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Airport Operation and Navigation B736-LRBS Essay

Diaconescu Razvan Alexandru


This essay consists of information about the B737-600 airplane, Baneasa airport and information about whether this model can or can not operate on this aerodrome.

15-May-12

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Contents: 1 Information about B737-600


737 family A bigger wing, longer range and higher speed Advanced engine technology 737 Boeing Interior Demonstrates Continuous Improvement 737-600 Technical Characteristics

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6

Information about Baneasa Airport


Aerodrome Geografic data Operational hours Handling Services and Facilities Passangers Facilities Rescue and fire fighting services Seasonal availabilityclearing Aprons, Taxiways and check locations data Surface movement guidence and control system and markings Aerodrome obstacles Declared distances Reduced declared distances Runway physical characteristics

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12

B736 compatibility with LRBS


Rescue and Fire Fighting Ground Handling and Terminal Servicing Pavement Data (physical surface movement analysis) Preventing Runway Incursions Analysis of services required to maintain operability all year Operating in adverse weather conditions Facilities for serving passengers

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7

Conclusion

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1 Information about B737-600


1.1 737 family The members of the Next-Generation 737 family -- the 737-600/-700/-800/-900ER models continue the 737's popularity and reliability in commercial jetliner transport. The 737 are short-tomedium-range airplanes that have a modern flight deck using the most advanced navigation technology available today. Airlines can choose to provide their flight crews with either the latest display format, common with models such as the 777, or opt for data format commonality with earlier 737 models. The Next-Generation 737 family is offered in four sizes, ranging from 110 to 220 seats. The 737-600 is the smallest member of the family and can carry 110 to 132 passengers. Scandinavian Airlines (SAS) became the launch customer for the 737-600 on March 15, 1995, when the airline ordered 35 airplanes. The 737-600 earned type certification from the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) on Aug. 14, 1998, followed by Europe's Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) validation on September 4, 1998. First delivery of the 737-600 went to SAS in the third quarter of 1998. 1.2 A bigger wing, longer range and higher speed The 737-600/-700/-800/-900ER models incorporate a new, advanced-technology wing design that helps increase fuel capacity and efficiency, both of which increase range. On each wing, the chord is increased by about 20 inches (50 cm) and the total span by approximately 18 feet (5.5 m). The total wing area is increased by 25 percent to 1,341 square feet (125 m), providing 30 percent more fuel capacity for a total of 6,875 U.S. gallons (26,020 L). The 737-600 doesnt have the new Blended Winglets-technology, which boost performance, enhance range, fuel efficiency and take-off performance while lowering carbon emissions, engine maintenance costs and noise this is available only for the 737-700, -800 and -900ER. The advanced wing airfoil design provides an economical cruise speed of .78 Mach (590 mph). 1.3 Advanced engine technology In April 2009, Boeing and CFM introduced the new CFM56-7BE engine enhancement program to coincide with 737 airframe improvements. The combination reduces fuel consumption by two percent. CFM's engine hardware changes improve airflow, and the engine runs at cooler temperatures resulting in a one percent reduction in fuel consumption. Boeing's airplane structural improvements will reduce drag, reducing fuel use by about one percent. The combined improvements also equal a two percent reduction in carbon emissions. Depending on an engine's thrust rating, the new engine will provide up to four percent lower maintenance costs. In 2007, CFM introduced a tech insertion package for the CFM56-7B engine. The Tech Insertion engine lowers fuel consumption by one percent over the life of the engine and lowers maintenance costs by 12 percent through longer time on wing and improved durability. The Tech Insertion engine also
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reduces nitrous oxide emissions by 25 percent. CFM is a joint venture between General Electric Co. of the U.S. and Snecma of France. All of its engines meet strict international emissions restrictions and when efficiently integrated on the 737, meet international noise restrictions. 1.4 737 Boeing Interior Drawing from years of research inspired by the travel experience, the 737 Boeing Interior features new, modern sculpted sidewalls and window reveals that draw passenger eyes to the airplane's windows, giving passengers a greater connection to the flying experience. The new design offers larger, pivoting overhead stowage bins that add to the openness of the cabin. The bins give more passengers room to store a carry-on roll-aboard near their own seat, adding both extra convenience and extra leg room. Boeing redesigned reading-light switches so passengers can find them more easily and avoid accidentally pressing the flight-attendant call button. Speakers integrated into each row's passenger-service unit will improve sound and clarity of public address operations, while the new air grill is tamper-proof and improves operational security.

