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Li cam oan

LI CAM OAN
Em xin cam oan ni dung ca n ny khng phi l bn sao chp ca bt c
n hoc cng trnh c t trc.

Mc lc

MC LC
Ni dung

Trang

MC LC CC HNH V
MC LC CC BNG
CC T VIT TT
M U
Chng 1: GII THIU CHUNG V WiMAX
1.1.

Gii thiu chng............................................................................................1

1.2.

Khi nim.........................................................................................................1

1.3.

Cc chun ca WiMAX...................................................................................5

1.3.1. Chun IEEE 802.16 2001.............................................................................5


1.3.2. Chun IEEE 802.16a........................................................................................5
1.3.3. Chun IEEE 802.16 2004.............................................................................6
1.3.4. Chun IEEE 802.16e........................................................................................6
1.4.

Ph WiMAX....................................................................................................8

1.4.1. Bng tn ng k.............................................................................................8


1.4.2. Bng tn khng ng k 5GHz........................................................................9
1.5.

Truyn sng.....................................................................................................9

1.6.

u im v nhc im ca WiMAX...........................................................12

1.7.

Tnh hnh trin khai WiMAX........................................................................14

1.7.1. Tnh hnh trin khai WiMAX trn th gii....................................................14


1.7.2. Tnh hnh trin khai WiMAX th nghim ti Vit Nam...............................14
1.8.

Kt lun chng.............................................................................................15

Chng 2: CC K THUT C S DNG TRONG WiMAX


2.1.

Gii thiu chng..........................................................................................16

2.2.

K thut OFDM.............................................................................................17

Mc lc

2.2.1. Khi nim.......................................................................................................17


2.2.2. S khi OFDM.........................................................................................18
2.2.3. Chui bo v trong h thng OFDM.............................................................19
2.2.4. Nguyn tc gii iu ch OFDM...................................................................21

2.2.5. Cc u v nhc im ca k thut OFDM...................................................21


2.3.

K thut OFDMA..........................................................................................23

2.3.1. Khi nim.......................................................................................................23


2.3.2. c im........................................................................................................23
2.3.3. OFDMA nhy tn..........................................................................................24
2.3.4. H thng OFDMA.........................................................................................26
2.4.

iu ch thch nghi........................................................................................27

2.5.

Cng ngh sa li..........................................................................................28

2.6.

iu khin cng sut.....................................................................................28

2.7.

Cc cng ngh anten tin tin........................................................................28

2.7.1. Phn tp thu v pht.......................................................................................29

2.7.2. Cc h thng anten thch nghi........................................................................30


2.8.

Kt lun chng.............................................................................................31

Chng 3: KIN TRC MNG TRUY CP WIMAX


3.1.

Gii thiu chng..........................................................................................32

3.2.

M hnh tham chiu.......................................................................................32

3.3.

Lp iu khin truy nhp mi trng (MAC)...............................................34

3.3.1. Kt ni v a ch...........................................................................................35
3.3.2. Lp con hi t MAC......................................................................................36
3.3.3. Lp con phn chung MAC............................................................................37
3.3.4. C ch yu cu v cp pht bng thng.........................................................41
3.3.5. C ch lp lch dch v v cht lng dch v (QoS)....................................43
3.3.6. Lp con bo mt............................................................................................44
3.4.

Lp vt l.......................................................................................................44

Mc lc

3.5.

Kt lun chng.............................................................................................46

Chng 4: KIN TRC BO MT CHUN IEEE 802.16


4.1.

Gii thiu chng..........................................................................................47

4.2.

Kin trc bo mt...........................................................................................47

4.2.1. Kt hp bo mt.............................................................................................49
4.2.2. Giao thc qun l kha PKM.........................................................................49
4.3.

Quy trnh bo mt..........................................................................................50

4.3.1. Xc thc.........................................................................................................51
4.3.2. Trao i kha d liu.....................................................................................53

4.3.3. M ha d liu...............................................................................................54
4.4.

Hn ch ca kin trc bo mt IEEE 802.16.................................................55

4.5.

Kt lun chng.............................................................................................56

Chng 5: M PHNG HOT NG H THNG WiMAX


5.1.

Gii thiu chng..........................................................................................57

5.2.

Mi trng m phng....................................................................................57

5.3.

M phng.......................................................................................................59

5.3.1. Gi thuyt.......................................................................................................59
5.3.2. Kch bn m phng........................................................................................60
5.4.

Phn tch kt qu m phng...........................................................................61

5.4.1. Hot ng......................................................................................................61


5.4.2. Tnh lng bng thng c s dng trn BS...............................................63
5.5.

Nhn xt.........................................................................................................65

KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN TI..................................................66


TI LIU THAM KHO.........................................................................................67

Mc lc

PH LC
Ph lc A: Gi tr trng Type trong thng bo qun tr lp MAC
Ph lc B: Giao thc nh tuyn DSDV
Ph lc C: Ci t NS-2 trn nn Windows 9x/2000/XP s dng Cygwin

Mc lc cc hnh v

MC LC CC HNH V
Trang
Hnh 1.1. Minh ha hat ng WiMAX [10]............................................................11
Hnh 1.2. Truyn sng trong trng hp NLOS [10]...............................................11
Hnh 2.1. So snh gia FDM v OFDM...................................................................17
Hnh 2.2. S khi h thng OFDM......................................................................18
Hnh 2.3. Khi nim v chui bo v........................................................................19
Hnh 2.4. ISI v cyclic prefix....................................................................................20
Hnh 2.5. Tch chui bo v.....................................................................................21
Hnh 2.6. ODFM v OFDMA...................................................................................23
Hnh 2.7. V d ca biu tn s, thi gian vi OFDMA......................................24
Hnh 2.8. Biu tn s thi gian vi 3 ngi dng nhy tn a, b, c
u c 1 bc nhy vi 4 khe thi gian...................................................25
Hnh 2.9. 6 mu nhy tn trc giao vi 6 tn s nhy khc nhau............................25
Hnh 2.10. Tng quan h thng s dng OFDMA...................................................26
Hnh 2.11. Mu tn hiu dn ng trong OFDMA.................................................27
Hnh 2.12. Bn knh cell quan h vi iu ch thch nghi........................................27
Hnh 2.13. MISO.......................................................................................................29
Hnh 2.14. MIMO.....................................................................................................30
Hnh 2.15. Beam Shaping.........................................................................................30
Hnh 2.16. AAS ng xung...................................................................................31
Hnh 3.1. M hnh tham chiu. [5]...........................................................................32
Hnh 3.2. Chc nng cc lp trong m hnh phn lp chun IEEE 802.16.............33
Hnh 3.3. Lung d liu qua cc lp........................................................................33
Hnh 3.4. nh dng MAC PDU...............................................................................37
Hnh 3.5. nh dng ca tiu MAC PDU chung.................................................38
Hnh 3.6. nh dng tiu yu cu di thng........................................................40
Hnh 4.1. M hnh kin trc bo mt chun IEEE 802.16 [7].................................48

Mc lc cc hnh v

Hnh 4.2. Quy trnh bo mt.....................................................................................50


Hnh 4.3. Qu trnh xc thc SS vi BS....................................................................51
Hnh 4.4. Qu trnh trao i kha d liu................................................................53
Hnh 4.5. nh dng payload trc v sau khi m ha............................................55
Hnh 5.1. Module WiMAX trong kin trc NS-2 [13].............................................58
Hnh 5.2. Kin trc mng m phng........................................................................60
Hnh 5.3. Cc SS gi yu cu ranging.....................................................................61
Hnh 5.4. BS gi p ng ranging...........................................................................62
Hnh 5.5. SS_2 gi yu cu bng thng...................................................................62
Hnh 5.6. SS_2 gi d liu (rtPS) cho BS.................................................................63
Hnh 5.7. th bng thng c s dng trn cc knh truyn............................63
Hnh 5.8. Thng tin trong file ~.tr c import vo excel.......................................64

Mc lc cc cc bng

MC LC CC BNG
Trang
Bng 1.1. Tm tt cc c trng c bn cc chun WiMAX [6]...............................8
Bng 3.1. Cc trng tiu MAC chung...............................................................39
Bng 3.2. Cc trng tiu MAC yu cu di thng.............................................40
Bng 3.3. c t vt l chun IEEE 802.16.............................................................45

Cc t vit tt

CC T VIT TT
AAS
AES
AK
ARQ
ATM
AWGN
BE
BER
BPSK
BS
CDMA
CID
CP
CPE
CRC
DFS
FDD
FFT
GSM

Advanced Antenna Systems - Cc h thng anten thch nghi


Advanced Encryption Standard - Chun m ha nng cao
Authentication Key - Kha chng thc
Automatic Repeat reQuest - T ng lp li yu cu
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Additive White Gaussian Noise - Nhiu Gaussian trng cng
Best Effort
Bit Error Rate - T l li bit
Binary Phase Shift Keying - iu ch pha nh phn
Base Station - Trm gc
Code Division Multiple Access - a truy cp phn chia theo m
Connection Identifier - nh danh kt ni
Cyclic Prefix - Tin t vng
Customer Premise Equipment
Cyclic Redundancy Check - Kim tra li d vng
Dynamic Frequency Selection La chn tn s ng
Frequency Division Duplex - Ghp knh phn chia theo tn s
Fast Fourier Transform - Chuyn i Fourier nhanh
Global System for Mobile communications - H thng thng tin di

ICI
IDFT
IEEE

ng ton cu
InterChannel Interference - Nhiu xuyn knh
Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform - Bin i Fourirer ri rc ngc
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers - Hc Vin ca cc

IFFT
ISI
KEK
LOS
MAC
MAN
MIMO
MISO
MS
NLOS
nrtPS
OFDM

K S in v in T
Inverse Fast Fourier Transform - Bin i Fourier ngc nhanh
Inter-Symbol Interference - Nhiu xuyn k t
Key Encryption Key
Line Of Sight - Tm nhn thng
Media Access Control - iu khin truy nhp mi trng
Metropolitan Area Network Mng th
Multiple Input Multiple Output - Nhiu u vo, nhiu u ra
Multiple Input Single Output - Nhiu u vo, mt u ra
Mobile Station - Trm di ng
NonLine-Of-Sight - Khng tm nhn thng
nonreal-time Polling Service
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing - Ghp knh phn chia

OFDMA

theo tn s trc giao


Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access - a truy cp ghp

Cc t vit tt

PDU
PKM
QAM
QoS
QPSK
RF
rtPS
SA
SDU
SLA
SNR
SS
TDM
TDMA

knh chia tn s trc giao


Packet Data Unit - n v gi d liu
Privacy and Key Management - Qun l s ring t v kha
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation - iu ch bin trc giao
Quality of Service - Cht lng dch v
Quadature Phase Shift Keying - iu ch pha trc giao
Radio Frequency - Tn s v tuyn
real-time Polling Service
Security Association Tp hp bo mt
Service Data Unit - n v d liu dch v
Service-Level Agreement - Tha thun mc dch v
Signal-to-Noise Ratio T l tn hiu trn nhiu
Subscriber Station - Trm thu bao
Time Division Multiplexing Ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian
Time Division Multiplexing Access a truy cp phn chia theo

TEK
UDP
UGS
UMTS
WiFi
WiMAX
WLAN

thi gian
Traffic Encryption Key - Kha m ha lu lng
User Datagram Protocol
Unsolicited Grant Services
Universal Mobile Telephone System
Wireless Fidelity
Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access
Wireless Local Area Network Mng cc b khng dy

M u

M U
Xu hng pht trin ca cc mng th h sau c c trng bi kh nng hi
t, tc d liu cao, h tr nhiu mc cht lng dch v (QoS) i i vi kh nng
di ng bn trong mng hoc gia cc mng s dng cc cng ngh khc nhau v
gia cc nh cung cp dch v vi nhau. Mt kha cnh quan trng trong xu hng
pht trin l vic chun ha, cho php xy dng kiu mng c lp vi thit b v
kh nng tng tc gia cc kiu mng khc nhau mc cao. Mt cng ngh ang
c pht trin p ng c nhng c tnh k trn, c chun ha bi t chc
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) l cng ngh IEEE
802.16, thng c gi l cng ngh WiMAX.
WiMAX c thit k nhm mc ch b sung vo cc cng ngh truy cp
khng dy hin ti vi u im tc d liu cao, h tr QoS linh hot, phm vi ph
sng rng v chi ph trin khai thp trong phm vi vng th MAN (Metropolian
Access Network).
n ny tp trung vo vic nghin cu lp iu khin truy nhp mi trng
MAC trong cng ngh WIMAX. n s trnh by nhng vn c bn nht v
cng ngh WiMAX nh cc chun WiMAX, cc k thut c ng dng trong
WiMAX, m hnh phn lp v bo mt trong WiMAX.
Ngoi ra, n cng gii thiu mt m hnh m phng hot ng ca h thng
WiMAX nhm mc ch lm r qu trnh lm vic ca h thng WiMAX.
n bao gm 5 chng nh sau:
Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v WiMAX.
Chng 2: Cc k thut c s dng trong WiMAX.
Chng 3: Kin trc mng truy cp WiMAX
Chng 4: Kin trc bo mt chun IEEE 802.16.
Chng 5: M phng hot ng h thng WiMAX.

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v WiMAX

Chng 1
GII THIU CHUNG V WiMAX
1.1. GII THIU CHNG
WiMAX l mt cng ngh cho php truy cp bng rng v tuyn n u cui
nh mt phng thc thay th cho cp v ng dy thu bao s DSL. WiMAX cho
php kt ni bng rng v tuyn c nh, nomadic (ngi s dng c th di ng
nhng c nh trong lc kt ni), portable (ngi s dng c th di chuyn vi tc
chm) v cui cng l di ng m khng cn trong tm nhn thng LOS (Line-OfSight) trc tip vi trm gc BS (Base Station). WiMAX khc phc c cc nhc
im ca cc phng php truy nhp hin ti, cung cp mt phng tin truy nhp
Internet khng dy tng hp c th thay th cho ADSL v WiFi. H thng WiMAX
c kh nng cung cp ng truyn c tc ln n 70Mbit/s v vi bn knh ph
sng ca mt trm anten pht ln n 50Km. M hnh ph sng ca mng WiMAX
tng t nh mng in thoi t bo. Bn cnh , WiMAX cng hot ng mm
do nh WiFi khi truy cp mng. Mi khi my tnh mun truy nhp mng n s t
ng kt ni n trm anten WiMAX gn nht.
Trong chng ny, chng ta s tm hiu khi nim c bn v WiMAX, cc
chun WiMAX hin nay, cc bng tn c th s dng cho WiMAX, cc u im v
li ch ca WiMAX mang li, ng thi l tnh hnh trin khai WiMAX trn th gii
v ti Vit Nam

1.2. KHI NIM


WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability of Microwave Access) l h thng truy
nhp vi ba c tnh tng thch ton cu da trn c s tiu chun IEEE 802.16
WirelessMAN (Wireless Metropolitan Area Network). H 802.16 ny a ra nhng
tiu chun, ch tiu k thut nhm tp trung gii quyt cc vn trong mng v
tuyn bng rng im a im v giao din v tuyn bao gm: Lp iu khin truy
cp mi trng (MAC) v lp vt l (PHY).

