Teaching Categoris and Models of teaching

This study focuses on the use of and rated importance of four basic categories of teaching models provided by a large sample of Saskatchewan teachers. So that the study may be fully understood, this section of the proposal provides a brief delineation of each of these categories of models and a justification for why it is important to examine teacher’s importance perceptions and use of the model categories. According to Joyce & Weil (1980), contemporary teachers have available to them a rich variety of instructional models for classroom use. These models, the authors state, may be divided into four discrete categories: (1) Information Processing models; (2) Personal models; (3) Social Interaction models; and (4) Behavioral models. The Information Processing models are those which characterize the mission of education as a facilitation of cognitive development. Specifically, these models focus on developing students' inductive reasoning, academic reasoning, problem-solving capabilities, analytical abilities, intellectual development, memory, and social and moral development. The Personal Instruction models characterize the mission of education as one that assists people in developing their personal potential as human beings. These models emphasize classroom participation in activities focussing on selfawareness, autonomy, understanding of physical and sensory awareness, creativity, creative problem-solving, and responsibility to one's self and to society

Introduction and support package: Guidance on the concept and use of the process approach for management systems
Document: ISO/TC 176/SC 2/N544R3 October 2008



This guidance document provides an understanding of the concepts, intent and the application of the “process approach” to the ISO 9000 family of Quality Management System standards. The guidance may also be used to apply the process approach to any management system regardless the type or the size of organization. This includes but is not limited to management systems for:

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Environment (ISO 14000 family), Occupational Health and Safety, Business Risk, Social Responsibility. This guide also aims to promote a consistent approach to the description of processes and use of process related terminology. The purpose of the process approach is to enhance an organization’s effectiveness and efficiency in achieving its defined objectives. In relation to ISO 9001:2008 this means enhancing customer satisfaction by meeting customer requirements. Benefits of the process approach are:

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Integration and alignment of processes to enable achievement of desired outcomes Ability to focus effort on process effectiveness and efficiency. Provision of confidence to customers, and other interested parties, about the consistent performance of the organization. Transparency of operations within the organization. Lower costs and creation of shorter cycle times, through the effective use of resources. Improved, consistent and predictable results. Provision of opportunities for focused and prioritized improvement initiatives. Encouragement of the involvement of people and the clarification of their responsibilities.


What is a process?

A “Process” can be defined as a “set of interrelated or interacting activities, which transforms inputs into outputs”. These activities require allocation of resources such as people and materials. Figure 1 shows a generic process. A major advantage of the process approach, when compared to other approaches, is in the management and control of the interactions between these processes and the interfaces between the functional hierarchies of the organization (as further explained in section 4).

Figure 1 - Generic process

Inputs and intended outputs may be tangible (such as equipment, materials or components) or intangible (such as energy or information). Outputs can also be unintended, such as waste or pollution. Each process has customers and other interested parties (who may be either internal or external to the organization), with needs and expectations about the process, who define the required outputs of the process. A system should be used to gather data to provide information about process performance, which should then be analyzed to determine if there is any need for corrective action or improvement. All processes should be aligned with the objectives, scope and complexity of the organization, and should be designed to add value to the organization. Process effectiveness and efficiency can be assessed through internal or external review processes.


Types of processes
References to processes in ISO 9001:2008:

ISO 9001:2008 states: In sub clause 0.1 General: “The design and implementation of an organization„s quality management system is influenced by: its business environment, changes in that environment, or risks associated with that environment; its varying needs; its particular objectives; the products it provides; the processes it employs; its size and organizational structure. It is not the intent of this International Standard to imply uniformity in the structure of quality management systems or uniformity of documentation”. In sub clause 0.2 Process Approach: “The application of a system of processes within an organization, together with the identification and interactions of these processes, and their management to produce the desired outcome, can be referred to as the “process approach“. In sub clause 4.1 General requirements: “The organization shall establish, document, implement and maintain a quality management system and continually improve its effectiveness in accordance with the

requirements of this International Standard. The organization shall: a) determine the processes needed for the quality management system and their application throughout the organization (see 1.2), b) determine the sequence and interaction of these processes, c) determine criteria and methods needed to ensure that both the operation and control of these processes are effective, d) ensure the availability of resources and information necessary to support the operation and monitoring of these processes, e) monitor, measure (where applicable), and analyse these processes, and f) implement actions necessary to achieve planned results and continual improvement of these processes. These processes shall be managed by the organization in accordance with the requirements of this International Standard”. Based on the above, each organization should define the number and type of processes needed to fulfil its business objectives. It is permissible for a process that is required by ISO 9001:2008 to be part of a process (or processes) that is already established by the organization, or to be defined by the organization in terms that are different to those in ISO 9001. 3.2 Typical types of processes that can be identified:

In accordance with 3.1 above, organizations have to define the number and types of processes needed to fulfil their business objectives. While these will be unique to each organization, it is however possible to identify typical processes, such as:

Processes for the management of an organization. These include processes relating to strategic planning, establishing policies, setting objectives, ensuring communication, ensuring availability of resources for the other organization’s quality objectives and desired outcomes and for management reviews.

  

Processes for managing resources. These include all the processes that are necessary to provide the resources needed for the organization’s quality objectives and desired outcomes. Realization processes. These include all processes that provide the desired outcomes of the organization. Measurement, analysis and improvement processes. These include the processes needed to measure and gather data for performance analysis and improvement of effectiveness and efficiency. They include measuring, monitoring, auditing, performance analysis and improvement processes (e.g. for corrective and preventive actions). Measurement processes are often documented as an integral part of the management, resource and realization processes; whereas analysis and improvement processes are treated frequently as autonomous processes that interact with other processes, receive inputs from measurement results, and send outputs for the improvement of those processes.


Understanding the process approach

A process approach is a powerful way of organizing and managing activities to create value for the customer and other interested parties. Organizations are often structured into a hierarchy of functional units. Organizations are usually managed vertically, with responsibility for the intended outputs being divided among functional units. The end customer or other interested party is not always visible to all involved. Consequently, problems that occur at the interface boundaries are often given less priority than the short-term goals of the units. This leads to little or no improvement to the interested party, as actions are usually focused on the functions, rather than on the intended output.

The process approach introduces horizontal management, crossing the barriers between different functional units and unifying their focus to the main goals of the organization. It also improves the management of process interfaces (see Figure 2).

Figure 2 - Example of Process linkages across departments in an organization.

The performance of an organization can be improved through the use of the process approach. The processes are managed as a system, by creating and understanding a network of the processes and their interactions. Note: The consistent operation of this network is often referred to as the "system approach" to management. The outputs from one process may be inputs to other processes and interlinked into the overall network or system (for generic examples, see Figure 3 and Figure 4).

Figure 3 - Example of a generic process sequence

Figure 4 - Example of a process sequence and its interactions


Implementing the process approach

The following implementation methodology can be applied to any type of process. The step sequence is only one method and is not intended to be prescriptive. Some steps may be carried out simultaneously. 5.1. Identification of processes of the organization

Steps in the process approach 5.1.1 Define the purpose of the organization

What to do?


The organization should identify its customers and other interested parties as well as their requirements, needs and expectations to define the organization's intended outputs.