1.5 Demonstrates Continuous Improvement The Next-Generation 737 program continuously evaluates and incorporates value-added technologies and design innovations to improve performance and capabilities. Recent offerings include short-field performance enhancements to increase payload capacity and reduce takeoff and landing field length; and carbon brakes to reduce weight for improved airplane operating economics.

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Other changes include leading-edge display and flight-management software that allows the airplane to fly the most restricted navigation routes through use of industry leading Required Navigation Performance. The Next-Generation 737 is the first commercial jet airplane certified for Ground Positioning System landings, which use satellite technology to make landings more efficient, accurate, and environmentally friendly. The Next-Generation 737 flight deck is equipped with technologies such as Vertical Situation Display, which shows the current and predicted flight path of the airplane and indicates potential conflicts with terrain; and Head-Up Display, which provides pilots with "eye-level" flight and safety information. These optional features are examples of how the Next-Generation 737 is designed to reduce flight delays, enhance safety and flight-crew efficiency. 1.6 737-600 Technical Characteristics Powerplants: 737-600 - Two 86.7kN (19,500lb) CFM56-7B18 turbofans, or 101kN (22,700lb) CFM56-7B22s on high gross weight version Performance: Typical cruising speed Mach 0.785 (at 35,000 feet). Max certificated altitude 41,000ft. Range with 110 pax 2480km (1340nm) or 5648km (3050nm) for HGW version, maximum Range 3,225 nautical miles (5,970 km) [2-class with winglets]. Maximum Fuel Capacity 6,875 U.S. gal (26,020 L). Take-off run 1796 m (SL, ISA+15, MTOW) and Landing run 1340 m(SL, ISA+15, MLW) Weight: operating empty 37,104kg (81,800lb), Maximum landing weight 56,245kg (124,000lb), Maximum take-off weight 65,090kg (143,500lb).ICAO category medium and FAA category large. Dimensions: wing span 34.31m (112ft 7in), overall length 31.24m (102ft 6in), tail height 12.57m (41ft 3in). wing area 125.0m2 (1344sq ft), interior Cabin Width 11 ft 7 in (3.53 m). Capacity: with a flightcrew of two1it has a capacity 110 passengers in two classes or 132 in a single class. Cargo 720 cu ft (20.4 cu m)

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2 Information about Baneasa Airport


2.1 Aerodrome Geografic data Baneasa Airport is situated in Romania at 443013N 0260613E 070 MAG 1480 M from THR 07 coordinates, 8.5 km North from Bucureti, at 299 FT elevation, with a 24.9C reference temperature, a geoid undulation at aerodrome elevation position of 115 FT and a magnetic variation on an annual rate of chage of 5E (2010). Visual Flight Rules and Instrument Flight Rules are permitted. 2.2 Operational hours It has a 24 operational service for AD Administration,Customs and immigration, Health and sanitation, AIS Briefing Office, ATS Reporting Office (ARO), MET Briefing Office ,ATS Fuelling Handling Security De-icing. 2.3 Handling Services and Facilities The aerodrome doesnt have Cargo-handling facilities, Hangar space for visiting aircraft or Repair facilities for visiting aircraft. It has Fuelling facilities for Kerosene TH type A1(1 refueler 32 t,1 refueler 16 t and storage: 70 t) and for AVGAS 100LL (1 refuler 4.3 t and storage: 30t), and one de-icing unit with fluid type II that suits as the de-icing facility. 2.4 Passangers Facilities Passengers cand find first aid, snack bars, exchange office and transportation at the aerodrome. Hotels, restaurants, hospitals, banks, post and touris offices can be found in the city. 2.5 Rescue and fire fighting services Baneasa aerodrome is equiped for fire fighting within AD HR: CAT 7 but lacks rescue equipment and capability for removal of disabled aircraft. 2.6 Seasonal availabilityclearing The airport is equiped with 1snow blower, 2 sweepers, 4 snow ploughs and 2 spreders as clearing equipment. Clearance priorities: 1. RWY 07/25 and associated TWY to Apron 2. Apron, ACFT stands and other TWY. 2.7 Aprons, Taxiways and check locations data Apron surface is made of concrete and it strength is 64/R/D/W/T Taxiway 23M width, Concrete surface and 64/R/D/W/T strength ACL location THR 07-299 FT and elevation THR 25-282 FT RWY turning bays location is THR 25 with Asphalt surface, 67 M x 190 M dimensions and 64/R/D/W/T strength