-1-

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v WiMAX

WiMAX l mt chun khng dy ang pht trin rt nhanh, ha hn to ra kh


nng kt ni bng thng rng tc cao cho c mng c nh ln mng khng dy di
ng. Hai phin bn ca WiMAX c a ra nh sau:

Fixed WiMAX (WiMAX c nh): Da trn tiu chun IEEE 802.16-

2004, c thit k cho loi truy nhp c nh v lu ng. Trong phin bn


ny s dng k thut ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao OFDM
(Orthogonnal Frequency Division Multiple) hot ng trong c mi trng nhn
thng LOS (line-of-sight) v khng nhn thng NLOS (Non-line-of-sight).
Sn phm da trn tiu chun ny hin tai c cp chng ch v thng
mi ha.

Mobile WiMAX (WiMAX di ng): da trn tiu chun IEEE 802.16e,

c thit k cho loi truy cp xch tay v di ng. v c bn, tiu chun
802.16e c pht trin trn c s sa i tiu chun IEEE 802.16-2004 ti
u cho cc knh v tuyn di ng, cung cp kh nng chuyn vng handoff
v chuyn mng roaming. Tiu chun ny s dng phng thc a truy cp
ghp knh chia tn s trc giao OFDMA (Orthogonnal Frequency Division
Multiple Access) l s phi hp ca k thut ghp knh v k thut phn chia
tn s c tnh cht trc giao, rt ph hp vi mi trng truyn dn a ng
nhm tng thng lng cng nh dung lng mng, tng linh hot trong
vic qun l ti nguyn, tn dng ti a ph tn, ci thin kh nng ph sng
vi cc loi a hnh a dng.
WiMAX c pht trin v khc phc c nhng nhc im ca cc cng
ngh truy cp bng rng trc y, c th:
o

Cu trc mm do: WiMAX h tr cc cu trc h thng bao gm im

a im, cng ngh li (mesh) v ph sng khp mi ni. iu khin truy


nhp mi trng MAC, phng tin truyn dn h tr im a im v dch
v rng khp bi lp lch mt khe thi gian cho mi trm di ng (MS). Nu c
duy nht mt MS trong mng, trm gc (BS) s lin lc vi MS trn c s im

-2-

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v WiMAX

im. Mt BS trong mt cu hnh im im c th s dng anten chm hp


hn bao ph cc khong cch xa hn.
o

Cht lng dch v QoS: WiMAX c th c ti u ng i vi hn

hp lu lng s c mang. C 4 loi dch v c h tr: dch v cp pht t


nguyn (UGS), dch v hi vng thi gian thc (rtPS), dch v hi vng khng
thi gian thc (nrtPS), n lc tt nht (BE).
o

Trin khai nhanh, chi ph thp: So snh vi trin khai cc gii php c

dy, WiMAX yu cu t hoc khng c bt c s xy dng thit lp bn ngoi.


V d, o h to rnh cc ng cp th khng yu cu. Ngoi ra, da trn
cc chun m ca WiMAX, s khng c s c quyn v tiu chun ny, dn
n vic cnh tranh ca nhiu nh sn xut, lm cho chi ph u t mt h thng
gim ng k.
o

Dch v a mc: Cch thc ni m QoS c phn pht ni chung da

vo s tha thun mc dch v (SLA - Service-Level Agreement) gia nh cung


cp dch v v ngi s dng cui cng. Chi tit hn, mt nh cung cp dch v
c th cung cp cc SLA khc nhau ti cc thu bao khc nhau, thm ch ti
nhng ngi dng khc nhau s dng cng MS. Cung cp truy nhp bng rng
c nh trong nhng khu vc th v ngoi , ni cht lng cp ng th km
hoc a vo kh khn, khc phc thit b s trong nhng vng mt thp ni
m cc nhn t cng ngh v kinh t thc hin pht trin bng rng rt thch
thc.
o

Tnh tng thch: WiMAX c xy dng tr thnh mt chun quc

t, to ra s d dng i vi ngi dng cui cng truyn ti v s dng MS


ca h cc v tr khc nhau, hoc vi cc nh cung cp dch v khc nhau.
Tnh tng thch bo v s u t ca mt nh vn hnh ban u v n c th
chn la thit b t cc nh i l thit b.
o

Di ng: IEEE 802.16e b sung thm cc c im chnh h tr kh

nng di ng. Nhng ci tin lp vt l OFDM (ghp knh phn chia tn s trc
giao) v OFDMA (a truy nhp phn chia tn s trc giao) h tr cc thit b

-3-

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v WiMAX

v cc dch v trong mt mi trng di ng. Nhng ci tin ny, bao gm


OFDMA m rng c, MIMO (Multi In Multi Out - nhiu u vo nhiu u
ra), v h tr i vi ch idle/sleep v handoff, s cho php kh nng di ng
y tc ti 160 km/h. Mng WiMAX di ng cho php ngi s dng
c th truy cp Internet khng dy bng thng rng ti bt c u c ph sng
WiMAX.
o

Hot ng NLOS: Kh nng hat ng ca mng WiMAX m khng

i hi tm nhn thng gia BS v MS. Kh nng ny ca n gip cc sn phm


WiMAX phn pht di thng rng trong mt mi trng NLOS.
o

Ph sng rng hn: WiMAX h tr ng nhiu mc iu ch, bao gm

BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM. Khi yu cu vi b khuch i cng sut cao


v hot ng vi iu ch mc thp (v d BPSK hoc QPSK). Cc h thng
WiMAX c th ph sng mt vng a l rng khi ng truyn gia BS v MS
khng b cn tr. M rng phm vi b gii hn hin ti ca WLAN cng cng
(hotspot) n phm vi rng (hotzone). nhng iu kin tt nht c th t
c phm vi ph sng 50 km vi tc d liu b h thp (mt vi Mbit/s),
phm vi ph sng in hnh l gn 5 km vi CPE (NLOS) trong nh v gn
15km vi mt CPE c ni vi mt anten bn ngoi (LOS).
o

Dung lng cao: C th t c dung lng 75 Mbit/s cho cc trm

gc vi mt knh 20 MHz trong cc iu kin truyn sng tt nht.


o

Tnh m rng: Chun 802.16 -2004 h tr cc di thng knh tn s v

tuyn (RF) mm do v s dng li cc knh tn s ny nh l mt cch tng


dung lng mng. Chun cng nh r h tr i vi TPC (iu khin cng sut
pht) v cc php o cht lng knh nh cc cng c thm vo h tr s
dng ph hiu qu. Chun c thit k t t l ln ti hng trm thm
ch hng nghn ngi s dng trong mt knh RF. H tr nhiu knh cho php
cc nh ch to thit b cung cp mt phng tin ch trng vo phm vi s
dng ph v nhng quy nh cp pht c ni r bi cc nh vn hnh trong
cc th trng quc t thay i khc nhau.

-4-

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v WiMAX

Bo mt: Bng cch m ha cc lin kt v tuyn gia BS v MS, s

dng chun m ha tin tin AES, m bo s ton vn ca d liu trao i qua


giao din v tuyn. Cung cp cho cc nh vn hnh vi s bo v mnh chng
li nhng hnh vi nh cp dch v.

1.3. CC CHUN CA WiMAX


1.3.1. Chun IEEE 802.16 - 2001
Chun IEEE 802.16-2001 c hon thnh vo thng 10/2001 v c cng b
vo 4/2002, nh ngha c t k thut giao din khng gian WirelessMAN cho cc
mng vng th. c im chnh ca IEEE 802.16 2001:

Giao din khng gian cho h thng truy nhp khng dy bng rng c
nh hat ng di tn 10 66 GHz, cn tha mn tm nhn thng.

Lp vt l PHY: WirelessMAN-SC.

Tc bit: 32 134 Mbps vi knh 28 MHz.

iu ch QPSK, 16 QAM v 64 QAM.

Cc di thng knh 20 MHz, 25 MHz, 28 MHz.

Bn knh cell: 2 5 km.

Kt ni c nh hng, MAC TDM/TDMA, QoS, bo mt.

1.3.2. Chun IEEE 802.16a


V nhng kh khn trong trin khai chun IEEE 802.16, hng vo vic s dng
tn s t 10 66 GHz, mt d n sa i c tn IEEE 802.16a c hon thnh
vo thng 11/2002 v c cng b vo thng 4/2003. Chun ny c m rng h
tr giao din khng gian cho nhng tn s trong bng tn 211 GHz, bao gm c
nhng ph cp php v khng cp php v khng cn tho mn iu kin tm nhn
thng. c im chnh ca IEEE 802.16a nh sau:

-5-

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v WiMAX

B sung 802.16, cc hiu chnh MAC v cc c im PHY thm vo


cho di 2 11 GHz (NLOS).

Tc bit: ti 75Mbps vi knh 20 MHz.

iu ch OFDMA vi 2048 sng mang, OFDM 256 sng mang,


QPSK, 16 QAM, 64 QAM.

Di thng knh c th thay i gia 1,25MHz v 20MHz.

Bn knh cell: 6 9 km.

Lp vt l PHY: WirelessMAN-OFDM, OFDMA, SCa.

Cc chc nng MAC thm vo: h tr PHY OFDM v OFDMA, h tr


cng ngh Mesh, ARQ.

1.3.3. Chun IEEE 802.16 - 2004


Thng 7/2004, chun IEEE 802.16 2004 hay IEEE 802.16d c chp thng
qua, kt hp ca cc chun IEEE 802.16 2001, IEEE 802.16a, ng dng LOS di
tn s 10 - 66 GHz v NLOS di 2 - 11 GHz. Kh nng v tuyn b sung nh l
beam forming v knh con OFDM.

1.3.4. Chun IEEE 802.16e


u nm 2005, chun khng dy bng thng rng 802.16e vi tn gi Mobile
WiMAX c ph chun, cho php trm gc kt ni ti nhng thit b ang di
chuyn. Chun ny gip cho cc thit b t cc nh sn xut ny c th lm vic,
tng thch tt vi cc thit b t cc nh sn xut khc. 802.16e hat ng cc
bng tn nh hn 6 GHz, tc ln ti 15 Mbps vi knh 5 MHz, bn knh cell t 2
5 km.
WiMAX 802.16e c h tr handoff v roaming. S dng SOFDMA, mt cng
ngh iu ch a sng mang. Cc nh cung cp dch v m trin khai 802.16e cng
c th s dng mng cung cp dch v c nh. 802.16e h tr cho SOFDMA cho
php s sng mang thay i, ngoi cc m hnh OFDM v OFDMA. S phn chia

-6-

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v WiMAX

sng mang trong m hnh OFDMA c thit k ti thiu nh hng ca nhiu


pha thit b ngi dng vi anten a hng. C th hn, 802.16e a ra h tr ci
tin h tr MIMO v AAS, cng nh cc handoff cng v mm. N cng ci tin cc
kh nng tit kim cng sut cho cc thit b di ng v cc c im bo mt linh
hot hn.

Tnh trng
Di tn

802.16
Hon thin vo

802.16-2004
Hon thin vo thng 6-

802.16-2005
Hon thin vo thng 12-

thng 12-2001

2004

10-66 GHz

2-11 GHz

2005
2-11 GHz cho c nh;

C nh, tm
ng dng

nhn thng

(LOS)
Cu trc im a im,
lp MAC
M hnh

mng li

truyn

n sng mang

sng
iu ch
Tng tn
s d liu
Ghp knh

QPSK, 16QAM,

2-6 GHz cho di ng

C nh, khng nhn thng C nh v di ng, khng


(NLOS)

nhn thng (NLOS)

im a im, mng li im a im, mng li


n sng mang, 256
OFDM, 2048 OFDM

n sng mang, 256 OFDM


hoc S-OFDM vi 128, 512,
1024, 2048 sng mang con.

QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM

QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM

32-134.4 Mbps

1-75 Mbps

1-75 Mbps

Khi

Khi

TDM/TDMA

TDM/TDMA/OFDMA

64QAM

Song cng TDD v FDD

TDD v FDD

Khi TDM/TDMA/OFDMA
TDD v FDD

rng
knh
truyn

20, 25, 28

(MHz)
Giao din WirelessMAN-

1.75, 3.5, 7, 14, 1.25, 5, 10, 1.75, 3.5, 7, 14, 1.25, 5, 10,
15, 8.75

15, 8.75

WirelessMAN-SCa,

WirelessMAN-SCa,

-7-

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v WiMAX

khng
gian
X l
WiMAX

SC

Khng

WirelessMAN-OFDM,

WirelessMAN-OFDM,

WirelessMAN-OFDMA

WirelessMAN-OFDMA

256-OFDM nh l

S-OFDMA nh l WiMAX

WiMAX c nh

di ng

Bng 1.1. Tm tt cc c trng c bn cc chun WiMAX [6]

1.4. PH WiMAX
1.4.1. Bng tn ng k
Cc gii php ng k cung cp cc u im cht lng dch v c ci thin
cao hn cc gii php khng ng k, chp nhn NLOS tt hn cc tn s thp, n
c mt ngn qy cng sut ng xung rng hn v c th h tr cc anten trong
nh tt hn. Gii php ng k cho php kim sot qua cch s dng ph v nhiu.
Bng tn ng k 2,5 GHz
c cp pht trong phn ln cc nc trn th gii, bao gm bc M, M
Latin, ng v ty u v nhiu vng ca chu - thi bnh dng. Mi quc gia
thng cp pht di khc nhau, v vy ph c cp pht qua cc vng c th t
2,495 GHz n 2,690 GHz. Tng ph kh dng l 195 MHz, bao gm cc di phng
v v cc knh MDS, ga 2.495 GHz v 2.690 GHz. H tr FDD, TDD. Ph trn mi
ng k l 22.5 MHz, mt block 16.5 MHz v mt block 6 MHz, tng s 8 ng k.

Bng tn ng k 3,5 GHz.


chu u, vin chun vin thng chu u phn phi di 3,5 GHz, bt u
c s dng cho WPLL, cho cc gii php WiMAX ng k. Tng ph kh dng,
thay i theo quc gia nhng ni chung khong 200MHz gia 3,4 GHz v 3,8 GHz.
H tr c FDD v TDD, mt vi quc gia ch s dng FDD trong khi cc quc gia
khc cho php s dng FDD hoc TDD. Ph trn mi ng k thay i t 2 5MHz

-8-

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v WiMAX

n 2 56 MHz.