Gather, analyze and determine customer and other interested parties requirements, and other needs and expectations. Communicate frequently with customers and other interested parties to ensure continual understanding of their requirements, needs and expectations. Determine the requirements for quality management, environmental management, occupational health and safety, management, business risk, social responsibilities and other management system disciplines that will be applied within the organization.

5.1.2 Define the policies and objectives of the organization

Based on analyses of the requirements, needs and expectations, establish the organization's policies and objectives

Top management should decide which markets the organization should address and develop relevant policies. Based on these policies, management should then establish objectives for the intended outputs (e.g. products, environmental performance, occupational health and safety performance)

5.1.3 Determine the processes in the organization

Determine all the processes needed to produce the intended outputs.

DDetermine the processes needed for achieving the intended outputs. These processes include Management, Resources, Realization and Measurement, Analysis and Improvement.

Identify all process inputs and outputs, along with the suppliers, customers and other interested parties (who may be internal or external). 5.1.4 Determine the sequence of the processes - The customer of each process, - The inputs and outputs of each process, - Which processes are interacting, - Interfaces and what are their characteristics, - Timing and sequence of the interacting processes, - Effectiveness and efficiency of the sequence. Determine how the processes flow in sequence and interaction Define and develop a description of the network of processes and their interaction.Consider the following:

Note: As an example, a realization process that results in an output, such as product delivered to a customer, will interact with other processes (such as the management, measurement and monitoring, and resource provision processes). Methods and tools such as block diagrams, matrix and flowcharts can be used to support the development of process sequences and their interactions. 5.1.5 Define process ownership Assign responsibility and authority for each process Management should define individual roles and responsibilities for ensuring the implementation, maintenance and improvement of each process and its interactions. Such an individual is usually referred to as the "process owner". To manage process interactions, it may be useful to establish a "process management team", that has an overview across all the processes, and which includes representatives from each of the interacting processes. 5.1.6 Define process documentation Determine those processes that are to be documented and how they are to be documented. Processes exist within the organization and the initial approach should be limited to identifying and managing them in the most appropriate way. There is no "catalogue", or list of processes, that have to be documented. The main purpose of documentation is to enable the consistent and stable operation of the processes.

The organization should determine which processes are to be documented, on the basis of: - The size of the organization and its type of activities, - The complexity of its processes and their interactions, - The criticality of the processes, and· - The availability of competent personnel.

When it is necessary to document processes, a number of different methods can be used such as graphical representations, written instructions, checklists, flow charts, visual media, or electronic methods. Note: For more guidance see the ISO 9000 Introduction and Support Package module Guidance on the Documentation Requirements of ISO 9001:2008


Planning of a process

Steps in the process approach 5.2.1 Define the activities within the process

What to do?


Determine the activities needed to achieve the intended outputs of the process

Define the required inputs and outputs of the process. Determine the activities required to transform the inputs into the required outputs. Determine and define the sequence and interaction of the activities within the process. Determine how each activity will be performed.

Note: In some cases, the customer may specify the way the process is to be performed. 5.2.2 Define the monitoring and measurement requirements Determine where and how monitoring and measuring should be applied. This should be both for control and improvement of the processes and the intended process outputs. Monitoring is always applicable but measurement may not be practicable or even possible. Nevertheless measurement gives more objective data on the performance of the process and it is a powerful management and improvement tool. Identify the measures and monitoring criteria for process control and process performance, to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of the process, taking into account factors such as: - Conformity with requirements,

- Customer satisfaction, Determine the need for recording results. - Supplier performance, - On time delivery, - Lead times, - Failure rates, - Waste, - Process costs, - Incident frequency. 5.2.3 Define the resources needed Determine the resources needed for the effective operation of each process Examples of resources include: - Human resources, - Infrastructure, - Work environment, - Information, - Natural resources, - Materials, - Financial resources 5.2.4 Verify the process and its activities against its planned objectives Confirm that the characteristics of the processes are consistent with the purpose of the organization (see 5.1.1) Verify that all the requirements identified in 5.1.1 are satisfied. If not, consider what additional process activities are required and return to 5.2.1 to improve the process.


Implementation and measurement of the process

Implement the processes and their activities as planned. The organization may develop a project for implementation that includes, but is not limited to

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Communication, Awareness, Training, Change management, Management involvement, Applicable review activities. Apply the controls, and perform the monitoring and measurements as planned.


Analysis of the process

Analyze and evaluate process information obtained from monitoring and measuring data, in order to quantify process performance. Where appropriate, use statistical methods. Compare the results of process performance information with the defined requirements of the process, to confirm process effectiveness and efficiency and to identify any need for corrective action.

Identify process improvement opportunities based on the results of the analysis of process information. Report to top management, and other relevant people in the organization, on the performance of the process, as appropriate. 5.5. Corrective action and improvement of the process

Whenever corrective actions are needed, the method for implementing them should be defined. This should include the identification and elimination of the root causes of the problems (e.g. errors, defects, lack of adequate process controls). The effectiveness of the actions taken should be reviewed. Implement the corrective actions and verify their effectiveness according to plan. When planned process outcomes are being achieved and requirements fulfilled, the organization should focus its efforts on actions to improve process performance to higher levels, on a continual basis. The method for improvement should be defined and implemented (examples of improvements include: process simplification, enhancement of efficiency, improvement of effectiveness, reduction of process cycle time). Verify the effectiveness of the improvement. Risk analysis tools may be employed to identify potential problems. The root cause(s) of these potential problems should also be identified and eliminated, preventing occurrence in all processes with similarly identified risks. The Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) methodology can be a useful tool to define, implement and control corrective actions and improvements. Extensive literature exists about the PDCA cycle in numerous languages.

PLAN >> Establish the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with customer, statutory and regulatory requirements and the organization's policies; DO >> Implement the processes; CHECK >> Monitor and measure processes and product against policies, objectives and requirements for the product and report the results; ACT >> Take actions to continually improve process performance;” The PDCA is a dynamic methodology that can be deployed within each of the organization’s processes and across their interactions. It is intimately associated with planning, implementation, verification and improvement. Maintaining and improving process performance can be achieved by applying the PDCA concept at all levels within an organization. This applies equally to all processes, from high-level strategic processes to simple operational activities.

