Personality is the sum total of the human traits and characteristics of an individual that sets him apart and make him different from other individuals. Components of Personality Physical or biological traits and characteristic. These include general physical appearance, size of the body. Height, weight, color of hair, manner of walking, health and etc. 1. Capacities. Mental ability or intelligence, special abilities and talents in arts, music, science, etc. education, expertise, noted achievements.etc. 2. Psychosocial traits. These refer to good manners, gregariousness, extroversionintroversion, dominance- submissiveness, affluence, generosity, lifestyle, patterns of adjustments etc. 3. Spiritual and Moral Values. These are piety, honestly, sincerity, keeping of promises, punctuality, responsibility, devotion to duly, absence of anti-social tendencies, etc. 4. Temperament. This is emotional maturity and stability. The ability to keep one’s cool when under stress and strain, the ability to control irritability and irascibility, etc.


Physique: Body Types. (Bodily constitution, health and vigor associated with temperament.) a. Kretschemer’s classification (not confirmed)


1. Asthenic- tall, thin body associated with schizothyme temperament, a mental disorder characterized by splitting of personality, dissociation emotional deterioration and out of ideational content. 2. Pyknic- short fat body with cyclothymiacs temperament, a mild-manic depressive psychosis involving recurring cycles of exhilaration and depression. 3. Dysplastic- bodily defective and handicapped. 4. Normal- have only mild forms of a aesthetic and pyknic characteristic and have bodies and temperaments that are appropriate and accepted as the normal by the majority. b. Sheldon’s classification (not confirmed) 1. Endomorphic- prominence of the intestines and other visceral organs, round in body weak muscles and bones. 2. Mesomorphic- athletic type with strong and rippling muscles, broad-shouldered and narrow-hipped. 3. Ectomorphic- tall, thin, strong and rippling-shouldered with delicate skin, fine hair and sensitive nervous system.

2. Temperament Types (Physiology: types based on body chemistry and endocrine balance.)

a. Sheldon’s temperament types:

1. Viscerotonic- predominantly endomorphic loves to eat, seek, bodily comfort, sociable, relaxed in posture and movement and slow in reactions.


2. Somatotonic- predominantly mesophormic, energetic, likes, exercise, direct in his manners and loves competitive aggressiveness. 3. Cerebrotonic- predominantly ectomorphic, sensitive and emotional worries much, does not like groups and loves solitude. b. Greeks classification of Temperaments attributed to Hippocrates and it is based upon the predominant body fluid. 1. Sanguine- warm- hearted, pleasant, quick to react, balance emotional excitement. Predominant body fluid is blood. 2. Melancholic- suffers from depression and sadness, unpleasant, calm emotion. Predominant body fluid is black bile. 3. Choleric- easily angered and quick to react easily excited emotionally. Predominant body fluid is the yellow bile. 4. Phlegmatic- list less, slow, apathetic, calm emotion, weak. Predominant body fluid is the phlegm. c. Behavior: Psychological Types. ( These are Jung’s theories)

1. Introvert- prefers to be alone, shy, withdrawn but maybe a leader in discussion if his level of intelligence is high. 2. Extrovert- tends or prefers to be amidst people, very sociable, conventional, orthodox, well-dressed, and out-going, chooses an occupation that deals with people like scales one promotional work. 3. Ambient- the normal who is in between the two extremes of introversion and extroversion.
A. Trait Theories


A trait theory describes a personality by its position on a number of scales, each of which represents a trait. Some of trait theories are as follows:
1. All port’s Personal Dispositions. Are traits that are unique for a person called by all

port as personal dispositions? These traits are organized in some kind of hierarchy as follows: a. Secondary Traits- when the traits are so many that they merely express isolated interest or moods of responding and are better characterized as attitudes than traits. b. Central Traits- when the traits are too few to described a person.
c. Cardinal Traits- when a person is dominated by a single outstanding trait that

makes him stand out and he becomes a reference personality whose characteristics we expect others to know.

2. Cattell’s Theory of Surface and Source Traits a. Surface Traits- they are mostly learned or acquired values. b. Source Traits- they are more innate or inborn traits. C. Developmental Theories Deal with continuities, that is, one can tell what a person will do in a given situation by what he has done before in earlier situation that resemble the present.

1. Psychoanalytic Theory of Development


The theory holds that we undergo a maturational scheme of psychosexual stages and at each stages, psychosocial crisis occur which is successfully met lead to psychological development. 2 Forms of Psychoanalytic Theory a. Compulsive Personality- characterized by excessive cleanliness, orderliness, obstinacy, stinginess and punctuality. b. Authoritarian Personality- characterized by highly conventional behavior, superstition, destructiveness and cynism, desire for power, concern over sex. 2. Learning Theories. According to this theory personality is the result of learning punishment or reward. 3. Role Theories. This theory describes personality according to manner in which the individual meets the various demands the society makes upon his role as a child, parent, man, woman, worker, citizen, etc.

5 Roles that Society Establishes A. Age-sex Positions- a child should act like a child, a man act like a man, and a woman must act like a woman. B. Occupational Positions- a farmer develops a farmer personality, a doctor, a doctor personality, etc. C. Prestige Positions- a slave have a slave personality, a millionaire has a millionaire personality, a president personality etc.


man does the exceptional ideal such as becoming heroes. in which conflicts arise and the alternatives open to the individual to resolve the conflicts. The Id This consist of innate instinctual drives of sexual and aggressive in nature which seeks immediate gratification of primitive. irrational pleasure seeking of drives. the sense of right and wrong. when the superego predominates. explorers. which is actually his environment. when the ego predominates. hunger. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory The Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality covers the following: 1. man becomes irrational and commits anti-social act. Position in Association group based on Congeniality or Common Interest D. The Ego This is a personality responsible for controlling behavior in socially approved ways. Family. scientist. works according to the ideal. man becomes socially goods. There is a rational thinking. 6 . the individual is embedded in a field called his life space. 4. sex.Theories of Personality Dynamics 1. Clan and Household E. When the Id predominates. etc. Lewin’s Field Theory According to this theory. writers.D. thirst. 2.. The Superego This is a conscience. 3. etc.

affection. 7 . c. 2. According to Horney. Erich Fromm’s Isolation Theory. financial and sexual success. Overcompensation Theory This is a theory of Alfred Adler. b. and approval. Rootedness. a child may resolve conflicts in a harsh environment in one of three ways. and admiration. dominance. F. Moving away from people This is to satisfy the need for independence and has to satisfy his need for belongingness to a group by brotherhood love and so he associates himself with other people. c. Karen Horney’s Theory of personality. Relatedness. and approval of other people so the child or individual tries hard to please people to their love. b. a. Moving toward people This is satisfied the need for love. prestige. This is trying to excel in something to compensate a weakness or deficiency. Moving against people This is to satisfy the need for power. Transcendence. These five basic needs are: a. man has been isolated from nature and from other men and has given rise to five basic needs which if not satisfied would result in frustration and problems. has lost his nearness to nature and so he has to relate himself to others based on love and affection. According to this theory.E. Need Theories of Personality has to submerge his animal nature of greed so that he becomes cooperative and productive.

