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IUPAC name[hide] Sulfuric acid Other names[hide] Oil of vitriol Identifiers
CAS number 7664-93-9 ChemSpider 1086 UNII EC number UN number KEGG ChEBI ChEMBL RTECS number Jmol-3D images SMILES [show] InChI [show] Properties Molecular formula Molar mass H2SO4 O40UQP6WCF 231-639-5 1830 D05963 CHEBI:26836 CHEMBL572964 WS5600000
Appearance Clear, colorless, odorless liquid Density Melting point 1.84 g/cm3, liquid 10 °C, 283 K, 50 °F
P305+351+338.P precautionar 310. P405.7 cP (20 °C) Thermochemistry Std enthalpy −814 kJ·mol−1 of formationΔf Ho298 Standard 157 J·mol−1·K−1 molar entropy So298 Hazards MSDS GHS pictograms GHS signal word GHS hazard statements Danger External MSDS H314 GHS P260. P321.99 Viscosity 26. P310. 1. P280. P303+361+353.Boiling point 337 °C. 639 °F Solubility in water miscible Acidity (pKa) −3. P304+340. P264. 610 K. P501 y statements EU Index EU classification R-phrases R35 016-020-00-8 C N T O .P301+330+331.P363.
S-phrases NFPA 704 (S1/2) S26 S30 S45 0 3 2 W Flash point Threshold Limit Value LD50 Non-flammable 15 mg/m3 (IDLH). etc. rat) Related compounds Related stro Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid ng acids Nitric acid Chromic acid Related Sulfurous acid compounds Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n. 1 mg/m3(TWA). LC50 = 25 mg/m3 (inhalation. rat). MS . NMR. Thermodyna Phase behaviour mic Solid. 2 mg/m3 (STEL) 2140 mg/kg (oral. εr. IR. gas data Spectral UV. liquid.
Moreover. 100 kPa) Infobox references Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a highly corrosive strong mineral acidwith the molecular formula H2SO4. the sulfuric acid has a wide range of applications including domestic acidic drain cleaner.2 Polarity and conductivity 3 Chemical properties o o 3. It is also a central substance in the chemical industry. Principal uses include mineral processing. but also dehydrates carbohydrates posing secondary thermal burn. Sometimes. data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C. safety precautions should be done when using it. It is a diprotic acid which may show different properties depending upon its concentration. wet sulfuric acid process and some other methods. such as contact process.data (verify) (what is: / ?) Except where noted otherwise. The historical name of this acid is oil of vitriol.1 Grades of sulfuric acid 2. it may be dark brown as dyed during industrial production process in order to alert people's awareness to its hazards. Its corrosiveness on metals. It is widely produced with different methods. electrolyte in lead-acid batteries and variouscleaning agents. and chemical synthesis. So. Permanent blindness can result if it contacts eyes. eyes and flesh or other materials can be mainly ascribed to its strong acidic nature and if concentrated strong dehydrating property andstrong oxidizing property.2 Acid-base properties . Possessing different chemical properties. skin. stones. Concentrated sulfuric acid can cause very serious damage upon contact as not only does it hydrolyze proteins and lipids leading to chemical burn. It is a colorless to slightly yellow viscous liquid which is soluble in water at all concentrations. fertilizer manufacturing. Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Physical properties o o 2. it ishygroscopic which readily absorbs water vapour in air. wastewater processing.1 Reaction with water and dehydrating property 3. oil refining.
6 Domestic uses 6.4 Reactions with non-metals 3.5 Electrolyte 6.4 Catalyst 6.1 Industrial production of chemicals 6.3 Industrial cleaning agent 6.3 Other methods 6 Uses o o o o o o o 6.1.1 Laboratory hazards 7.1 Contact process 5.7 Health 7 Safety o o 7.2 Europa 5 Manufacture o o o 5.o o o o 3.1 Extraterrestrial sulfuric acid 4.5 Reaction with sodium chloride 3.2 Sulfur-iodine cycle 6.6 Electrophilic aromatic substitution 4 Occurrence o 4.2 Wet sulfuric acid process 5.1 Venus 4.1.2 Industrial hazards 8 Legal restrictions 9 See also 10 References .3 Reactions with metals and strong oxidizing property 3.