Problem solving is a mental process and is part of the larger problem process that includes problem finding and problem shaping. Considered the most complex of all intellectual functions, problem solving has been defined as higher-order cognitive process that requires the modulation and control of more routine or fundamental skills.[1] Problem solving occurs when an organism or an artificial intelligence system needs to move from a given state to a desired goal state. Characteristics of difficult problems As elucidated by Dietrich Dörner and later expanded upon by Joachim Funke, difficult problems have some typical characteristics that can be summarized as follows:

Intransparency (lack of clarity of the situation) o commencement opacity o continuation opacity Polytely (multiple goals) o inexpressiveness o opposition o transience Complexity (large numbers of items, interrelations and decisions)

enumerability connectivity (hierarchy relation, communication relation, allocation relation) heterogeneity Dynamics (time considerations) o temporal constraints o temporal sensitivity o phase effects o dynamic unpredictability

o o o

The resolution of difficult problems requires a direct attack on each of these characteristics that are encountered. In reform mathematics, greater emphasis is placed on problem solving relative to basic skills, where basic operations can be done with calculators. However some "problems" may actually have standard solutions taught in higher grades. For example, kindergarteners could be asked how many fingers are there on all the gloves of 3 children, which can be solved with multiplication.[5] [edit] Problem-solving techniques
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Abstraction: solving the problem in a model of the system before applying it to the real system Analogy: using a solution that solved an analogous problem Brainstorming: (especially among groups of people) suggesting a large number of solutions or ideas and combining and developing them until an optimum is found Divide and conquer: breaking down a large, complex problem into smaller, solvable problems Hypothesis testing: assuming a possible explanation to the problem and trying to prove (or, in some contexts, disprove) the assumption Lateral thinking: approaching solutions indirectly and creatively Means-ends analysis: choosing an action at each step to move closer to the goal Method of focal objects: synthesizing seemingly non-matching characteristics of different objects into something new Morphological analysis: assessing the output and interactions of an entire system Reduction: transforming the problem into another problem for which solutions exist Research: employing existing ideas or adapting existing solutions to similar problems Root cause analysis: eliminating the cause of the problem Trial-and-error: testing possible solutions until the right one is found Proof: try to prove that the problem cannot be solved. The point where the proof fails will be the starting point for solving it

"A solution, to be a solution, must share some of the problems characteristics." Richard L Kempe [edit] Problem-solving methodologies
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Eight Disciplines Problem Solving GROW model How to solve it Kepner-Tregoe PDCA RPR Problem Diagnosis TRIZ (Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh Zadatch, "theory of solving inventor's problems")

[edit] Example applications Problem solving is of crucial importance in engineering when products or processes fail, so corrective action can be taken to prevent further failures. Perhaps of more value, problem solving can be applied to a product or process prior to an actual fail event i.e. a potential problem can be predicted, analyzed and mitigation applied so the problem never actually occurs. Techniques like Failure Mode Effects Analysis can be used to proactively reduce the likelihood of problems occurring. Forensic engineering is an important technique of failure analysis which involves tracing product defects and flaws. Corrective action can then be taken to prevent further failures. [edit] See also

Thinking portal
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Artificial intelligence C-K theory Creative problem solving Divergent thinking Educational psychology Executive function Forensic engineering Grey problem Heuristics Innovation Intelligence amplification Inquiry Logical reasoning Problem statement Herbert Simon Thought Transdisciplinary studies Troubleshooting Wicked problem

Inquiry education (sometimes known as the inquiry method) is a student-centered method of education focused on asking questions. Students are encouraged to ask questions which are meaningful to them, and which do not necessarily have easy answers; teachers are encouraged to avoid giving answers when this is possible, and in any case to avoid giving direct answers in favor of asking more questions. The method was advocated by Neil Postman and Charles Weingartner in their book Teaching as a Subversive Activity. The inquiry method is motivated by Postman and Weingartner's recognition that good learners and sound reasoners center their attention and activity on the dynamic process of inquiry itself, not merely on the end product of static knowledge. They write that certain characteristics are common to all good learners (Postman and Weingartner, 31–33), saying that all good learners have:
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Self-confidence in their learning ability Pleasure in problem solving A keen sense of relevance Reliance on their own judgment over other people's or society's No fear of being wrong No haste in answering Flexibility in point of view Respect for facts, and the ability to distinguish between fact and opinion No need for final answers to all questions, and comfort in not knowing an answer to difficult questions rather than settling for a simplistic answer

In an attempt to instill students with these qualities and behaviors, a teacher adhering to the inquiry method in pedagogy must behave very differently from a traditional teacher. Postman and Weingartner suggest that inquiry teachers have the following characteristics (pp. 34–37):
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They avoid telling students what they "ought to know". They talk to students mostly by questioning, and especially by asking divergent questions. They do not accept short, simple answers to questions. They encourage students to interact directly with one another, and avoid judging what is said in student interactions. They do not summarize students' discussion. They do not plan the exact direction of their lessons in advance, and allow it to develop in response to students' interests. Their lessons pose problems to students. They gauge their success by change in students' inquiry behaviors (with the above characteristics of "good learners" as a goal.

The discovery method is a teaching technique that encourages students to take a more active role in their learning process by answering a series of questions or solving problems designed to introduce a general concept (Mayer 2003). Jerome S. Bruner, a highly influential cognitive psychologist, is credited for its development into an accepted instructional technique.

Overview The discovery method is based on the notion that learning takes place through classification and schema formation (Gellenstien 2004). Three main principles guided Bruner’s development of this approach: 1. Consideration should be given to “experiences and contexts�? that motivate the student’s interests 2. There should be a spiral organization of the material forcing students to build upon previously acquired information 3. The instruction should “facilitate extrapolation�? constructivist theory In this teaching approach, the instructor guides the student’s thought process by posing a series of questions whose responses would lead to the understanding of a concept before it is explicitly stated. “Children act as detectives as they solve concept-attainment activities in stimulating learning environments. In doing so, they place a newly introduced object in a category that they have previously discovered or identified�? (Gallenstien 2004). This teaching method is believed to increase retention of material because the student organizes the new information and integrates it with information that has already been stored. Method outline A. Examples Manipulation B. Practice with more examples C. New concepts explained/defined (Hopkins 2002) Mayer describes these as pure discovery, guided discovery, and expository, respectively.

The Discovery method refers to how much guidance a teacher should give their students. There are three levels of guidance in teaching: 1. Pure Discovery - The student recieves representative problems to solve with minimal teacher guidance (Mayer, 2003).

2. Guided Discovery - The student recieves problems to solve, but the teacher provides hints and directions about how to solve the problemto keep the student on track (Mayer, 2003). 3. Expository - The final answer or rule is presented to the student (Mayer, 2003).

What Are the Goals of Screening Tests?
Screening tests have many goals.

A screening test that works the way it should and is helpful does the following:
   
Finds cancer before symptoms appear. Screens for a cancer that is easier to treat and cure when found early. Has few false-negative test results and false-positive test results. Decreases the chance of dying from cancer.

Screening tests are not meant to diagnose cancer.

Screening tests usually do not diagnose cancer. If a screening test result is abnormal, more tests may be done to check for cancer. For example, a screening mammogram may find a lump in the breast. A lump may be cancer or something else. More tests need to be done to find out if the lump is cancer. These are called diagnostic tests. Diagnostic tests may include a biopsy, in which cells or tissues are removed so a pathologist can check them under a microscope for signs of cancer.