1.4.2. Bng tn khng ng k 5GHz


Phn ln cc quc gia ton th gii s dng ph 5 GHz cho cc phng tin
lin lc khng ng k. Cc bng 5,15 GHz v 5,85 GHz c ch nh nh khng
ng k trong phn ln th gii.
Cc gii php khng ng k cung cp mt vi thun li chnh hn cc gii php
ng k, bao gm chi ph ban u thp hn, rt ra nhanh hn, v mt bng chung c
th c s dng phn ln th gii. Cc li ch ny ang thu ht s quan tm v c
kh nng cho s chp nhn bng rng nhanh chng.
Tuy nhin mt gii php khng ng k th kh nng nhiu cao hn, v nhiu s
cnh tranh i vi cc nh kinh doanh bt ng sn cho vic trin khai. Mt gii php
khng ng k s khng c xem nh mt s thay th cho gii php ng k. Mi
gii php cung cp mt th trng khc nhau da vo s tha hip gia chi ph v
QoS.
1.5. TRUYN SNG
Trong khi nhiu cng ngh hin ang tn ti cho khng dy bng rng ch c th
cung cp ph sng LOS, cng ngh WiMAX c ti u cung cp ph sng
NLOS. Cng ngh tin tin ca WiMAX cung cp tt nht cho c hai. C LOS v
NLOS b nh hng bi cc c tnh ng truyn mi trng ca chng, tn tht
ng dn, v ngn qu kt ni v tuyn.
Trong lin lc LOS, mt tn hiu i qua mt ng trc tip v khng b tc
nghn t my pht n my thu. Mt lin lc LOS yu cu phn ln min Fresnel th
nht th khng b ngn cn ca bt k vt cn no, nu tiu chun ny khng tha mn
th c s thu nh ng k cng tn hiu quan st. h Fresnel c yu cu
ph thuc vo tn s hot ng v khong cch gia v tr my pht v my thu.
Trong lin lc NLOS, tn hiu n my thu qua phn x, tn x, nhiu x. Cc tn
hiu n my thu bao gm cc thnh phn t ng trc tip, cc ng c phn

-9-

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v WiMAX

x nhiu ln, nng lng b tn x, v cc ng truyn b nhiu x. Cc tn hiu ny


c khong tr khc nhau, suy hao, phn cc, v n nh quan h vi ng truyn
trc tip. L nguyn nhn gy ra nhiu ISI v mo tn hiu. iu khng phi l
vn i vi LOS, nhng vi NLOS th li l vn chnh.
Hin tng a ng cng c th gy ra s phn cc tn hiu b thay i. V vy
s dng phn cc nh l bin php s dng li tn s, nh c thc hin thng
thng trong cc trin khai LOS c th kh gii quyt trong cc ng dng NLOS.
Mt h thng v tuyn s dng cc tn hiu a ng ny nh th no hng ti
mt thun li l cha kha cung cp dch v trong cc iu kin NLOS. Mt sn
phm m ch n thun tng cng sut xuyn qua cc vt cn (i lc c gi l
gn tm nhn thng) th khng phi l cng ngh NLOS bi v phng php ny
vn cn da vo ng truyn trc tip mnh m khng s dng nng lng xut
hin trong cc tn hiu gin tip.
C nhiu u im m nhng trin khai NLOS to ra ng mong mun. V d,
cc yu cu lp k hoch cht ch v gii hn chiu cao anten m thng khng cho
php anten c b tr cho LOS. Vi nhng trin khai t bo k nhau phm vi rng,
ni tn s c s dng li l ti hn, h thp anten l thun li gim nhiu knh
chung gia cc v tr cell lin k. iu ny thng c tc dng thc y cc trm gc
hot ng trong cc iu kin NLOS. Cc h thng LOS khng th gim chiu cao
anten bi v lm nh vy s c tc ng n ng quan st trc tip c yu cu t
CPE n trm gc.

- 10 -

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v WiMAX

Hnh 1.1. Minh ha hat ng WiMAX [10]


Cng ngh NLOS cng gim ph tn ci t bng cch t di cc mi che thit
b CPE ng nh nguyn bn v gim bt kh khn nh v tr cc a im t CPE
thch hp. Cng ngh cng gim bt nhu cu quan st v tr thit b pha trc v ci
thin chnh xc ca cc cng c lp k hoch NLOS.
Cng ngh NLOS v nhng tnh nng c nng cao trong WiMAX to kh
nng s dng thit b pha u khch hng (CPE) trong nh. iu ny c hai kh
khn chnh; u tin l khc phc nhng tn hao xuyn qua ta nh v th hai, ph
sng cc khong cch hp l vi cng sut truyn v cc anten thp hn m thng
c kt hp vi cc CPE trong nh.

Hnh 1.2. Truyn sng trong trng hp NLOS [10]

- 11 -

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v WiMAX

1.6. U IM V NHC IM CA CNG NGH WiMAX


Mc tiu ca t chc IEEE khi pht trin tiu chun 802.16:
-

Xy dng mt phm vi chun d dng cho s pht trin v phi hp gia


cc nh sn xut, nh cung cp v c ngi s dng.

Thc y qu trnh chng nhn phi hp hot ng v tun th cho cc h


thng truy nhp v tuyn bng rng trn ton cu.
Nh vy, vi mc tiu ra, cc tiu chun cho WiMAX c li ch ht sc to

ln i vi cc nh sn xut, cc nh cung cp dch v v c ngi s dng dch v.


i vi nh sn xut:
-

Trn c s tiu chun chung, nh sn xut c th nhanh chng pht trin cc


sn phm m t phi chi ph cho vic nghin cu, to thnh phn v dch v
mi.

Mt nh sn xut c th tp trung vo mt lnh vc (chng hn trm gc hay


CPE) m khng cn thc hin y gii php t u cui n u cui.

i vi nh cung cp dch v:
-

Trn c s nn tng chung cho php nh cung cp dch v gim gi thnh,


tng kh nng cnh tranh cng nh khuyn khch s i mi.

Kh nng gim cc chi ph v mc u t cho php nh khai thc tng phm


vi phc v ca mnh.

Nh khai thc khng cn ph thuc vo mt nh cung cp thit b ring do


cc sn phm ring bit ca tng hng.

H thng v tuyn cho php gim cc ri ro cho nh khai thc.

i vi ngi s dng dch v:


-

Ngi s dng ti cc khu vc trc y cha c cung cp dch v truy


cp bng rng nay c th c s dng nh kh nng ph sng rng ca
WiMAX.

- 12 -

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v WiMAX

Nhiu nh cung cp dch v trn th trng to iu kin cho ngi s dng


c thm nhiu la chn cho dch v truy nhp bng rng.

To s cnh tranh c li cho ngi s dng, gim cc chi ph dch v.

Cc nhc im ca cng ngh WiMAX:


-

Di tn WiMAX s dng khng tng thch ti nhiu quc gia, lm hn ch


s ph bin cng ngh rng ri.

Do cng ngh mi xut hin gn y nn vn cn mt s l hng bo mt.

Tuy c gi l chun cng ngh nhng tht s cha c chun do hin


gi ang s dng gn 10 chun cng ngh khc nhau. Theo din dn
WiMAX ch mi c khong 12 hng pht trin chun WiMAX c chng
nhn bao gm: Alvarion, Selex Communication, Airspan, Proxim Wilreless,
Redline, Sequnas, Siemens, SR Telecom, Telsim, Wavesat, Aperto,
Axxcelera.

Cng ngh ny khi xng t nc M, nhng thc s cha c thng tin


chnh thc no cp n vic M s dng WiMAX nh th no, khc phc
hu qu s c ra sao. Ngay c Vit Nam, VNPT (vi nh thu nc ngoi
l Motorola, Alvarion) cng trin khai mt s tnh min ni pha Bc,
c th l Lo Cai nhng cng ch gii hn l cc im truy cp Internet ti
Bu in tnh,huyn ch cha c nhng kt lun chnh thc v tnh hiu qu
ng k ca h thng.
Nh vy, c th thy rng kh nng cng nh li ch ca cc h thng WiMAX

da trn h chun 802.16 l ht sc to ln mc d n vn tn ti mt s hn ch. N


cho php nh cung cp dch v trin khai nhanh chng cc h thng mng ca mnh,
tng kh nng cnh tranh ng thi cho php ngi tiu dng c thm nhiu la
chn, tit kim hn trong cc chi ph. iu ny chnh l ng lc thc y cc nh
sn xut v cc nh cung cp dch v pht trin h thng WiMAX.

- 13 -

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v WiMAX

1.7. TNH HNH TRIN KHAI WiMAX


1.7.1. Tnh hnh trin khai WiMAX trn th gii
Hin nay, trn th gii, c cc mng th nghim cng ngh WiMAX c nh
v di ng. Theo nh gi ca Maravedis Inc. th th trng vin thng bng rng c
nh n nm 2010 c doanh thu vt 2 t USD. Hin nay, tc tng trng hng
nm l 30%. Vic xut hin mt cng ngh truy cp khng dy bng rng mi nh
WiMAX cho php trin khai nhanh dch v, s lm bng n th trng trong nhng
nm ti.
n nay, c mt s nc i vo trin khai v khai thc th nghim cc dch
v trn nn Mobile WiMAX nh M, c, Brazil
Mt s kin c th coi l mt bc ngot quan trng ca WiMAX t ngy 1519/10/2007 c quan vin thng quc t thuc lin hip quc ITU ph duyt cng
ngh bng rng khng dy ny vo b chun IMT-2000. Quyt inh ny a
WiMAX ln ngang tm vi nhng k thut kt ni v tuyn hng u hin nay trong
b chun IMT-2000 gm c GSM, CDMA v UMTS. iu ny m bo cho cc nh
khai thc v qun l trn ton th gii yn tm u t vo bng rng di ng thc s
dng WiMAX.
1.7.2. Tnh hnh trin khai WiMAX th nghim ti Vit Nam
VNPT trin khai th nghim cng ngh WiMAX ti Lo Cai vo thng 10/2006
v nghim thu thnh cng vo thng 4/2007.
Nm 2006, ti Vit Nam, c 4 doanh nghip c B Bu chnh Vin thng
cho php cung cp th nghim dch v WiMAX c nh l Viettel, VTC, VNPT v
FPT Telecom. Sau khi th nghim xong, B s la chn 3 nh cung cp chnh th
cho loi hnh bng rng khng dy ny.
Ngy 1/10/2007, Chnh ph cp php trin khai dch v thng tin di ng 3G
v dch v truy nhp bng rng khng dy WiMAX (theo cng vn 5535/VPCP-CN
ca vn phng Chnh ph). ng thi, Ph th tng ng cp php th nghim

- 14 -

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v WiMAX

dch v WiMAX di ng cho 4 doanh nghip EVN Telecom, Viettel, FPT v VTC
th nghim ti bng tn 2.3 - 2.4 GHz; VNPT th nghim ti bng tn 2.5 2.69
GHz.
1.8. KT LUN CHNG
Chng 1 ny khi qut c nhng c im c bn ca WiMAX bao gm
khi nim, cc phin bn, ph v cc bng tn c s dng cho WiMAX. Ngoi ra,
chng ny cng nu ln c cc u im v nhc im h thng s dng cng
ngh WiMAX. Chng ny s l nn tng cho cc chng tip theo nhm tm hiu
su hn v h thng WiMAX.

- 15 -

Chng 2: Cc k thut c s dng trong WiMAX

Chng 2
CC K THUT C S DNG TRONG WiMAX
2.1. GII THIU CHNG
Vi kin trc m, linh hot, dung lng ln v chi ph trin khai thp lm cho
WiMAX tr thnh mt gii php hng u cho cc dch v v tuyn bng rng.
Kh nng cung cp kt ni bng rng vi nhiu kch bn s dng t truy cp c
nh v di ng trn cng mt h tng mng v v th s to nn mt cu trc mng
linh hot, mang li cc dch v truy cp bng rng gi r v ha hn mt m hnh
kinh doanh hp dn i vi cc nh cung cp dch v.
Vi cng ngh tng t trc y (FM, AM) v biu iu ch s ha hiu
sut thp (PSK, BPSK v QPSK) c s dng rng ri trong cc mng ngy nay,
cng ngh bng rng khng dy yu cu s dng cc biu iu ch theo th t cao
hn vi hiu qu tri ph tt hn. Tuy nhin, biu iu ch theo th t cao hn
ny rt d b tc ng bi nhiu v hin tng a ng dn. C hai yu t ny u
ph bin trong cc trin khai mng khng dy c mt khp ni v s lng ngi
dng ln.
OFDM, OFDMA v S-OFDMA l nhng cng ngh truy nhp mi ci tin h
tr knh cn thit t c hiu qu tri ph tt hn v thng lng knh cao hn.
Nhng cng ngh truy nhp mi ny l nn tng cho WiMAX v l la chn cho cc
h thng bng rng di ng tip theo khc nhm cung cp nhiu loi hnh dch v
truyn thng a phng tin tc cao.
Trong chng ny, chng ta s kho st tng quan cc k thut tin tin c p
dng trong cng ngh WiMAX nh l k thut OFDM, OFDMA, h thng anten tin
tin

- 16 -

Chng 2: Cc k thut c s dng trong WiMAX

2.2. K THUT OFDM


2.2.1. Khi nim
K thut OFDM l k thut ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao
(Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). Trong OFDM, chui d liu ti u
pht thng c tc rt cao. Dng d liu ny c chia thnh nhiu dng d liu
song song tc thp hn nh b chuyn i ni tip-song song (S/P). Mi dng d
liu song song sau c iu ch bi mt sng mang, cc sng mang ny c
chn trc giao vi nhau m bo c th tch ring tng lung d liu ti u thu.
K n cc sng mang ny c tng hp li v a ln tn s pht.

Hnh 2.1. So snh gia FDM v OFDM


S lng cc sng mang con ph thuc vo nhiu yu t nh rng knh v
mc nhiu. Con s ny tng ng vi kch thc FFT. Chun giao tip v tuyn
802.16-2004 xc nh 256 sng mang con tng ng FFT 256 im, hnh thnh
chun Fixed WiMAX, vi rng knh c nh. Chun giao tip 802.16-2005 cho
php kch c FFT t 512 n 2048 ph hp vi rng knh 5MHz n 20MHz,
hnh thnh chun Mobile WiMAX (Scalable OFDMA), duy tr tng i khong
thi gian khng i ca cc k hiu v khong dn cch gia cc sng mang vi
rng knh.

