Gender and Socially Inclusive Transport Workshop ADB - 24 May 2012

BANGLADESH: Greater Dhaka Sustainable Urban Transport Project (GDSUTP) NEPAL: Kathmandu Sustainable Urban Transport Project (KSUTP)

The views expressed in this paper are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology. 1

Agenda

1. Rapid Projects Description 2. Urban Transport and Gender: Different scales of Intervention 3. Gender Action Plans

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Projects Description

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Kathmandu Sustainable Urban Transport Project
(Board Approval: 22 July 2010 - $30 million)
Vision / Outputs Investment
Implementation of two pilot lines: • Bus stops and lay-bys • Priority route around Thundikel • Terminals in periphery • Loans/grants to private operators to purchase and maintain electric vehicles

Institutional and soft component

1 Improve PT

• Restructuring + capacity building of DoTM • Reorganization plan of the PT network • Trolley-bus reintroduction FS+PD Reports

2. Improve Traffic Management

• Improvement of 14 junctions • Equipment for the MTPD (8 traffic signals; 21 CCTV cameras and control center; 21 radio handsets)

• Capacity development program for the MTPD • Awareness campaign for improved driving behaviors

3. Improve Walkability

• Pedestrianization of Heritage routes • Sidewalks improvement in city-center • Upgrading of 2, and construction of 2 new pedestrian bridges • Improvement of the interchange facility and public space on Kanthi Path • Equipment of existing stations with solar power backup systems • Provision of 2 new mobile stations • Equipment for emission/mechanical testing

• PPP advisory support for the redevelopment of the Old Bus park and the construction of parking

4.Improve air quality monitoring

• Awareness campaign • Data dissemination
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Greater Dhaka Sustainable Urban Transport Project
(Board Approval: 17 April 2012 - $255 million)
Vision / Outputs 1 DNCC and GCC’s main urban transport corridor is restructured Investment
• Construction of a 20-km BRT route including: (i) 1 segregated lane p.d. from km 0.0 to km 12.5, (ii) 2 segregated lanes p.d. from km 12.5 to km 20.0, (iii) a 4.5 km elevated section from km 12.5 to km 17.0, (iv) 7 additional overpasses at main junctions and one U-turn, (v) BRT lanes with concrete pavement, (vi) 31 closed stations with three accesses at grade and 28 underpasses (8 with elevators), and (vii) 2 terminals. • sidewalks, two mixed-traffic lanes, and one NMT lane per direction along the BRT; • a high-capacity drainage system along the corridor; • BRT depot and terminal facilities in Gazipur; and • 155 access roads improved for NMT over 100 meter.

Institutional and soft component

• public–private partnership (PPP) scheme developed to finance the BRT airport terminal as part of an intermodal hub.

2. Effective Project Management and sustainable BRT operations

• 50+ CNG buses leased to selected private bus operating companies; • intelligent transport systems (ITSs) installed for the BRT, including the fare collection system;

• establishing a Public Company / SPO to support project management and monitor future BRT operations with the private sector; • designing BRT operational plan and business model • conducting negotiations and facilitating consolidation of existing bus industry to operate the BRT; • building capacity of the SPO, DTCA and selected private bus operators; • setting up fleet scrapping and compensation mechanism for non-participating operators; • training bus drivers and testing the BRT system prior to the operational start; and • conducting media and community awareness campaigns

3. Improved urban quality of the corridor

• 1,000 energy-efficient streetlights installed along the corridor; • municipal infrastructure improved, including 10 local markets, nine drains, 141 local roads, and 2 pedestrian-friendly pilot roads; • equipment procured for the traffic police to improve traffic management, including 70 BRT-priority traffic lights, 150 closed-circuit television cameras at main junctions, and mobile vehicle emission-testing devices

• CDTA on transit-oriented development and improved traffic management in GCC

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Urban Transport and Gender: Different scales of Intervention

