Seminar Report

Project Oxygen

A SEMINAR REPORT ON

BY SAMEER V. DAREKAR Exam No: T8438511

Under The Guidance of Mrs. Pankaja Alappanavar

DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

STES’S SINHGAD ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
KONDHWA BK PUNE 411048

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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the seminar report entitled

“PROJECT OXYGEN” Submitted by

Sameer V. Darekar

Exam No: T8438511

is a bonafide work carried out by them under the supervision of Prof. Pankaja Alappanavar and it is approved for the partial fulfillment of the requirement of University of Pune, Pune for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering (Information Technology)

(Prof. Pankaja Alappanavar) Seminar Guide,

(Prof. Pankaja Alappanavar) Seminar Co-ordinator,

(Prof. Abhay Adapanavar) HOD, IT Place: Pune Date:

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Firstly, I am very thankful to our respected principal Dr.

A. G.

Kharat, who has always been an icon for us and guided us to make innovative things and learn about them. I express my sincere thanks to Prof. A. N. Adapanawar (H.O.D IT Dept.) for his guidance, support and co-operation. I also express my sincere thanks to my seminar guide Mrs. Pankaja Alappanavar an extremely methodical, sincere woman who has devoted her to the task of educating young engineers and inculcating practical knowledge amongst them. Thank you for your encouragement mam. Also my sincere gratitude for all the teaching & non-teaching staff who guided me directly or indirectly for giving this seminar. Last but not the least I would like to thank all my colleagues who helped me to complete this task successfully.

THANKING YOU ALL

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ABSTRACT

Project Oxygen is a proposed global Super-Internet which is based on a complex network of undersea fiber optic cables linking 174 countries at 264 landing points (SAIC). The idea of the project is to make computers human-centered and responsive to human needs rather than having people depending on expensive machines as happens now. In the plan, no one would need their own personal devices such as cell phones and hand-held computers because these devices would be available everywhere for anyone to use. They would all be connected to a central data base where everyone's data would be stored. As people interact with these devices, the devices will recognize the person and respond to their particular needs and to their own databases. They will maintain personal privacy by being able to respond to the individual and only accessing their information bases using video and audio recognition technology. The system will help automate most routine tasks and there will be voice recognition systems so typing in data will no longer be necessary This system no doubt has many advantages some of them are ease of use, personalized data storage and access, security systems, elimination of the need to carry around communication devices, and the ability to work anywhere because of the pervasiveness of the system, it is also a little frightening to think of the abuses that could take place through such a system. If this system comes to work a lot of time and efforts would be saved which would help us to do different work efficiently. This seminar report contains the brief description about the Project Oxygen its use to human kind and various applications which would change the future world of computing as it is today.

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INDEX
COVER PAGE CERTIFICATE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT 1 2 3 4

CHAPTER

TITLE

PAGE NO

1.

INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.2 THE OVERVIEW THE VISION 7 7

7

2.

THE APPROACH 2.1 INTEGRATED TECHNOLOGIES THAT ADDRESS HUMAN NEEDS 2.2 2.3 2.4 ABSTRACTION SPECIFICATION PERSISTENT OBJECT STORE WITH TRANSACTIONAL SEMANTICS 2.5 2.6 TECHNOLOGIES IN PROJECT OXYGEN THEMES IN PROJECT OXYGEN 11 11 11 9 9 10

9

3.

THE SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 DEVICES AND NETWORKS E21 STATIONARY DEVICE H21 HANDHELD DEVICES NETWORK AND SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE N21 NETWORKS 13 13 14 14 15

13

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4.

USER TECHNOLOGIES 4.1 SPOKEN LANGUAGE, SKETCHING AND VISUAL CUES 4.2 4.3 4.4 KNOWLEDGE ACCESS TECHNOLOGIES AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGIES COLLABORATION TECHNOLOGIES 17 16 16 17

16

5.