- 17 -

Chng 2: Cc k thut c s dng trong WiMAX

C th thy r li ch ca OFDM khi xt qua knh truyn. Nu lung d liu gc


c chuyn trc tip ln sng mang v pht ln knh truyn, th bng thng rng
ca tn hiu pht s b tc ng chn lc tn s. Bi v, khi tn hiu truyn c bng
thng rng (do tc bit cao), cc tn s khc nhau s c suy hao khc nhau khi
truyn qua knh truyn v tuyn. iu ny dn n vic khi phc tn hiu ti my
thu s phc tp, i hi phi c b cn bng. Trong OFDM, lung d liu c tch
thnh N lung d liu tc thp, c bng thng hp. Do , khi truyn, cc lung
d liu ny chu Fading phng cng .
Ti my thu, lung d liu trc tin c a v bng gc bi b trn. Lung
d liu ny sau c tch ra thnh N lung d liu tc thp, theo sau l b lc
thng thp v b quyt nh.
2.2.2. S khi OFDM

D
liu

S/P

M
ha&
sp
xp

Chn
Pilot

IFFT

Chn
di
bo v

P/S

Knh
truyn
AWGN w(n)

D
liu
P/S

sp
xp
li &
gii
m

c
lng
knh

FFT

Loi
b di
bo v

S/P

Hnh 2.2. S khi h thng OFDM


u tin, dng d liu vo vi tc cao c chia thnh nhiu dng d liu
song song tc thp hn nh b chuyn i ni tip-song song (S/P). Mi dng d
liu song song sau c m ha (Coding) s dng thut ton FEC (Forward Error
Correcting) v c sp xp (Mapping) theo mt trnh t hn hp. Nhng k t hn

- 18 -

Chng 2: Cc k thut c s dng trong WiMAX

hp c a n u vo ca khi IDFT ( y thc hin php bin i IDFT


ngi ta dng thut ton IFFT). Sau khong bo v c chn vo gim nhiu
xuyn k t (ISI), nhiu xuyn knh (ICI) do truyn trn cc knh v tuyn di ng
a ng. Dng d liu song song li c chuyn thnh ni tip nh b chuyn i
song song-ni tip (P/S). Cui cng, b A/D pha pht nh dng tn hiu thi gian
lin tc v chuyn i ln min tn s cao truyn i xa.
Trong qu trnh truyn, trn cc knh s c cc ngun nhiu tc ng n nh
nhiu Gausian trng cng (Additive White Gaussian Noise-AWGN).
pha thu, tn hiu thu c chuyn xung tn s thp v tn hiu ri rc nhn
c sau b D/A thu. Khong bo v c loi b v cc mu c chuyn i t
min thi gian sang min tn s bng php bin i DFT dng thut ton FFT (khi
FFT). Sau , ty vo s iu ch c s dng, s dch chuyn v bin v
pha ca cc sng mang nhnh s c sp xp ngc tr li v c gii m. Cui
cng, chng ta nhn li c dng d liu ni tip ban u.
2.2.3. Chui bo v trong h thng OFDM
u im ca phng php iu ch OFDM khng ch th hin hiu qu s
dng bng thng m cn c kh nng lm gim hay loi tr nhiu xuyn k hiu ISI
nh s dng chui bo v (Guard Interval- GI). Mt mu tn hiu c di l T S,
chui bo v tng ng l mt chui tn hiu c di TG pha sau c sao chp
ln phn pha trc ca mu tn hiu ny nh hnh v sau (do , GI cn c gi l
Cyclic Prefix-CP). S sao chp ny c tc dng chng li nhiu xuyn k hiu ISI do
hiu ng phn tp a ng.

GI

Phn
Phn
tntn
hiu
hiu
c ch
c ch

Hnh 2.3. Khi nim v chui bo v.


Nguyn tc ny gii thch nh sau: Gi s my pht i mt khong tn hiu c
chiu di l TS, sau khi chn thm chui bo v c chiu di TG th tn hiu ny c

- 19 -

Chng 2: Cc k thut c s dng trong WiMAX

chiu di l T=TS+TG. Do hiu ng a ng multipath, tn hiu ny s ti my thu


theo nhiu ng khc nhau. Trong hnh v m t di y, hnh a, tn hiu theo
ng th nht khng c tr, cc ng th hai v th ba u b tr mt khong thi
gian so vi ng th nht.Tn hiu thu c my thu s l tng hp ca tt c cc
tuyn, cho thy k hiu ng trc s chng ln vo k hiu ngay sau , y chnh l
hin tng ISI. Do trong OFDM c s dng chui bo v c di TG s d dng
loi b hin tng ny. Trong trng hp TG

MAX

nh hnh v m t th phn b

chng ln ISI nm trong khong ca chui bo v, cn thnh phn tn hiu c ch vn


an ton. pha my thu s gt b chui bo v trc khi gi tn hiu n b gii iu
ch OFDM. Do , iu kin cn thit cho h thng OFDM khng b nh hng
bi ISI l: TG max vi MAX l tr truyn dn ti a ca knh.

Khng c GI

C GI
Hnh 2.4. ISI v cyclic prefix

- 20 -

Chng 2: Cc k thut c s dng trong WiMAX

2.2.4. Nguyn tc gii iu ch OFDM


Cc bc thc hin y u ngc li so vi pha my pht. Tn hiu thu s
c tch chui bo v, gii iu ch khi phc bng tn gc, gii iu ch cc
sng mang con, chuyn i mu tn hiu phc thnh dng bit (tn hiu s) v chuyn
i song song sang ni tip

(k-1)T

(k-1)TS

kT

kTS

Hnh 2.5. Tch chui bo v


2.2.5. Cc u v nhc im ca k thut OFDM
Qua vic phn tch v c bn k thut OFDM nh trn, chng ta c th rt ra
mt s u im, nhc im chnh ca OFDM nh sau:
u im:

S dng ph hiu qu nh ph tn s c dng gn nh ca s ch nht


nu s sng mang con ln.

Loi b nhiu xuyn k t (ISI) v nhiu gia cc khung (IFI) nh s


dng tin t vng CP (Cyclic Prefix).

Kh nng chng nhiu gia cc knh con rt tt nh vic s dng cc


sng mang con trc giao.
K thut OFDM cho php thng tin tc cao c truyn song song vi
tc thp hn trn cc knh bng hp. Cc knh con ny c coi l cc
knh fading khng la chn tn s nn c th dng cc b cn bng n
gin trong sut qu trnh nhn thng tin. Ni nh vy, h thng OFDM
chng c nh hng ca fading la chn tn s.

- 21 -

Chng 2: Cc k thut c s dng trong WiMAX

K thut OFDM l mt phng php hiu qu gii quyt a ng,


khng nhiu bng hp tt v nhiu ny ch nh hng mt t l nh cc
sng mang con.
Thc hin n gin trong min tn s bng cch dng gii thut FFT.
ng thi my thu n gin do khng cn b kh ICI v ISI nu khong
d tr di.
Nhc im:

OFDM l tp hp ca tn hiu trn nhiu sng mang, di ng ca tn


hiu ln nn c t s cng sut nh/trung bnh tng i ln s lm hn
ch hiu sut ca b khuch i m tn.
Mt mt hiu sut ph do chn khong d tr.
Nhiu pha do s khng phi hp gia cc b dao ng my pht v
my thu, c th lm nh hng n cht lng h thng.
Phi c s ng b chnh xc v tn s v thi gian, c bit l tn s.
Nh vy, k thut OFDM l gii php rt ph hp cho truyn dn v tuyn tc
cao ni chung v cho cng ngh Wimax ni ring. Theo phn tch v k thut
OFDM nh trn , dung lng ca h thng s c nh gi thng qua s lng cc
sng mang con c iu ch. S lng cc sng mang con ph thuc vo nhiu yu
t nh rng knh, mc nhiu, kiu iu ch, Con s ny (sng mang con)
tng ng vi kch thc FFT. C th nh chun 802.16-2004 xc nh r 256 sng
mang con, tng ng vi kch thc FFT 256 rng knh c lp, chun 802.16e2005 cung cp kch c FFT t 512 n 2048 tng ng vi rng knh t 5 MHz
n 20 MHz duy tr khong cch tng i khng i ca k hiu v khong dn
cch gia cc sng mang con c lp vi rng knh. Nh vy, vi cng ngh
OFDM, nh s kt hp ca cc sng mang con trc giao truyn song song vi cc k
hiu c khong thi gian di m bo rng lu lng bng thng rng khng b hn
ch do mi trng khng theo tm nhn thng NLOS v nhiu do hin tng a
ng dn.

- 22 -

Chng 2: Cc k thut c s dng trong WiMAX

2.3. K THUT OFDMA


2.3.1. Khi nim
OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access- a truy nhp phn
tn trc giao) l mt cng ngh a sng mang pht trin da trn nn k thut OFDM.
Trong OFDMA, mt s cc sng mang con, khng nht thit phi nm k nhau, c
gp li thnh mt knh con (sub-channel) v cc user khi truy cp vo ti nguyn s
c cp cho mt hay nhiu knh con truyn nhn ty theo nhu cu lu lung c
th.
2.3.2. c im
OFDMA c mt s u im nh l tng kh nng linh hot, thng lng v tnh
n nh c ci thin. Vic n nh cc knh con cho cc thu bao c th, vic
truyn nhn t mt s thu bao c th xy ra ng thi m khng cn s can thip
no, do s gim thiu nhng tc ng nh nhiu a truy xut (Multi access
Interfearence - MAI)

Hnh 2.6. ODFM v OFDMA

- 23 -

Chng 2: Cc k thut c s dng trong WiMAX

Hnh 2.7 m t mt v d v bng tn s - thi gian ca OFDMA, trong c 7


ngi dng t a n g v mi ngi s dng mt phn xc nh ca cc sng mang
ph c sn, khc vi nhng ngi cn li.

a
a
a
a
b
b
b
b

c
c

d
d
e
e
e
e
f
f

g
g
g
g

a
a
a
a
b
b
b
b

c
c

d
d
e
e
e
e
f
f

g
g
g
g

a
a
a
a
b
b
b
b

c
c

d
d
e
e
e
e
f
f

g
g
g
g

Hnh 2.7. V d ca biu tn s, thi gian vi OFDMA


Th d c th ny thc t l s hn hp ca OFDMA v TDMA bi v mi
ngi s dng ch pht mt trong 4 khe thi gian, cha 1 hoc vi symbol OFDM.
7 ngi s dng t a n g u c t c nh (fix set) cho cc sng mang theo
bn khe thi gian.
2.3.3. OFDMA nhy tn
Trong v d trc ca OFDMA, mi ngi s dng u c mt s sp t c
nh (fix set) cho sng mang. C th d dng cho php nhy cc sng mang ph theo
khe thi gian nh c m t trong hnh
Vic cho php nhy vi cc mu nhy khc nhau cho mi user lm bin i thc
s h thng OFDM trong h thng CDMA nhy tn. iu ny c li l tnh phn tp
theo tn s tng ln bi v mi user dng ton b bng thng c sn cng nh l c
li v xuyn nhiu trung bnh, iu rt ph bin i vi cc bin th ca CDMA.
Bng cch s dng m sa li hng i (Forward Error Correcting- FEC) trn cc
bc nhy, h thng c th sa cho cc sng mang ph khi b fading su hay cc
sng mang b xuyn nhiu bi cc user khc. Do c tnh xuyn nhiu v fading thay
i vi mi bc nhy, h thng ph thuc vo nng lng tn hiu nhn c trung
bnh hn l ph thuc vo user v nng lng nhiu trong trng hp xu nht.

- 24 -

Chng 2: Cc k thut c s dng trong WiMAX

b
c
c

b
a
b

a
c

a
Hnh 2.8. Biu tn s thi gian vi 3 ngi dng nhy tn a, b, c u c 1
bc nhy vi 4 khe thi gian t
u im c bn ca h thng OFDMA nhy tn hn hn cc h thng DSCDMA v MC-CDMA l tng i d dng loi b c xuyn nhiu trong mt t
bo bng cch s dng cc mu nhy trc giao trong mt t bo.
Mt v d ca vic nhy tn nh vy c m t trong hnh 2.9 cho N sng
mang ph, n lun lun c th to ra N mu nhy trc giao.

a
b
c
d
e
f

f
a
b
c
d
e

e
f
a
b
c
d

d
e
f
a
b
c

c
d
e
f
a
b

b
c
d
e
f
a

Hnh 2.9. 6 mu nhy tn trc giao vi 6 tn s nhy khc nhau


t

2.3.4. H thng OFDMA

- 25 -

Chng 2: Cc k thut c s dng trong WiMAX

iuch
bng tn
gc

Chn Pilot
symbol

Gii iu
ch bng
tn gc

Cn
bng
knh

IFFT

Chn
GI

ADC

Knh
truyn

IFFT

Chn
GI

DAC

Tch Pilot
symbol

Khi phc
knh truyn

Hnh 2.10. Tng quan h thng s dng OFDM


Ngun tn hiu c iu ch bng tn c s thng qua cc phng php iu
ch nh QPSK, M-QAM.Tn hiu dn ng (bn tin dn ng, knh hoa tiu pilot symbol) c chn vo ngun tn hiu, sau c iu ch thnh tn hiu
OFDM thng qua bin i IFFT v chn chui bo v GI. Lung tn hiu s c
chuyn thnh tn hiu tng t trc khi truyn trn knh v tuyn qua anten pht.
Tn hiu ny s b nh hng bi fading v nhiu trng AWGN (Addictive White
Gaussian Noise ).
Tn hiu dn ng l mu tn hiu c bit trc pha pht v pha thu, c
pht km vi tn hiu c ch nhm khi phc knh truyn v ng b h thng.

- 26 -

Chng 2: Cc k thut c s dng trong WiMAX

P ilo t C a rrie rs

D a ta c a rrie rs

T o ta l F re q u e n c y b a n d
F re q u e n cy g u a rd B a n d

F re qu e n c y G u a rd B a n d

Hnh 2.11. Mu tn hiu dn ng trong OFDMA


Pha my thu s thc hin ngc li so vi my pht. khi phc tn hiu pht
th hm truyn phi c khi phc nh vo mu tin dn ng i km. Tn hiu
nhn c sau khi gii iu ch OFDM c chia lm hai lung tn hiu. Lung th
nht l tn hiu c ch c a n b cn bng knh. Lung th hai l mu tin dn
ng c a vo b khi phc knh truyn, sau li c a n b cn bng
knh khi phc li tn hiu ban u.

2.4. IU CH THCH NGHI


iu ch thch nghi cho php h thng WiMAX iu chnh s iu ch tn
hiu ph thuc vo iu kin SNR ca lin kt v tuyn. Khi lin kt v tuyn cht
lng cao, s iu ch cao nht c s dng, a ra h thng dung lng ln
hn.

Hnh 2.12. Bn knh cell quan h vi iu ch thch nghi

- 27 -

Chng 2: Cc k thut c s dng trong WiMAX

Trong qu trnh suy gim tn hiu, h thng WiMAX c th dch n mt s


iu ch thp hn duy tr cht lng kt ni v n nh lin kt. c im ny cho
php h thng khc phc fading la chn thi gian.

2.5. CNG NGH SA LI


Cc cng ngh sa li c s dng trong WiMAX t cc yu cu v t
s tn hiu trn tp m h thng. Cc thut ton FEC, m ha xon v chn c
dng pht hin v sa cc li ci thin thng lng. Cc cng ngh sa li mnh
gip khi phc cc khung b li m c th b mt do fading la chn tn s v cc li
cm. T ng yu cu lp li (ARQ) c dng sa li m khng th c sa
bi FEC, gi li thng tin b li. iu ny c ngha ci thin cht lng t l li bit
(BER) i vi mt mc ngng nh nhau.