Self-actualization needs These are needs for exceptional and ideal achievements and creativity. Motivation 8 . etc. 3. Psychological needs These are needs for love. clothing. companionship. such as food. c. e. affection. b. and shelter and some materials needs. According to this theory. man is innately good and self. To Maslow. Maslow’s Self-actualization Theory. Frame of orientation – man needs an environment that is stable and with consistent events to be able to understand it. cooperation. safety.d. Identity. man’s needs are as follows: (The needs are arranged like a pyramid) a. Biological needs These needs give comfort to the needs to feel that he is different from others and so he tries hard to do or create something that would give an identity to him.actualization or achievements in his goal. belongingness. Blocking this goal gives frustration and neurosis to man.

not much or no learning at all will take. Rather it is a process which belongs to the learner. Classification of Motives 1. Incentives – is an external benefit or reward of some kind derived from an activity. Motivation. Fives satisfaction and happiness to the individual. shelter. tendency desire or aspiration. water. 1. Controls and directs human behavior. Motivation is not a bag of tricks which the teacher uses to produce learning.Motivation is another important factor in learning. Motivation is a process but motive is a disposition. Biological and Physiological drives. These are social drives which are acquired. 2. 3. It is also the creation of a desire on the part of the learner to perform an activity to satisfy a need. Without motivation. Importance of Motivation Directs activity toward the achievement of a goal. 3. and other comforts of the body. an attitude that arouses interest and sustains and regulates behavior while motive is within an individual. 2. learned or derived. Inculcates spiritual and moral values in the minds of the young. Motivation as differentiated from Motives and Incentives is the process of arousing and sustaining interest in an activity in order to achieve a goal. 9 . This is innate or inborn stimuli such as the desire for food. 2. Motivation is a drive or impulse. There are several definitions of motivation but they all amount to the arousal of interest that directs the learners towards a goal. Physiological drives.

Intrinsic Motivation. The motive spurs the individual into action and the activity continues until the motive has been satisfied and the goal achieved. It comes from outside (external environment). Medals 4. which is always intrinsic. These are general or unconscious drives or motives. Extrinsic Motivation. 1. The second stage is action. The first stage starts with a need which turns into a is an internal stimulus that arouses one to action. Then the third stage starts. Two Classes of Motivation a. which is the satisfaction of the individual. b. It is based on motive. This is called homeostasis. the motivational cycle starts all over again. Then tension or stress is an external stimulus to action. High grades 3. Rivalry/competition 6.3. Helpfulness of the teacher Motivational Cycle Motivation goes through a cycle. Creativity or Self – actualization drives. Tension vanishes and stability or equilibrium takes its place. which is the absence of tension and satisfaction stability and equilibrium characterize bi individual. Scholarship 5. It is based on incentives. Social approval 2. If there is another need or motive arising. 10 .

the proponent of this theory.Source Theories of Motivation What are the source theories of motivation? The following theories give the explanation. 2. the stimulus to activity does not come from within the individual but from the outside. In fact. all the other theories have the element of need. Need-drive-incentive theory it is a greatest source of motivation and the desire to satisfy. Law of effect state that the learning is strength if it gives satisfaction to the learner. Pleasant experience Tend to be repeated and unpleasant experiences tend to be avoided. 1. Affective arousal theory it is an application of the law of effect of Thorndike. This is on the level of decision making or making a choice. The need is the strongest motive. -it is more on incentive. 4. 3. 11 . Cue-stimulus (non-drive) theory according to this theory. Psychoanalytic theory Sigmund Freud. claims that the libido or psychic energy is sexual in origin and is the primary driving force of behavior. 3. Cognitive theory an individual takes an action that is most favorable to his perception and rational thinking.

Learning will take place. Objectives of Discipline The objectives of disciplines are: 12 .Discipline and Guidance Aside from motivation discipline is one important factor in learning because once the learner is well disciplined.

To create favorable attitudes towards classrooms conditions that will facilitate the attainment of instructional objectives. nagging. Parents should be informed. To create favorable attitudes towards authority. ridicule. To create favorable attitudes towards the development of self – control and cooperation as personal aspects. and other forms of disciplinary problems that successful completion of a lesson. Sir” or “Madam”. whether verbal or written. This is accordance to the biblical passage which says “Train up a child in the way he should go and when he gets old he will not depart from it”. 3. thereby inculcating respect for authority. It calls for a frequent repetition of good acts until they become habits. inattention. pupils through constant training. Good behavior is reinforced and misbehavior discourage. Behavior modification approach.1. or corporal punishment especially in front of the class. For instance. personal indignities. This is referred to as training model. Training approach. This is called the behavior modification model. 13 . Pupils show unruliness. of their children’s good behavior. disobedience. Developmental Stages in Discipline The developmental stages in discipline are the following: 1. 2. Stage 1. 2. Approaches to Discipline The two common most approaches to discipline are: 1. rebuke. acquire the habit of addressing their teacher. A private conference with the misbehaving pupil may behold where he is asked to formulate ways improving the situations. Reformatory punishment may be used but never use severe scolding. Ignore or with proper approach correct a bad act without any emotional outburst. noise.

Stage 2. But many definitions as there are. Gain emotional maturity and stability. his contributions to its stability and progress and his readiness and willingness to adjust himself to the standards of society. The pupils. Objectives of Guidance and Counseling Objectives of guidance and counseling are to help the individual to: 1. imbibe and assimilate good disciplinary principles. It is not the intension of this section to discuss all the intricacies of guidance and counseling but only to point out its significance. 3. With proper guidance. Gradually. after shown the consequences options choose the best action when faced with conflicting situations.2. Pupils develop competence in self-control and initiative in problem-solving thus becoming self directed individuals. Guidance and Counseling Guidance and counseling plays an important learning. the pupils listen to admonitions and abide by the rules of discipline. Becomes independent and self-directed 2. they form favorable attitudes towards classroom conditions conducive to learning. The students. 3. Stage 4. Self-decision and self-direction is thus attained. Guidance and counseling is helping the individual to make a wise choice from the among the many alternatives that are open to him in meeting life’s conflicting situations. realizing the importance of a well-discipline life. 4. Stage 3. Recognized his importance to society. 14 . There are many definitions of guidance and counseling as there are authorities on the subject. they point out to one essential fact.