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2.8 Surface movement guidence and control system and markings Taxiing guidance signs at all intersections with TWY and RWY and at all holding positions. Guide lines at apron. Nose-in guidance at aircraft stands. RWY markings: Designation, THR, TDZ, centre line, edges marked, aiming point. TWY markings: Centre line, holding position at all intersections with RWY marked. Stop bars: At the holding point on TWY A and TWY D

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2.9 Aerodrome obstacles


In approach / TKOF areas 1 RWY/Area affected Obstacle type Elevation Markings/LGT In circling area and at AD 2 Obstacle type Elevation Coordinates Markings /LGT a b Nil Nil Remarks 3

Coordinates

a 07/APCH 25/TKOF

b Antenna 406FT MET Station 442FT Antenna 554FT Building 335FT LGT Building 459FT LGT
Building 417FT Building 441FT Antenna 434FT Building 393FT

c 443017.48N 0260510.79E 443041.10N 0260439.78E 443035.00N 0260414.00E 442949.04N 0260428.69E 442913.00N 0260213.00E
442950.99N 0260758.25E 442935.72N 0260733.82E 443216.52N 0260804.95E 443149.68N 0260836.41E

25/APCH 07/TKOF

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2.10 Declared distances


RWY Designator 1 25 TWY TORA M 2 1650 TODA M 3 1650 ASDA M 4 1650 Remarks 5 Nil

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2.11 Reduced declared distances


RWY Designator 1 07 25 TORA M 2 3100 3100 TODA M 3 3360 3100 ASDA M 4 3100 3100 LDA M 5 2960 3100 Remarks 6 THR 07 displaced 140M Nil

2.12 Runway physical characteristics


Designations RWY NR 1 07 Strength (PCN) and surface of RWY and SWY 4 64/R/D/W/T Asphalt THR co-ordinates RWY end coordinates THR geoid undulation 5 442959.27N 0260508.67E GUND 115 FT 443025.81N 0260717.21E GUND 115 FT Slope of RWY-SWY 7 max 1% max 1% SWY dimensions (M) 8 Nil Nil CWY dimensions (M) 9 260 x 250 Nil Strip dimensions (M) 10 3220x250 3220x250 Remarks OFZ 11 Nil Nil 12 Nil Nil THR elevation and highest elevation of TDZ of precision APP RWY 6 THR 299FT

TRUE BRG 2 073.89

Dimensions of RWY (M) 3 2960 x 45

25

253.91

3100 x 45

64/R/D/W/T Asphalt

THR 282FT

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3 B736 compatibility with LRBS


3.1 Rescue and Fire Fighting When we speak about rescue and fire fighting we really speak about safety and from our course support we can substract that a good safety management system is one that prevents all types of accidents but when those fail an airport must be prepared to act fast in containing or eliminating the threat. Most airports never have to participate in the recovery of a large commercial airplane, one in which the airplane may be off the runway, buried in mud with broken landing gear or worse. For most airports around the world, it is typically the responsibility of the airplane operator to conduct the recovery. However, since the airport is typically involved in supporting the recovery operation and given that most airports have only a single runway to support flight operations, it is in the airports best interest to expedite the recovery and return the airport to normal flight operations. This might be a problem for Baneasa airport which is equiped only for fire fighting lacking rescue equipment and capability for removal of disabled aircraft. If fire occurs on the aerodrome it is capable of containing it having a category 7 fire fighting capability on icao scale (Category 7 - 39m (128.0') -<49m (160.8'); 5m (16.4")) which is a definite plus when speaking about wheter or not the B736 can operate on LRBS, the plane has a category 6 on ICAO RFFS scale(Category 6 - 28m (91.9') - < 39m (128.0'); 5m (16.4")). 3.2 Ground Maneuvering and Terminal Servicing The 737 landing gear system is a conventional tricycle-type. The main gear consists of two dual wheel assemblies, one on each side of the fuselage. The nose gear is a dual-wheel assembly. In the picture below(1) ive shown the turning radii for the 737-600 nose gear steering angles. Radii for the main and nose gears are measured from the outside edge of the tire, rather than from the center of the wheel strut. The runway-taxiway turns in the next picture(2) show models 737-100 and 737-900 on a 100-ft (30-m) runway and 50-ft (15-m) taxiway system. Main gear tire tracks for the other airplane models will be between the tracks of the -100 and -900 models. Boeing 737 Series aircraft are able to operate on 100-foot wide runways worldwid. Holding aprons for larger aircraft should be adequate for the 737. One can easily see by looking at 2.7 and 2.8 that the space needed for ground maneuvering of the B737-600 on LRBS is adequate .
1