2.6. IU KHIN CNG SUT


Cc thut ton iu khin cng sut c dng ci thin cht lng ton b
h thng, n c thc hin bi trm gc gi thng tin iu khin cng sut n mi
CPE iu chnh mc cng sut truyn sao cho mc nhn trm gc th mt
mc xc nh trc. Trong mi trng fading thay i ng, mc ch tiu nh
trc ny c ngha l CPE ch truyn cng sut tha mn yu cu ny. iu khin
cng sut gim s tiu th cng sut tng th ca CPE v nhiu vi nhng trm gc
cng v tr. Vi LOS, cng sut truyn ca CPE gn tng ng vi khong cch ca
n n trm gc, vi NLOS, ty thuc nhiu vo h v vt cn.

2.7. CC CNG NGH ANTEN TIN TIN


Cng ngh anten c th dng ci thin truyn dn theo hai cch s dng
cng ngh phn tp v s dng cc h thng anten v cc cng ngh chuyn mch
tin tin. Cc cng ngh ny c th ci thin tnh co dn v t s tn hiu trn tp m
nhng khng bo m pht dn s khng b nh hng ca nhiu.

- 28 -

Chng 2: Cc k thut c s dng trong WiMAX

2.7.1. Phn tp thu v pht


Cc lc phn tp c s dng li dng cc tn hiu a ng v phn
x xy ra trong cc mi trng NLOS. Bng cch s dng nhiu ng ten (truyn
v/hoc nhn), fading, nhiu v tn hao ng truyn c th c lm gim. Phn tp
truyn s dng m thi gian khng gian STC. i vi phn tp nhn, cc cng ngh
nh kt hp t l ti a (MRC) mang li u im ca hai ng thu ring bit. V
MISO (nhiu u vo mt u ra).

Hnh 2.13. MISO


M rng ti MIMO, s dng MIMO cng s nng cao thng lng v tng cc
ng tn hiu. MIMO s dng nhiu ng ten thu v/hoc pht cho ghp knh theo
khng gian. Mi ng ten c th truyn d liu khc nhau m sau c th c gii
m my thu. i vi OFDMA, bi v mi sng mang con l cc knh bng hp
tng t, fading la chn tn s xut hin nh l fading phng ti mi sng mang.
Hiu ng ny c th sau c m hnh ha nh l mt s khuch i khng i
phc hp v c th n gin ha s thc hin ca mt my thu MIMO cho OFDMA.

- 29 -

Chng 2: Cc k thut c s dng trong WiMAX

Hnh 2.14. MIMO

2.7.2. Cc h thng anten thch nghi


Cc h thng anten thch nghi (Adaptive Antenna systems AAS) l mt phn
ty chn. Cc trm gc c trang b AAS c th to ra cc chm m c th c li,
tp trung nng lng truyn t c phm vi ln hn. Khi nhn, chng c th tp
trung hng c th ca my thu. iu ny gip cho loi b nhiu khng mong
mung t cc v tr khc.

Hnh 2.15. Beam Shaping

- 30 -

Chng 2: Cc k thut c s dng trong WiMAX

Hnh 2.16. AAS ng xung

2.8. KT LUN CHNG


Chng 2 trnh by cc c im k thut ca WiMAX, ni bt l cc k
thut OFDM, OFDMA, cng vi cc k thut iu ch thch nghi, sa li v cc h
thng anten thng minh. chng tip theo, chng ta s xem xt n kin trc mng
truy cp WiMAX.

- 31 -

Chng 3: Kin trc mng truy cp WiMAX

Chng 3
KIN TRC MNG TRUY CP WIMAX
3.1. GII THIU CHNG
Trong chng 2, chng ta tm hiu v cc k thut c s dng trong
WiMAX, trong chng ny, chng ta s tip tc tm hiu v cu trc ca mng
WiMAX bao gm m hnh tham chiu, cc phn lp MAC (Media Access Control iu khin truy nhp mi trng) v PHY (Physical Layer - Lp vt l).
3.2. M HNH THAM CHIU
Hnh 3.1 minh ha m hnh tham chiu v phm vi ca chun. Trong m hnh
tham chiu ny, lp PHY tng ng vi lp 1 (lp vt l) v lp MAC tng ng
vi lp 2 (lp lin kt d liu) trong m hnh OSI.

Hnh 3.1. M hnh tham chiu [5]

- 32 -

Chng 3: Kin trc mng truy cp WiMAX

Hnh 3. 2 Chc nng cc lp trong m hnh phn lp chun IEEE 802.16


Ti trm thu, phn cng WiMAX tip nhn d liu t cc lp cao. Hnh 3.3 m
t hng di chuyn ca lung d liu qua cc lp. Mi lp s thc hin encapsulation
(ng gi) d liu nhn c t cc lp trn. Ti lp thp nht, d liu c truyn
di dng bit qua mi trng truyn n ni nhn. Ti trm thu, d liu s c
decapsulation (m gi) ly cc thng tin cn thit v cc thng tin ny c gi
ln cc lp cao hn.

Hnh 3.3. Lung d liu qua cc lp


Gia lp con phn chung MAC v lp con bo mt khng nh ngha im truy
nhp dch v. Cc packet t lp con phn chung MAC khng c encapsulation ti
lp con bo mt. Phn tiu lp con phn chung MAC s biu th thng tin m ha
payload. Qu trnh m ha payload c thc hin ti lp con bo mt.

- 33 -

Chng 3: Kin trc mng truy cp WiMAX

3.3. LP IU KHIN TRUY NHP MI TRNG (MAC)


Lp MAC chun IEEE 802.16 cung cp giao din hot ng c lp vi lp vt
l do giao din lp vt l l giao din v tuyn. Phn ch yu ca lp MAC tp trung
vo vic qun l ti nguyn trn airlink (lin kt v tuyn). Gii quyt c bi ton
yu cu tc d liu cao trn c hai knh downlink v uplink. Cc c ch iu
khin truy cp v thut ton cp pht bng thng hiu qu c kh nng p ng cho
hng trm u cui trn mi knh.
Lp MAC chun IEEE 802.16 c xy dng da trn kin trc tp trung, h
tr m hnh Point-to-Point, Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) v Mesh. Trm BS ng vai
tr trung tm vi mt sectorized anten c kh nng iu khin ng thi nhiu sector
c lp.
Cc giao thc lp MAC chun 802.16 l hng kt ni. Vo thi im truy nhp
mng, mi SS s to mt hoc nhiu kt ni truyn ti d liu trn c hai hng
(downlink v uplink). n v lp lch lp MAC s s dng ti nguyn airlink cung
cp cc mc QoS phn bit. Lp MAC cng thc hin chc nng tng thch lin kt
(link adaption) v truyn li t ng ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) nhm duy tr
thng lng d liu i a vi t l li bit BER (Bit Error Rates) chp nhn c.
Lp MAC chun IEEE 802.16 cng iu khin qu trnh truy nhp v ri khi mng
ca SS, thc hin to v truyn cc n v d liu giao thc PDU (Protocol Data
Unit). Ngoi ra, lp MAC chun IEEE 802.16 cn cung cp lp con hi t c t dch
v h tr lp mng t bo ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) v lp mng gi
(Packet).
Lp MAC chun IEEE 802.16 bao gm 3 lp con
Lp con hi t c t dch v (Service-specific Convergency Sublayer CS).
Lp con phn chung MAC (MAC Common Part Sublayer CPS).
Lp con bo mt.

3.3.1. Kt ni v a ch

- 34 -

Chng 3: Kin trc mng truy cp WiMAX

Kt ni
Tt c cc dch v, bao gm c cc dch v khng kt ni (connectionless) u
c nh x thnh cc kt ni tng ng. Mi mt kt ni i km vi cc tham s
QoS tng ng vi 4 lp dch v. iu ny cung cp mt c ch cho php cc SS
yu cu bng thng, QoS v cc tham s lu lng t BS. Cung cp c ch chuyn
ti v nh tuyn cc gi d liu n lp con hi t tng ng. Cc kt ni l n
hng, mi mt kt ni c tham chiu bi mt gi tr 16 bit nh danh kt ni CID
(Connection Identifier). Bng thng c cp pht lin tc hay c cp pht theo
yu cu trn cc kt ni.
C hai loi kt ni c bn: kt ni qun tr (Management Connection) v kt ni
chuyn ti (Transport Connection).
Kt ni qun tr c s dng truyn cc thng bo qun tr.
Kt ni chuyn ti c s dng truyn d liu.
Kt ni qun tr chia lm ba kiu: c bn (Basic Connection), s cp (Primary
Connection) v th cp (Secondary Connection).
Basic Connection: c s dng truyn cc thng bo ngn, yu cu
tr.
Primary Connection: c s dng truyn cc thng bo qun tr di
hn, khng yu cu tr nh cc thng bo thc hin qu trnh xc thc
v thit lp kt ni.
Secondary Connection: c s dng truyn cc thng bo qun tr
chun nh SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol), DHCP
(Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
Transport connnection l cc kt ni n hng c s dng chuyn ti d
liu, cc tham s QoS v cc tham s lu lng ph hp vi dch v tng ng.
Ngoi ra cn c mt s cc lin kt c dnh ring cho cc mc ch khc nh kt
ni qung b (Broadcast connection), kt ni chuyn ti cc bo hiu xung t, thm
d

a ch

- 35 -

Chng 3: Kin trc mng truy cp WiMAX

Mi mt trm SS c mt a ch MAC 48 bit duy nht, c s dng nh danh


SS hoc c s dng trong qu trnh xc thc.
Mi mt trm BS cng c 1 a ch 48 bit nh danh trm nhng khng phi l
a ch MAC.
CID c xem nh l a ch s cp sau khi c khi to v c s dng
trong qu trnh hot ng ca h thng.
3.3.2. Lp con hi t MAC
Lp con hi t c t dch v tip nhn cc gi d liu t cc lp cao thng qua
cc im truy nhp dch v lp con hi t CS SAP (CS Service Access Point), nh x
thnh cc n v d liu dch v lp MAC SDU (Service Data Unit). MAC SDU l
cc n v d liu c trao i gia hai lp giao thc k cn nhau. Cc MAC SDU
ny c chuyn n lp con phn chung MAC thng qua cc im truy nhp dch
v lp con phn chung (CPS SAP). Ti lp con phn chung MAC, cc SDU c
phn loi v kt hp vi mt gi tr nh danh lung dch v SFID (Service Flow
Identifier) v mt CID. Ngoi ra, lp con hi t cn thc hin cc chc nng phc tp
khc nh PHS (Payload Header Suppression) v Reconstruction nhm lm tng hiu
qu s dng ti nguyn.
Lp con hi t chun IEEE 802.16 nh ngha hai c t cho vic nh x cc
dch v:
Lp con hi t ATM dnh cho cc dch v ATM.
Lp con hi t packet: c nh ngha cho vic nh x cc dch v gi nh
IPv4 hoc IPv6, Ethernet v VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network).
Ba c t Packet CS:
IP Specific: S dng chuyn ti cc frame IP. H tr IPv4, Ipv6 v mobile
IP.
IEEE Std 802.3/Ethernet: S dng chuyn ti cc frame 802.3 Ethernet
qua mng 802.16.
IEEE Std 802.1Q-1998 VLAN: S dng chuyn ti cc frame 802.1Q

- 36 -

Chng 3: Kin trc mng truy cp WiMAX

VLAN tagged qua mng 802.16.


3.3.3. Lp con phn chung MAC
Lp con phn chung MAC (CPS) h tr kin trc Point-to-Multipoint. Mt trm
gc BS (Base Station) c th gi thng tin n cc trm thu bao SS (Subcrible
Station) v nhn thng tin t cc SS. BS nh ngha hai n v uplink-MAP (ULMAP) v downlink-MAP (DL-MAP) cha thng tin m t knh c phn chia
thnh cc khe thi gian. Qu trnh ranging, truyn d liu v cp pht bng thng
c thc hin ti cc khe thi gian ring bit.
BS v SS lin lc vi nhau qua cc lin kt c c trng bi gi tr CID c
gn trong qu trnh thit lp lin kt. Mt SS c th s dng nhiu kt ni. Cc kt
ni c th l unicast (mt BS v mt SS s dng kt ni) hoc dng multicast (mt
BS v mt s SS s dng chung mt kt ni).
Lp con CPS cng chu trch nhim cp pht bng thng. Bng thng c cp
pht cho mt trm SS mi cng nh cp b sung cho mt trm SS nu c yu cu.
Mt s cc kt ni ca SS c cc mc QoS khc nhau, do bng thng cp pht cho
tng kt ni ph thuc vo mc QoS tng ng ca kt ni. Trong qu trnh cp pht
bng thng, trm SS s nhn 2 thng bo: UL-MAP v DL-MAP. Thng bo ULMAP cha tham chiu n cc khe (slot) cho php SS gi d liu n BS v thng
bo DL-MAP cha tham chiu n cc khe cho php SS nhn d liu t BS.
Cc nh dng MAC PDU
MAC-BS v MAC-MS trao i cc bn tin, v cc bn tin ny c xem nh
cc PDU, mt PDU c chiu di ti a l 2048 byte.

Hnh 3.4. nh dng MAC PDU


Trn hnh ta c th thy bn tin bao gm ba phn: tiu MAC chiu di c nh
l 6 byte, payload chiu di thay i v phn kim tra li d vng CRC (Cyclic

- 37 -

Chng 3: Kin trc mng truy cp WiMAX

Redundancy Check). Ngoi tr cc PDU yu cu di thng (khng c payload), cc


MAC PDU c th cha hoc cc bn tin qun l MAC hoc d liu lp con hi t MAC SDU. Payload l ty chn, CRC cng ty chn v ch c s dng nu MS
yu cu trong cc tham s QoS.
C hai loi tiu MAC: tiu MAC chung (GMH) v tiu MAC yu cu
di thng (BR). GMH c s dng truyn d liu hoc cc bn tin qun l MAC.
Tiu BR c s dng bi MS yu cu nhiu di thng hn trn UL. Tiu
MAC v cc bn tin qun l MAC khng c m ha.
nh dng tiu MAC chung.

Hnh 3.5. nh dng ca tiu MAC PDU chung


Trn hnh 3.5, minh ha nh dng ca mt tiu MAC chung. ngha cc
trng c gii thch trong bng trong bng 3.1.

Tn

Chiu

M t

di (bit)
Ch th CRC.

CI

Nu CI=1 th CRC c gn vo payload PDU sau khi m ha


(nu c). Nu CI= 0 th khng cha CRC.

CID

16

nh danh kt ni

- 38 -

Chng 3: Kin trc mng truy cp WiMAX

iu khin m ha
EC

0 = Payload khng c m ha
1 = Payload c m ha
Tun t kha m ha

ESK

Ch s ca kha m ha lu lng (TEK) v vector khi to c


s dng m ha payload. Trng ny ch c ngha khi trng
EC c thit lp l 1.

Tun t kim tra tiu


HCS

Mt trng 8 bit c s dng pht hin cc li trong tiu .