which combines with water to produce sulfuric acid. This lead chamber process allowed the effective industrialization of sulfuric acid production. Islamic alchemists Jābir ibn Hayyān (c. Later refinements to the lead chamber process by French chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussacand British chemist John Glover improved the yield to 78%. Joshua Ward. but this was a misinterpretation. Metallurgical uses for vitriolic substances were recorded in the Hellenistic alchemical works of Zosimos of Panopolis. John Roebuck adapted this method to produce sulfuric acid in lead-lined chambers. In 1746 in Birmingham. Razi (865 – 925 AD). theanhydride of sulfuric acid.Sumerians had a list of types of vitriol that they classified according to substance's color. included vitriol in their mineral classification lists. in the presence of steam. remained the standard for sulfuric acid production for almost two centuries. in the treatisePhisica et Mystica. In the 17th century. 721 – c. 11 Further reading 12 External links History John Dalton's 1808 sulfuric acid molecule shows a central sulfur atom bonded to three oxygen atoms. A passage from Pseudo-Geber´s Summa Perfectionis was long considered to be the first recipe for sulfuric acid. wrote the book Mabāhij al-fikar wa-manāhij al-'ibar). used this method to begin the first large-scale production of sulfuric acid. this method. the German-Dutch chemist Johann Glauber prepared sulfuric acid by burning sulfur together with saltpeter (potassium nitrate. After several refinements. the manufacture of some dyes and other chemical processes require a more concentrated product. In 1736. less expensive. However. KNO3). Sulfuric acid created by John Roebuck's process approached a 65% concentration. Some of the earliest discussions on the origin and properties of vitriol are in the works of the Greek physician Dioscorides (first century AD) and the Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder (23–79 AD). There are references to it in the works of Vincent of Beauvais and in the Compositum de Compositisascribed to Albertus Magnus. 1318. Ibn Sina focused on its medical uses and different varieties of vitriol. Throughout the 18th century. it oxidizes the sulfur to SO3. which were stronger. a London pharmacist. and Jamal Din alWatwat (d. and the "Leyden papyrus X". and could be made larger than the previously used glass containers. this could only be . 815 AD). As saltpeter decomposes. The study of vitriol began in ancient times.Galen also discussed its medical use. called the "lead chamber process" or "chamber process". Sulfuric acid was called "oil of vitriol" by medieval European alchemists. or sulfur trioxide.
" Other concentrations are used for different purposes. and is the usual form of what is described as "concentrated sulfuric acid. less commonly.28 4. which could be passed through water to yield sulfuric acid in any concentration. this loses SO3 at the boiling point to produce 98.52–1. They are now obsolete as commercial concentrations of sulfuric acid. The 98% grade is more stable in storage. Today. is formed. when heated to 480 °C.60 9. However. Pyrite (iron disulfide. with good stirring: the temperature of the mixture can rise to 80 °C (176 °F) or higher.83 ~18 "Chamber acid" and "tower acid" were the two concentrations of sulfuric acid produced by the lead chamber process. FeSO4.3% acid.73 13.5 78–80% 1. When high concentrations of SO3 gas are added to sulfuric acid. which was oxidized by further heating in air to form iron(III) sulfate.made by dry distilling minerals in a technique similar to the original alchemical processes. In particular. British vinegar merchant Peregrine Phillips patented the contact process. the expense of this process prevented the large-scale use of concentrated sulfuric acid.70–1. Fe2(SO4)3.2–5 62–70% 1. Concentrations of . fuming sulfuric acid or oleum or. which. Nordhausen acid.5–14 98% 1. H2S2O7. which was a far more economical process for producing sulfur trioxide and concentrated sulfuric acid. In 1831. Some common concentrations are: Mass fraction Density H2SO4 (kg/L) 10% 1. used in many titrations) is prepared by slowly adding 98% sulfuric acid to an equal volume of water. nearly all of the world's sulfuric acid is produced using this method. FeS2) was heated in air to yield iron(II) sulfate. decomposed to iron(III) oxide and sulfur trioxide. chamber acid being the acid produced in lead chamber itself (<70% to avoid contamination with nitrosylsulfuric acid) and tower acid being the acid recovered from the bottom of the Glover tower. "10M" sulfuric acid (the modern equivalent of chamber acid. although they may be prepared in the laboratory from concentrated sulfuric acid if needed.07 Concentration Common name (mol/L) ~1 dilute sulfuric acid battery acid (used in lead–acid batteries) chamber acid fertilizer acid tower acid Glover acid concentrated sulfuric acid 29–32% 1.6–11. Physical properties Grades of sulfuric acid Although nearly 99% sulfuric acid can be made. called pyrosulfuric acid.25–1.