People Power Revolution

The People Power Revolution (also known as the EDSA Revolution and the Philippine Revolution of 1986) was a series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines that occurred in 1983-86. The methods used amounted to a sustained campaign of civil resistance against regime violence and electoral fraud. This case of nonviolent revolution led to the departure of President Ferdinand Marcos and the restoration of the country's democracy. It has been an inspiration for the Revolutions of 1989 that contributed to the ending of communist dictatorships in Eastern Europe.[1] It is also referred to as the Yellow Revolution due to the presence of yellow ribbons during the demonstrations and the arrival of Benigno Aquino, Jr..[2][3] It was widely seen as a victory of the people against the 20-year running authoritarian, repressive[4] regime of then president Ferdinand Marcos and made news headlines as "the revolution that surprised the world".[5] The majority of the demonstrations took place at Epifanio de los Santos Avenue, known more commonly by its acronym EDSA, in Quezon City, Metropolitan Manila and involved over two million Filipino civilians as well as several political, military, and religious figures, such as Cardinal Jaime Sin. The protests, fueled by a resistance and opposition of years of corrupt governance by Marcos, occurred from February 22–25, 1986, when Marcos fled Malacañang Palace to the U.S. state of Hawaii and conceded to Corazon Aquino as the legitimate President of the Philippines.[6]

Background and history

President Ferdinand Marcos Ferdinand Marcos was elected president in 1965, defeating incumbent Diosdado Macapagal by a very slim margin. During this time, Marcos was very active in the initiation of public works projects and the intensification of tax collections. Marcos and his government claimed that they "built more roads than all his predecessors combined, and more schools than any previous administration".[8] Amidst charges of vote buying and a fraudulent election, Marcos was reelected in 1969, this time defeating Sergio Osmeña Jr. Marcos's second term for the presidency, however, was marred by allegations of widespread graft and corruption. The increasing disparity of wealth between the very wealthy and the very poor which made up the majority of the country's population led to the rise of crime and civil unrest around the country. These factors, including the formation of the New People's Army, an armed revolt that called for the redistribution of wealth and land reform in the Philippines, and a bloody Muslim separatist movement in

the southern island of Mindanao led by the Moro National Liberation Front, contributed to the rapid rise of civil discontent and unrest in the Philippines. Marcos was barred from running for a third term as president in 1973, so on September 23, 1972, by virtue of a presidential proclamation (No. 1081), he declared martial law, citing rising civil disobedience as justification. Through this decree, Marcos seized emergency powers giving him full control of the Philippine military and the authority to suppress the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, and many other civil liberties. Marcos also dissolved the Philippine Congress and shut down media establishments critical of the Marcos government. Marcos also ordered the immediate arrest of his political opponents and critics. Among those arrested were Senate President Jovito Salonga, Senator Jose Diokno, and Senator Benigno Aquino Jr., the staunchest of his critics and the man who was groomed by the opposition to beat Marcos in the 1973 elections. Marcos would also abolish the Philippines' 1935 constitution and replace it with a parliamentary-style government (the Batasang Pambansa) along with a new constitution written by him. With practically all of his political opponents arrested and in exile, Marcos' pre-emptive declaration of martial law in 1972, and the ratification of his new constitution through political coercion, enabled him to effectively legitimize his government and hold on to power for another 14 years beyond his first two terms as president. At a period when the Cold War was still a political reality, Marcos's dictatorship ensured the political support of the United States by Marcos' promise to stamp out communism in the Philippines and by assuring the United States of its continued use of military and naval bases in the Philippines.[9] Throughout his presidency, Ferdinand Marcos had set up a regime in the Philippines that would give him ultimate power over the military and the national treasury, as well as set up a personality cult. Following his declaration of martial law on September 21, 1972,[10] Marcos immediately began to embezzle money from the government and order the military to kill any political competition against him. As a result, the Philippine economy began to tumble greatly, and the nation lost its competitive edge in Southeast Asia. He also ordered many stores, hotels, schools, universities, and other public places to place his Presidential picture prominently or otherwise their facilities were shut down. The media frequently "eulogized" Marcos through public service announcements and news reports. Even billboard advertisements across the country were replaced with his propaganda messages on justifying his regime's actions. Marcos also ordered the shutdown and takeovers of businesses in the country, then put these businesses either under the government control, or under the control of Marcos cronies.[9] Several groups of people, however, even within the government, conspired throughout the term of the Marcos regime to overthrow him. They were led by the popular public figure, incarcerated opposition senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr, who Marcos accused as leaning to a left-wing solution. While gaining popularity amongst the Filipino people for his stance against Marcos, Aquino was eventually forced to seek exile in the United States for health and safety reasons. However, in 1983, Ninoy Aquino announced of his plans to return to the Philippines as a challenge to Marcos's government.[9] Within the military and the police, disillusioned junior officers silently conveyed their grievances. This led to the formation of the Reform the Armed Forces Movement (RAM), Soldier of the Filipino People (SFP), and Young Officers Union (YOU). RAM, which was led by graduates of the Philippine Military Academy Class of '71, Lt. Col. Gringo Honasan, Lt. Col. Victor Batac, and Lt. Col. Eduardo Kapunan, found an ally and mentor in the Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile. [edit] Assassination of Ninoy Aquino Main article: Assassination of Benigno Aquino, Jr.

The Manila Bulletin headline of Aquino's assassination on August 21, 1983 Despite warnings from the military and other pro-Marcos groups, and even by Ferdinand Marcos' wife Imelda, not to return to the Philippines, Ninoy Aquino was determined to return to the Philippines. Asked what he thought of the death threats, Ninoy Aquino responded "The Filipino is worth dying for." On August 21, 1983, after a three-year exile in the United States, as he disembarked from a commercial flight at the then-Manila International Airport (now named after him), Aquino was assassinated.[11] His assassination shocked and outraged many Filipinos, most of whom by then had lost confidence in the Marcos administration. The event led to more suspicions on the government, triggered non-cooperation among Filipinos that eventually caused more civil disobedience.[12] It also shook the Marcos government, which was by then deteriorating, in part due to Marcos' worsening health condition due to an eventual fatal illness (lupus erythematosus). The assassination of Ninoy Aquino in 1983 caused the economic problems of the country to deteriorate even further, and the government plunged further into debt. By the end of 1983, the country was bankrupt, and the economy contracted by 6.8%.[13] In 1984, Marcos appointed a commission, led by Chief Justice Enrique Fernando, to launch an inquiry and investigation into Aquino's assassination. Despite the commission's conclusions, Cardinal Jaime Sin, the Archbishop of Manila at the time, declined an offer to join the commission, rejecting the government's views on the assassination. In October of that year, Marcos appointed a second commission to investigate. The commission's final report accused the military of staging a conspiracy to assassinate Aquino, dealing another major blow to the already collapsing government. Aquino was shot at Manila International Airport (MIA) which is now called Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA).[14] [edit] Calls for election Main article: Philippine presidential election, 1986 On November 23, 1985, after pressures from Washington,[15] Marcos suddenly announced that a presidential snap election would take place the following year, one year ahead of the regular presidential election schedule, to legitimize his control over the country.[1] The snap election was legalized with the passage of Batas Pambansa Blg. 883 (National Law No. 883) by the Marcos-controlled unicameral congress called the Regular Batasang Pambansa. The growing opposition movement encouraged Ninoy Aquino's widow, Corazon Aquino, to run for the presidency with Salvador Laurel as running mate for vice-president. Marcos ran for re-election, with Arturo Tolentino as his running mate. The Aquino-Laurel tandem ran under the United Opposition (UNIDO) party, while the Marcos-Tolentino ticket ran under the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (KBL) party.[16]