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During turnaround at the terminal, certain services must be performed on the aircraft, usually within a given time, to meet flight schedules. This section shows service vehicle arrangements, schedules, locations of service points, and typical service requirements. The data presented in this section reflect ideal conditions for a single airplane. Service requirements may vary according to airplane condition and airline procedure. Picture 3 shows typical arrangements of ground support equipment during turnaround. As noted, if the auxiliary power unit (APU) is used, the electrical, air start, and air-conditioning service vehicles would not be required. Passenger loading bridges or portable passenger stairs could be used to load or unload passengers.

Pic.4 and pic.5 show typical service times at the terminal. These charts give typical schedules for performing service on the airplane within a given time. Service times could be rearranged to suit availability of personnel, airplane configuration, and degree of service required.

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Pic.6 shows the typical capacities and service requirements. Services with requirements that vary with conditions are described in subsequent sections.
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Pic.7 shows typical sea level air pressure and flow requirements for starting the engines. The curves are based on an engine start time of 90 seconds.
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Pic.8 shows ground towing requirements for various ground surface conditions.

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From the information above (3.2) and from all the information in chapter 2(Information about Baneasa Airport) we deducted that the turning radii and turning paths of the 737-600 are smaller than the space that is made available on the aerodrome only on TWY B,C and D; that the service vehicle arrangements, schedules, locations of service points, typical service requirements, service times at the terminal and ground towing requirements are in the airports possibilities; and olso that the typical sea level air pressure and flow requirements for starting the engines are met by the relativly low elevation (299FT) aerodrome. 3.3 Pavement Data (physical surface movement analysis) Baneasa aerodrome has the 64 pavement classification number, with a rigid pavement type, ultra low subgrade category(Code D - Ultra Low Strength, k = 75 pci (20 MN/m3)), no limit tire pressure category, it is evaluated through a technical method and it is made of asphalt. A. Gear footprint of B737-600

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B. Maximum pavement loads

C. Landing gear loading on pavement

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D. Rigid Pavement Requirements The following rigid pavement design chart presents the data for the incremental main gear load at the minimum tire pressure required at the maximum design taxi weight.