Pure H2S2O7 is a solid with melting point 36 °C. caused by dissociation through protonating itself. common concentrations are 40% oleum (109% H2SO4) and 65% oleum (114.7×10−4.4). In spite of the viscosity of the acid.Analytical grades are also available.1). The equilibrium is actually more complex than shown above. Chemical properties Reaction with water and dehydrating property . 100% H2SO4 contains the following species at equilibrium (figures shown as millimoles per kilogram of solvent): HSO− 4 (15.0). a process known as autoprotolysis.oleum are either expressed in terms of % SO3 (called % oleum) or as % H2SO4 (the amount made if H2O were added). 2 H2SO4 H3SO+ 4 + HSO− 4 The equilibrium constant for the autoprotolysis is Kap(25 °C)= [H3SO+ 4+*HSO− 4] = 2. It has a high electrical conductivity. HS2O− 7 (4. H2S2O7 (3. The comparable equilibrium constant for water.6).3). the effective conductivities of the H3SO+ 4 and HSO− 4 ions are high due to an intra-molecular proton-switch mechanism (analogous to the Grotthuss mechanism in water). It is also an excellent solvent for many reactions. Kw is 10−14. like oil. Commercial sulfuric acid is sold in several different purity grades. Pure grades such as United States Pharmacopeia (USP) grade are used for making pharmaceuticals and dyestuffs. Pure sulfuric acid is a viscous clear liquid.6%H2SO4). a factor of 1010 (10 billion) smaller. but is suitable for making fertilizer.0). H3SO+ 4 (11. H2O (0. and this explains the old name of the acid ('oil of vitriol'). making sulfuric acid a good conductor. Polarity and conductivity Anhydrous H2SO4 is a very polar liquid. Technical grade H2SO4 is impure and often colored. having a dielectric constant of around 100. H3O+ (8.
Drops of concentrated sulfuric acid (sulphuric acid) dehydrate a piece of cotton towel rapidly. mixing starch into concentrated sulfuric acid will give elemental carbon and water as absorbed by the sulfuric acid (which becomes slightly diluted). sulfuric acid is an excellent dehydrating agent. and a more dilute acid containing increased amounts of hydronium and bisulfate ions. the action of the acid on cotton. The hydration reaction of sulfuric acid is highly exothermic.is the sulfate anion. steam. Because the hydration of sulfuric acid is thermodynamically favorable and the affinity of it forwater is sufficiently strong. the cellulose reacts to give a burnt appearance. . Concentrated sulfuric acid has a very powerful dehydrating property. C12H22O11 (white sucrose) + sulfuric acid → 12 C(black graphitic foam) + 11 H2O (steam) + sulfuric acid/water mixture Similarly. Although less dramatic. the carbon appears much as soot would in a fire. porous carbon will emerge as well. The carbon will smell strongly of caramel due to the heat generated. A rigid column of black. removing water (H2O) from othercompounds including sugar and other carbohydrates and producing carbon. this is often demonstrated by mixing table sugar (sucrose) into sulfuric acid. The blue crystal is changed into white powder as water is removed.4×106 (strong acid) HSO4− + H2O → H3O+ + SO42− K2 = 1. K1 and K2 are the acid dissociation constants. This reaction is best thought of as the formation of hydronium ions: H2SO4 + H2O → H3O+ + HSO4− K1 = 2. The sugar changes from white to dark brown and then to black as carbon is formed. (C6H10O5)n + sulfuric acid → 6n C + 5n H2O The reaction with copper(II) sulfate can also demonstrate the dehydration property of sulfuric acid. addition of acid to the water ensures that the acid is the limiting reagent. Because the reaction is in an equilibrium that favors the rapid protonation of water. even in diluted form. heat. One should always add the acid to the water rather than the water to the acid. In laboratory.0×10−2  HSO4. The effect of this can be seen when concentrated sulfuric acid is spilled on paper which is composed ofcellulose.is the bisulfate anion and SO42. will destroy the fabric.