APPLYING UNDER SEA TECHNOLOGIES TO PROJECT OXYGEN 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 OVERVIEW DETAILS ARCHITECTURE NETWORK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM COMMUNICATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE 20 22 18 18 19 18

6.

APPLICATIONS OF PROJECT OXYGEN 6.1 THE CRICKET LOCATION SUPPORT SYSTEM 6.2 COMPUTER MEDIATED PRESENTATION SYSTEM 24 22

7.

PROJECT OXYGEN TODAY 7.1 7.2 TECHNOLOGIES LABORATORY OVERVIEW 25 26

25

8.

CONCLUSION 8.1 8.2 CONCLUSIONS FUTURE SCOPES 27 28

27

9.

REFERENCES

29

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LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES List Of Figures
Figure No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Subtitle Technologies in Oxygen E-21 Device H-21 Device N-21 Device Interconnected undersea cable loops NMS communication and feature Component of Cricket Computer mediated Presentation System Page no 12 13 14 15 20 21 23 24

The Report Contains no Tables

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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1

THE OVERVIEW: Project Oxygen is a research project at the Massachusetts Institute of

Technology (MIT) to develop pervasive, human-centered computing. The Chairman and CEO of the project Neil Tagare, unveiled plans for a multi-Gigabit cable traversing over 170 countries and 180,000 miles for oxygen. The Oxygen architecture is to consist of handheld terminals, computers embedded in the environment, and dynamically configured networks which connect these devices. It is an ambitious global network proposal that is supposed to link 78 countries with more than 100,000 miles of optical fiber (mostly under the sea) at a minimum transmission speed of 1.2 Gb/s by the year 2003. Estimated to cost more than $10 billion for the trans-Atlantic segment, the project ran out of funding in 2000 and was never resurrected.

1.2

THE VISION: For over forty years, computation has centered about machines, not people.

We have learned the ways of using computers, pampering them in air-conditioned rooms or carrying them around with us. Purporting to serve us, they have actually forced us to serve them. They have been difficult to use. They have required us to interact with them on their terms, speaking their languages and manipulating their keyboards or mice. They have not been aware of our needs or even of whether we were in the room with them. Virtual reality only makes matters worse with it, we do not simply serve computers, but also live in a reality they create. Due to Project Oxygen in future, computation will be human-centered. It will be freely available everywhere, like batteries and power sockets, or oxygen in the air we breathe. It will enter the human world, handling our goals and needs and helping us to do more while doing less. We will not need to carry our own devices around with us. Instead, configurable generic devices, either handheld or embedded in the environment, will bring computation to us, whenever we need it and wherever we

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might be. As we interact with these "anonymous" devices, they will adopt our information personalities. They will respect our desires for privacy and security. We won't have to type, click, or learn new computer semantics. Instead, we'll communicate naturally, using speech and gestures that describe our intent, and leave it to the computer to carry out our will. New systems will boost our productivity. They will help us automate repetitive human tasks, control a wealth of physical devices in the environment, find the information we need (when we need it, without forcing our eyes to examine thousands of search-engine hits), and enable us to work together with other people through space and time. Software systems are adaptable. They can be customized easily to meet individual user needs and to take advantage of newly published software. They accommodate requests for upgrades and repairs, whether user-supplied or system-generated, to
  

bring applications just-in-time to handheld devices, automatically install and upgrade software on personal machines, maintain databases (e.g., for computer-aided design systems) across software upgrades, or

Update networks of distributed embedded devices that lack individual user interfaces.

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2. THE APPROACH

2.1.

INTEGRATED TECHNOLOGIES THAT ADDRESS HUMAN NEEDS: Oxygen enables pervasive, human-centered computing through a combination

of specific user and system technologies. Oxygen’s user technologies directly address human needs. Speech and vision technologies enable us to communicate with Oxygen as if we’re interacting with another person, saving much time and effort. Automation, individualized knowledge access, and collaboration technologies help us perform a wide variety of tasks that we want to do in the ways we like to do them. Oxygen’s system technologies dramatically extend our range by delivering user technologies to us at home, at work, or on the go. Computational devices, called Enviro21s (E21s), embedded in our homes, offices, and cars sense and affect our immediate environment. Hand-held devices, called Handy21s (H21s), empower us to communicate and compute no matter where we are. Dynamic networks (N21s) help our machines locate each other as well as the people, services, and resources we want to reach.