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The airplane configuration is depicted with a minimum range of five loads imposed on the main landing gear to aid in interpolation between the discrete values shown. A. presents basic data on the landing gear footprint configuration, maximum design taxi loads, and tire sizes and pressures. Maximum pavement loads for certain critical conditions at the tire-to-ground interface are shown in B., with the tires having equal loads on the struts. Pavement requirements for commercial airplanes are customarily derived from the static analysis of loads imposed on the main landing gear struts. The chart in C. is provided in order to determine these loads throughout the stability limits of the airplane at rest on the pavement. These main landing gear loads are used as the point of entry to the pavement design charts, interpolating load values where necessary. Rigid pavement design curves D. have been prepared with the Westergaard equation in general accordance with the procedures outlined in the Design of Concrete Airport Pavement (1955 edition) by Robert G. Packard, published by the Portland Cement Association, 5420 Old Orchard Road, Skokie, Illinois 60077-1083. These curves are modified to the format described in the Portland Cement Association publication XP6705-2, Computer Program for Airport Pavement Design (Program PDILB), 1968, by Robert G. Packard. With the data aquired from Boeing on Pavement Data for B737 (3.3) and with the data on runway physical characteristics for Baneasa airport from AIP Romania, we can say for sure that the airplane is suited for operating on LRBS RWY and TWY. 3.4 Preventing Runway Incursions A runway incursion is "any occurrence in the airport runway environment involving an aircraft, vehicle, person, or object on the ground that creates a collision hazard or results in a loss of required separation with an aircraft taking off, intending to take off, landing, or intending to land." The demanding environment associated with aerodrome operations on a runway requires that all participants accurately receive, understand, and correctly read back all air traffic control clearances and instructions. All access to a runway (even if inactive) should take place only after a positive AT C clearance has been given / received and a correct readback has been provided / accepted, and after the stop bar (where provided) has been switched off; providing a clearance in a timely manner, as the aircraft is approaching the relevant runway, will help to prevent runway incursions. One simple way of preventing runway incursions is knowing the airport well, ground operations can be the most demanding and complex phase of flight and detailed airport diagrams are helpful so it is advised reviewing airport diagrams before taxiing or landing, keeping airport/taxi diagrams readily available during taxiing, requesting progressive taxiing instructions from air traffic control, being alert to airport vehicle and pedestrian activity. Animals on the runway are a particularly pervasive problem at many airports if this is the case with LRBS a solution must be created. Pilots can use proven and effective procedures in the cockpit to help conduct safe operations on the ground and during takeoff and landing. Other solution for runway incursions are maintain a sterile cockpit environment, avoiding unnecessary conversation during surface operations, takeoff, and landing, constantly scaning outside of the cockpit, especially when on runways, if one is lost while taxiing on the surface, one must contact air traffic control immediately, making your aircraft visible by proper use of aircraft lights, if one is unfamiliar with the airport one must request progressive taxi instructions, ensuring proper radio operation, checking audio panel, volume control, and squelch settings, knowing and following lost communication procedures, and use good judgment should radio failure occur.
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Both parts should have no problem preventing runway incursions the airport has no intersecting runways and it is well operated and the airplane is a relatively new model it has all the necesary means to prevent a runway incursion. Although they have good capabilities and ICAO has in place a lots of plans and legislations that keep in check most of the causes the main problem is the human factor (on runway without a valid clearance, readback errors, misunderstanding instructions, misunderstanding signs and markings, taking off without a clearance). 3.5 Analysis of services required to maintain operability all year When one speaks about services required to maintain operability all year at least in Romania one inevitably speaks about winter, it is a good thing that when it comes to winter couping capabilities of LRBS is well equiped having one snow blower, two sweepers, four snow ploughs and two spreders and the Boeing company has a policy on using ice control sand. Normally, airports apply ice control sand when they have no other means available to remedy slippery, frozen surface situations. Boeing recommends airport operators remove the sand just as soon as the reason for its application has passed, thereby minimizing any foreign object damage potential. Ice control sand is intended to be applied by the airport very sparingly, aiming to avoid accumulations, and in such a way so as to embed into the ice or snow surface so as to create traction on the frozen surface. The most widely recognized specification for ice control sand is from ICAO (the International Civil Aviation Organization) which calls for:100% of the sand to pass a 4.75 mm (#4) sieve, 97 to 100% passing a 2.36 mm (#8) sieve, 30 to 60% passing a 1.18 mm (#16) sieve, 0 to 10% passing a .30 mm (#50) sieve, and 0 to 2% passing a .18 mm (#80) sieve. 3.6 Operating in adverse weather conditions Baneasa airport has flight procedures on low visibility 1. Description of facilities 1.1 Runway 07 is equipped with ILS and is approved for CAT II operations. Runways 07/25 are approved for LVTO. 2. Criteria for the initiation and termination of LVP 2.1 Approach and landing a) The preparation phase will be implemented when visibility falls below 1500m and is deteriorated to 800m or ceiling is 500ft and is deteriorated to 200ft and CAT II operations are expected. b) The operations phase will be commenced when the RVR falls below to 600m (visibility falls below 800m) or ceiling is below 200ft. c) LVP will be terminated when RVR is greater than 600m (visibility is greater than 800m) and ceiling is greater than 200ft and a continuing improvement in these conditions is anticipated. 2.2 Take-off a) LVP operations will be provided when requested by an aircraft operator to conduct LVTO when the RVR is below 400M. b) If LVP operations are not in force, LVTO must be requested a minimum of 30 minutes in advance to permit the appropriate preparations. 3. Details of runway exits 3.1 Runway exits are equipped with green / yellow coded taxiway centerline lights. After landing on RWY 07, BSA TWR shall instruct the pilot to vacate the RWY via TWY A or TWY D or hold in turning bay. 4. Any ground movement restrictions
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4.1 Upon receiving taxi clearance, aircraft must only proceed when a green centreline path is illuminated. 4.2 During LVTO, taxiing is normally restricted to one aircraft movement at a time. Operation of vehicles on the manoeuvring area is not permitted when LVTO is in progress. 5. Description of LVP 5.1 CAT II Approach and Landing a) Pilots will be informed by ATIS or RTF when LVP are in operation; b) The localizer sensitive area will be protected when a landing aircraft is within 4 NM from touchdown and when c) an aircraft is conducting a guided take-off. ATC will provide suitable spacing between aircraft on final approach to achieve this objective. 5.2 Low Visibility Take Off a) Pilots wishing to conduct a guided take-off must inform ATC on start-up in order to ensure that protection of the localizer sensitive area is provided. 6. Other information Aircraft movements on the apron must be carried out with the direction of a FOLLOW ME car. 3.7 Facilities for serving passengers Baneasa airport has first aid, snack bars, exchange office and transportation office in the terminal area. In the central zone and the departure airport, passengers can access the Internet free of charge, through the Wireless Internet Zone. Many international personalities landed on Bucharest Baneasa Aurel Vlaicu International Airport. Those include the Pope Ioan Paul II who landed on this airport in 1999, then in 2007, Prince Albert II of Monaco landed in personal aircraft. Also in 2007 Bill Gates landed here for the official launching of Windows Vista in Romania. In 2009, on the occasion of her concert in Bucharest, Madonna landed also in personal aircraft on Baneasa Airport. Protocol services provided by Bucharest Baneasa Aurel Vlaicu International Airport enter a series of facilities: HD TV, Fax, Copier, Mini Bar, Internet, own parking. On the Landside passengers can rent cars, take a taxi or the bus as a means of transportation. It is very close to Baneasa Shopping center and only 8km away from Bucharest were they can find hotels, restaurants, hospitals, banks, post and touris offices. Boeing drawing from years of research inspired by the travel experience, the 737 Boeing Sky Interior features new, modern sculpted sidewalls and window reveals that draw passenger eyes to the airplane's windows, giving passengers a greater connection to the flying experience. The new design offers larger, pivoting overhead stowage bins that add to the openness of the cabin. The bins give more passengers room to store a carry-on roll-aboard near their own seat, adding both extra convenience and extra leg room. Boeing redesigned reading-light switches so passengers can find them more easily and avoid accidentally pressing the flight-attendant call button. Speakers integrated into each row's passenger-service unit will improve sound and clarity of public address operations, while the new air grill is tamper-proof and improves operational security. Working hand in hand Baneasa airport and Boeing would offer a good choise for customers if B737-600 operated on LRBS.