5. 3. his social and inborn traits and the requirements and possibilities a certain action. initiator and creator that will rebound to the benefit not only of him but of society as well. 4. 6. Physical strength and health One should choose as career that suits his physical health and strength. Choosing a Vacation or Profession In choosing of a vocation or profession. his own intellectual and physical capacities. 2. Gain knowledge of himself. 5. Be an organizer. Interest Is the intentness of an individual about something? One should choose a vocation or profession that is within his range of interest. Education The level of education that is required of the career aspired for should also be considered. peaceful. Remuneration 15 . Temperament Temperamental people who easily get rattled should choose jobs that is quite. his interest. all to help choose the right alternatives when confronted with conflicting situations. the following should be considered: 1. and without much conflict. Intellectual capacity and aptitude An individual should choose one that fits his level of intellectual ability.4. Opportunities for employment and advancement Chances of employment are high where work force is not saturated and vice versa. 7.

9. choose one that gives the most satisfactory remuneration under the circumstances. or marine works.Is the salary satisfaction? If not. police. 8. Hazards Some occupations are relatively more hazardous than others such as as aviation. army. Place of work Is the work confined within a room or in the open air? Does it involve too much travel? Does the work necessitate being too far away from home and family? 16 .

Therefore. hence. the facilitator of learning. This is the most important qualification of a teacher because unless he knows his 17 . Children are good imitators and they usually make their teachers their role models. and the evaluator of the pupil achievements. THE TEACHER The teacher is the key person in the teaching-learning situation. Hence. Without them there can be no formal education. The teachers are the manager of the teaching-learning situation. Mastery of the subject matter. This is based upon the principle that one cannot give what he does not.THE TEACHERS AND THE POLICY MAKER The teacher and the policy maker are the key factors in the educative process. he must be a model to all his pupils in an aspect of life. he must possess the following: 1. a study of their functions is important.

hodgepodge of facts are transmitted. and discipline. Effective is the teacher who inspires his students to effective speaking. Mastery of the methods and tools of teaching. The teacher is like a carpenter. Mastery of the national philosophy. Goals and objectives as well as instructional goals and objectives. 3. The teacher who combines the best features or techniques and who manipulates with utmost dexterity the tools at hand can turn out the most desirable and finest outcome of his teaching. Mastery of the psychology of learning or educational psychology. its goals and objectives so that he can include these as implied goals and objectives in his instructional objectives. The teacher should be skillful in formulating questions. reacting to student’s insight. The teacher must be able to apply with a certain degree of expertise principles. 6. There is no substitute for a systematic lesson plan and subject matter. 4. 5. Little learning takes place if disorganized. Mastery of lesson planning and subject matter organization. 18 . he can never teach well. Otherwise. individual differences. The teacher should know the national philosophy of education. 2. the literate graduate. explaining points of clarification. he does not have any moral right to stand before his class and teach. motivation.subject matter thoroughly. Mastery of the medium of instruction and the art of communication. Contributory to the success of learning session is a good lesson plan and well-organized units or parts of the lesson. and reinforce the law of learning for optimum results.

Democratic management is the participation of the learners in all teachinglearning situations such as discussions. fairness. problem-solving. The teacher is the manager and director of the classroom activities.7. respect for authority. Laissez faire. Mastery of good relations. 10. Opposite of autocratic classroom management where activities are teacher-cantered and the students. reliable. recitations. devotion to duty. He should see to it that the learning sessions are conducted smoothly and effectively. the achievement of the learners must be measured and evaluated. Mastery of classroom management. with his peers and superiors. kindness and friendliness to and love for children. good taste and decency. To be able to know whether the teaching-learning situation has been effective. 11. industry. 9. 19 . manipulation of learning gadgets and research work. Since teachers are role models. Mastery of measurement and evaluation of achievement. passive recipients of spoon-fed information. they should observe good grooming and maintaining neatness. 8. Mastery of spiritual and moral values. The teacher should know how to construct more or less valid. honesty. Mastery of good grooming techniques. the third type of classroom management allows the learners freedom to conduct activities anyway they want. The teacher may not be a paragon of virtues but he must at least possess the values essential in teaching such punctually. The teacher must maintain good human and professional relations with his learners. and useful measuring instruments in the forms of test and examinations and then evaluate or transmute the resulting scores into school marks. the parents and the people of the community for these people will help him achieve his goals.

16. policies and regulation. Punctuality and enthusiasm. physically and mentally so that he can carry on his work. rules. A good teacher must have respect for authority and obedience to legitimate instruction. the teacher must have done preliminary fact-finding necessary for appropriate comments or recommendations. 13. They must be made to think. The teacher must be healthy. 14. Mental and physical health ensures effective teaching with right direction and rationality. 17. Mastery of leadership technique. Teaching is a mission replete with sacrifice. analyze. Respect for authority. The 20 . 19. The noble teacher therefore fined joy and fulfillment in serving his students despite his meager income. Basic knowledge of guidance and counseling. Loyalty and commitment. The teacher is both a leader in the classroom and in the community-democratic seller ideas. He teaches with diligence. A teacher cannot teach with effectiveness and enthusiasm without loyalty and commitment to the institution he serves. Missionary spirit. Ability to evoke critical thinking.12. 15. He covers as much subject matter as possible. a basic knowledge is imperative. Students must not be reduced to robots parroting what the teacher says. He must abide by group decisions and cooperative with co-workers in the enterprise. and ask questions. not wasting any time. criticize. Before serious cases are referred to the guidance counselor. Health. 18. Since a teacher guides his pupils in their daily activities and counsels them in their problems. The effective teacher is always punctual and enthusiastic in his teaching.

discuss.teacher should ask thought. Clean sense humor. these types of questions begin with the words why. Tips for an Effective Teaching Learning Situation 21 . how. 20. The teacher may relate a funny tale that is relevant to the lesson. Humor is often a means of manipulating the interest of the students.provoking questions that require reflective thinking. explain. Usually. A teacher must have a wholesome sense of humor to keep his student alert especially when the students are sleepy.