commonly used for electroplating and as a fungicide. C + 2 H2SO4 → CO2 + 2 SO2 + 2 H2O S + 2 H2SO4 → 3 SO2 + 2 H2O . It attacks reactive metals (metals at positions above copper in the reactivity series) such as iron. Reactions with non-metals Hot concentrated sulfuric acid oxidizes non-metals such as carbon and sulfur. 2 H2SO4 + 2 e. reacting sulfuric acid with potassium nitrate can be used to produce nitric acid and a precipitate of potassium bisulfate. When combined with nitric acid. Sulfur dioxide. forming the nitronium ion NO+ 2. sulfuric acid acts both as an acid and a dehydrating agent. however.→ SO2 + 2 H2O + SO42It can oxidize non-active metals such as tin and copper. magnesium and nickel. Reaction with sodium acetate. depending upon the temperature of it like the nitric acid. for example. where protonation occurs on an oxygen atom. the blue copper salt copper(II) sulfate.CuSO4·5H2O (blue crystal) + sulfuric acid → CuSO4 (white powder) + 5 H2O Acid-base properties As an acid. and forms sodium bisulfate: H2SO4 + CH3COONa → NaHSO4 + CH3COOH Similarly. CH3COOH.+ Cu2+ Lead and tungsten. Cu + 2 H2SO4 → SO2 + 2 H2O + SO42.manganese. zinc. Fe (s) + H2SO4 (aq) → H2 (g) + FeSO4 (aq) However. aluminium. are resistant to sulfuric acid. such as Fischer esterification and dehydration of alcohols. which is important in nitration reactions involving electrophilic aromatic substitution. sulfuric acid reacts with most bases to give the corresponding sulfate. producing hydrogen gas and salts(the metal sulfate). is important in many organic chemistry reactions. Reactions with metals and strong oxidizing property Dilute sulfuric acid reacts with metals via a single displacement reaction as with other typical acids. For example. This type of reaction. water and SO42.ions are evolved instead of the hydrogen and salts. displaces acetic acid. concentrated sulfuric acid is a strong oxidizing agent  and does not react with metals in the same way as other typicalacids. is prepared by the reaction of copper(II) oxide with sulfuric acid: CuO (s) + H2SO4 (aq) → CuSO4 (aq) + H2O (l) Sulfuric acid can also be used to displace weaker acids from their salts.
.Reaction with sodium chloride It reacts with sodium chloride. and gives hydrogen chloride gas and sodium bisulfate: NaCl + H2SO4 → NaHSO4 + HCl Electrophilic aromatic substitution Benzene undergoes electrophilic aromatic substitution with sulfuric acid to give the corresponding sulfonic acids: Occurrence Rio Tinto (river) with its highly acidic water. Sulfur dioxide is the main byproduct produced when sulfur-containing fuels such as coal or oil are burned. Sulfuric acid is formed naturally by the oxidation of sulfide minerals. The resulting water can be highly acidic and is called acid mine drainage (AMD) or acid rock drainage (ARD). oxidation ofsulfurous acid. such as iron sulfide. Dilute sulfuric acid is a constituent of acid rain. toxic streams. which is formed by atmospheric oxidation of sulfur dioxide in the presence of water – i.e. Pure sulfuric acid is not encountered naturally on Earth in anhydrous form. This acidic water is capable of dissolving metals present in sulfide ores. or Fe2+: 2 FeS2 (s) + 7 O2 + 2 H2O → 2 Fe2+ (aq) + 4 SO2− 4 (aq) + 4 H+ . which results in brightly colored. due to its great affinity for water. The oxidation of pyrite(iron sulfide) by molecular oxygen produces iron(II).