2.2.

ABSTRACTION

Computations are modular, as is storage. Abstractions characterize components that carry out computations and objects used in computations. In Oxygen, abstractions support the use of adaptable components and objects by providing

application access to components traditionally hidden beneath intervening layers of software, so as to observe and influence their behavior,

intent-based interfaces, not just syntax or address-based interfaces, so as to facilitate component and object use, adjustment, replacement, and upgrade,

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stream-oriented interfaces that treat speech, vision, and sensor data as firstclass objects, so as to enable compilers to manage low-level pipelining concurrency and multithreaded programs to adjust their behavior correctly at runtime in response to changes in the number of streams or the interactions among them,

constraint and event abstractions, which separate computation from control, trigger what is processed when, and provide flexibility for modifying behavior at runtime without compromising system integrity,

cut points, so as to provide safe fallbacks and to enable "eternal computation".

2.3.

SPECIFICATIONS

Specifications make abstractions explicit, exposing features to other system components. In Oxygen, specifications support adaptation and change by providing information about

system configurations, to determine what modules and capabilities are available locally,

module repositories, to provide code over the network for installation on handheld and other devices,

module dependencies, to support complete and consistent installations or upgrades,

module capabilities, to support other components and applications in scripting their use, and

Module behavior, to support their safe use through a combination of static and runtime checks.

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2.4.

PERSISTENT

OBJECT

STORE

WITH

TRANSACTIONAL

SEMANTICS Code, data objects, and specifications reside in a common object-oriented store, which supports all Oxygen technologies (i.e., user, perceptual, system, and device technologies). Object-orientation helps maintain the integrity of the store by restricting updates to those performed by methods in the store. The store has transactional semantics, which enables concurrent access, rollback and recovery, and consistent updates to modules and data. It also operates efficiently, using techniques such as optimistic concurrency, pre-fetching, and lazy updates and garbage collection, which defer the costs of modifying the store as long as possible or until there is time to spare.

2.5.

TECHNOLOGIES IN PROJECT OXYGEN:

1. Speech and Vision: Modes of interaction appropriate to the task at hand. 2. Knowledge Access: Finding the information you want by remembering what you’ve looked at before. 3. Automation: Offloading repetitive tasks from your brain to the computer. 4. Collaboration: Tracking and documenting a working group’s discussions and interactions.

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Figure 1: Technologies in Oxygen

2.6.

THEMES IN PROJECT OXYGEN: The Oxygen technologies work together and pay attention to several important

themes: • Distribution and mobility — for people, resources, and services. • Semantic content — what we mean, not just what we say. • Adaptation and change — essential features of an increasingly dynamic world. • Information personalities — the privacy, security, and form of our individual interactions with Oxygen.

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3. SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

3.1.

DEVICES AND NETWORKS: People access Oxygen through stationary devices (E21s) embedded in the

environment or via portable hand-held devices (H21s). These universally accessible devices supply power for computation, communication, and perception in much the same way that wall outlets and batteries deliver power to electrical appliances. Although not customized to any particular user, they can adapt automatically or be modified explicitly to address specific user preferences. Like power outlets and batteries, these devices differ mainly in how much energy they can supply.

3.2.

E21 STATIONARY DEVICES: Embedded in offices, buildings, homes, and vehicles, E21s enable us to create

situated entities, often linked to local sensors and actuators that perform various functions on our behalf, even in our absence. For example, we can create entities and situate them to monitor and change the temperature of a room, close a garage door, or redirect email to colleagues, even when we are thousands of miles away. E21s provide large amounts of embedded computation, as well as interfaces to camera and microphone arrays, thereby enabling us to communicate naturally, using speech and gesture, in the spaces they define.