He must be persistent in findings ways and means to attain his goal. A goal oriented activity elicits interest and meaning to a student than one which has none. THE POLICY MAKER The educational policy maker is a very important component of the learning process. Active learning is better and more lasting than passive learning. there can neither be an educational system nor a learning process. “Correct practice to remember makes him perfect” as the saying goes. 7. Generally. 8. the solution of his problem. The learner must be learning by doing. The learner must often use the law of exercise to enable him to remember and retain what he has learned. intrinsic motivation is preferred. 2. 3. 4.. Without it. implications and application of the learning task so that it becomes more important meaningful and understandable to him. He must be an active participant in the learning situation. 5. The strategy of teaching must suit the learning situations. The learner must integrate the related parts of the learning task into a whole to make the task more meaningful and understandable. meanings. The learner must see his goal clearly. 6. Not one method is good for all learning situation and the strategy use for a particular situation must fit in the situation. Regular review is imperative. A learner cannot learn if cannot or does not concentrate. The learner must be motivated and guided either intrinsically or extrinsically. The learner must be ready to learn psychologically and physiologically that is the level of difficulty of the lesson must be brought to the level of understanding of the learner. It at first the learner fails to attain his goal. 9. The learner must concentrate on the learning task.1. he must use his insight and understanding to discover the right solution to his problem. 10. 22 . The learner must be able to see the significance.

development. The Scope of Educational Laws or Policies 1. This concerns the recruitment. Goals and objective. acting through its proper agencies. The People. Framework for the educational system.No. Schools personnel.Act. duties. otherwise known as K. Proof is the approval by the people of the Constitution. promotion. It provides laws for the financing and operation of the whole educational system. and objectives of the country’s whole educational system upon which other educational laws and policies are based. The people also have a hand in the formulation of policies. there can neither be an educational system nor a learning process. The administration of schools like the University of the Sto. Such policies should not violate any law or policy of the state. 7722 is the latest enacted law for educational system 2. The lawmaking body lays down the framework of the whole educational system of the country. rights. Tomas and state like the University of the Philippines also make educational policies through their respective Board of Trustees. The government. which contains provisions expressing the educational philosophy. 23 .The Policy makers are composed collectively 1. goals.A No.74 is the first framework of the Philippines educational system. These concerns the purposes that the educational system aims to achieve. The educational policy maker is a very important component of the learning process. qualifications. The Educational Act of 1994. The government. and enumeration and other benefits of school officials and teachers. 2. The administration of private and state schools. policies. 3. 3. is the chief maker. Without it.

profit. and instructional facilities such as textbooks. the school graduates are efficient capable. buildings. Curriculum and curricular years. Facilities include campuses. 7. and functions of parents. taxation. capitalization. This concerns the admission. Theories of Transfer of Learning 24 . The laws policies are especially regarding facilities. Students. and qualification. If the promotional standards are high. specialization. duties. financial assistance. 5. Organization of private and state schools. This concerns the selection of subject. tuition. laboratory equipment and educational media. and quality of instruction.4. 8. employable. guidance. Parents. counseling and discipline. time frame for each course. Facilities. of personnel. references. and become educated literates. duties. academic and technical etc. administration. There are also policies concerning the rights and obligation. 6. honors. Promotional standards. 9. rights and obligations.

attitudes and values aid in obtaining the same in the study of another subject matter.Transfer of learning refers to the facilities in learning subject due to a previously learned one. Example: The study of mathematics facilitates the study of physics because the principles used in the solution of verbal problems in physics are the same principles studied in mathematics. Acquired knowledge. The reasoning power gained from the study of geometry and algebra can also be used in the study of social sciences. It should be noted that there are also similar elements in the two learning situations. The theories of Identical Elements. But emphasis is based 25 . Mental Discipline This theory asserts that the skills of training gained in the study of one subject will improve the performance of the same skill in the study of another subject. Thus the value of a subject does not only lie in the usefulness of the content also in the training and skill and acquired used in the study of other subjects. This is a theory of Judd. dates. This theory was formulated by Thorndike. concepts. logic and other subjects. Example: The training gained in memorizing poetry will facilitate the memorizing of other learning materials such as names. 3. It states that the amount of transfer depends upon the presence of identical elements in both learning situations. ideas. The study of medical technology or nursing facilitates study of medicine because of many similar elements in this field. events. 2. Theories of Transfer of Learning: 1. skills. insights. understandings. The theory of generalization It means that experiences in one learning situation can be applied in another learning situation. and other information in history.

Mental ability. the two courses are applied. Method of teaching. object of a verb. The more similarities that exist between two subjects. 4. both have the same uses in the sentences such as subject of a sentence. Example: Take the two courses. the more transfer will take place. This is the same as the Gestalt theory of learning. Hence. one who has finished nursing will have an easier time learning medicine. Similarities between subject matter. The rules and principles of grammar are practically the same in the two languages. The more motivated the learner is and the more effort he exerts. The adjective in English is called pang-uri in Filipino but both described or modify nouns. Nursing on the other hand is taking care of the sick and administering the cure. or objective complement. on the understanding and recognition of the relationships between the generalizations of the two learning experiences involved. nursing and medicine. Although the word noun in English is translated into pangalan in Filipino. In fact. Example: Take the two study of English and Filipino grammar. the more transfer will take place. The more effective of teaching is. The higher the mental ability of a learner. Motivation and effort-making capacity. So. a good knowledge of English grammar can be a good basis for studying Filipino. 2. the more transfer will take place. The Theory of Configuration. the transfer of learning will take place. 4. 26 . Medicine as a whole is analyzing an illness and prescribing its cure. The term configuration is the equivalent of the German word gestalt. Factors Affecting the Transfer of Learning: 1. Configuration refers to the unified or total pattern of organization of a learning situation so that the components of element lose their identity.

such as instincts and emotions. and social factors. Mental Factors. Facilities. Learning Factors. 3. Background. These factors are the following: 1. 5. 4. 27 . the more transfer will take place. Intellectual Factors. physical development. Success in school is generally closely related to the level of the intellect.factors owing to lack of mastery of what has been taught. nutrition. 2. 6. Attitudes are made up of organic and kinesthetic elements. Physical Factors.5. The more adequate and superior the facilities in the teaching-learning situation are. work or study.refers to the individual’s level. such as cooperation and rivalry. visual and physical defects. and glandular abnormality.personal factors.under this group are included such factors as health. Factors which may Affect the Learning Process It has been found out that the pupils difficulty in learning maybe due to many factors within the child himself. and narrowness of experimental backgrounds. Emotional and Social Factors.attitude falls under mental factors. The learner with a superior or richer background or environment can have more transfer of learner or training than one with a poorer environment. are directly related to a complex psychology and motivation. physical development.

purpose. Pupils are sensitive to a teacher’s personality and methods. objectives and the way the students believe their work will be evaluated. Malnutrition. 3. Frequent delitating illness and grandular disturbances are among those which should be mentioned.Other Factors which Affect Learning There are many other factors which create educational casualties or produce difficulties which require special help. There is the persuasive effect of goals. 2. The kind of relations which exists between pupils and teachers. The kinds of roles which the teacher assumes have a profound effect upon the learning situation in the classroom. 28 . The relation between pupils and teachers are extremely varied an complex. 1.