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4 Conclusion
In conclusion from all the chapters (1,2,3) we can say with out any doubt that B737-600 can operate on LRBS very well the only downsides that can be seen is the lack in rescue equipment, capability for removal of disabled aircraft, hangar space for visiting aircraft and repair facilities for visiting aircraft but those arent a priority. The B737-600 specs had no restrictions on LRBS operating capabilities making it a very good candidate for operating on Baneasa Airport. The landside of the aerodrome lacks hotels, restaurants, hospitals, banks, post and touris offices but the fact that it is so close to the Romanian capital makes this downsides obselete.

Bibliography 1. Suportul de curs 2. Boeing ( http://www.boeing.com/); 3. ICAO (http://www.icao.int ). 4. AIP ROMANIA ( http://www.aisro.ro/ ); 5. RACRADPETA + amendament 1 ( http://www.caa.ro/cadrulegislativ/racr:aeroporturi.html ) 6. RACRADAAH ( http://www.caa.ro/cadrulegislativ/racr:aeroporturi.html ) 7. Codul Aerian ( http://www.caa.ro/fisiere/codul%20aerian%20roman.pdf ) 8. Extras Doc 9157 Appendix 1

DIACONESCU RAZVAN ALEXANDRU , GROUP 932, Airport Operation and Navigation B736-LRBS Essay
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