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1. Project Objective (GDSUTP)
• Urban sprawl, road congestion, air pollution, noise, high traffic accidents, unenforced parking • Unregulated PT services provided by private sector, low financial sustainability • Inappropriate transport organization, lack of planning, no intermodal integration
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Limiting increasing congestion and pollution Promoting PT and NMT
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Improving safety and accessibility
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• Pilot Mass Transit System on an existing road or axis in Greater Dhaka’s fringes • Complementary infrastructures (terminal, parking, feeder routes) • Urban development strategy and framework along the corridor

Complying with the recommendations of the Dhaka’s STP and the ADB’s STI

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Organizing Urban growth and alleviate the city centre density

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1. Project Objective (KSUTP)
The ADB and the Government of Nepal, throughout the PPTA, agreed on VISION for Sustainable Urban Transport:

Together with the private sector, and the public in general, the government will :1. Encourage people to travel by public transport or foot, 2. Discourage the use of private motorised vehicles, in particular from entering the central area of Kathmandu, 3. Improve movement (all modes), especially within the central area of Kathmandu, 4. Improve air quality and reduce carbon emissions, and 5. Improve transport equity.

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2. Project Location (GDSUTP)
6 potential corridors in GD’s fringes have been assessed through a multi-criteria analysis based on 5 criteria: • Operational capacity = operational cost savings + congestion reduction + intermodality • Ease of implementation = physical constraints + construction time + implementation cost • Urban and environmental impact = city longterm vision + level of resettlement + environmental issues • Social benefits = pro-poor and gender benefits + demand captation + time savings • Stakeholders support = Political support + private operators potential contestation + social and media acceptability

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2. Project Location (GDSUTP)
Gazipur Centre Joydebpur

The corridor Gazipur – Tongi – Airport has been selected • The proposed project is to develop the first section of the north-south BRT route recommended as Line 3 in the Strategic Transport Plan (STP), approved in 2008. The second section will be developed at a later stage by the WB. • This corridor / section was chosen notably because it crosses a garment hub, employing an estimated 1 million workers, mostly women, in great need for public transport services and better walking facilities.
Sadhargat

Gazipur
Railway

Tongi

Uttara extension

Tongi
Intermodal Areas

Airport Dhaka BRT corridor (WB project)

Uttara

Main trunk

Airport

Extensions

Railway

BRT L1 BRT L2 BRT L3 (financed by ADB) BRT L3 (financed by WB) MRT L4 MRT L5 MRT L6 (being studied by JIC A) Extension of MRT L4 Extension of MRT L6 Long TermMRT network

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2. Project Location (KSUTP)
Terminal

2 pilot bus routes will be implemented. The alignment of those routes will be determined notably in function of social and gender aspects
Central Area

Urban Area

15 kms

Balaju

Swayamb hu

Baudd ha

Urban Area

Shared Routes

Terminal

Improvements for walkability (sidewalks, pedestrian bridges…) mostly favor E-D-W-C
Pilot Route 1

Nakhi l

Pilot Route 2

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3. Project Design
Engineering Design: Universal accessibility and safety features, such as: • Lighting and security systems (CCTV cameras) in stations and access to stations • Separate toilets for women in stations • Access ramps and at-level boarding • Automatic doors • Signage and awareness / education campaigns within stations and buses (ITS and Passenger Information System) to protect women’s right Operational Design: • Reserved cars / buses for women, vs. Car / Bus officer to protect women’s right and comfort (reserved seats) ? • Large public consultation to determine fares, service hours, routes, quality of services • Cross-subsidy policies in favor of target groups (including women) to favor affordability and usage by the target groups. Potentially financed by employers (garment factories) • Ensure women have reserved commercial space in vendors area in underpasses and stations • Separate queuing system for male and female passengers in stations • Priority boarding for pregnant women • Training of operation staff with emphasis on gender and social aspects • Ensure a certain %age of jobs in BRT operations (SPO, operators, etc.) are reserved 12 for women