The proper setting for learning is one of the cooperation and competition with other learners. even from persons who loves and admires. enables him to learn unless he makes the effort to-do so. The importance of emotional tone is beyond question. Both competition and cooperation tendencies can be developed for the benefit of the individual and the group. needs proper setting for growth and development. Emotional tone is essential of the individual. Competitions cannot be eliminated in favor of cooperation. It is an atmosphere in which the learner desire to learn and make knowledge as his own. being an individual active process. Strong emotions may cause the learner to over-invest or to reject. No amount of patient careful directions.Proper Setting for Learning The psychological setting of the classroom is basic to the teaching-learning situation and to the general growth and development of the learner. Pupils must learn how to be receptive to learning. The teacher can provide situations that may encourage pupil’s growth and development. The effect of over29 . Learning.

Their needs must be some kind of drive. Learning involves change. Learning and Scopes of Learning Learning is an active process of cage which takes place within the individual. Learning starts with the learner. skills.investment or rejection is similar to. b. is motivation. 2 Sources of Motivation a. feeling of rejection and remorse. Great Satisfaction. It concerned with acquisition of habits. some kind of motive in order to keep action going on. knowledge. Nine Conditions to Make Learning Possible 1.derived from their own activity that is meaningful and that help satisfy their curiosity by giving some understanding of the world. personal involvement.human being needs to feel that he belongs to the social group and to have some ways of giving affection. Social Needs. lack of attention. 2. The learner must be so aroused that he will not only initiate the learning activity but will persist in it as well. abilities and attitudes. The learner fined his previous ways of reacting unsatisfactorily. The first condition for effective learning is one we are all conscious of. 30 . Any motivation within the individual which makes him perceptive to stimulation is essential to goal attainment.

Guidance of some sort is essential for any kind of complex learning situation where trialerror would prove to be inefficient that lost. Learner gets satisfaction from his behavior. to feel it. 5. while dissatisfying or painful tends to be blotted. Enough time to carry on the desired behavior. 6.Recent studies emphasized that just motivating someone will not produced new behavior unless that person discovers his present behavior are unsatisfactory and need replacing by different better ones. become part of him. as well as to experience it overtly. Kind of guidance of the learner’s efforts when the behavior he is trying to learn is not simply acquired. Unless there is variation in method of approach each time some behavior is practiced. 3. Adequate and appropriate provision of materials for the student to use in his effort to learn. This involves time to react to it. 8. and in that sense is learned. 9. The teacher must encourage pupils to keep setting their sights and show them how they can improve their present standard of accomplishment. 7. 31 . Behavior that is satisfying to the person carrying it sense is to remain with him. 4. Is to help the learner get some means of judging his own performance. Sequential Practiced. to reflect upon it.

6. The relationships among members of the faculty and staffs. The social interaction of relationships among pupils. Ability to diagnose social needs B.Emotional-social climate is the result of at least the following factors: A. and D. and pupils attitudes toward teachers. A summary of the skills which a teacher needs in order to help such children’s are: A. pupils social readiness. B.the teachers as an individual personality is an important element in the learning environment or in the failures and success of the learner. The physical characteristics of the classroom. the previous experience of the pupil. Proficiency in setting up programs and work which allow the induction of such children into the class group. The kind of pupil-teacher relationships which exist in the classroom. class size. C. 32 . Ability to study rejected child and isolate to find the causes of the behavior C. Teachers Personality. relative emphasis on cooperation versus competition.

textbooks. One of the factors that affect the efficiency of learning is the condition in which learning takes place. school supplies. equipment.physical conditions need for learning is under environmental factor. Environmental Factors. and other instructional materials. This includes the classrooms. 33 .7.

but in addition should make use of the special techniques which research has found to be effective. and case studies. diagnostic and clues which the teacher may notice in observing pupils at work. or feeling of rejections must be recognized and treated before the pupils full potential is release. it is virtually certain that many pupils. the teacher should apply the basic principles of remedial teaching. interviews. There are individual problems in each of the school subjects. The causes of the difficulties are found through a more intensive analysis which includes the use of diagnostic test. Remedial teaching in essence is 34 .DISCOVERING AND OVERCOMING DIFFICULTIES IN LEARNING Although there is no single answer to the problem of educational casualties. Principles of diagnostic and remedial teaching apply to all subjects and grade levels of our school system. mental test achievements test. Remedial teaching begins with a discovery of pupils who are having or apt to have difficulties. who would otherwise have failed or drop out of school. a slight loss of hearing. In each subject. are being help by teachers who have discovered pupil’s difficulties early enough and have provided appropriate remedial teaching. Alert teachers have recognize that anything which interferes with reception of stimuli (sensory defect in vision and hearing) the pupils responses (such as low mental ability) or with motives and energy (as negative attitude and emotional instability) interferes with learning. Learning difficulties maybe discovered by routine physical checkups. It is important in this steps that teachers study the processes which pupils use in solving problems or in going about their work. any such interference whether it be speech defect.

and affect whole area of work. may grow. Since a large percentage of learning difficulties are either caused by or accompanied by emotional disturbances to alleviate difficulties is to build up the child’s self-confidence.just good teaching which takes the learner where he is. The child must be given an early opportunity to use and demonstrate new found skills. Original difficulties. work should be set up to get the child back into class work. 2. Find materials which are interesting and commensurate with the child’s weakness. become persistent. A retarded reader might have great interest in comic books. In this connection. and through well motivated activities led him to increase competence in his area of weakness or difficulties. and those might have media beginning remedial work. 35 . In doing remedial work. however care should be exercised so that child who is undergoing remedial teaching is not thrown into competitive situation to quickly. 4. the following general principles must be observed: 1. Remedial work must be such as to give close attention and guidance to learners in early trial of any new kind of learning. which may be caused by quite simple mistakes. 3. or with new materials. Following diagnosis. as it may undermine his growing confidence. Remove the negative emotional attitudes which affect learning.

then and only then the will 36 . When the learner is capable of gaining insight or understanding into the learning situation. and cooperation. abilities. skills. In other words learning is the process of experiencing. habits. Learning is considered as an acquisition of knowledge. Responses are considered an integral part of the unified self in meeting life’s demands. initiative. Based on the different concepts of the learning process and the laws that govern them. insight. the teacher must understand the basic principles of learning. Learning is meaningful if it is organized in such a way as to emphasized and call for understanding.PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING To teach effectively. and attitudes through the interaction of the whole individuals and his total environment. 2. the following general principles of learning are presented for guidance in teaching: 1. doing. reacting and undergoing.