[edit] Snap election Main article: Philippine presidential election, 1986 The elections were held on February 7, 1986.[1] The official election canvasser, the Commission on Elections (COMELEC), declared Marcos the winner. The final tally of the COMELEC had Marcos winning with 10,807,197 votes against Aquino's 9,291,761 votes. On the other hand, the final tally of the National Movement for Free Elections (NAMFREL), an accredited poll watcher, had Aquino winning with 7,835,070 votes against Marcos' 7,053,068 points.[17] This electoral exercise was marred by widespread reports of violence and tampering of election results, culminating in the walkout of 29 COMELEC computer technicians to protest the deliberate manipulation of the official election results to favor Ferdinand Marcos. The walkout was considered as one of the early "sparks" of the People Power Revolution. The walkout also served as an affirmation to allegations of vote-buying, fraud, and tampering of election results by the KBL.[18] Because of reports of alleged fraud, the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) issued a statement condemning the elections. The United States Senate also passed a resolution stating the same condemnation.[1] US president Ronald Reagan issued a statement calling the fraud reports as "disturbing".[19] In response to the protests, COMELEC claimed that Marcos with 53 percent won over Aquino. However, NAMFREL countered that the latter won over Marcos with 52 percent of votes.[20] On February 15, Marcos was proclaimed by COMELEC and Batasang Pambansa as the winner amidst the controversy. All 50 opposition members of the Parliament walked out in protest. The Filipino people refused to accept the results, however, asserting that Aquino was the real victor. Both "winners" took their oath of office in two different places, with Aquino gaining greater mass support. Aquino also called for coordinated strikes and mass boycott of the media and businesses owned by Marcos's cronies. As a result, the crony banks, corporations, and media were hit hard, and their shares in the stock market plummeted to record levels. [edit] Events of the revolution Appalled by the bold and apparent election irregularities, the Reform the Armed Forces Movement set into motion a coup attempt against Marcos. The initial plan was for a team to assault Malacañang Palace and arrest Ferdinand Marcos. Other military units will be taking over key strategic facilities, such as the airport, military bases, TV and radio stations, the GHQAFP in Camp Aguinaldo, and major highway junctions to restrict counteroffensive by Marcos-loyal troops. Lt.Col Gregorio Honasan was to lead the team that was going to assault Malacañang Palace. However, after Marcos learned about the plot, he ordered their leaders' arrest,[21] and presented to the international and local press some of the captured plotters, Maj. Saulito Aromin and Maj. Edgardo Doromal.[22][23] Threatened with their impending imprisonment, Enrile and his fellow coup plotters decided to ask for help from then AFP Vice Chief of Staff Lt. Gen Fidel Ramos, who was also the chief of the Philippine Constabulary (now the Philippine National Police). Ramos agreed to resign from his position and support the plotters. Enrile also contacted the highly influential Cardinal Archbishop of Manila Jaime Sin for his support. At about 6:30pm, February 22, Enrile and Ramos held a press conference at Camp Aguinaldo, where they announced that they had resigned from their positions in Marcos's cabinet and were withdrawing support from his government. Marcos himself later conducted his own news conference calling on Enrile and Ramos to surrender, urging them to "stop this stupidity."[24] At about 9 p.m., in a message aired over Radio Veritas, Cardinal Sin exhorted Filipinos to come to the aid of the rebel leaders by going to EDSA between Camp Crame and Aguinaldo and giving emotional support, food and other supplies. For many, this seemed an unwise decision since civilians would not stand a chance against a dispersal by government troops. Nevertheless, many people, especially priests and nuns, trooped to EDSA.[24] Radio Veritas played a critical role during the mass uprising. Former University of the Philippines president Francisco Nemenzo stated that: "Without Radio Veritas, it would have been difficult, if not

impossible, to mobilize millions of people in a matter of hours." Similarly, a certain account in the event said that: "Radio Veritas, in fact, was our umbilical cord to whatever else was going on."[25] [edit] Rising mass support

During the height of the revolution, an estimated one to three million people filled EDSA from Ortigas Avenue all the way to Cubao. The photo above shows the area at the intersection of EDSA and Boni Serrano Avenue, just between Camp Crame and Camp Aguinaldo. At dawn, Sunday, government troops arrived to knock down the main transmitter of Radio Veritas, cutting off broadcasts to people in the provinces. The station switched to a standby transmitter with a limited range of broadcast.[25] The station was targeted because it had proven to be a valuable communications tool for the people supporting the rebels, keeping them informed of government troop movements and relaying requests for food, medicine, and supplies.[24] Still, people came to EDSA until it swelled to hundreds of thousands of unarmed civilians. The mood in the street was actually very festive, with many bringing whole families. Performers entertained the crowds, nuns and priests led prayer vigils, and people set up barricades and makeshift sandbags, trees, and vehicles in several places along EDSA and intersecting streets such as Santolan and Ortigas Avenue. Everywhere, people listened to Radio Veritas on their radios. Several groups sang Bayan Ko (My Homeland),[26] which, since 1980, had become a patriotic anthem of the opposition. People frequently flashed the LABAN (fight) sign,[27] which is an "L" formed with their thumb and index finger. Shortly after lunch on February 23, Enrile and Ramos decided to consolidate their positions. Enrile crossed EDSA from Camp Aguinaldo to Camp Crame amidst cheers from the crowd.[24] In the mid-afternoon, Radio Veritas relayed reports of Marines massing near the camps in the east and LVT-5 tanks approaching from the north and south. A contingent of Marines with tanks and armored vans, led by Brigadier General Artemio Tadiar, was stopped along Ortigas Avenue, about two kilometers from the camps, by tens of thousands of people.[28] Nuns holding rosaries knelt in front of the tanks and men and women linked arms together to block the troops.[29] Tadiar asked the crowds to make a clearing for them, but they did not budge. In the end, the troops retreated with no shots fired.[24] By evening, the standby transmitter of Radio Veritas failed. Shortly after midnight, the staff were able to go to another station to begin broadcasting from a secret location under the moniker "Radyo Bandido" (Bandit Radio). June Keithley, with Angelo Castro, was the radio broadcaster who continued Radio Veritas' program throughout the night and in the remaining days.[24] [edit] More defections At dawn on Monday, February 24, the first serious encounter with government troops occurred. Marines marching from Libis, in the east, lobbed tear gas at the demonstrators, who quickly dispersed. Some 3,000 Marines then entered and held the east side of Camp Aguinaldo.[24] Later, helicopters manned by the 15th Strike Wing of the Philippine Air Force, led by Colonel Antonio Sotelo, were ordered from Sangley Point in Cavite (South of Manila) to head to Camp Crame.[30] Secretly, the squadron had already defected and instead of attacking Camp Crame, landed in it, with the crowds cheering and hugging the pilots and crew members. A Bell 214 helicopter piloted by Major Deo Cruz of