Bn pht s tnh ton gi tr HCS cho 5 byte u tin ca tiu ,
chn kt qu vo trng HCS (byte cui cng ca tiu MAC).

HT

LEN

11

Type

Loi tiu . c thit lp l 0.


Chiu di. Chiu di tnh theo byte ca MAC PDU m bao gm
tiu MAC v CRC nu c.
Trng ny ch ra cc loi tiu con v payload c bit c mt
trong payload bn tin.
Bng 3.1. Cc trng tiu MAC chung

nh dng tiu MAC yu cu di thng.


PDU yu cu di thng ch cha tiu yu cu di thng v s khng cha
payload. Trn hnh 3.6, minh ha nh dng ca mt tiu MAC chung, ngha cc
trng c gii thch trong bng trong bng 3.2.

- 39 -

Chng 3: Kin trc mng truy cp WiMAX

Hnh 3.6. nh dng tiu yu cu di thng


Tn
HT

Chiu

M t
di (bit)
1
Loi tiu . c thit lp l 0.
Ch th CRC

CI

1 = CRC c gn vo payload PDU sau khi m ha, nu


c.
0 = Khng cha CRC.
iu khin m ha

EC

Type

BR
CID

19
16

0 = Payload khng c m ha
1 = Payload c m ha
Trng ny ch ra cc loi tiu con v payload c bit
c mt trong payload bn tin.
Bng thng yu cu
nh danh kt ni
Tun t kim tra tiu
Mt trng 8 bit c s dng pht hin cc li trong

HCS

tiu . Bn pht s tnh ton gi tr HCS cho 5 byte u


tin ca tiu , chn kt qu vo trng HCS (byte cui
cng ca tiu MAC).
Bng 3.2. Cc trng tiu MAC yu cu di thng

3.3.4. C ch yu cu v cp pht bng thng


Yu cu

- 40 -

Chng 3: Kin trc mng truy cp WiMAX

C ch yu cu bng thng c trm SS s dng thng bo cho trm BS cn


cp pht bng thng. Thng bo yu cu bng thng c th l tiu yu cu bng
thng hoc thng bo PiggyBack.
Cc yu cu bng thng chia lm bn kiu:
o Implicit request: Trong thc t, kiu yu cu ny l nhng tha thun ti
thi im thit lp kt ni.
o Bandwidth Request message: C hai kiu thng bo incremental hoc
aggregate. Khi trm BS nhn c mt thng bo yu cu bng thng kiu
incremental, s cp pht b sung mt lng bng thng theo yu cu cho
kt ni. Ngc li, khi trm BS nhn c mt thng bo yu cu bng
thng kiu aggregate, s cp pht mt lng bng thng thay th cho
lng bng thng hin ti. Trng Type trong tiu yu cu bng thng
ch th kiu thng bo yu cu bng thng l incremetal hay aggregate.
o PiggyBacked request (cho cc dch v khc UGS): c cha trong tiu
con Grant Management, khng c trng Type, do mc nh kiu
incremental.
o Poll-Me bit (ch cho dch v UGS): c trm BS s dng thm d
bng thng cho cc dch v khc UGS.
Cp pht
Lp MAC chun IEEE 802.16 cung cp hai kiu cp pht bng thng cho trm
SS, c phn bit hnh thc cp pht bng thng cho mi kt ni hay cp pht
bng thng cho mi trm SS. C hai kiu cp pht u yu cu bng thng trn cc
kt ni, cho php cc trm BS iu chnh cc yu cu QoS cho ph hp khi tin hnh
cp pht bng thng.
Hai kiu cp pht bng thng c nh ngha:
o Cp pht trn mi kt ni GPC (Grant per Connnection): Bng thng
c BS cp pht ring cho mi kt ni, v SS s dng bng thng c
cp pht ch cho kt ni . Thch hp trong trng hp s lng cc kt
ni hn ch trn mi trm SS.

- 41 -

Chng 3: Kin trc mng truy cp WiMAX

o Cp pht trn mi trm thu bao GPSS (Grant per SubScrible): Bng
thng c BS cp pht ton b tng ng vi yu cu ca SS. SS chu
trch nhim phn phi lng bng thng c cp pht cho cc kt ni,
duy tr mc QoS trn cc kt ni v tha thun cc mc dch v. Thch
hp trong trng hp c nhiu kt ni trn mi trm SS.
Trong thc t, mt s yu t nh hng n qu trnh cp pht bng thng nh:
Trm BS khng nhn c thng bo yu cu bng thng hay trm SS khng nhn
c bng thng c cp do li lp vt l, hoc trm BS khng cung cp lng
bng thng theo yu cu
Do , trong c hai kiu cp pht, lp MAC chun IEEE 802.16 s dng c ch
t sa li (self-correcting) thay cho c ch gi acknowledge. C ch self-correcting t
tn bng thng v tr nh hn c ch acknowledge.
i vi c ch t sa li, cc yu t gy nh hng n qu trnh cp pht bng
thng s c gii quyt cng mt lc. Sau mt khong thi gian timeout thch hp,
trm SS s gi Banwidth Request n trm BS. Thng thng loi thng bo yu cu
l incremental ngha l trm SS yu cu b sung bng thng cho mt kt ni. Tuy
nhin i lc thng bo yu cu bng thng l aggregate ngha l trm SS yu cu
bng thng cho ton b cc kt ni m n qun l.
Polling
C ch polling c thc hin ti BS, l qu trnh thm d cp pht bng
thng cho SS gi Banwidth Request. C th cp pht cho tng SS ring bit hay cho
mt nhm cc SS. C hai kiu polling:
o Unicast: thm d mt SS ring bit. Nu nh mt trm SS khng cn cp
pht bng thng, n gi li request c di 0 byte.
o Multicast v Broadcast: thm d mt nhm hay ton b cc trm do khng
bng thng thm d tng trm SS ring l.
3.3.5. C ch lp lch dch v v cht lng dch v (QoS)
Mc ch chnh ca vic lp lch dch v nhm cung cp mt mc QoS hp l
cho lung lu lng nhng vn s dng hiu qu ti nguyn.

- 42 -

Chng 3: Kin trc mng truy cp WiMAX

Chun IEEE 802.16 nh ngha bn lp dch v:


o UGS (Unsolicited Grant Service): c thit k h tr dch v
Constant Bit Rate (CBR) l loi dch v c s dng bi cc kt ni yu
cu bng thng c nh v kh dng lin tc trong thi gian kt ni. Dch
v CBR thng c dng cho cc ng dng thi gian thc yu cu
nghim ngt v tr v suy hao. V d cc kt ni T1/E1, ng dng
VoIP.
o rtPS (Real-time Polling Service): c thit k h tr cc lung d liu
thi gian thc trn cc kt ni yu cu nghim ngt v tr nhng li
khng yu cu bng thng c nh, kch thc gi bin i. V d: lung
audio/video
o nrtPS (Non-Real-time Polling Service): c thit k h tr cc lung
d liu khng i hi thi gian thc v tr, vi kch thc gi bin i
v tc d liu ti thiu m bo. V d: giao thc truyn ti file FTP,
cc dch v ATM GFR (ATM Guaranted Frame Rate)
o BE (Best Effort): c thit k h tr cc lung d liu thng thng
khng i hi thi gian thc cng nh tr. V d: dch v duyt Web.
Mi mt kt ni trn knh uplink c nh x thnh mt lung dch v kt hp
vi mt lp dch v c th, c nh danh bi gi tr SFID 32 bit (Service Flow
Identifier).
Mi mt n v lp lch dch v l mt tp cc quy tc c p t trn b lp
lch (scheduler) ca trm BS. Mi mt kt ni tng ng vi mt dch v d liu
ring, i km vi cc tham s QoS tng ng v c thng lng ti thi im
thit lp kt ni.
Khi cc packet c phn loi ti lp con hi t, mi mt packet s c kt
hp vi mt lp QoS thch hp vi yu cu ca ng dng. Kin trc chun IEEE
802.16 h tr ng thi nhiu lung d liu vi cc mc QoS phn bit bao gm:
thoi, VoIP, video lung, TFTP, HTTP v email.
3.3.6. Lp con bo mt
Ton b bo mt ca 802.16 da vo lp con bo mt. Lp con bo mt l lp
con gia MAC CPS v lp vt l. Mc tiu ca n l cung cp iu khin truy
nhp v s cn mt ca lin kt d liu, chi trch nhim m ha v gii m d liu

- 43 -

Chng 3: Kin trc mng truy cp WiMAX

m a n v i ra khi lp vt l PHY v cng c s dng cho cp php v trao


i kha bo mt, Ngn chn nh cp dch v. Bo mt ca 802.16 gm cc thnh
phn sau: cc tp hp bo mt (SA), chng nhn X.509, giao thc cp php qun l
kha ring t (authorization PKM), qun l kha v ring t (PKM) v m ha d
liu.
3.4. LP VT L
Lp vt l cung cp kt ni v tuyn gia BS v SS. Chun IEEE 802.16 nh
ngha cc k thut khc nhau truyn thng tin qua mi trng v tuyn.
Chun IEEE 802.16 h tr 2 bng tn: bng tn 10-66 GHz v 2-11 GHz.
Bng tn 10-66 GHz h tr cho cc mi trng truyn dn yu cu tm nhn
thng LOS, khng c vt cn gia trm pht v trm thu. c t giao tip
khng gian (air interface) ti bng tn 10-66 Ghz c gi l WirelessMANSC, s dng phng thc truy cp TDMA (Time Division Multiplexing
Access) cho hng truyn uplink v phng thc truy cp TDM (Time
Division Multiplexing) cho hng truyn downlink.
Bng tn 2-11 GHz (cp php v khng cp php) h tr mi trng truyn
dn khng c tm nhn thng NLOS, tn hiu c th truyn qua cc vt cn
theo nhiu cch khc nhau.
C 5 c t lp vt l chun IEEE 802.16 c m t trong bng bn di:

Bng 3.3. c t vt l chun IEEE 802.16


Lp vt l chun IEEE 802.16 s dng phng php iu ch OFDM, bng tn

- 44 -

Chng 3: Kin trc mng truy cp WiMAX

c chia thnh nhiu sng mang con trc giao vi nhau nhm t c thng lng
d liu v khong cch truyn ti a, chng nhiu hiu qu.
Ngoi ra, lp vt l cn cung cp mt s phng thc iu ch nhiu mc nh
BPSK, QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAMcho php truyn nhiu n v thng tin trn mt
n v thi gian.
Lp vt l h tr c 2 phng thc truyn song cng : song cng phn chia theo
thi gian TDD (Time Division Duplex) v song cng phn chia theo tn s FDD
(Frequency Division Duplex). Ch TDD s dng cc khe thi gian, mi mt SS
c BS cp cho cc khe thi gian s dng truyn v nhn d liu, cho php d
liu truyn khng ng thi trn c hai hng uplink v downlink nhng c th s
dng chung tn s. Ch song cng FDD phn chia thnh hai knh uplink v
downlink hot ng trn hai tn s ring bit, cho php truyn d liu ng thi trn
c hai hng.
Cc qu trnh Ranging v DFS (Dynamic Frequency Selection) c thc thi ti
lp vt l.
Ranging l qu trnh thc hin iu chnh cng sut pht ca trm BS n
trm SS ph hp vi v tr ca trm SS.
DFS l qu trnh t ng qut di tn dnh ring cho SS tm mt tn s
hot ng ph hp.
3.5. KT LUN CHNG
Chng ny trnh by kin trc mng truy cp WiMAX bao gm lp PHY v
ch yu l lp MAC. Vi s tp trung vo lp MAC, chng ny s gip chng ta
tm hiu v bo mt trong h thng WiMAX, din ra ch yu lp MAC c trnh
by chng tip theo.

- 45 -

Chng 4: Kin trc bo mt chun IEEE 802.16

Chng 4
KIN TRC BO MT CHUN IEEE 802.16
4.1. GII THIU CHNG
Trong mi trng Internet, h thng WiMAX phi i mt vi nguy c b e
da tn cng bi nhiu phng thc khc nhau. H thng WiMAX c th b tn cng
lp vt l hay lp MAC. Cc phng thc tn cng ti lp vt l c th l Jamming
hay Scrambling.
Jamming l phng thc tn cng s dng mt ngun pht tn hiu c
cng sut ln gy nhiu trm BS.
Scrambling l phng thc tn cng nhm mc ch chim dng bng
thng ca SS yu cu t cc BS. [8]
Trong m hnh phn lp, lp con bo mt nm trn lp vt l, do lp vt l
khng c bo v. Tuy nhin trong khun kh chng ny ch trnh by c ch bo
mt c thc hin ti lp con bo mt chun IEEE 802.16.
Thc thi bo mt cho h thng WiMAX nhm bo v tnh ring t cho cc SS
chng li cc nguy c e da tn cng v ngn chn cc truy cp tri php t bn
ngoi. C ch bo mt c thc thi trn c s m ha cc kt ni gia BS v SS,
gm mt s th tc c bn nh xc thc, iu khin truy cp, m ha thng bo,
qun l kha
4.2. KIN TRC BO MT
Lp MAC c th b tn cng trong qu trnh xc thc hoc trong qu trnh truyn
d liu trn cc kt ni. Trong qu trnh xc thc, BS v SS s dng cc thng bo
qun tr trao i thng tin. Do , cc thng bo ny c th b nghe trm hoc b
thay i ni dung nu nh khng c m ha. Trong qu trnh truyn d liu, lung
lu lng cng c th b nghe trm hoc b mt.
M hnh kin trc bo mt chun IEEE 802.16 c m t bn di.