Figure 2:E21 Device
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3.3.

H21 HAND-HELD DEVICES: Users can select hand-held devices, called H21s, appropriate to the tasks they

wish to perform. These devices accept speech and visual input, can reconfigure themselves to perform a variety of useful functions, and support a range of communication protocols. Among other things, H21s can serve as cellular phones, beepers, radios, televisions, geographical positioning systems, cameras, or personal digital assistants, thereby reducing the number of special-purpose gadgets we must carry. To conserve power, they may offload communication and computation onto nearby E21s.

Figure 3: H21 Device

3.4.

NETWORK AND SOFTWARE INFRASTRUCTURE: People use Oxygen to accomplish tasks that are part of their daily lives.

Universally available network connectivity and computational power enable decentralized Oxygen components to perform these tasks by communicating and cooperating much as humans do in organizations. Components can be delegated to find resources, to link them together in useful ways, to monitor their progress, and to respond to change.

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3.5.

N21 NETWORKS: It provides Network support for H21 and E21. N21s support dynamically

changing configurations of self-identifying mobile and stationary devices. They allow us to identify devices and services by how we intend to use them, not just by where they are located. They enable us to access the information and services we need, securely and privately, so that we are comfortable integrating Oxygen into our personal lives. N21s support multiple communication protocols for low-power local, building-wide, and campus-wide communication, enabling us to form collaborative regions that arise, adapt, and collapse as needed.

Figure 4: An overview of the Oxygen Infrastructure, showing the division into three parts: H21, a handheld digital device, N21, the network infrastructure, and E21, the environment infrastructure.

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4. USER TECHNOLOGIES

Several

user technologies harness

Oxygen's

massive

computational,

communication, and perceptual resources. They both exploit the capacity of Oxygen's system technologies for change in support of users, and they help provide Oxygen's system technologies with that capacity. Oxygen user technologies include:

4.1.

SPOKEN LANGUAGE, SKETCHING AND VISUAL CUES: Spoken language and visual cues, rather than keyboards and mice, define the

main modes of interaction with Oxygen. By integrating these two technologies, Oxygen can better discern our intentions, for example, by using vision to augment speech understanding through the recognition of facial expressions, gestures, lip movements, and gaze. These perceptual technologies are part of the core of Oxygen, not just afterthoughts or interfaces to separate applications. They can be customized quickly in Oxygen applications to make selected human-machine interactions easy and natural. Graceful switching between different domains (e.g., from a conversation about the weather in Rome to one about airline reservations) supports seamless integration of applications.

4.2.

KNOWLEDGE ACCESS TECHNOLOGIES: Individualized knowledge access technologies offer greatly improved access

to information, customized to the needs of people, applications, and software systems. Universal access to information is facilitated through annotations that allow contentbased comparisons and manipulations of data represented in different formats and using different terminologies. Users may access their own knowledge bases, those of friends and associates, and other information publicly available on the Web.

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4.3.

AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGIES: Automation technologies provide natural, easy-to-use, customizable, and

adaptive mechanisms for automating and tuning repetitive information and control tasks. For example, they allow users to create scripts that control devices such as doors or heating systems according to their tastes. In a hospital operating room, a physician-supplied script could automate equipment set-up, monitor its use during an operation, and fine-tune the script to improve the set-up procedures.

4.4.

COLLABORATION TECHNOLOGIES: Collaboration technologies help people engage in group activities by allowing

them to interact in secure collaborative regions, even though they may be participating at different times and in different locations. They trace group interactions, keeping an accessible, annotated trail of issues, decisions, documents, and important fragments of conversations. They link these elements in a semantic web, which enables group members to find the information they need. These user technologies can be combined to serve more complex human needs. For example, using Oxygen, you can give the verbal instruction, ―If the discount rate goes over 5%, convene our watchdog group.‖ This simple-looking instruction exercises all user technologies such as speech, because it was spoken; automation, because it creates an automated procedure to monitor the discount rate; individual information access, because the system accesses the information it needs from the right places; and collaboration, because the system will alert the watchdog group members and interconnect them.