both in the gas phase. the phaeophyte alga Desmarestia munda (orderDesmarestiales) concentrates sulfuric acid in cell vacuoles. for example. When they reach temperatures above 300 °C. andwater vapor. In such cases. the result is sulfur trioxide. . they are heated up and release water vapor. which can combine with water vapor. and the cycle repeats. Sulfuric acid is used as a defence by certain marine species. The permanent Venusian clouds produce a concentrated acid rain. as the clouds in the atmosphere of Earth produce water rain. The main cloud layer extends from 45–70 km above the planet's surface. another trace component of Venus's atmosphere. Sulfur dioxide and water vapor rise on convection currents from the mid-level atmospheric layers to higher altitudes. becoming more and more concentrated. Sulfur trioxide is highly reactive and dissociates into sulfur dioxide and atomic oxygen. When it reacts with sulfur dioxide. so that the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of the aquifer can neutralize the produced acid. Ultraviolet photons of wavelengths less than 169 nm can photodissociate carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide and atomicoxygen. pH values below zero have been measured in ARD produced by this process. The atmosphere exhibits a sulfuric acid cycle. ARD can also produce sulfuric acid at a slower rate. where they will be transformed again into sulfuric acid. sulfuric acid exists as a liquid.The Fe2+ can be further oxidized to Fe3+: 4 Fe2+ + O2 + 4 H+ → 4 Fe3+ + 2 H2O The Fe3+ produced can be precipitated as the hydroxide or hydrous oxide: Fe3+ (aq) + 3 H2O → Fe(OH)3 (s) + 3 H+ The iron(III) ion ("ferric iron") can also oxidize pyrite: FeS2 (s) + 14 Fe3+ + 8 H2O → 15 Fe2+ (aq) + 2 SO2− 4 (aq) + 16 H+ When iron(III) oxidation of pyrite occurs. cooler portions of Venus's atmosphere. which oxidizes traces of carbon monoxide to form carbon dioxide. In the upper. a trace component of the Venusian atmosphere. Extraterrestrial sulfuric acid Venus Sulfuric acid is produced in the upper atmosphere of Venus by the Sun's photochemical action on carbon dioxide. As sulfuric acid rain droplets fall down through the hotter layers of the atmosphere's temperature gradient. the process can become rapid. Atomic oxygen is highly reactive. with thinner hazes extending as low as 30 km and as high as 90 km above the surface. sulfuric acid begins to decompose into sulfur trioxide and water. sulfur dioxide. and thick sulfuric acid clouds completely obscure the planet's surface when viewed from above. to yield sulfuric acid. the total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration of the water can be increased from the dissolution of minerals from the acidneutralization reaction with the minerals.
Europa Infrared spectra from NASA's Galileo mission show distinct absorptions on Jupiter's moon Europa that have been attributed to one or more sulfuric acid hydrates. alternatively. sulfur is burned to produce sulfur dioxide: S(s) + O2(g) → SO2(g) or. instead of a liquid. Sulfuric acid in solution with water causes significant freezing-point depression of water's melting point. sulfur is burned to produce sulfur dioxide. This reaction is reversible and the formation of the sulfur trioxide is exothermic. The reaction forms a corrosive aerosol that is very difficult to separate. perhaps as part of one or more minerals on Europa's surface. Manufacture Main articles: Contact process and Wet sulfuric acid process Sulfuric acid is produced from sulfur. The oleum is then diluted with water to form concentrated sulfuric acid. down to 210 K (−63 °C). S (s) + O2 (g) → SO2 (g) This is then oxidized to sulfur trioxide using oxygen in the presence of a vanadium(V) oxide catalyst. H2SO4 (l) + SO3 (g)→ H2S2O7 (l) H2S2O7 (l) + H2O (l) → 2 H2SO4 (l) Note that directly dissolving SO3 in water is not practical due to the highly exothermic nature of the reaction between sulfur trioxide and water. SO3 (g) + H2O (l) → H2SO4 (l) Wet sulfuric acid process Main article: Wet sulfuric acid process In the first step. oxygen and water via the conventional contact process (DCDA) or the wet sulfuric acid process(WSA). also known as fuming sulfuric acid.The interpretation of the spectra is somewhat controversial. hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas is incinerated to SO2 gas: . Contact process Main article: Contact process In the first step. and this would make more likely the existence of liquid solutions beneath Europa's icy crust. Some planetary scientists prefer to assign the spectral features to the sulfate ion. 2 SO2 (g) + O2 (g) 2 SO3 (g) (in presence of V2O5) The sulfur trioxide is absorbed into 97–98% H2SO4 to form oleum (H2S2O7).