the 205th Helicopter Wing and Sikorsky S-76 gunships piloted by Colonel Charles Hotchkiss of the 20th Air Commando Squadron joined the rebel squadron earlier in the air. The presence of the helicopters boosted the morale of Enrile and Ramos who had been continually encouraging their fellow soldiers to join the opposition movement.[24] In the afternoon, Aquino arrived at the base where Enrile, Ramos, RAM officers and a throng were waiting.[30] [edit] The capture of Channel 4 At around that time, June Keithley received reports that Marcos had left Malacañang Palace and broadcast this to the people at EDSA. The crowd celebrated and even Ramos and Enrile came out from Crame to appear to the crowds. The jubilation was however short-lived as Marcos later appeared on television on the government-controlled Channel 4,[31] (using the foreclosed ABS-CBN facilities, transmitter and compound) declaring that he would not step down. It was thereafter speculated that the false report was a calculated move against Marcos to encourage more defections.[24] During this broadcast, Channel 4 suddenly went off the air. A contingent of rebels, under Colonel Mariano Santiago, had captured the station. Channel 4 was put back on line shortly after noon, with Orly Punzalan announcing, "Channel 4 is on the air again to serve the people." By this time, the crowds at EDSA had swollen to over a million. (Some estimates placed them at two million.)[24] This broadcast was considered the "return" of ABS-CBN on air because this was the time when former employees of ABSCBN were inside the complex after 14 years of closure since Marcos took it over during the Martial law of 1972. The people who were manning this broadcast were the likes of June Keithley, Fr. Aris Sison, Fr. Efren Datu, Fr. Bong Bongayan, Jose Mari Velez, Orly Punzalan and were directed by Johnny Manahan with former ABS employees. Also this was the first time when the late Eugenio "Geny" Lopez Jr.'s cousin Augusto "Jake" Lopez stepped into ABS-CBN after it had been closed. In the late afternoon, rebel helicopters attacked Villamor Airbase, destroying presidential air assets. Another helicopter went to Malacañang, fired a rocket and caused minor damage. Later, most of the officers who had graduated from the Philippine Military Academy (PMA) defected. The majority of the Armed Forces had already changed sides.[24] [edit] AFP holds fire "Marcos' finest hour"

President Ferdinand Marcos and General Fabian Ver during a press conference in Malacañang Palace.

Problems listening to this file? See media help.

The actual dialogue on TV between Marcos and then AFP Chief of Staff General Fabian Ver went as follows: Fabian Ver: We have to immobilize the helicopters they've got. We have two fighter planes flying now to strike at any time, sir. Ferdinand Marcos: My order is not to attack. Ver: They are massing civilians near our troops and we cannot keep on withdrawing. You asked me to withdraw yesterday.... Marcos (interrupting): My order is to disperse [them] without shooting them. Ver: We cannot withdraw all the time... Marcos:' No, no, no! Hold on. You disperse the crowds without shooting them. You may use any other weapon...

[edit] Two inaugurations On the morning of Tuesday, February 25, at around 7 a.m., a minor clash occurred between loyal government troops and the reformists. Snipers stationed atop the government-owned Channel 9 tower, near Channel 4, began shooting at the reformists. Many rebel soldiers surged to the station.[24] Later in the morning, Corazon Aquino was inaugurated as President of the Philippines in a simple ceremony at Club Filipino[32] in Greenhills, about a kilometer from Camp Crame. She was sworn in as President by Senior Associate Justice Claudio Teehankee, and Laurel as Vice-President by Justice Vicente Abad Santos. The Bible on which Aquino swore her oath was held by Aurora Aquino, the mother of Ninoy Aquino. Attending the ceremonies were Ramos, who was then promoted to General, Enrile, and many politicians.[24] Outside Club Filipino, all the way to EDSA, hundreds of people cheered and celebrated. Bayan Ko (My Country, a popular folk song and the unofficial National Anthem of protest) was sung after Aquino's oath-taking. Many people wore yellow, the color of Aquino's campaign for presidency. An hour later, Marcos conducted the inauguration at Malacañang. Loyalist civilians attended the ceremony, shouting "Marcos, Marcos, Marcos pa rin! (Marcos, Marcos, still Marcos!)". On the Palace balcony, Marcos took his oath as the President of the Philippines, broadcast by IBC-13 and GMA-7.[24] None of the invited foreign dignitaries attended the ceremony for security reasons. The couple finally stepped out in the balcony of the palace in front of the 3000 KBL loyalists who were shouting to Marcos: "Capture the snakes!"[33] First Lady Imelda Marcos sang one more rendition of "Dahil Sa Iyo" (Because of You), the couple's theme song, rather tearfully,[33] chanting her trademark Tagalog entreaties: Because of you I attained happiness I offer you my love If it is true that you shall enslave me All of this is because of you.[33] After the inauguration, the Marcos family and their close associates hurriedly rushed to leave the Palace. The broadcast of the event was also cut off as rebel troops successfully captured the other stations. [24] By this time, hundreds of people had amassed at the barricades along Mendiola, only a hundred meters away from Malacañang. They were prevented from storming the Palace by loyal government troops securing the area. The angry demonstrators were pacified by priests who warned them not to be violent.[24] [edit] Marcos' departure At 3:00 p.m., Monday, (EST) Marcos talked to United States Senator Paul Laxalt,[33] asking for advice from the White House. Laxalt advised him to "cut and cut cleanly",[33] to which Marcos expressed his disappointment after a short pause. In the afternoon, Marcos talked to Enrile, asking for safe passage for him and his family including his close allies like General Ver. Finally, at 9:00 p.m., the Marcos family was transported by four US Navy SH-3 helicopters[4] to Clark Air Base in Angeles City, Pampanga, about 83 kilometers north of Manila, before boarding US Air Force C-130 planes bound for Andersen Air Force Base in Guam, and finally to Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii where Marcos arrived on February 26.[5][24] When the news of Marcos' departure reached the people, many rejoiced and danced in the streets. Over at Mendiola, the demonstrators were finally able to enter Malacañang Palace, long denied to Filipinos in the past decade. Looting by overly angry protesters occurred, but mostly people wandered inside, looking at the place where all the decisions that changed the course of Philippine history had been made.[citation needed] Many people around the world rejoiced and congratulated Filipinos they knew. Bob Simon, an anchorman at CBS said, "We Americans like to think we taught the Filipinos democracy. Well, tonight they are teaching the world."[24] [edit] Aftermath Main article: Presidency of Corazon Aquino

Commemorative statue of the Revolution at Camp Aguinaldo In her speech before the United States Congress which she delivered on September 18, 1986, seven months after assuming the presidency, President Aquino observed that "ours must have been the cheapest revolution ever".[cite this quote] Despite the People Power Revolution, however, the democratic political system of the Philippines is still fragile and flawed. Patronage politics still hinders the development of democracy and natural resources are now mostly exploited by Western nations. The 1987 Constitution's third article titled the "bill of rights" is guaranteed by the state, but in most instances is largely ignored by the government, and is viewed by foreign sources as "coded to ensure tyranny of the majority".[citation needed] The revolution also provided the restoration of democratic institutions after thirteen years of authoritarian rule. These institutions have been used by political and social actors to challenge the entrenched political clans and develop Philippine democracy, however.[34] The revolution had an effect on democratization movements in places such as Taiwan and South Korea; other effects include the restoration of the freedom of the press, adoption of a new constitution, and the subordination of the military to civilian rule, despite several coup attempts during the Aquino administration.[35] While democracy as Filipinos knew it was restored, rampant corruption plagued the government that led to the 2001 EDSA Revolution, which deposed President Joseph Estrada. While the Marcoses fled, and the former president died in exile in Hawaii, his wife Imelda later won a seat in the House of Representatives and his son Ferdinand Jr. was elected senator in 2010. The revolution may have had brought changes to the leadership in the country, the power "remained concentrated among a small rich elite." The perception of the public about the Marcos regime is changing, with some people "focusing on his investments, infrastructure and public works, rather than the human rights abuses and claims of lavish personal spending."[35] [edit] Criticism There are political writers, especially those living outside of Metro Manila, who associate the People Power Revolution with what they term as "Imperial Manila" because it was believed that Marcos was toppled from his position without the participation of Filipinos living in areas outside of the capital region. In an article published in Philippine Daily Inquirer, Amando Doronila wrote that: People power movements have been an Imperial Manila phenomenon. Their playing field is EDSA. They have excluded the provincianos from their movement with their insufferable arrogance and snobbery ... ignoring the existence of the toiling masses and peasants in agrarian Philippines.[36] [edit] Timeline