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5. APPLYING UNDER SEA TECHNOLOGIES TO PROJECT OXYGEN

5.1.

OVERVIEW: Undersea fiber optic connectivity has been used on a global scale to provide

one

of

the

most

cost

effective

transmission

mediums

for

international

communications. Project Oxygen is a visionary network connecting 174 countries currently and will grow in the meantime. This network will integrate the newest and most sophisticated technologies for providing ubiquitous end-to-end customer telecommunications’ services. Some of the technologies to be included are:        Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) undersea Branching Units (BUS) Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFAs) as they apply to undersea applications Asynchronous Transport Mode (ATM), Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) Transport capabilities and Network Management Systems (NMS).

5.2.

DETAILS: Global connectivity, low cost access to bandwidth and fast restoration can be

realized by constructing the network as a complex of interconnected loops. Each loop includes a multiplicity of undersea cable segments that terminate at cable landing stations. Each cable segment includes up to four pair of optical fibers and undersea repeaters equipped with EDFA technology to provide optical gain of the transmission signal. In some cases, BUS are installed in the main trunk cable and are used to split the fiber connectivity and route traffic to cable stations not necessarily needing the

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traffic capacity carried by entire undersea cable. In all cases, the transmission capacity is 160 Gb/s per fiber pair and it is made up of 16 WDM channels each channel operating a 10 Gb/s. Thus a four fiber pair cable segment can carry up to 64 individual WDM channels or 640 Gb/s of transmission capacity. These large transmission capacities drive down the access cost to bandwidth. As the cable segments close on themselves to form loops, it is possible to take advantage of SDH ring switching technologies by subdivision of the 64 channels into 32 services and 32 protection channels. This results in a layered WDM ring network which supports 32 independently operating fast bi-directional line switching logical rings. As the loops are inter-connected, global connectivity is achieved. Thus three of the high level network objectives are attained: global connectivity, fast restoration and the high capacity undersea technology provides the basis of low cost access to bandwidth.

5.3.

ARCHITECTURE:

Each cable landing station is a network node which provides universal interoperability between the high capacity undersea cable transmission medium and the incountry telecommunication service provider’s network. This is accomplished by providing a standardized STM-64 interface between the equipment which

terminates the undersea cable segments and the equipment that interfaces to the in-land service provider’s network. This equipment that faces in-land provides several core actions including ATM, SDH, and PDH customer traffic interfaces. The concepts explained above are illustrated in following figure 5 where two loops are shown.

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Figure 5: Illustration of inter-connected undersea cable loops & the formation of WDM layered ring structures within a single loop having flexible connectivity.

5.4.

NETWORK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM COMMUNICATION AND

INFRASTRUCTURE :

Circuit provisioning, bandwidth on demand, and centralized monitor and control of the network are achieved by embedding in the transmission facilities an overlay Wide Area Network (WAN). This WAN connects to the cable stations' Local Area Networks (LANs) and provides routing capabilities to and from the Network Operations Centers (NOCs) at gateway cable stations. The LAN established at each cable station is used to integrate that cable station's Element Managers (EMS) which are needed to monitor and control the transmission Network Elements (NEs) and undersea wet-plant equipment. This NMS hierarchical structure and LA‖

communications infrastructure is shown in Figure 6. The NOCs are duplicated with synchronized data bases. From any NOC it is possible to manage the entire network. This includes identifying problems, issuing corrective procedures, taking customer service requests and then configuring traffic

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across the network between customer interfaces, billing for services and setting the desired security management structure of the network.

