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Click to edit Master subtitle style Ashley Woodfin

Rachel Nass James (Sung-Taek) Oh Patrick Mateas

Evol i Pr uton esent i aton: Antbi i U sage i otc Q uestons 19 i 11


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I r ntoducton i

Experiment
E.coli rectal samples taken and analyzed Compared with attributes that individuals

exhibit that could influence antibiotic resistance


Survey Questions (11-19)

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Antbi i R esi ance i otc st

Big Picture: Mutant Bacteria are becoming more and more common
Dangerous Very hard to treat

Why is this happening?


Human may be too frequent We may be causing this But how?

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Antbi i U sage i otc

Common antibiotics
Penicillin Streptomycin Tetracycline

Importance of finishing all Too much exposure to common antibiotics

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M ol arLevel ecul

How cells become antibiotic resistant Once bacteria is antibiotic resistant, the bacteria reproduces, and can spread
Bacteria growth curve

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Peni li ciln

Group of antibiotics derived from Penicllium fungus


Includes amoxicillin and ampicillin

Kills bacteria by weakening the cell wall Used against gram-positive strains of bacteria such as streptococci

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Stept yci r om n

An amino glycoside derived from Streptomyces genus Protein synthesis inhibitor Used in treatment of tuberculosis and the plague Usually taken as an injection in the muscles

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Tetacyclne r i

Broad spectrum polyketide antibiotic Protein synthesis inhibitor Commonly used as treatment for acne, urinary tract infections, gonorrhea, and chlamydia.

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H ypot hesi s

Questions 11-13: We hypothesize that if you are currently taking the antibiotic you will be more resistant and have more growth. Question 14-16: We hypothesize that if you have taken the antibiotic for a prolonged time then you will be more resistant and have more growth.

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H ypot hesi C ont s .

Question 17: We hypothesize that if you stop taking antibiotics as soon as you feel better you will have more resistance and more growth. Question 18-19: We hypothesize that if you answer yes to these questions you will have more resistance and more growth.

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Pl es at

Eosin-methylene blue [EMB]


Used in part one for E-coli swab Supports growth of gram negative organisms E-coli shows as a metallic green sheath and is

easy to distinguish from other colonies

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Pl es ont at C .

Streptomycin Ampicillin Tetracycline

3 Antibiotic Resistance

L Plate

1 Control

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M et hods
Part 1:

Swab anus or mouth to attain E-coli sample Transfer to agar surface of plate and use wire loop to streak surface [this isolates colonies] Incubate plate at 37C

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M et hods ont C .
Part 2:

Testing fro antibiotic resistance


Look for green colonies on plates from

previous week

Use a toothpick to transfer up to 25 separate

colonies onto 1 amp, 1 strep, 1 tet, and 1 L plate

The L plate needs to be the last plate used New toothpick for each new colonies used
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M et hods ont C .

Testing for loss of resistance


Assume culture density is 2 * 10^6 Plate 100 L of this density onto each

antibiotic plate and one plate with no antibiotic [repeat for density one above and below target]

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M et hods ont C .
Part 3:

For both antibiotic resistance and loss of resistance plates count number of colonies grown and record data for GSI

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R esuls:Am p at t Pl es
Row # of individual Answer to Q11 # of Colonies grown on Amp Plate 25 6 17 25 25 25 25 5 Answer to Q14

6 21 51 145 374 435 537 554


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B A D B B C E A

A A A C A C C A

Am p i D scussi on

Amp Q11
No correlation that people currently taking

the drug, or that recently took it, have more antibiotic resistance to that drug

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Am p i D scussi C ontnued on i

Amp Q14
No correlation between sample of plates

with high antibiotic resistance and history of taking drug for a prolonged period

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Stept yci R esi ance r om n st

Question 12
Describe your use of Streptomycin

Question 17
Length of use

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Stept yci R esi ance r om n st


R ow G row th on Pl ate 21 U se of W hen taki an ng anti oti bi c, do you. . . Sometimes the full course, but sometimes not Stop after feeling better Take full prescribed course, until pills run out Take full prescribed course, until pills N um ber S treptom yci n S treptom yci n 2 >1 year

148 633

27 0

>1 year <12 months

627
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Never

Stept yci R esi ance r om n st

Greatest Resistance
Usage:
Current, within 12 months Leftover pills

Least Resistance
Usage:
Never used Use full prescribed dosage

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R esuls:Tetacyclne t r i Answ er 1o 13 Q 16 ed t Q &


Number 122 155 159 171 241 TetR 25 25 25 19 4 L plate 25 25 25 19 4

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Di scussi r on:Tetacyclne i

Question 16
Continued use of antibiotics for more than a

month made the bacteria more resistant

Question 13
Antibiotics currently in the system and the

bacteria left would be resistant to the antibiotics

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Lengt ofPr h escrpton i i


if a person doesnt take the full course of antibiotics, StrR AmpR TetR L plate more likely to develop 24 theyd be 23 25 25 resistance to antibiotics.
25 0 25 0 People who save left overthat the We hypothesized pills

The bacteria that wasnt killed is able to 23 0 25 develop resistance.


25 15 0 19 25 16

19

25

24

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U sage ihouta wt Pr escrpton i i


people who take antibiotics without prescriptions are StrR AmpR TetR develop resistance. more likely to L plate
0 1 0 1 0
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People who take antibiotics We hypothesized that without prescriptions

They may9overuse the drugs which 15 16 allows the bacteria to evolve and 25 25 25 develop resistance.
25 25 17 0 0 0 25 25 25

H ospialzaton t i i and R esi ance st


people who were hospitalized for more than a week StrR AmpR TetR Lresistance. developed more plate
0 24 25 16 24
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People who were hospitalized We hypothesized that for more than a week

While in the hospital, they may have 10 0 10 received greater amounts of antibiotics 0 4 which may have25 to the development led 2 0 of resistance. 25
15 25 16 25 25 25

C oncl on usi

Error Most data points show increased exposure to antibiotics results in increased resistance Hospitalization

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Bi Pi ur g ct e

Knowledge is power! Reduce antibiotic use Otherwise..evolution = problematic


MRSA

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