This article may contain an excessive amount of intricate detail that may only interest a specific audience. Please relocate any relevant information, and remove excessive trivia, praise, criticism, lists and collections of links. Too much statistical data is against policy. (February 2011)

[edit] 1983
 

August 21 - Ninoy Aquino is assassinated September 21 - As the government celebrates Barangay Day/National Thanksgiving Day to commemorate the declaration of martial law, thousands of Ninoy supporters hold a "National Day of Sorrow" and call for unity in the ranks to topple the Marcos regime.[37]

[edit] 1984

May 14 - Elections for the Batasang Pambansa (parliament) are held. The United Nationalist Democratic Organization (UNIDO) and the Pilipino Democratic Party-Lakas ng Bayan (PDPLABAN) coalition decide to take part. Cory Aquino, Ninoy's widow, throws her support behind the opposition candidates. They surprise Marcos by winning 56 seats out of the 183 amid familiar allegations of fraud.[37] October 24 - The Agrava Board, tasked with investigating the Aquino assassination, concludes that there was a military conspiracy behind the killing and implicates AFP Chief of Staff Fabian Ver.[37]

[edit] 1985
 

   

February 22 - General Ver, 24 soldiers, and one civilian stand trial before the Sandiganbayan for the Aquino murder. Ver takes a leave of absence as Armed Forces Chief of Staff.[37] August - Opposition MPs file a motion for impeachment against Marcos in the Batasan, citing culpable violation of the Constitution and "hidden wealth." The majority party squelches the motion.[37] November 3 - Marcos suddenly announces the holding of snap elections after alleged prodding from the United States. December 2 - General Ver and all this co-accused are acquitted by the Sandiganbayan. Marcos reinstates him as Chief of Staff amid widespread protest.[37] December 3 - Corazon Aquino declares her candidacy for President. Salvador Laurel, who earlier has wanted to run for the same position, agrees to be her running mate.[37] December 5 - The Opposition makes a formal announcement of the Aquino-Laurel tandem for the snap elections.[37]

[edit] 1986 [edit] February 7

A heavy voter turnout and the judging of the voters' list create confusion during the presidential elections, resulting in the disenfranchisement of three million voters. Incidents of fraud, votebuying, intimidation, and violence are reported. Election returns are tampered with. The Commission on Elections (COMELEC) tally board shows Marcos leading while the National Citizen's Movement for the Free Elections (NAMFREL) consistently shows Cory Aquino ahead by a comfortable margin.[37]

[edit] February 9

Thirty computer workers at the COMELEC tabulation center walk out, protesting the tampering of election results.[37]

[edit] February 11

Oppositionist ex-Governor Evelio Javier of Antique is murdered in front of the provincial capitol where canvassing is being held. Primary suspects are the bodyguards of the local KBL leader.

[edit] February 13

The Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) issues a statement condemning the elections as fraudulent.

[edit] February 22

2:00 AM Attempts o Final meeting of the RAM at Minister of at regime change Defense Juan Ponce Enrile's house in in the Philippines Dasmariñas Village before the assault on Malacañang Palace (1970–2007) o AFP Chief of Staff Fabian Ver calls in additional units to defend Malacañang. 3:00 AM Civil unrest (1970) o The final meeting at the Defense People Power (1986) Minister's home is concluded. Lt. Col. 1986-87 plots Honasan and Kapunan begin their Honasan's Second (1989) recoinnaisance of Malacañang. To their Fall of Estrada (2001) dismay, they discover battle-hardened May 1 riots (2001) Marines stationed at their main point of Oakwood mutiny (2003) attack. State of emergency (2006) 6:30 AM Manila Peninsula rebellion (2007) o Maj. Avelino Razon briefs AFP Vice Chief of Staff Gen. Fidel V. Ramos on the developments of RAM's plans. 9:00 AM o Fabian Ver sends Col. Rolando Abadilla to Col. Honasan to inform the latter that their plans have been made known already and that RAM should not make any rash decisions. 10:00 AM o Lt. Col. Honasan phones Kapunan and informs him that they are not going to abort the mission, but to simply "freeze" the operation for the next 24 hours. o Honasan reviews the situation and assesses the prepositioning of the troops from his office in GHQAFP Camp Aguinaldo o Cory Aquino leaves for Cebu to continue the Civil Disobedience Campaign. 12:00 NN o Navy Capt. Rex Robles was assigned to act as a liaison with the diplomatic community in case the RAM officers will be arrested, and tell the world of their story. o U.S. Amb. Stephen Bosworth along with Philip Habib, Pres. Ronald Reagan's personal envoy to Marcos, visit the Palace for a meeting with the President. They discuss the recent elections and the political situation. The U.S. envoys call Marcos to retire Ver. 12:45 PM o While Marcos was having his meeting with the U.S. envoys, Capt. Ricardo Morales, one of Imelda Marcos' close-in security and who is a mole of RAM in the PSG, reconnoiters the defenses of the Palace grounds, and took the initiative to withdraw some firearms from the PSG armory. He is arrested and is brought to the office of the Aide-de-camp for interrogation. 1:45 PM o As the meeting came to a close, barely has Amb. Bosworth left the room, Gen. Ver storms into the Presidential study to convey the recent arrest of four officers in the PSG who are found to be members of RAM. o Philip Habib confides as he leaves Malacañang, that "Cory won the election and deserves our support. Marcos is finished, and we ought to offer him asylum in the United States." 2:00 PM o With their plans discovered, Enrile and the RAM officers, had to change their direction. They decided that they need to draw the public support if they are going to storm this crisis out. 2:15 PM o Cory in the rally in Cebu calls for the boycott of Marcos crony-owned business.