4. Project Management
• Awareness campaigns targeting issues faced by women, children, elderly and disabled, such as road safety, driving behavior, outdoor air pollution, etc. • Ensure the incorporation of gender and social aspects in the collection of sex-disaggregated information and data for effective monitoring of social- and gender-related targets and indicators. • Ensure consultation of women (target: 33% participation), poor and disabled PT users in the public perception of urban transport services survey. • Equal employment opportunity given to poor women and men in construction works; and equal wages distributed to women and men for work of equal value. • Employment opportunities for women sought (incl. for drivers and are encouraged to apply). • Women, children, elderly and disabled friendly design specifications included in bid documents • PMU and PIUs have gender focal points and include women staff

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Gender Action Plans

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Gender Action Plan for GDSUTP
Output and Gender- related Objective(s) Outcome. The public transport system is improved in DNCC and GCC, benefiting a population of 1 million Output 1. DNCC and GCC’s main urban transport corridor is restructured Activities and targets BRT achieves a ridership of 100,000 passengers per day [at least 30% women] in year of operation BRT achieves at least 85% client satisfaction on safety and efficiency of BRT system (Target: at least 50% of clients surveyed are women) 20 km. corridor, including BRT system, is restructured as per design and international standards, including safety and comfort features for women, children, and disabled Employ women (at least 20% of workers) in BRT construction and maintenance work. Bus stations and vendor areas designed to include safety facilities for women (lighting, security, separate toilets for women, etc.) Ensure adherence to gender-specific core labor standards in contract codes related to the operation and management of BRT, such as equal wages for equal work. 1 st Responsibility EPCM Social & Gender Expert/ PMU EPCM Social & Gender Expert/ PMU Time Q4, 2017

Q1, 2012 to Q4, 2015

Output 2. Project management is effective , and BRT operations are sustainable

75% of DTCA / SPO trainees [at least 30% women] get 80% high score in final test PCM Social & At least 70% of garment workers (majority of whom are women) using BRT receive subsidized monthly Gender Expert/ travel passes PMU 50% of students receive subsidized BRT monthly passes [target: 60% female students] Recruit female staff in SPO (Target: At least 20% of total staff are women) Reserve 20% of seats for women with young children, pregnant women, children, elderly, and handicapped and enforce availability of reserved seats by the targeted population in BRT operations. Ensure separate queuing system for male and female passengers at BRT stations & priority boarding of pregnant women, elderly, children and handicapped. Reserve and allocate at least 15% of the vendor area to women vendors Employ at least 10% female staff (e.g., drivers, crew, etc.) in BRT Operations. Ensure that the awareness materials for BRT incorporate specific issues of women and children, and use a methodology that ensures targeting of women and girl children Conduct a feasibility study on re-establishing women-only buses, or women sections in existing buses, or similar women-friendly design features, for recommendation to the Roads Division of the Ministry of Communications Project management specific: Gather baseline sex-disaggregated data and gender analytical information as part of any preparatory surveys, feasibility studies, assessments and reports. Develop gender-sensitive training modules for use in training PIU staff PIUs appropriately staffed [with at least 20% women] and trained PMU and PIU have gender focal points Include women with proper experience of gender and transport issues in trainer’s team. Incorporate gender indicators in the PMIS Consider safety of women / children while selecting location of street lighting in corridor Awareness campaigns conducted on improving road safety and traffic behavior [target: At least 30% women participation] Female traffic police in GCC attend the traffic management training program. Training for Traffic Police to include gender sensitive issues. Ensure participation of women (Target: at least 30% women) – either in the design, construction, operation, and/or maintenance – in the improvement of local markets and feeder roads for NMT EPCM Social & Gender Expert/ PMU