Figure 6: Network Management System Communications and Feature Infrastructure

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6. APPLICATIONS OF PROJECT OXYGEN

There are many applications of the Oxygen System some of them are briefed below 6.1. THE CRICKET LOCATION – SUPPORT SYSTEM : Cricket, a location-support system for in-building, mobile, location-dependent applications. It allows applications running on mobile and static nodes to learn their physical location by using listeners that hear and analyze information from beacons spread throughout the building. Cricket is the result of several design goals, including user privacy, decentralized administration, network heterogeneity, and low cost. Rather than explicitly tracking user location, Cricket helps devices learn where they are and lets them decide whom to advertise this information to; it does not rely on any centralized management or control and there is no coordination between beacons. It provides information to devices regardless of their type of network connectivity. The goal was to develop a system that allows applications running on user devices and service nodes to learn their physical location. Once this information is obtained, services advertise themselves to a resource discovery service. User applications do not advertise themselves unless they want to be discovered by others, they learn about services in their vicinity via an active map that is sent from a map server application, and interact with services by constructing queries for services at a required location. By separating the processes of tracking services and obtaining location information, multiple resource discovery systems can be accommodated. By not tracking users and services, user-privacy concerns are adequately met. We emphasize that our goal is a location-support system, rather than a conventional location-tracking system that tracks and stores location information for services and users in a centrally maintained database. The Cricket Subsystem consists of 2 parts 1. The Beacon: It is a stationary device fixed to a particular location it contains its location details synchronized with resource description service.

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2. The Listener: It is a mobile device that listens for RF signals from the beacons and connect to the one which is closest of all.

Figure 7:The Component of Cricket(beacon) fixed to the ceiling

Cricket uses a combination of RF and ultrasound technologies to provide location information to attached host devices. Wall- and ceiling mounted beacons placed through a building publish information on an RF channel. With each RF advertisement, the beacon transmits a concurrent ultrasonic pulse. Listeners attached to devices and mobiles listen for RF signals, and upon receipt of the first few bits, listen for the corresponding ultrasonic pulse. When this pulse arrives, the listener obtains a distance estimate for the corresponding beacon by taking advantage of the difference in propagation speeds between RF (speed of light) and ultrasound (speed of sound). The listener runs algorithms that correlate RF and ultrasound samples and to pick the best correlation. Even in the presence of several competing beacon transmissions, Cricket achieves good precision and accuracy quickly.

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6.2.

COMPUTER MEDIATED PRESENTATION SYSTEM :

Figure 8: A seminar room containing off the shelf components. The laptop controls the LCD, camera, microphone, and the networking parts of connecting to the file system, broadcasting, and archiving. The H21 is used by the speaker for personal notes and skipping slides.
The seminar can be delivered with some following out of box methods

  

The speaker enters the seminar room there is no need to carry his laptop as his

files are globally accessible The speaker may use a laser pointer or speak into the microphone to do

whatever he likes ex. advancing to next slide. The listeners may see on the projector screen or the output is simultaneously

broadcasted to their handheld device(H21) All these methods can make seminar more interesting and time saving.

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7. PROJECT OXYGEN TODAY

7.1.

TECHNOLOGIES :

Today’s technologies include:

Multilingual conversational systems that can recognize, understand, and respond to naturally spoken requests. The system can be configured rapidly to handle complex dialogs that allow users to obtain information such as the weather in Tokyo or traffic conditions in Boston.

An integrated vision and speech system that uses cameras and microphone arrays to track a speaker's location and arm position, extract the speaker's voice from background noise, and respond to a combination of pointing gestures and spoken commands such as "Move that one over here" or "Show me the video on that screen."

Systems that integrate software services to accomplish user-defined tasks. For example, a smart room equipped with embedded speech, video, and motion detectors automatically records and recalls key meeting events, monitoring and responding to visual and auditory cues that flow naturally from normal interactions among group members.

A computer-aided design tool that understands simple mechanical devices as they are sketched on whiteboards or tablets. Liberated from mice, menus, and icons, users can draw, simulate, modify, and test design elements in the same way they would with an expert designer.

Location and resource discovery systems that enable users to access computers, printers, and remote services by describing what they want to do rather than by remembering computer-coded addresses. Low-cost ceilingmounted beacons enable mobile users to determine where they are indoors, without having to reveal their location. These integrated systems respond to user commands such as "Print this picture on the nearest color printer."