 

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3:45 PM o Enrile gets through to Cardinal Sin and seeks his moral and active support, as the former felt that he will not survive the day. 4:30 PM o The first military region to go to the rebel side was Regional Unified Command No. 8, which included troops in Mrs. Marcos's own province, Leyte, led by commander, Brig. Gen. Salvador Mison who was in Camp Aguinaldo. 5:30 PM o Pres. Marcos first response to the mutiny was to call his family to Malacañang. 6:30 PM o Malacañang receives a "report" that Ramos and Enrile were "officially withdrawing their support" of the Marcos administration. 6:45 PM o Enrile and Ramos, surrounded by the their staff and guards hold a press conference at the Social Hall of the GHQAFP, and make the official announcement of their withdrawal of support of the Marcos administration. [38] o Enrile states in his opening that "We are going to die here fighting." o Ramos states "There has become an elite Armed Forces of the Philippines that no longer represents the rank and officers' corps of the Armed Forces. ...The President of 1986 is not the President to whom we dedicated our service. it is clear that he no longer is the able and capable commander-in-chief that we count upon. ... He has put his personal family interest above the interest of the people. We do not consider President Marcos as now being a duly constituted authority."[39] o Enrile adds "I cannot in my conscience recognize the President as the commander-inchief of the Armed Forces and I am appealing to the other members of the Cabinet to heed the will of the people expressed during the last elections. Because in my own region, I know that we cheated in the elections to the extent of 350,000 votes. ... No, I will not serve under Mrs. Aquino even if she is installed as a president. ... Our loyalty is to the Constitution and the country. ... You are welcome to join us. We have no food..."[40] o Ramos closes "I am not even acting Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces. I think that when he made that announcement to you and to the whole world last Sunday, he was just fooling us, and he was fooling the entire world because he flip-flopped so many times already. ... I would like to appeal to the fair and to the dedicated and people-oriented members of the AFP and the INP to join us in this crusade for better government."[41] 7:00 PM Approximately 7:00 PM o Cory receives the news of the withdrawal of support by Enrile and Ramos. She calls Manila to verify the report. 8:15 PM o Gen. Ver orders Brig. Gen. Fidel Singson, Chief of the Intelligence Service of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (ISAFP) to "Destroy Radio Veritas!" o Unbeknown to Ver, Singson was already in the process of defecting to the rebel group. Singson sends his men to Radio Veritas, not to destroy, but only to reconnoiter the area. 8:30 PM o Cardinal Jaime Sin goes on air and calls the people to "Please, do not be alarmed, stay home." 8:45 PM o The rebel group was taken aback by the Cardinal's announcement and calls him to clarify their request. They asked him to send the people to the camps. 9:00 PM o Cardinal Sin goes on air once more and says "Leave your homes now ...I ask you to support Mr. Enrile and Gen. Ramos, give them food if you like, they are our friends." o Inquirer co-chairman Betty Go-Belmonte telephoned Member of Parliament Cecilia Munoz Palma. MP Palma immediately made a call to Radio Veritas and was one of the first opposition leaders to express support for the revolution.[42] 9:30 PM o Butz Aquino with the August Twenty-One Movement ATOM Executive Committee deliberate on whether to support Enrile and Ramos. The Executive Committee wants to wait on Cory Aquino for instructions. Butz Aquino finally decided to head to Camp Aguinaldo to support the rebels. o Cory Aquino meanwhile is also deciding on what actions to take after receiving the call from ATOM. She requests to speak with Enrile first.


Col. Antonio Sotelo, Commander of the 15th Strike Wing, received a call at his Villamor Air Base office from Col. Hector Tarrazona, who was also a member of RAM, asking the Commander whether he is with them. Col. Sotelo confirms that he supports RAM, and orders his Squadron Commanders to arm their attack helicopters.

Performance Analysis of Innovative Teaching Model Adapted in Large Classes Teaching in a large university class involves many problems, including poor interaction and discussion between teacher and students, difficulty taking attendance, and time spent managing students. This paper adapts a new model that applies technology into class, and analyzes performance of the innovative teaching model adapted to large classes using a Taiwan university as an example. The results from this study show that the model saves a lot of class management time and increases the opportunity and time for interaction and discussion in a large class. Keywords: Large Classes, Innovative Teaching, Technology, and Teaching Integration

The International Journal of Learning, Volume 17, Issue 6, pp.365-376. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Article: Electronic (PDF File; 822.520KB). Prof. Hsi-Chi Hsiao Chair Professor, Graduate Institute of Business and Administration, Cheng Shiu University, Niaosong, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Professor Hsi-Chi Hsiao received his M.S. degree from University of Wisconsin in 1983 and Ph. D. from Indiana State University in 1987. He was head of Department of Industrial Education at National Changhua University of Education and president of National Penghu Institute of Technology in Taiwan. He has also served as government consultant in the field of curriculum and instruction, vocational and technological education, research in applied science education for many years. He is now a chair professor at Graduate Institute of Business and Administration, Cheng Shiu University. His research interest has been focused on curriculum and instruction development, skill testing and creativity for vocational, technological and engineering education. Prof. Jen-Chia Chang Associate Professor, Institute of Technology and Vocational Education, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan Jen-Chia Chang, Dr., gained a MA in Industrial Education in 1994 from National Changhua University of Education, and a PhD in Industrial Education in 1999 from National Changhua University of Education. Currently, he is an associate professor in Institute of Vocational and Technological Education, National Taipei University of Technology in Taiwan and related subjects has been taught in human resource management of engineering education. Dr. Jen-Chia Chang has taught eleven years at industrial vocational high school and eight years at university of technology. Jen-Chia Chang is also a member of some professional organizations, like as ASEE, IACSIT, DACC, CVIEA, et al. He has authored more than 100 articles and papers, and his work had published in Australia, U.S., China, Taiwan, and other countries. His research interesting has focused on engineering education, and innovative management. Prof. Su-Chang Chen Associate Professor, Department of Marketing and Logistics Management, National Penghu University of Science and Technology, Mogong, Penghu, Taiwan Su-Chang Chen is an associate professor in Department of Marketing Management,National Penghu University of Science and Technology, Penghu, Taiwan. An-Li Cheng Master Student, Institute of Technology and Vocational Education, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan and Logistics

An-Li Cheng, got a B.A. in Applied Foreign Language from National Kaohsiung University of Applied Science, and now is a master student major in vocational education of National Taipei University of Technology in Taiwan. Having a optimistic and outgoing personality, also like getting along with people, willing to help others, having a great sense of observation and a kind heart. At the present stage, she wants to get deep knowledge in education but it has no shortcut, one way is keeping learning and just do it. Her research interests are innovation on education, teacher professional development and organizational behavior. Li-Huan Yu Master Student, Institute of Technological and Vocational Education, National Taipei university of technology, Taipei, Taiwan In my school days, thanks to the encouragement and the great loves from many teachers, hence I have a strong interest in education field.About working experience, I had worked in day care center in Taipei. From this job, it has told me the technique how to deal with the problems.Teaching economy and accounting are my specialization, in order to break up the traditions I have a great interest in innovative teaching. The innovation on education and employability are my research field. Because of the unsure future on students, how to enhance their employability is my responsibility. As my career plan, I believe that keep learning is one way to survive in Education Industry. As a result, I will pursue further knowledge and certifications what I need. Finally, I will try my best to make a significant and valuable contribution on learning and teaching. Tzu-Han Wang Master Student, Institute of Technology and Vocational Education, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan Tzu-Han Wang, now is a master student major in vocational education of National Taipei University of Technology in Taiwan. Tzu-Han is truly interested in Entrepreneurship Education and Innovation Management. Not only because it is the one which allow her to help people problem solving but also it is the subject which could be practically apply in daily life.

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