If the individual has to learn. Learning is best when the learner knows and understands his motive in learning. Learning is facilitated by motives or drives. 6. Learning does not occur unless the learner is ready to act or to learn. Lack of practice or exercise cause memory of leaned materials weaken. he learns more effectively and with greater satisfaction than when unprepared. 5. Learning is facilitated by the law of effect. he must have some goal to be accomplished. When a person is ready to learn. 4. synthesizing process that integrates experiences into larger meaningful units.learning take place. Learning is facilitated by the law of readiness or mind get. whereas a feeling of annoyance tends to destroy it. When the learner finds the correct answer to a question. The law of effect pertains to the influence of satisfying or unsatisfying feeling tones that accompany a response and either strengthen or weaken that response. and in general. Mental set is conductive to effective learning. 37 . When a person feels ready to act and is prevented from doing so. A feeling of satisfaction fixes a response. interest. We learn and retain by exercise and forget though disuse. he feels pleased about his achievement and the connection is consequently strengthened. Learning is facilitated by the law of exercise. the greater the loss. Practice and exercise are so common that they are universally accepted as an active means of learning. 3. Needs. the longer the period of disuse. he feels annoyed. Understanding is an organizing. and goals are fundamental on the learning process.

Learning difficulty is due to many factors within the learner himself. Learning is most effective in an atmosphere of security and belonging. 9. Learning is conditioned by the attitude of the learner. and smell will facilitate the learning and understanding of the learning situation. and the attitude and skill of the teacher in setting the stage for learning.7. which includes teaching skill itself. Learning is effective when it is made functional and aided by understanding derived from experience. taste. The experience of the pupil when utilized by the teacher will add to the understanding of the learning situation. When the learner perceives the relationship of facts presented. The most common factors which affect the learning process are the intellectual. Learning is facilitated when the teacher provides the learner with the proper stimuli and guides. 12. All of these factors may be found in the individual himself. it must be related in some way to his previous knowledge. Learning is facilitated by the law of belongingness. and uses the principle of conditioning or associating those learning functions that need to be made automatic for most effective learning. They serve as time-energy-saving habits. physical. emotional. 8. Automatic responses are of prime importance in the formation of new habits or skills for they increase power and lessen fatigue. 10. 11. Experiences and other material devices are 38 . and social factors. the environmental conditions conducive to learning. The combination of seeing and hearing with touch. Learning is effective when more senses are utilized by the learner. The use of different senses will also add effectiveness in causing learning to be meaningful and functional. It must belong to the context of learning to learner has already achieved. the speed of learning is greatly increased. In order that learning in the classroom will be more meaningful to the learner.

has knowledge of his status and progress when he achieves insight and understanding. 14. Learning products are socially useful pattern of action. 16. The learning process and proceeds most effectively when the experiences. The learning process in operation is a functioning unity of several procedures which may be separated arbitrarily for discussion. The learning process proceeds most effectively under the type of instructional guidance which stimulates without dominating or coercing which provides for success rather than too many failures. Individual need practice in setting realistic goals for themselves. 18. appreciations. 17. 13. and abilities. Realistic goals lead to ore satisfactory improvement than unrealistic goal-setting. values. The learning process and achievement are materially affected by the level of aspiration set by the learner. 15. Materials and desired results are carefully adjusted to the maturity and background of experience of the learner. This is based on the principle of integration. 39 . which are useful and meaningful to the learner. skills. The learning process proceeds best when the learner can see results.often used in teaching to give meaning and understanding to the learner. attitudes. The maturity and intelligence of the learner will determine the need for supplemental experience and other instructional devices. meanings. The learning products accepted by the learners are those which satisfy a need.

Conclusion of the Learning Process 40 . mannerism. Here the teacher can also involve himself in many informal experiences as he shares activities with his school mates and enjoy satisfactory relationship with teachers and classmates. 20. or group standards. There is no substitute for respective practice in the over learning of skill or in memorization of unrelated facts.19. A child tends to imitate speech patterns. Much of this learning emanates from imitation of others. The learning situation which is considered more formal is that of the school. Spaced or distributed results are more advantageous in fixing material that is to be long retained. social behavior. During informal learning as individuals habit patterns result directly from response in day by day situations. Learning situation may be either formal or informal. Learning as commonly conceived means not only change but improvement.

The combination of an aviation background and future goals may enable that student to realize the need and value of learning the procedures. an instructor may give two aviation maintenance students the assignment of learning certain inspection procedures. and may result in only minimum preparation. feeling. In spite of numerous theories and contrasting views. The responses differ because each student ads in accordance with what he or she sees in the situation. Thus. it is necessary to analyze what happens to the individual. One student may learn quickly and be able to competently present the assigned material. and doing may change as a result of a learning experience. psychologists generally agree on many common characteristics of learning. Characteristics of Learning Learning is Purposeful Each student sees a learning situation from a different viewpoint. an individual's way of perceiving. thinking. Learning occurs continuously throughout a person's lifetime. Learning also may involve a change in attitude or behavior. A second student's goal may only be to comply with the instructor's assignment. To define learning. and adults can learn to solve complex problems. For example. 41 . teenagers may learn to improve study habits. This chapter addresses that branch of psychology directly concerned with how people learn. This can be physical and overt. learning can be defined as a change in behavior as a result of experience. For example.To learn is to acquire knowledge or skill. Each student is a unique individual whose past experiences affect readiness to learn and understanding of the requirements involved. This handbook is designed as a basic guide to educational psychology. or it may involve complex intellectual or attitudinal changes which affect behavior in more subtle ways. Children learn to identify objects at an early age. Definition of Learning The ability to learn is one of the most outstanding human characteristics.