- 46 -

Chng 4: Kin trc bo mt chun IEEE 802.16

Hnh 4.1. M hnh kin trc bo mt chun IEEE 802.16 [7]


Mt SS trc khi truyn d liu phi thc hin xc thc vi BS c cp
quyn truy nhp h thng. Lung d liu trc khi c truyn t BS n SS cn
c xc thc. Sau khi c cp quyn, d liu trong phn payload ca MAC PDU
s c m ha trc khi truyn. Ti my thu cng thc hin xc thc d liu, trao
i cc thng tin cn thit gii m d liu. Tt c cc qu trnh ny c thc hin
ti lp con bo mt.
Lp con bo mt c hai giao thc thnh phn:
Giao thc ng gi cc gi d liu c m ha truyn qua mng.
Giao thc ny c nh ngha gm hai thnh phn. Thnh phn th nht
l mt tp cc b m ha (cryptographic suite) c h tr. B m ha l
mt tp hp cc phng thc m ha d liu, xc thc d liu v trao i
kha m ha lu lng (TEK). Thnh phn th hai l cc quy tc c p
dng cho cc thut ton m ha PDU payload.
Giao thc qun l kha PKM (Privacy and Key Management): cung cp
c ch bo v qu trnh phn phi kha t BS n SS. Thng qua giao

- 47 -

Chng 4: Kin trc bo mt chun IEEE 802.16

thc ny, BS v SS c th ng b kha d liu vi nhau, ngoi ra, BS c


th s dng thit lp quyn truy cp h thng i vi cc SS.
4.2.1. Tp hp bo mt
Tp hp bo mt - Security Association (SA) l khi nim gm mt tp hp cc
thng tin bo mt cho cc kt ni gm cc kha v cc thut ton m ha. SA c
chia s gia mt BS v cc SS nhm bo v qu trnh lin lc gia BS v SS. Mi
mt SA cha mt danh sch cc b m ha (cc thut ton m ha c la chn),
cc kha m ha lu lng TEK (Traffic Encryption Key) v cc vector khi to
(initialization vector) v c tham chiu bi mt gi tr nh danh SAID (SA
Identifier) 16 bit.
C ba loi SA: primary SA, static SA v dynamic SA.
Mi SS c mt primary SA, c thit lp ti thi im khi to kt ni.
Static SA c BS to trong qu trnh khi to SS, BS c th cung cp
nhiu dch v, mi dch v tng ng vi mt static SA.
Dynamic SA c to ra khi mt lung lu lng mi xut hin v b
hy b khi lung lu lng b hy.
Static SA v Dynamic SA c th chia s cho nhiu SS.
Kt ni qun tr basic v primary khng c nh x sang cc SA tng ng,
nhng cc thng bo truyn trn hai kt ni ny c th c bo v. Mi mt kt ni
qun tr secondary c nh x thnh mt Primary SA. Tt c cc kt ni Transport
lun c nh x thnh cc SA c sn, ring kt ni multicast Transport c nh x
thnh static SA hay dynamic SA bt k.
4.2.2. Giao thc qun l kha PKM
Chun IEEE 802.16 s dng giao thc PKM thit lp lin kt bo mt gia
BS v SS. SS s dng giao thc PKM yu cu BS chng thc v mt kha thc
trao i. Ngoi ra, giao thc PKM cn h tr SS thc hin yu cu chng thc li
(reauthorization) v cp nht kha. PKM s dng chng thc X.509, thut ton m

- 48 -

Chng 4: Kin trc bo mt chun IEEE 802.16

ha public key RSA, v cc thut ton m ha mnh thc hin trao i kha gia
BS v SS.
Giao thc PKM s dng m hnh client-server. Trm SS ng vai tr l cc
client gi yu cu chng thc n BS, ng vai tr l server c trch nhim p ng
yu cu m cc client gi n. M hnh ny bo m mi mt SS ch c duy nht mt
kha thc c chng thc. Cc thng bo qun tr lp MAC (PKM-REQ v
PKM-RES) c s dng trong giao thc PKM.
4.3. QUY TRNH BO MT
Quy trnh bo mt trong h thng WiMAX gm ba bc [7]

Hnh 4.2. Quy trnh bo mt

Xc thc (Authentication)
Trm SS thc hin xc thc vi BS bng cch gi thng bo yu cu xc thc

(chng thc X.509). BS thc hin xc thc SS v thng lng kh nng bo mt


vi SS (cc thut ton m ha m SS h tr), sau khi thng lng, mt SA c to
v c tham chiu bi gi tr SAID. Tip , SS gi thng bo Authorization
Request yu cu cp quyn truy cp. BS s kim tra v gi li thng bo
Authorization Reply cha kha AK (Authentication Key) cho SS c s dng trong
qu trnh trao i kha. Qu trnh xc thc hon tt khi c BS v SS u gi kha
AK.

- 49 -

Chng 4: Kin trc bo mt chun IEEE 802.16

Trao i kha d liu (Data Key Exchange)


Trm SS gi thng bo TEK Key Request yu cu BS cp cho mt kha m ha

lu lng TEK (Traffic Encryption Key), c s dng trong qu trnh m ha d


liu. BS sau khi kim tra li cc thng tin c SS gi n, nu cc thng tin hp l,
BS s to ngu nhin mt kha TEK v gi li cho SS thng bo TEK Key Respond
cha kha TEK. Qu trnh trao i kha d liu hon tt khi c BS v SS u gi
kha TEK.
M ha d liu
Sau khi qu trnh trao i kha d liu thc hin xong, SS tin hnh m ha
d liu trc khi truyn. Qu trnh m ha ch c thc hin cho phn payload ca
MAC PDU. Cc thng bo qun tr khng c m ha.
4.3.1. Xc thc
Qu trnh xc thc c trnh by trn hnh

Hnh 4.3. Qu trnh xc thc SS vi BS


u tin, SS gi thng bo Authentication Information cha chng thc X.509
(RFC 3280) ca nh sn xut SS [8]. Chng thc ny gm mt public key v mt a

- 50 -

Chng 4: Kin trc bo mt chun IEEE 802.16

ch MAC ca SS. Tip , SS gi thng bo Authorization Request cho BS, thng


bo ny yu cu BS cp cho mt kha AK v cc gi tr SAID nh danh cc Static
SA tng ng vi cc dch v m SS ng k. Thng bo Authorization Request
bao gm:
o Mt chng thc X.509 ca nh sn xut SS.
o Mt b m ha (Cryptographic Suite) m SS h tr. Mi mt n v trong
b m ha bao gm mt cp thut ton m ha v xc thc gi d liu m
SS h tr.
o Mt gi tr SAID tng ng vi Primary SA.
Sau khi nhn c thng bo Authorization Request, BS tin hnh xc thc SS
da vo cc thng tin trong thng bo Authorization Request. Sau khi nh danh
c SS l hp php v xc nh c cc thut ton m ha v cc giao thc c
SS h tr, BS s s dng public key ca SS to kha AK (128 bit). Sau BS gi
thng bo Authorization Reply cho SS, thng bo Authorization Reply bao gm:
o Mt kha AK.
o Mt s tun t kha (0-15) phn bit cc kha AK vi nhau.
o Mt gi tr thi gian sng (life-time) ca kha AK. Gi tr ny trong
khong 1-70 ngy, mc nh l 7 ngy.
o Mt gi tr SAID tng ng vi Primary SA v mt hoc nhiu gi tr
SAID nh danh cc Static SA tng ng vi cc dch v SS ng k.
Sau mt thi gian nht nh, SS thc hin qu trnh yu cu cp quyn li
(Reauthorization) cp nht kha AK. Qu trnh Reauthorization tng t nh qu
trnh Authorization ngoi tr vic SS khng gi thng bo Authentication
Information.
Mi kha AK c mt thi gian sng nht nh. V c BS v SS u h tr ng
thi hai kha AK tn ti cng mt lc nn thi gian sng ny c th chng ln nhau
gia cc AK nhm trnh tnh trng cc dch v b tm ngng t ngt do gi tr lifetime ca kha ht hn.
V BS xc thc SS bng chng thc X.509, do c th trnh c nguy c b

- 51 -

Chng 4: Kin trc bo mt chun IEEE 802.16

tn cng t cc SS gi danh.
4.3.2. Trao i kha d liu
Qu trnh trao i kha d liu c m t bn di [7]

Hnh 4.4. Qu trnh trao i kha d liu


Qu trnh trao i kha c thc hin tng ng vi tng dch v m SS
ng k trong qu trnh thit lp kt ni. Mi dch v tng ng vi mt Static SA v
c nh danh bi mt gi tr SAID tng ng.
Sau khi nhn c thng bo Authorization Reply, SS s dng gi tr kha
AK to hai kha gm: kha m ha kha (KEK Key Encryption Key) 128 bit
c s dng m ha kha TEK trong sut qu trnh truyn v kha xc thc
thng bo (HMAC - Hash functionbased Message Authentication Code) 160 bit. Tip
SS gi thng bo TEK Request yu cu BS cp cho mt kha m ha lu
lng TEK, kha ny c dng m ha d liu. Thng bo TEK Request gm:
o S tun t kha AK c cp trong qu trnh xc thc.
o Mt gi tr SAID tng ng vi mt Static SA ca mt dch v c th m

- 52 -

Chng 4: Kin trc bo mt chun IEEE 802.16

SS ng k.
o Mt gi tr HMAC-SHA1.
Sau khi nhn thng bo TEK Key Request t SS, BS s dng thng tin trong
thng bo TEK Key Request kim tra gi tr kha AK, nu ph hp s tin hnh
to ngu nhin mt kha TEK (128 bit). Kha TEK c to bi cc phng thc
Triple-DES (s dng 128 bit KEK), hoc phng thc RSA (s dng public key ca
SS), hoc phng thc AES (s dng 128 bit KEK). Cc phng thc m ha ny
c ch th bi gi tr ca mt n v trong b m ha. Sau , BS gi thng bo
TEK Key Reply cho SS, thng bo TEK Key Request gm:
o S tun t kha AK c cp trong qu trnh xc thc.
o Mt gi tr SAID tng ng vi mt Static SA ca mt dch v c th m
SS ng k.
o Mt kha TEK m ha.
o Mt gi tr thi gian sng (life-time) ca kha TEK.
o Gi tr CBC-IV (CBC Inittialization Vector) m ha d liu.
o Mt gi tr HMAC-SHA1 xc thc cc thng bo.
Qu trnh trao i kha d liu hon tt khi c BS v SS u gi kha TEK.
4.3.3. M ha d liu
Sau khi thc hin xong qu trnh trao i kha, phn d liu payload s c m
ha trc khi truyn s dng kha TEK. Ring cc thng bo qun tr th khng c
m ha.

- 53 -

Chng 4: Kin trc bo mt chun IEEE 802.16

Hnh 4.5. nh dng payload trc v sau khi m ha


Khi d liu payload sau khi m ha c b sung hai trng: trng PN
(Packet Number) c di 4 byte biu th s tun t gi sau khi m ha, c tng
ln mt n v mi khi mt MAC PDU c truyn. Trng Ciphertext ICV
(Ciphertext Integrity Check Value) m t gi tr kim tra tnh ton vn phn payload
c m ha.
Chun IEEE 802.16 h tr hai thut ton m ha d liu:
o Thut ton DES (Data Encryption Standard).
o Thut ton AES (Advanced Encryption Standard).
4.4. HN CH CA KIN TRC BO MT IEEE 802.16
Kin trc bo mt chun IEEE 802.16 s dng c ch xc thc da trn chng
thc X.509 v cc c ch m ha kha hiu qu, nhng cng c mt s hn ch sau:
Khng h tr c ch xc thc BS: C ch xc thc ch thc hin theo mt chiu
t SS n BS. Khng c c ch cc SS c th xc thc BS m n kt ni ti.
iu ny c th dn n nguy c xut hin mt BS gi danh mt BS hp php
gy nn s nhm ln cho cc SS khi thc hin kt ni n BS. Cc phng thc
tn cng theo kiu gi danh ny li ph thuc vo kiu mng. V d, i vi mng

- 54 -

Chng 4: Kin trc bo mt chun IEEE 802.16

WiFi 802.11, s dng phng thc a truy nhp cm nhn sng mang, mt k tn
cng (acttacker) c c ID ca AP (Access Point) v to mt thng bo vi ID
hp php, acttacker s ch cho n khi mi trng mng nhn ri v khi
truyn thng bo, iu ny c th gy ra s nhm ln. Tuy nhin i vi mng
WiMAX, phng thc trn li kh thc hin do h thng s dng phng thc a
truy cp phn chia theo thi gian, BS gi danh cng c th to cc thng bo vi
nh danh ca BS thc. BS gi danh phi ch cho n khe thi gian c cp pht
cho BS v truyn cng thi im vi BS thc, tuy nhin n phi iu chnh cng
ca tn hiu truyn phi ln hn cng ca tn hiu truyn ca BS thc.
Cc trm SS s nhn v gii m tn hiu c gi t mt BS gi danh thay cho BS
thc.
Do , c th b sung vo mt chng thc BS c s dng mt SS xc nh
chnh xc BS m n s kt ni ti.
Khng h tr c ch m ha cc thng bo qun tr: Cc thng bo qun tr khng
c m ha, nhng c xc thc. C ch xc thc thng bo qun tr c s
dng l HMAC (Hashed Message Authentication Code) c nhiu nhc im, do
nguy c b mt thng tin t cc thng bo b tn cng s nh hng n hot
ng lin lc gia cc trm vi nhau.
Khng h tr mt c ch hiu qu chng li hnh thc tn cng t chi dch v
DoS (Denial of Service): Cc attacker c th s dng SS thc hin gi yu cu
xc thc n BS vi s lng nhiu v lin tc, lm cho BS mt kh nng x l.
4.5. KT LUN CHNG
Chng 4 ny trnh by c bn v kin trc bo mt v cc quy trnh thc
hin bo mt gia BS v SS. Ngoi ra, chng ny cn nu ln c cc im cn
hn ch ca kin trc bo mt IEEE 802.16 da trn chng thc X.509.

- 55 -

Chng 5: M phng hot ng h thng WiMAX

Chng 5
M PHNG HOT NG H THNG WiMAX
5.1. GII THIU CHNG
Vic m phng hot ng ca h thng WiMAX nhm mc ch kim chng li
nhng l thuyt nghin cu nh qu trnh truy nhp h thng, c ch yu cu v
cp pht bng thng, c ch lp lch dch v v qu trnh trao i mt s cc thng
bo bo hiu nh UL-MAP, DL-MAP, UCD v DCD, cc thng bo ranging
(RNGREQ v RNGRES)...
5.2. MI TRNG M PHNG
Mi trng thc hin m phng l NS-2 (Network Simulator) phin bn 2.29.
NS-2 l mt cng c m ngun m cho php m phng mng chuyn mch gi, h
tr m phng cc giao thc nh TCP, UDP, cc giao thc nh tuyn, giao thc lp
MAC trn mi trng mng v tuyn v hu tuyn nh wireless LANs, Mobile Ad
hoc Networks (MANETs), mng v tinh
NS-2 l mt n v m phng hng i tng. Cu trc ngn ng bao gm hai
thnh phn: ngn ng hng i tng C++ v OTCL c phn bit theo 2 mc
iu khin v mc x l gi. C++ c s dng x l mc gi trong khi OTCL
c s dng nh ngha cc thng s cu hnh m phng nh topology mng,
kiu n v lp lch, thi im khi u v kt thc lung d liu, kiu lung vi
nh danh nt ngun v ch
Tuy nhin, phin bn NS-2 mi nht 2.29 ch h tr m phng lp LL (Link
Layer), lp MAC v lp vt l ca chun IEEE 802.11, khng h tr m phng cc
thnh phn ca chun IEEE 802.16. Do , trong n ny s dng module
WiMAX for NS-2 (gi tt l module WiMAX) thc thi chun IEEE 802.16 trong
NS-2 (phin bn 2.29).
Module WiMAX for NS-2 c thit k v pht trin bi cc thnh vin ca
Networks and Distributed Systems Laboratory (NDSL) v Computer Science and

- 56 -

Chng 5: M phng hot ng h thng WiMAX

Information Engineering thuc i hc Chang Gung, i Loan. Tt c cc phin bn


ca module WiMAX c dowload hon ton min ph ti a ch
http://ndsl.csie.cgu.edu.tw.
V tr ca module WiMAX trong kin trc NS-2 c trnh by bn di.