A secure, self-configuring, decentralized wireless network that enables mobile users to communicate spontaneously using handheld devices and to share
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information with one another, utilizing multiple network protocols without requiring additional access points or intervention from service providers.

Hardware and software architectures that determine and implement the best allocation of resources for streaming multimedia applications. These architectures optimize the use of computer circuitry and power, thereby boosting the performance and lowering the cost of wireless handheld devices that link mobile users to Oxygen networks.

7.2. LABORATORY OVERVIEW : The goal of the five-year, $50 million Oxygen Partnership Alliance is nothing less than the reinvention of personal computing. For all the advances of computing, this sounds like science fiction. But both the brainpower and the money behind Oxygen are impressive. Scientists from two Massachusetts Institute of Technology centers--the Lab for Computer Science (LCS) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) Lab--will work with researchers at a half-dozen companies: Taiwan's Acer (ACRRF) and Delta Electronics, the U.S.'s Hewlett-Packard (HWP), Japan's NTT (NTT), Finland's Nokia (NOK), and the Netherlands' Philips Electronics (PHG). The companies will contribute a total of $30 million over the next five years, with most of the rest of the $50 million budget coming from the Pentagon's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

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8. CONCLUSION

8.1.

CONCLUSIONS : A massive public-private joint venture is out to make computing as integral--

and natural--as breathing. Oxygen is necessary for life, yet normally, we aren't aware of its presence. If an ambitious research project pays off, computing will become like oxygen: ubiquitous, essential, and mostly invisible. Today's special-purpose handheld devices and general-purpose desktops will disappear. The handheld component of Oxygen, called Handy21, will be a device that can supply the correct data to whomever happens to be using it and will morph its functions to suit the needs of the moment, acting as a phone, a remote control, or a camera. Instead of desktops, we'll have an environmental computer, called Enviro21, that disappears into the walls of our rooms and can see us, hear us, and respond to our commands. Network21, an intelligent network, will tie it all together. Instead of people needing to learn how to use computers, computers will know how to work with people. At the same time, the systems will be designed to protect user privacy and security. Widespread use of Oxygen and its advanced technologies will yield a profound leap in human productivity — one even more revolutionary than the move from mainframes to desktops. By enabling people to use spoken and visual cues to automate routine tasks, access knowledge, and collaborate with others anywhere, anytime, Project Oxygen stands to significantly amplify human capabilities throughout the world and save a precious time of the human kind leading to their future development.

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8.2.

FUTURE SCOPES : pervasive—it must be everywhere, with every portal reaching into the same information base;

embedded—it

must

live in

our world,

sensing and

affecting it;

nomadic—it must allow users and computations to move around freely, according to their needs;

adaptable—it must provide flexibility and spontaneity, in response to changes in user requirements and operating conditions; powerful, yet efficient—it must free itself from constraints imposed by bounded hardware resources, addressing instead system constraints imposed by user demands and available power or communication bandwidth;

intentional—it must enable people to name services and software objects by intent, for example, the nearest printer, as opposed to by address; eternal—it must never shut down or reboot; components may come and go in response to demand, errors, and upgrades, but Oxygen as a whole must be available all the time.

Other promising research directions…

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9. REFERENCES

―Project Oxygen: Pervasive, Human-Centric Computing – An Initial Experience‖ in Advanced Information Systems Engineering, 13th

International Conference (CAiSE2001), Interlaken, Switzerland.  Nissanka B. Priyantha, Anit Chakraborty, and Hari Balakrishnan MIT Laboratory for Computer Science Cambridge, ‖Cricket‖ bodhi, achakra, hari @lcs.mit.edu VYWS Prof Ram Meghe Inst of Tech and Research.,‖ Applying undersea technologies to Project Oxygen‖ on March in Proc. of IEEE.  

http://www.ai.mit.edu http://www.lcs.mi.edu

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