For example. The instructor cannot assume that students remember something just because they were in the classroom. perhaps outwardly. conceptual elements. these ideas change as a result of experience. according to the manner in which the situation affects their individual needs. problem solving. Neither can the instructor assume that the students can apply what they know because they can quote the correct answer verbatim. they need to react and respond. motor. along with descriptive terms like surface or deep learning. A person's knowledge is a result of experience. the class also engages in verbal learning and sensory perception at the same time. a class learning to apply the scientific method of problem solving may learn the method by trying to solve real problems. or intellectually. learning and knowledge cannot exist apart from a person. such as verbal. perceptual elements. and emotional. Therefore. and no two people have had identical experiences. emotionally. therefore. and attitudinal changes. they are somewhat artificial. perhaps only inwardly. 42 . Previous experience conditions a person to respond to some things and to ignore others. or airplane when the instructor presented the material. conceptual. Other classifications refer to intellectual skills. and problem solving elements all taking place at once. But if learning is a process of changing behavior. cognitive strategies. shop. The student can learn only from personal experiences. perceptual. But in doing so. Even when observing the same event. Learning is an Active Process Students do not soak up knowledge like a sponge absorbs water. two people react differently. they learn different things from it. the instructor cannot do it for the student. However useful these divisions may be. Each student approaches the task with preconceived ideas and feelings.Learning is a Result of Experience Since learning is an individual process. emotional elements. and for many students. Learning is Multifaceted Psychologists sometimes classify learning by types. the learning process may include verbal elements. clearly that process must be an active one. This aspect of learning will become more evident later in this handbook when lesson planning is discussed. For students to learn.

today's culturally diverse society. For example. personality.Learning Styles Although characteristics of learning and learning styles are related. In addition. including international students. social interaction tendencies and the instructional methods used are all significant factors which apply to how individual students learn. Learning style is a concept that can play an important role in improving instruction and student success. there are distinctions between the two. must be considered. Self – Activity. a student's information processing technique. the Basis of All Learning 43 . It is concerned with student preferences and orientation at several levels.

precision and permanence of learning will be enhanced in proportion to the amount of activity aroused in the process. in the sense of ability to educate should be an objective of all teaching. must be given experience in using the means thought make self education possible. Learning at its best is the process of discovering by one’s self. Pupils will learn to think reflectively by going through experiences of reasoning. It is an active process. Learning proceeds rapidly in direct proportion to active participation. mental. the pupil learns the significance of the steps of the inductions and deductive reasoning process. However.The preceding study of learning activities emphasized the importance of self – activity on the part of the learner. Self – activity. Self – activity must made a definite objective and pupil under proper guidance. social and emotional experience. Through experiences and reflective thinking. There is a great need for activity in effective learning. not only in the work at hand. for the speed and the precision of learning becomes most effective only in direct proportion to the amount of activity that is aroused during the process. Importance of Self – activity in Acquiring Specific Motor Activities 44 . The teacher plays an important part in the educative process by finishing the conditions that stimulate the desired physical. but interest in improvement and the acceptance of the work as significant to the pupil’s needs. Methods of Self – Activity It emphasizes the importance of needs and interest. Importance of Self – activity in Thinking The principle of self – activities is of particular importance in teaching pupils to reason. Speed. too much emphasis cannot be placed on the importance of activity in the learning process on the fact that learning is promoted by action alone.

The more intelligent the learner. Learning of any sort is dependent to some extent on the magnitude of the unit to the comprehend. Studies made by Cronbach have shown that the whole method is superior to the part method only with respect to certain subjects. The Literature suggest as follows: a. it is necessary that the pupil experience each of the sets of muscular movements essential to the development of the ability. Cognitive Learning and Thinking 45 .In acquiring specific motor abilities. More meaningful the material. the more efficient the whole method. the more efficient the whole method. Verbal directions. demonstrations or various kinds of illustrations may help in guiding the trial – and error of the learning process. b. c. Such units ought’s to call for an organized pattern of response. The Importance of the Whole .Method in Learning Most learning situations consist of an organized pattern of objects or events. by actual doing repetition are essential to the mastery of the ability.

and transfer information to new situations. So constructed. 46 . Learning by doing is good advice. If students are unwilling to read or to play terms they will not learn how to read or to play tennis. The emphasize behavioral modification by means of reinforcement. Principles of Learning There have been three major school of learning theories in the last 100 years: 1. Field and Gestalt theories consider how the individual perceives the learning environment or situation. Cognitive theories consider how learners think.Cognitive Learning and Thinking It is important for teachers to understand the way student and the components of critical and creative thinking. But teachers should also understand that student learn by indirect means by observing others and through encouragements to try again or to go to the next task or skill level 2. critical thinking and creativity connote specific aspects of learning. The following list of principles of learning is derived from cotemporary cognitive psychology and has implications for teachers today. 1. 2. reasons. Behavioral theories learning in terms of changing what we do. Learning is a reflective process whereby the learner either develops new insights and understanding or changes or restructures his or her mental process. One learns to do what one does. learning combines both inductive thought and deductive thought where as learning connotes a general process. They emphasize observational learning and modeling 3.

The teacher must consider the students age in presenting certain content and in expecting certain cognitive processes. Teachers need to help students to learn how to recognize their thoughts. The principle of readiness is related to the learner’s stage of development and their previous learning. 9. 7. 10. Positive feedback. 6. From a review of the Literature. Meta cognition. 5. An important part of teaching is to know one’s needs additional instruction and who is ready to learn new task. Charles Letteri has compiled a list of seven comprehension or thinking skills that students can develop to enhance the way they process and 47 .teachers must assist students to become task.directed and focus. Transfer of learning to new situations can be horizontal ( across subject matter ) or vertical ( increased complexity of the same subject ) 8. Sometimes forget that these personal factors affect learning and that teacher’s attitudes influence the student perceptions themselves. purposive and efficient in their use of time for learning and studying. how to assess their own thinking and to study. Teachers should provide opportunities for meaningful and appropriate practice- practice task to engage students more fully and to take advantage of different ways of learning the same thing. 4. realistic praise and encouragement are motivating in the teaching learning process.3. Teachers must also consider situational factors. Is relative to the student needs and abilities. The student self.concepts and beliefs about their abilities are extremely important. Teachers need to help students learn how to organize their thoughts how to assess their own thinking and how to an advanced cognitive process whereby students acquire specific learning strategies and also sense when they are not learning. Learning should be good.