Sulfuric acid can be produced in the laboratory by burning sulfur in air and dissolving the gas produced in a hydrogen peroxide solution. in which metabisulfite is placed at the bottom of a beaker. which is quite convenient. The completion of the reaction is indicated by the ceasing of the fumes. up to 50% of sulfuric acid manufactured in the United States was produced by chamber process plants.6 molar concentration hydrochloric acid is added.2 H2S + 3 O2 → 2 H2O + 2 SO2 (−518 kJ/mol) This is then oxidized to sulfur trioxide using oxygen with vanadium(V) oxide as catalyst. Uses Sulfuric acid production in 2000 . In early to mid 19th century "vitriol" plants existed. and 12. As late as 1940. The resulting gas is bubbled through nitric acid. most sulfuric acid was manufactured by the lead chamber process. Early bleaching of linen was done using milk but this was a slow process and the use of vitriol speeded up the bleaching process. Shropshire and the Lagan Valley in County Anrim Ireland where it was used as a bleach for linen. which will release brown/red vapors. This method does not produce an inseparable mist. in Prestonpans Scotland. 2 SO2 + O2 → 2 SO3 (−99 kJ/mol) (reaction is reversible) The sulfur trioxide is hydrated into sulfuric acid H2SO4: SO3 + H2O → H2SO4(g) (−101 kJ/mol) The last step is the condensation of the sulfuric acid to liquid 97–98% H2SO4: H2SO4(g) → H2SO4(l) (−69 kJ/mol) Other methods Another method is the less well-known metabisulfite method. among other places. SO2 + H2O2 → H2SO4 Prior to 1900.
ammonium phosphate and ammonium sulfates. acetate and viscose textiles. which help to coagulate the pulp fibers into a hard paper surface. Eastern Europe and Russia 10%. coated fabrics and paper. insecticides and antifreeze.hydrogen fluoride (HF) and phosphoric acid. North America (including Mexico) 24%. It consists of three chemical reactions whose net reactant is water and whose net products are hydrogen and oxygen. with the following geographic distribution: Asia 35%. Aluminium sulfate is made by reacting bauxite with sulfuric acid: Al2O3 + 3 H2SO4 → Al2(SO4)3 + 3 H2O Sulfuric acid is also important in the manufacture of dyestuffs solutions. In this method.Sulfuric acid is a very important commodity chemical. paper sizing. is most commonly produced as a byproduct from coking plants supplying the iron and steel making plants. World production in 2004 was about 180 million tonnes. as well as to improve the taste of the water. an important nitrogen fertilizer. Africa 11%. which is used at water treatment plants to filter out impurities. phosphate rock is used. South America 7%. Western Europe 10%. also known as paper maker's alum. synthetic resins. printing inks. Sulfur-iodine cycle The sulfur-iodine cycle is a series of thermo-chemical processes used to obtain hydrogen. Another important use for sulfuric acid is for the manufacture of aluminium sulfate. It is also used for making aluminium hydroxide. enamels. and more than 100 million tonnes are processed annually. About 20% is used in chemical industry for production of detergents. though the exact composition may vary. water treatment. 2 H2SO4 → 2 SO2 + 2 H2O + O2 (830 °C) . About 6% of uses are related to pigments and include paints. particularly superphosphates. Most of this amount (~60%) is consumed for fertilizers. pharmaceuticals. petroleum catalysts.cellophane. Australia and Oceania 7%. Industrial production of chemicals The major use for sulfuric acid is in the "wet method" for the production of phosphoric acid. This can react with small amounts of soap on paper pulp fibers to give gelatinous aluminium carboxylates. dyestuffs. and indeed. The overall process can be represented as: Ca5F(PO4)3 + 5 H2SO4 + 10 H2O → 5 CaSO4·2 H2O + HF + 3 H3PO4 Ammonium sulfate. a nation's sulfuric acid production is a good indicator of its industrial strength. aluminium reduction. used for manufacture of phosphatefertilizers. This is treated with 93% sulfuric acid to produce calcium sulfate. lubricants. and the rest is dispersed into a multitude of applications such as production of explosives. as well as in various processes such as oil well acidicizing. Reacting the ammonia produced in the thermal decomposition of coal with waste sulfuric acid allows the ammonia to be crystallized out as a salt (often brown because of iron contamination) and sold into the agro-chemicals industry. This raw material is shown below as fluorapatite. non-ferrous metals and batteries. The HF is removed as hydrofluoric acid.