Q1, 2012 to Q4, 2016

Output 3. Urban quality of the corridor is improved

Q1, 2012 to Q4, 2015

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Gender Action Plan for KSUTP
Targets/Indicators Activity/Measures 1. Public Transport is improved and upgraded and capacity of DOTM is strengthened Develop a Public Transportation Plan (PTP) to A broad range of PT users participates in the public consultations (4) for the finalization of the PTP rationalize public transportation (PT) by the [target: 33% of women participation, together with representatives of the interests of poor and the Department of Traffic Management (DOTM). disabled]. Address the needs of PT users (incl. the elderly, PT user preferences in: (i) routing selection; (ii) fares and service hours; (iii) transport services (i.e. disabled, children and women) [E-D-C-W] in the electric buses, trolley-buses); and (iv) E-D-C-W friendly design features are assessed and reflected selection of urban transport services (UTS) and in the (final) PTP infrastructure. E-D-C-W inputs inform the selection of the two pilot routes for UTS in the Kathmandu Valley (KV). E-D-C-W-friendly design specifications (i.e. disabled friendly system) included in bid documents for purchase of electric buses (155). 2. Traffic management is improved Address the needs of PT users (incl. the elderly, E-D-C-W-friendly technical standards included in the specifications for the construction of urban disabled, children and women) [E-D-C-W] in the infrastructure (i.e. junctions, bridges). selection of urban transport services (UTS) and E-D-C-W-friendly aspects profiled in the awareness campaign is developed to improve safe driving urban infrastructure. behavior, road safety, and broadcasted through various media platforms Conduct trainings [incl. modules on gender-related Training of (selected) staff from MPPW, Department of Roads (DOR), DOTM, PT Division, aspects of urban transportation (UT) and urban Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC), Metropolitan Traffic Policy Division (MTPD) and the Town development (UD)]. Development Fund (TDF) on gender and social inclusion (GESI), with emphasis on E-D-C-W Develop awareness campaigns to improve safe aspects related to urban transportation and urban development [≥100 people, 2 years]. driving behavior and road safety. Training of EA, IAs and private sector staff (i.e. representatives of cooperatives franchised to operate the pilot routes) on pro-poor and GESI aspects of urban transportation and development [≥100 people, 2 years]. 3. Walkability in the city center is improved Address the needs of PT users (incl. the elderly, E-D-C-W-friendly technical standards are included in the specifications for the construction of safe disabled, children and women) [E-D-C-W] in urban and pedestrian friendly urban infrastructure [i.e. improvement of sidewalks; upgrading and infrastructure. construction of pedestrian bridges across the Bishnumati river; improvement of interchange facility and public spaces (incl. bus stops and transit stations) on Kanti Path and the construction of parking in the city center]. 4. The monitoring of the air quality is enhanced Ensure adequate monitoring of the health and Monitor the incidence of respiratory diseases among infants, the elderly and general population in social-related impacts of the project (with focus on urban areas through hospital-based and household-based sample studies. the collection of sex-disaggregated information and Carry out information and education campaigns (IEC) on prevention of outdoor air-pollution-related data). illnesses in urban areas. Develop awareness campaigns on outdoor air pollution-related illnesses. 5. For all Project Outputs: Ensure the integration of GESI aspects in the collection of sex-disaggregated information and data to assess the social and gender-related impacts of the project. Promote equal employment opportunity for women and men and equal wages for work of equal value. Ensure the incorporation of GESI aspects in the collection of sex-disaggregated information and data for effective monitoring of social- and gender-related targets and indicators [1 meeting, project onset and 1 meeting/year]. Ensure consultation of women (target: 33% participation), poor and disabled PT users in the public perception of urban transport services survey. Equal employment opportunity given to poor women and men in construction works; and equal wages distributed to women and men for work of equal value. Employment opportunities for women sought (incl. for PT drivers and are encouraged to apply). Responsibility Ministry of Physical Planning and Works (MPPW), DOTM, PT Division (DOTM) staff. Social Development Officer at Project Management and Coordination Office (PMCO).

MPPW, DOR, DOTM, PT Division (DOTM), KMC, MTPD, and TDF Social Development Officer at PMCO Non government organization (NGO)

MPPW, DOTM, PT Division (DOTM) staff Social Development Officer at PMCO

MPPW, DOR, DOTM, PT Division (DOTM), KMC, MTPD, and TDF. Social Development Officer at PMCO NGO MPPW, DOR, DOTM, PT Division (DOTM), Federation of Nepalese National Transport Entrepreneurs (FNNTE), KMC, MTPD, and TDF. Social Development Officer at PMCO 16 NGO.

Thank you

dmargonsztern@adb.org
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