1.(reflective impulsivity) the ability to select a correct item from among several alternatives and to compare information and make proper choice. Comparative analysis .integrates information. Relating two or more items such as nouns and verbs. 2. the ability to deal with ambiguous or unclear information without getting frustrated. Analysis – ( sometimes called Field dependence – independence ) The ability to breakdown complex information into component parts for the purpose of identification and categorization. Analyzing or synthesizing new information with all the information. Cognitive frameworks propose Weinstein and Mayor consist of eight comprehension or thinking strategies. Basic rehearsal strategies. 4. Basic elaboration strategies. Complex cognitive – (complexity – simplicity) the ability to integrate complex information into existing cognitive structure. 5. Making appropriate choices or selection. Narrowing – (breadth of categorization) the ability to identify and place new information into categories through its attributes physical characteristics. Focusing – (scanning) the ability to select relevant or important information without being distracted or confused by the irrelevant or secondary information. Tolerance – (Tolerant – intolerant) the ability to monitor and modify thinking. Sharpening – (sharpening – leveling) the ability to maintain distinction between cognitive structures and to avoid confusion or overlap. 4. Complex elaboration strategies. Complex rehearsal strategies. This are the skills that the teacher should understand and help student acquire. The ability to remember names or words and the order of things. 3. 48 . 2. principles or function. 7. 6. 1. 3.

7. The strategy of teaching must suit the learning situation. 8. 6. If at first the learner fails to attain his goal. implications. Checking progress. 7. right or wrong. Basic organizational strategies. The learner must concentrate on the learning task.5. 2. 4. 10. Comprehension. grouping or ordering new information. 3. Putting information in hierarchal arrangement such as outlining notes or framework. The learner must integrate the related parts of the learning task into a whole. 6. The learner must be ready to learn psychologically and physiologically. The learner must be motivated and guided either intrinsically and extrinsically. Categorizing. The learner must often use the law of exercise to enable him to remember and retain what he has learned. Affirtive strategies. Being relaxed yet alert and attentive during a test situation and when studying. The learner must see his goal clearly. Complex organizational strategies. monitoring. The learner must learn by doing. 9. 5. The learner must be able to see the significance meaning. recognizing when one is on the right track or confused. 8. and application of the learning task. Teaching Styles 49 . he must use his insight and understanding to discover the right solution to his problem. Tips for an effective learning situation 1.

4. perhaps even toward general life. Good-Old Team. 1. and their method of student grouping. as well as occupational outlook. their choice of instructional activities and materials. 2. pattern of behavior. somewhat crusty teacher who purposely gets into arguments with the students over the subject matter through artful questioning. The image is one of a group of players to the coach working as a team. 5. and attitude toward self and others. mode of performance. This teacher asserts his or her own authority and provides rewards or punishments to see that the work is done. Boss-Employee. 3. Teachers who adapt this style use a great deal of discussion and play a moderator role that enables students to work out answers to problems to problems by themselves. DESCRIPTION OF TEACHING STYLES Thelen (1954) Herbert Thelen attempts to compare teaching styles with characteristics of societal positions or with what appear to be roles associated with other occupation. 50 . Apprenticeship. Donald Medley refers to teachers styles as a dimension of classroom climate. Socratic. This person serves as a role model towards learning. Town-meeting. The image is a wise. Penelope Peterson defines teacher’s style in terms of how teachers utilized space in the classroom.Teaching style is viewed as a broad dimension or personality type that encompasses teacher stance.

51 . Explanatory. The teacher is in command of the subject matter and explains particular aspects of the lesson. Secular. except perhaps the principal. strong voice. Boomer. Rubin (1985) Louis Robin more recently defines six kinds of teaching styles related to the act of teaching. 1. This teacher is free enough to joke and laugh with the students. 7. this teacher commands both respect and attention. 6. Compulsive type. they were originally based on the observant ions of effective teachers of inner-city students. calm but definite. 8. 4. earthy and maybe an athlete. This teacher is fussy. Sincere. teaches things over and over and is concerned with functional order structures. Maverick. he is physically expressive in conducting the class. 3. 1. Everybody loves his teacher. She raises difficult questions and present ideas that disturb. This person is relaxed and informal with children. The teacher is interested in knowledge and in the substance of ideas.Riesman (1967) Frank Reissman’s eight teaching styles describe personality types. there is no nonsense in the classroom. Entertainer. she will have lunch with them. Academic. 2. This teacher shouts out in loud. This teacher is informal. Coach. 5. Quite One. or play ball with them.

2. 3. 52 . 4. Interactive. 5. Directs all the activities of the program. and presenting corrective advice. the teacher facilitates the development of student’s ideas. The students are expected to listen and follow the instructions of the teacher. Research on Teacher Styles Lipid and White laid the groundwork for a more formal classification of what a teacher does in the classroom. Programmatic. The teacher provides feedback to the students. They developed an instrument for describing the “social atmosphere” of children’s clubs and for quantifying the effects of group and individual behavior. Informative. Authoritarian teacher. Through dialogue and questioning.analyzing the work. Considered to be an unorganized or ineffective teacher. Encourage group participation and is willing to let students share in decisionmaking process. Aspiratory. Democratic teacher. The teacher is stimulating and exhibits emotional involvement in teaching.faire teacher. diagnosing for errors. The teacher presents information through verbal statements. This behavior is typical of what is now called the indirect teacher. Laissez. Corrective. The teacher guides the student’s activities and facilitates self instruction and independent learning. 6. This style share some characteristics with is now called the direct teacher.

4) Low Achiever These children have difficulty even when willing to work. they often avoid starting or they just give up easily. 3) Underachiever These do the minimum work just “get by” they do not value school work. 2) Perfectionist These Children are unduly anxious about making mistakes.Student Problem Types Based on Teacher Description 1) Failure syndrome These Children are convinced they cannot do the work. they have self impose standards which are unrealistically high. 5) Hostile aggressive 53 .

and do not respond well to others. They seem unable to sustain attention and concentration and are highly distractible. 8) Hyperactive These children show excessive and almost constant movement. 10) Immature These children have poorly developed emotional stability. even when sitting. 11) Rejected by peers These children seek interaction but are rejected. They want to have their way and not to be told what to do. 6) Passive Aggressive These children express opposition and resistance to the teacher though indirectly. 9) Distractible These children have short attention span. social skills. or responsibility. ignored or excluded. abilities. intense behavior. 12) Withdrawn These children avoid personal interaction. They are not easily controlled. Are unobtrusive.These children express hostility trough direct. 54 . self-care. 7) Defiant These children resist authority and carry on power struggle with the teacher. self control.

55 .

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