refinery gas. for example as a catalyst for the reaction of isobutane with isobutylene to giveisooctane. Industrial cleaning agent Main article: Cleaning agent Sulfuric acid is used in large quantities by the iron and steelmaking industry to remove oxidation. It does not requirehydrocarbons like current methods of steam reforming. Used acid is often recycled using a spent acid regeneration (SAR) plant. used for making nylon. and other industries where sulfuric acid is consumed in bulk. The sulfur-iodine cycle is currently being researched as a feasible method of obtaining hydrogen.I2 + SO2 + 2 H2O → 2 HI + H2SO4 2 HI → I2 + H2 (120 °C) (320 °C) The sulfur and iodine compounds are recovered and reused. It is used for making hydrochloric acid from salt via the Mannheim process. This process isendothermic and must occur at high temperatures. But note that all of the available energy in the hydrogen so produced is supplied by the heat used to make it. Electrolyte . corrosive acid at high temperatures poses currently insurmountable safety hazards if the process were built on a large scale. as operating a SAR plant is much cheaper than the recurring costs of spent acid disposal and new acid purchases. These plants combust spent acid with natural gas. hence the consideration of the process as a cycle. Catalyst Sulfuric acid is used for a variety of other purposes in the chemical industry. SAR plants are common additions to metal smelting plants. rust and scaling from rolled sheet and billets prior to sale to the automobile and major appliances industry. so energy in the form of heat has to be supplied. This combustion process produces gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3) which are then used to manufacture "new" sulfuric acid. it is the usual acid catalyst for the conversion of cyclohexanone oxime to caprolactam. fuel oil or other fuel sources. oil refineries. Much H2SO4 is used in petroleum refining. The sulfur-iodine cycle has been proposed as a way to supply hydrogen for a hydrogen-based economy. but the concentrated. For example. a compound that raises the octane rating of gasoline (petrol).
⇌ PbSO4 + 2 eAt cathode: PbO2 + 4 H+ + SO42. a liquid topical agent that is used in the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (canker sores) or for any procedures in the oral cavity which require controlled.⇌ PbSO4 + 2 H2O An acidic drain cleaner can be used to dissolve grease. Similar to their alkaline versions. Overall: Pb + PbO2 + 4 H+ + 2 SO42. paper. such drain openers can dissolve fats and proteins via hydrolysis. it can dissolve tissue paper via dehydrating process as well. hair. as concentrated sulfuric acid has strong dehydrating property. Moreover. Since the acid may react with water vigorously. Health Sulfuric acid and sulfonated phenolics are the primary ingredients in Debacterol. etc. Safety Laboratory hazards . focal debridement of necrotic tissues. demonstrating the strong acidic nature and dehydrating property. such acidic drain openers should be added slowly into the pipe to be cleaned.Acidic drain cleaners usually contain concentrated sulfuric acid which turns a pH paper red and chars it instantly.+ 2 e. hair. tissue paper.⇌ 2 PbSO4 + 2 H2O Domestic uses Concentrated sulfuric acid is frequently the major ingredient in acidic drain cleaners  which are used to remove grease. Sulfuric acid acts as the electrolyte in lead-acid (car) batteries (lead-acid accumulator): At anode: Pb + SO42. etc inside pipes.