Hnh 5.1. Module WiMAX trong kin trc NS-2 [13]


Module WiMAX c tch hp vo kin trc sn c ca mt nt wireless trong
NS-2.
Trong kin trc trn, mt nt wireless bao gm cc thnh phn: Traffic
Generating Agent (address classifier, port classifier, agent protocol, agent routing),
lp LL (Link Layer), lp MAC, hng i v knh vt l. Cc classifier chu trch
nhim phn phi cc gi tng ng vi cc agent. Agent protocol biu din cho lp
application v agent routing biu din cho lp IP. Khi mt packet i t agent protocol
n agent routing, agent routing s t a ch ca ch vo gi v chuyn tip n

- 57 -

Chng 5: M phng hot ng h thng WiMAX

lp LL. Lp LL s dng giao thc phn gii a ch ARP (Address Resolution


Protocol) xc nh a ch MAC ca ch. Lp LL t a ch MAC ca ch vo
gi v chuyn n lp MAC. Lp MAC s thc hin cc chc nng tng ng v xc
nh thi im gi gi trn knh. Sau , chuyn gi n lp vt l. Lp vt l chu
trch nhim gi gi trn knh wireless n ni nhn.
Module WiMAX thc hin m phng lp con phn chung MAC chun IEEE
802.16 trong NS-2. C th, cc thnh phn c thc thi trong module:
C ch cp pht bng thng GPC (Grant per Connection).
UCD, DCD, DL-MAP, UL-MAP, RNG-REQ, RNG-RSP, BW-REQ.
To v truyn MAC PDU (ti BS v SS), phn mnh v ng gi.
C ch lp lch (trn knh uplink, downlink) bn kiu dch v (UGS,
rtPS, nrtPS, BE).
Module thc thi lp MAC IEEE 802.16 c vai tr tng t nh module IEEE
802.11 v c t trong cng th mc ~/mac trong NS-2.
5.3. M PHNG
5.3.1. Gi thuyt
Cc gi thuyt c s dng trong m phng:
Ch thc thi lp con phn chung MAC chun IEEE 802.16, khng thc
thi c ch bo mt c thc hin bi lp con MAC bo mt.
Khng cp n khong thi gian mt trm SS ng b vi BS.
Tt c cc trm BS v SS u s dng kiu anten omni-directional c
thit lp sn trong lp vt l ca NS-2 truyn thng.
Khng thc thi lp vt l chun IEEE 802.16. Nhng s dng li cc
thnh phn sn c ca lp vt l chun IEEE 802.11 c h tr trong
NS-2 nh cc kiu knh truyn, kiu anten, m hnh truyn sng v
tuyn
Kiu hng i l Droptail (FIFO First In First Out).

- 58 -

Chng 5: M phng hot ng h thng WiMAX

Gi s trong qu trnh truyn gia BS v SS hoc ngc li khng xy ra


hin tng mt gi, do khng thc thi c ch ARQ (Automatic Repeat
Request).
5.3.2. Kch bn m phng
M hnh mng c s dng m phng da trn kin trc Point-toMultipoint (chun IEEE 802.16) bao gm: mt trm gc BS (node_0) v 2 trm thu
bao SS (node_1, v node_2), c t c nh ti cc ta cho trc.

Hnh 5.2. Kin trc mng m phng


Trong kch bn m phng trn: SS_1 gi cc thng bo ranging, thng bo
BWREQ v bt u truyn d liu n BS (knh uplink). Sau , SS_2 gi d liu
n BS. Cc qu trnh truyn kt thc ti thi im 10s.
Cc thng s s dng:
Bng thng kt ni: 10 Mbps/ sector.
tr trn kt ni: 10 ms.
Phm vi m phng: 1000 x 1000.
Giao thc nh tuyn: DSDV (Destination Sequence Distance Vector).
Kch thc ti a ca hng i l 50 (s gi ti a cha trong hng i).

- 59 -

Chng 5: M phng hot ng h thng WiMAX

Lp dch v c thit lp trn kt ni gia BS v SS_1 l UGS (biu


din cho cc ng dng VOIP) v lp dch v thit lp trn kt ni gia
BS v SS_2 l rtPS (biu din cho ng dng video, MPEG4).
Drop packet rate: < 5%.
Thi gian thc hin m phng: 10s.
5.4. PHN TCH KT QU M PHNG
5.4.1. Hot ng
Vo thi im bt u m phng, cc SS tin hnh qut cc knh trong
di tn c nh ngha tm mt knh downlink thch hp v ng
b. Sau , cc SS nhn cc thng bo m t knh vt l DCD (downlink)
v UCD (uplink) ly cc thng s cn thit.
Tip , cc SS gi yu cu ranging (thng bo RNGREQ) n BS.

Hnh 5.3. Cc SS gi yu cu ranging


Tip , BS gi li cc p ng ranging (thng bo RNGRSP) v cc
thng bo ULMAP, DLMAP cha cc thng tin lp MAC nh thi im

- 60 -

Chng 5: M phng hot ng h thng WiMAX

truy cp v cc thng tin khc trn c hai knh uplink v downlink.

Hnh 5.4. BS gi p ng ranging


Sau khi nhn c thng bo RNGRSP t BS. Ti thi im 1, SS_1
gi yu cu cp pht bng thng (thng bo BWREQ) cho BS, sau khi
nhn c bng thng cp pht, SS_1 bt u truyn d liu n BS.

- 61 -

Chng 5: M phng hot ng h thng WiMAX

Hnh 5.5. SS_2 gi yu cu bng thng

Hnh 5.6. SS_2 gi d liu (rtPS) cho BS


5.4.2. Tnh lng bng thng c s dng trn BS

Hnh 5.7. th bng thng c s dng trn cc knh truyn

- 62 -

Chng 5: M phng hot ng h thng WiMAX

Cc thng tin m phng c ghi li trong file ~.tr bao gm kiu s kin
(send, receive, drop, forward), thi im xy ra s kin, nt thc hin s kin, thng
tin gi v kch thc gi, kiu trace c s dng

Hnh 5.8. Thng tin trong file ~.tr c import vo excel


Sau khi import thng tin file ~.tr vo excel, chng ta tin hnh thng k cc s
liu ti node 0 (BS).
Tng s gi (packet) trong qu trnh m phng m node 0 (BS) x l: 9259.
Trong
Tng s gi nhn (r): 2712.
Tng s gi gi (s): 6305.
Tng s gi drop (d): 240.
Tng dung lng trong qu trnh m phng m node 0 (BS) x l: 794347
byte.
Trong :
Dung lng nhn (r): 274148 byte.

- 63 -

Chng 5: M phng hot ng h thng WiMAX

Dung lng gi (s): 375404 byte.


Dung lng drop (d): 144795 byte.
Bng thng trung bnh node 0 (BS) s dng trong thi gian m phng:
794347*8/10/(1024)2 = 0.606 Mbps
5.5. NHN XT
Bng thng trung bnh node 0 (BS) s dng trong sut qu trnh m
phng nm trong gii hn ra (10Mbps).
T l gi drop (d) chp nhn c (di 5%).
H thng hot ng tt.

- 64 -

Kt lun v hng pht trin ti

KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN TI


Kt lun
n gii quyt c cc vn c bn c t ra phn u bao gm:
Tng quan v cng ngh WiMAX, cc c im v hot ng ca WiMAX, nhng
c s quan trng ca WiMAX, cc chun WiMAX, cc k thut c ng dng
trong WiMAX, kin trc bo mt c xy dng trong WiMAX. Ch yu tp trung
cc kha cnh sau: Hot ng ca WiMAX ch yu tp trung lp MAC (qu trnh
truy nhp mng, c ch yu cu v cp pht bng thng, c ch lp lch dch v);
Kin trc bo mt c xy dng v quy trnh thc hin bo mt trong WiMAX; M
phng hot ng h thng WiMAX.
Hng pht trin ti
Nhng vn c trnh by trong n ny vn cn hn ch phm vi, ch tp
trung vo chun IEEE 802.16 dnh cho cc ng dng truy cp bng thng rng c
nh (IEEE 802.16-2004). Do , trong thi gian ti hng pht trin ca ti s
tp trung vo nghin cu chun IEEE 802.16 dnh cho cc ng dng di ng
WiMAX di ng (IEEE 802.16e).
WiMAX di ng l gii php khng dy bng rng cho php ph sng mng
khng dy v c nh nh cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn bng rng trn din rng vi
kin trc mng linh hot (Point-to-Point, Point-to-MultiPoint, Mesh). Mt s c
im chnh WiMAX di ng h tr: Tc d liu cao; Tnh mm do; Kh nng
bo mt mnh; Kh nng di ng; bao ph rng.

- 65 -

Ti liu tham kho

TI LIU THAM KHO


[1] ThS. Nguyn Quc Khng, TS. Nguyn Vn c, ThS. Nguyn Trung Kin,

KS. Nguyn Thu H. WIMAX Cng ngh truy nhp mng khng dy
bng rng. Tp ch BCVT&CNTT k 1(12/2005).
[2] Trn Vit Hng. WiMAX cng ngh ch thc cho cuc sng. Tp on

Bu Chnh Vin Thng Vit Nam. 2006.


[3] Phan Hng. Cng ngh OFDM trong truyn dn v tuyn bng rng im -

a im tc cao (54 Mbit/s). Tp ch BCVT&CNTT k 1 (12/2005).


[4] L Vn Tun. Cc bng tn WiMAX. Tp ch BCVT&CNTT k 1 (5/2006).
[5] IEEE Standard 802.16. Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless

Access Systems. Oct, 2004.


[6] Jeffrey G. Andrews, Ph.D., Arunabha Ghosh, Ph.D., Rias Muhamed
Fundamentals of WiMAX - Understanding Broadband Wireless
Networking
[7] Kitti Wongthavarawat. IEEE 802.16 WiMAX Security. July 1, 2005.
[8] Michel Barbeau. WiMAX 802.16 Threat Analysis. 2006.
[9] Westech Communications Inc. Can WiMAX Address Your Applications?.

WiMAX Forum. Oct 24, 2005.


[10]

http://www.tapchibcvt.gov.vn/

[11]

http://vntelecom.org/

[12]

www.wimaxforum.org

[13]

http://www.cgu.edu.tw

- 66 -

Ph lc

PH LC

Ph lc

Ph lc A: Gi tr trng Type trong thng bo qun tr lp MAC


Kt ni s

Kiu

Tn thng bo

M t

UDC(Uplink Channel Description)


DCD (Downlink Channel

M t knh uplink

dng
Broadcast

M t knh Downlink

Broadcast

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Description)
DL-MAP (Downlink Access
Definition)

UL-MAP (Uplink Access


Definition)
RNG-REQ (Ranging Request)
RNG-RSP (Ranging Respond)
REG-REQ (Registration Request)
REG-RSP (Registration Respond)
PKM-REQ ( Privacy Key

nh ngha truy cp
knh

Broadcast

Downlink
nh ngha truy cp
knh

Broadcast

Uplink
Yu cu ranging
p ng ranging
Yu cu ng k
p ng ng k

Primary
Primary
Primary
Primary

Dnh ring

Primary

Management Request)
PKM-REQ ( Privacy Key

Yu cu qun l kha

Management Request)
PKM-RSP (Privacy Key

ring t
p ng qun l kha

Management Respond)
DSA-REQ (Dynamic Service

ring t
Yu cu b sung dch

Addition Request)
DSA-RSP (Dynamic Service

v ng
p ng b sung dch

Addition Respond)
DSA-ACK (Dynamic Service

v ng
Chp nhn b sung

Addition Acknowledge)
DSC-REQ (Dynamic Service

dch v ng
Yu cu thay i dch

Change Request)
DSC-RSP (Dynamic Service

v ng
p ng thay i dch

Change Respond)
DSC-ACK (Dynamic Service

v ng
Chp nhn thay i

Change Acknowledge)

dch v ng

Primary
Primary
Primary
Primary
Primary
Primary
Primary
Primary

Ph lc

17
18

DSD-REQ (Dynamic Service

Yu cu hy b dch

Delete Request)
DSD-RSP (Dynamic Service

v ng
p ng hy b dch

Delete Respond)

v ng

Primary
Primary

Ph lc B: Giao thc nh tuyn DSDV


Giao thc nh tuyn DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance Vector) thuc
kiu giao thc nh tuyn Distance Vector. Mi mt node c mt bng nh tuyn
cha thng tin next hop (node) v s hop phi i qua trc khi n ch. nh k mi
node s broadcast bng nh tuyn ca mnh cho cc node ln cn cp nht thng
tin nh tuyn (c lng con ng ngn nht i n cc node). Mi tuyn c
c trng bi mt s Sequency Number (SN), tuyn c SN cao s c u tin hn.
Cc tuyn c cng SN th tuyn c s hop t hn s c u tin.
Ph lc C: Ci t NS-2 trn nn Windows 9x/2000/XP s dng Cygwin
Cygwin cung cp mt mi trng tng t Linux trn Window. Phin bn Cygwin
mi nht c s dng l 1.5.12 c download ti a ch:
http://nsdl.csie.cgu.edu.tw/ns-setup.rar.
Qu trnh ci t NS-2 (sau khi ci t thnh cng Cygwin):

Download ns-allinone-2.29 package ti a ch http://nsdl.csie.cgu.edu.tw/nsallinone-2.29.tar.gz.

Gii

nn

ns-allinone-2.29

vo

th

mc

C:\cygwin\home\"your account"\
Download source code ca module WiMAX (phin bn mi nht v2.03) ti
a ch: http://nsdl.csie.cgu.edu.tw/download.php
Gii nn module WiMAX c 3 th mc 802.16, common v queue.

Chp th mc 802_16 vo C:\cygwin\home\"your account"\ns-allinone2.29\ns-2.29\mac (mc nh th mc ci t Cygwin l C:\).

Chp cc file trong th mc common v queue ln lt vo


C:\cygwin\home\"your

account"\ns-allinone-2.29\ns-2.29\common

Ph lc

C:\cygwin\home\"your account"\ns-allinone-2.29\ns-2.29\queue.
Thm vo sau dng mac/mac-802_3.o trong Makefile 2 dng sau:
mac/mac-802_16/packet-802_16.o \
mac/mac-802_16/timer-802_16.o \
mac/mac-802_16/mac-802_16.o \
mac/mac-802_16/traffic/UGS_traffic.o \
mac/mac-802_16/traffic/ertPS_traffic.o \
mac/mac-802_16/traffic/rtPS_traffic.o \
mac/mac-802_16/traffic/nrtPS_traffic.o \
mac/mac-802_16/traffic/BE_traffic.o \
S dng lnh make bin dch.
Sau khi hon tt cc bc trn, c th chy cc script m phng trong NS-2 trn
nn Window s dng Cygwin.

NHN XT CA GIO VIN


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