5 M are labeled "IRRITANT".Drops of 98% sulfuric acid char a piece of tissue paper instantly owing to its dehydrating property. Moreover. similar to what it does on cotton clothes and paper. sulfuric acid at a high concentration is a strong oxidizing agent being corrosive to many metals  and should be stored carefully . Yet. 10%) will char paper by dehydration if left in contact for a sufficient time. Protective equipments should always be used when handling the acid. nitric acid). Solutions equal to or stronger than 1. The black color indicates that they dehydrate the paper. as the heat produced may be sufficient . Preparation of solutions greater than 6 M (35%) in concentration is most dangerous. like what other corrosive strong acids and strong alkalis do.g. leaving carbon alone. damage caused by sulfuric acid is potentially more serious than that of other comparable strong acids (e. to take advantage of the relatively high heat capacity of water. hydrochloric acid. while solutions greater than 0. Contaminated clothing is removed immediately and the underlying skin washed thoroughly. permanent blindnessmay result and it can cause irreversible damage to internal organs and may be fatal if swallowed. It stains flesh black as carbon is left after carbohydrates are dehydrated. Due to such reason. as for other corrosive agents. The danger is greater with more concentrated preparations of sulfuric acid. However. Preparation of the diluted acid can also be dangerous due to the heat released in the dilution process. its corrosiveness is also accentuated by its dehydrating property in which it can dehydrate carbohydrates inorganisms’ tissues as well. an explosion. liberating heat and resulting in secondary thermal burn in addition to the chemical burn. Sulfuric acid is dangerously corrosive and can cause very severe chemical burn upon contact as it decomposes proteins and lipids via amide hydrolysis and ester hydrolysis readily. Washing is continued for at least ten to fifteen minutes to cool the tissue surrounding the acid burn and to prevent secondary damage. Addition of water to concentrated sulfuric acid leads to the dispersal of a sulfuric acid aerosol or worse. even the normal laboratory "dilute" grade (approximately 1 M. irrigation with large quantities of water. The concentrated acid is always added to water and not the other way around. If it contacts eyes.5 M are labeled "CORROSIVE". The standard first aid treatment for acid spills on the skin is.5 M but less than 1.
which lists sulfuric acid under Table II of the convention as a chemical frequently used in the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances. The amount of heat needed to melt the ice in this process is greater than the amount of heat evolved by dissolving the acid so the solution remains cold. although there is a risk of subsequent pulmonary edema if tissue damage has been more severe. Industrial hazards Although sulfuric acid is non-flammable. 1988. the most commonly reported symptom of chronic exposure to sulfuric acid aerosols is erosion of the teeth. loss of axons and gliosis. Accordingly. In the United States. On a laboratory scale. See also . found in virtually all studies: indications of possible chronic damage to the respiratory tract are inconclusive as of 1997. but the optic nerves may show demyelination. exports from and imports to the United States—are subject to regulation and monitoring by the Drug Enforcement Administration. In the US sulfuric acid is included in List II of the list of essential or precursor chemicals established pursuant to the Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act. the permissible exposure limit (PEL) for sulfuric acid is fixed at 1 mg/m3: limits in other countries are similar. sulfuric acid can be diluted by pouring concentrated acid onto crushed ice made from de-ionized water. Legal restrictions International commerce of sulfuric acid is controlled under the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. contact with metals in the event of a spillage can lead to the liberation of hydrogen gas. The spinal cord is most often affected in such cases. further dilution can take place using water. The main occupational of risks posed by this acid are skin contact leading to burns (see above) and the inhalation of aerosols. The dispersal of acid aerosols and gaseous sulfur dioxide is an additional hazard of fires involving sulfuric acid. Pure sulfuric acid should be safely stored in glass vessels or bottles. There have been reports of sulfuric acid ingestion leading to vitamin B12 deficiency with subacute combined degeneration. At lower concentrations. transactions of sulfuric acid— such as sales. The ice melts in an endothermic process while dissolving the acid. respiratory tract and mucous membranes: this ceases rapidly after exposure. Exposure to aerosols at high concentrations leads to immediate and severe irritation of the eyes.to boil the diluted acid: efficient mechanical stirring and external cooling (such as an ice bath) are essential. transfers. After all the ice has melted.
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